LAW OF ACADEMY INTERNATIONAL THE INDIAN AND DIPLOMACY

F C F I G H T I N GO R H I L D H O O D

C IN ARMED ONFLICT

of for os submitted port fulf illment oword Assignment in Rights, P.G. Diplomo Humon Lows & HumonitorionRefugee f nternotionol

Singh Akanksha

GONTENTS
Preface l.lntroduction l l . A r m e dC o n f l i c t n d C h i l d A l l l .S o c i aD i s r u p t i o n l Access lV.Loss Service Of V.lmpoverishment. Integrity Children.... Vl.Threats the Physical of to in Vll.Child ActivePlayer War. as lX.Safeguards Protect to Children X. Call Action.. for References (i) ......1 ......2 ........2 .......1 0 ..14 ...15 ..24 .......28 ...29 ..34

) )

t
I

PREFAGE
Childhood Iearn fhe
\ / I I U ! f

I
)
I t

is to

the

ti-me to

be loved with

and to

love,

to

be calm,

to

trust,
Y r l u

celebrate
" r * -

laughter

and joy. to

Children have

have

)
t |l
a

rioht

to
u v

be snared and support

viol-ence for

and hunger,

a home and of

protection, childhood
n. : qr! f 1 :
u

growing

up healthy. It
kept

The spi rit is

i

calls

for

protection
]-^inn
TJUIIIY oII\l

and nurture.
needs to be

an essential

\
J

of

e \ "/. ie r \ y 2 Ih Lr. IrI m a n , I [[AII f -

:nd

alive.

I

Sadly
t

, there

are

some children insurgency

in

this

world

who are

denied

,
t

their safety friends life.

chitdhood of their

due to

and war. in for

They abandon the They leave of their their own to

/ ,

home and go to

live

camps. the

and family Instead of

members behind toys of many are

safety

given

weapons of they learn

destruction to inflict their

\ / )
t

operate.
r I I J U ! J q r t v

Instead torture

love

and kindness to
with

, ,
I

inrrrrrr :nd
r. .Enya rn a r c J r c g
.

on innocents
their ties

meet the
friends,

commands of
family,

Mq,' a Jn r z l --/ rr rue a rk \ q r t-i rr

coITImuniLy'

) ) )

and humanitv one rule but exist

as well : kill right

to or

learn get

that killed. a soldier is

in

this

viofent

world

only

Labelled enj oys, face

as child these another

soldier

denied of

every war into

that

unfortunate ordeal sadly to has

-\
t

victims gain

after their

a conflict family

over

) entry
-! J

and the

colTlmunity which

!

abandoned them forever. The paris soldiers reached principles even in those , 2001 seek unconditional of a conflict. them is for release call tell. Sinqh of child

1
a

1

midst

Whetherrthe the time to

has

\
J

who employ

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i
't

Akanksha

t

/
t rt

INTRODUCTION
Childhood is the time for learning about the essentials about of life,

\
t

-t

about the
v v v v r r v u u / s ^

physical

and the

metaphysical of

world,

human the truth. fear

J

ooodness - about Childhood and to life is

beauty time to

and bounties to be loved

nature love,

and about to

t
t

the

and to

express

t ?

learn

trust,

be serious,

t.o be calm,

and to

celebrate

,

with

laughter

and joy.

I

ch-ldren
n^^.'
lfley lh d v e l r " ^

have the
r hI a LI -

right

to dream, and to grow at their
mi^-^'^^
drru

own pace.
Lo be

riohr

l-o make

---.J rL'^
Lrrc

lrYrrt

-'-"'-

: forgiven. :' Chifdren have the right to be spared violence and support
and sound mind.

and

hunqer, to have a safe home and protection
f o rI
If,

of elders
For all

crrUrW Inr\Va / i n cn .rI 1J lh seo au' rl l J T r z ^t fh l r L I 9

r ^ fr iufr h . t o o d vv r Y

habits

this,

children

need a family, and loving

and people authority

to

respect, f ollow.

they

need

el-ders whose example

they

They need

peers Lo fearn a range of experiences comprising of tenderness

.:
:

Children a-Lsoneed a loving animals and and colour. Chifdren
r --Lr- trI r ir o) s i f r z - 7 L M L /

rel ationsh.ip with irrespective

the earth, of its

wiLh Lhe

with

afl

mankind

casLe, creed

need their

own

moments for

devotion
and

and space for
freedom to create,

t 1 I-r hJc r z n ve ve r ^ l n r-ru - vl u !e r - t . i rv r e b o u n d a r i e s l l v U U . y v

: and -\
tt

time to

rest,

to p1ay,

to work

and to

en;oy

childhood' and given
calls

children
the 'o-

need to be introduced
discover their It

to a fife

of prlnciptes,
of

freedom to

own. The spirit is an essential

childhood of

n r r . l e ( - +i - o n a n d n u r L u r e .

part

every

5

-t

J

t

2
human being and needs to there has been are said be kept children alive. in this world who are denied

{
!

Unfcrtunately,
J

much of
't

what

above, children

who know fear whom life

and death is a biq

more than *
a

they

know love

and kindness

and for

uncertainty.

,

ARMED CONFLICT AND CHILI)
u

Armed conflict m:i nr
^"-J .-

entail-s f or

many transformations chil-dren ' s survival, The impact of of

to

childhood,

with health

i m nI i c a t i o n s

development,

and overall
J 1,

wellbeing.

armed conf lict

on chil-dren

include: social Crvil of

disruption;Loss violations;

service to

access; rmpoverishment,' the physical roles integrity and

and political the child;

Threats in

Transf ormations

chil-dren's

responsibifities

SOCIAL DISRUPTION
Some cf with the environmental include
diSCOrd,

threats

to

children

commonly associated dispersaf
aCCeSS and

conflict
and

displacement
destitutiOn,

from

homeland, family
Of ServiCe

qoni r:1_ i an

lOSS

t

sccial

interaction,

and the

intimidating

presence

of

militar:y

personner. Displacement: si tuat i on . Displaced communities more by emerge accident out than of by crisis des ign . that do

They come together largely

The camps are not , share

made up of

individuals

and families connection with of the with

common origins displaced A

and have no prior communities signi ficant must live

each of

oLher. forced

Often

threat

repat-riation.

percentage

conflict-

J

displaced (including families Srtuations

population children) during of

is flee

forced alone, fliqhts.

to

flee

several

times.

Manv
J

and become separated

from

their

such

displacement

Creafc

n:r1-i-ular invariably

challenqes has very It of

for direct is

the

younq. For children, - L l t t p a c t su p o n t h e i r
r m n r n ' l - n

displacement schooling,

nutrition of
a

and health. networks
of

also

likely
friends

to

disturb
family, the

the

coherence
provide " The

familiar
basis

communitv
J

and

which children

consistencv of

and

qor-lrri f r'' €cr
! \

economic

ef f ects

displacement

are al-so li kely chrldren to

to

be in

severe / some form

with of of ten

particular labour in in

pressures order to

f or

engage

support f rom

thernselves and their their parents. from refugee security

f amilies,

communities

distant

Reports

communities in

in

severalis

countries Lo,

point

at

poor personaf cf rape,

camps. This of

linked

hiqh

levels in food the

abduction are

and trafficking particularly spreading cold.

young girls

and bovs from

camps- Children shortages winter rrsks of to

vul-nerabl-e to through the

death

disease from

camps and in also to entail the

months , for

the

Displacement

severe livelrhoods two in

children families. from

as they For

seek to in went

contribute a case, to

their

instance

wolves for

killed firewood

young boys ad;acent

a camp as they land. camp-dwelling life

search

unfamiliar of

The experience the
r.^ F^

conimunities in such

in

countries

across entails crowded

globe

demonstrates, risks and

an environment by being

ultLureseell

dif f iculties.

Simply

I

, / , \ ,
7

4 tcgether vulnerable taroet
u q ! v v u

in to

a a

clearly range of

identified malevolent or

place,

camp residents

are

forces.

They may be the

/
7

for

mil-i tarv

action for to

be used as human shields. trade and militant large groups look of

Traffickers for

seek qirls

their enlist

7

\
7

unharmed young boys persons.

them in

concentratlon

displaced \
v

In many refugee denied. within Refugees

camps freedom are of

of

movement and employment contained by the to

are

both

deliberatety high

government encourage means or

conditions

insecurity and

designed without the

renAfr.i ation.
J

Stateless, to build to

landless

opportunities
-.t

independent care for

lives,

the

refugees In

are /

heavily

disadvantaged is not

their

children. to

camps ration sex, with and

distribution
_l -t

differentiated a view Babies of

according children

age or

this

may

encourage value.

as commodities receive needs), of

v

considerable nortions
v v ! u ! v r r e \

and young children quantitative

adult-sized so having ensuring a as a

t

(despite number of influx its

having children of food

smaller

-t

large greater
! t a v !

can become a strategy into the in family terms folds, of

as

well of

i n r - r e a . q in q non-food

bargaining

power

trading

rations

for

items. family life : Family is and the core social unit for of

Disruption the care,

to

rurture, This is of

socialisation a point the very

emotional in

support the

chitdren. , on the families incidence

much emphasised However, is the

Convention of many The rrse-

Riqhts in of

Chifd. of

coherence

situations domestic

conflict

seriously

threatened. to

t

abuse and neglect

commonly appears

:q,

a,

J

J

) The death unit and injury of members/creates dispersal, challenges and So in scatter, intense to the family

a,

a\ 9

t

through

displacement,

economic, situation forever/ On the other

.t

nsvcho-emotional families and children

a n d . s o r : ia ' l n r e s s u r e s . househol-ds orphaned of commonly and/or family

a conf lict possibly heads.

J

leaving

as household

hand/new configurations and rsolated for extended children

emerge as orphans, are to absorbed. these It

step-parents

relatives to adiust

mav prove
J L

difficult
.t

truncated

and revised

family
t

relations. Ioss of male f amily the male member starts lives of a chain of

F - r o r r r r o n1 r z , t h e t reaction that

drasticallv

affects of

children.

The the

*.1

.. ] + , . L. .^,-E) -c , L .-rJ r. --,-L o o p p € a r a n C e o r ! , 1i "

desertj-on viable

breadwi-nnerS While

Creates

.-.t

need for locally, to

women to girls are

find

emolovment. to

women find in of

work order

-\l

often

required

abandon schooling The involvement the family
9 V U l g

f ake un domestic

r e . s n o n si b i l i t i e s . to

b" o v s v

rn

t

income generating IikelrzWhen i-he
v -H N . - - -o rE V E T

activities

support are

also

becomes

t

widowed
V Y J V V V Y V V

mothers left

obl-ioed to may be taken
rlrcry

travel in
^-^l

further

t

,

:fiorrr
f *a . m - - 1 * . .*i I

children
/

behind
rairl_Lry

by extended
jv

4 r r1 . - ^g -.^, ' {L-ga .^ L ^urL . r ^ r rrr L g

+'^*; r.,

r .^ ^ r JU

>cverc-

.sf ret

r:hed

in

-1

order

to

provide

proper

care only

for are

existing the met

offspring

let

afone adopted

additional children

members. Not thus not

physical but their also

needs of particular

t

adequately

?

n s r z ,r - h o olo ' i c ]a l ." t Families that

a n d -e m o "t i o n a ] " Y manage to

r 'e c l r r i r e m e n t s stick together

become ionorecl find to their that the

u

may

,
t

conflict

situation In

presents some

serious the

challenges of

normal

functioning.

cases /

power

parents

and older

J

;i

\v , ., 6
t

\

members to
t

offer

protecti-on

to

the of

young

is

disproved of

through

\..
.t
\ t

children' arrest

s personal

experiences by military prevent. of

being forces,

a subj ect which

harassment, members

and punishment unable the to

family

\-1 It .t

are totalfy to question and

Such occurrences, the family unit

cause children authority other the adulE socretv as they of

\

structure

and the of of

t

parents /
*1

may lead

into

a deeper and the

questioning val-ue system

f igures, itself. cbserve

including Residents the conflict

teachers, of

/

many camps commonly express has created According an increase and sexual doubts to in local amongst

anxiety the

,
7

young members this is

,
t

about leading, crimes

moral in

codes. turn, to

commentators

anti-social

behav j-our and in of persons

'-.i

such as robbery

abuse among group

, displaced by armed conflict. households: The situation in of of female-headed populations is of and

Female-headed
.t

households great partly

and their Pdrtly such facing

children because families

war-affected the sheer to face are

t

concern, because

numbers

involved,

J

appear

particular evident

hardships. in issues camps may be

-t

'.,

The challenges of basic health that

such households

often

and nutrition. the inhabitants to

Evidence of

from

many refugee households

suggests especially
t t

female-headed

vulnerable

malnutrition. domain is significant for exclusively social in the hands of tc

In

societies

where public is

men and where there
J

stigma

attacheC are of

widows ,

the

condit ions difficult.

female-headed

households abilitv

) especially extended
-i.

fmpoverishment for

weaken the

the The

fa-i

r"

+-n ^ater

such women and their

offsprinq.

)

) ) )

7
adversities for female-headed by relrgious in households edicts the waged service projects have been deepened in women from working This the obviously the to a

t t

t
\ ; ) ) ) ) ) ) )

some situations outside curtails loss of the

forbidding sector. At

home, except to

health

women's access female in the staff

labour. providing running into

same time }ed

for

agencies to support

reduction forcing
r \ v L v r r f J

number of

women,

many hopeful
v L

beneficiaries

beggars. limit the coping late

T r T n n-n I r z - ' - t l t u r a l t abilities of had

and religious of

reStrictionS this, in the

widows, On top militant

case that and to

their

) ) ) husbands
" r l -

associations, with

friends order

relatrves thwart in fear of

oeneraI I v avoid
Y

associating

them in

I
)

suspicion situation

and police of social

interrogation. stigma, Welfare a link and have to

So many widows rely heavily

such a labour such

upon the working in

t
f )
J

of
clruclJ

their

children.

agency personnel f amilies

r r a a c hc:rrv z a n O t . i c e d Il g violence bovs.

between their

impoverished reliance on

through the income

political of

increased

) J
U

adolescent

Confllct-created remArr\/, which
! v r l l q - f ,

widows can be under has a implications remarries This they oil is for

considerable the children is liable the

pressure of their to

to first her the

)
J

1

rnarriage. children

If in are

woman

she

place if

: an orphanage. female, since a son, for In to
v

particularly not

case to

children
J
J

are the

considered hand, is

be family an parents

heirs.

A widow with care

other normal like in

under of

J

ohl i oafi on to
\ . q 9 ! v I r

him as per countries be

expectations in

J

of
J

her

late

husband. likely

Afghanistan, orphanages/

contrast, the

)
J

bovs are mcre

placed

since

?

I
v

\J
*-'t

B
domestic labour of girls leave this first their is valued very much by with step-fathers. or

t

b
\ \ Many women who remarry
t
J

their

children

grandparents

distant fcr the

relatives. children separated " - il i( o n c key of

Yet from

does not marriaqe. famiJ.ies

guarantee

proper

protection

-l \
\ *J ') -) cormonplace
t
J

Children +rrr s ^ ^ L
DsPar

from

: The

factors

that

lead

to

children

f rom their di scord

f amilies, all

such as pove rty , become more

death

of

members, the

and so oil, Often

during

conflict.

unnotlced

and unsupported Children to fend are for with lef t

k r r z. r ^ \ / a r n m e n t a l \ \ *: to

and nOn-governmental of younger of siblings larqer

agenCieS, or simply

run households on the

+I r U -t^S' U -^L^ - '>^ ' - IV U L l I t

streets due to other

towns . or

Those associated politicaf

the enemy, possibly
UI

the

military are

invol-vement vulnerabl e.

^ t r +l -Er-'L'I^-. i ^ a r e n t s L I
YC

or

relatives

e specially can act

: \ \ *) about such \ \
J
J

Fear of

discovery for

by government children has to

authorities access basic with

as a strong Concern to children and the

Ceterrent

these

services. respect

situations by the forces

been raised between the

displaced
a

confl-ict in

Maoist

insurgents

government
J

Nepal. accommodate children conflict In who have lost the care some

o r n h a n a c" r e s s e e k i n o f o " ' ' Y ' Y " of : \
1-

their

families

due to

have become corTrmonplace rn the best of these

. - o u n t r i e . s- n o t a b l v S r i children enj oy a safe, care,
I UJI-\f,ulrurv

Lanka. loving

situations and in to in some new Sri

environment, in their

good

nutrition However,

\ \.

health
UdJUJ

and are
rrr

enabled
III.J LI

education. can exnose
\-CtIr gz\IJ\-,/'JE

-^- i.lencv For

a
.u

i n such institutions
JL-l\-lI

t-L.tLIvIli>

r:hildren
\-lI

risks.

example, rumours effectivelv

abound that

certain

orphanages for the

\

J

T,ankaare

traininq

establishments

LTTE. There

v

9
are also Christian conversion. few concerns charities that are children subj ected reports to in to of some of the homes run by

indoctrination cruelty about

and forced in of a

More generally, have led

and neglect general of lack

institutions

complaints The the

effective living in

monitoring children's problem, for

mechanisms. homes durlng namely that

experiences period of

children reveal can

insurgency themselves

a more basic become targets Early marriage

orphanages militant

attack

by the that

forces. consideration
marri
lil.cll_rrCl\jg.

:One issue
Iink
rrrrJ\

merits

further
and
clJ,t\,t

ls

1 r_vh a r r ^ f a - f i a I u r
-y--urru!q!

between
v\/\-vv\g\.rr

Conflict
\/\-/rrrrr\,u

earlrz
gO'!ry

:no

t V _ LrLi ,rt cl IaLl-.g. , / - ^ L r r l

suggests that

the

particular to

pressures

of

life

in of in

IDP and refugee early the marriage. Lhe

camps may contribute Effectively limitations to have contained that are

an increased

incidence population displaced terms of

as a captive imposed

camps,

upon the in

persons

appear

significant traditional
s a L L U e q r r v v u

consequences life in
r r r u r r v

when and how they

deal with
v t f I

stages the
v q r L r l / u

such as marriage.
v ! ! v !

F i r s l ' l r z - r : .ric u m s t a n c e s rrirl q J- -ontribute n
u v v r

camnq offer way other

sr-ent onnortr:nitrz
J v q l r u v _ y . y v I L - u l t r u y

I

for

in
v

any
v r r v

than
y

domestically,
hOUSehOld.

which

r:ralrr

r

rar.rllifeS
" y s r !

v u

mOfe
l L L v !

than
u l l q l r

One

ri:rrrrkr-|-or r.'ef
v q u \ J l t u v I

Additionally, other harder
! u y v v

there

is

a significant girls due to

threat raped

of

rape

by

locals find it to

and

refugees. to
v v v r r L u l

Those

who are the girls

generally

get

a husband

sociaf Of f of

stigma early

attached danger the

a

r : ^ o r ] r ^ 7 / - \ m a rT h u S , t. In

by marrying

thiS

may be lack of

averted.

any event,the and

conditions

overcrowding, and the factors

educational boredom are

recreational to

opportunities, become important

consequent accounting

al-1 believed

\,
v

10
for the noted prevalence In the context of sexual of activity amongst conservative ensurinq All unmarried Islamic that of the these

; \v

adolescents.
U :t
^ A f i h r r ^ - i - l - . '

a socially

L - \ r l L u t L L y l,I r e d r l y r honour of factors the girl

marriage (and her to the

becomes a meanS of family) is

\

J

safeguarded. at of

J

\

lead

parents by the of

arrange

matches

increasingly KutupaJonq,

early there was and

J

--t
v

ages. As observed not one girl the vast their over

Camp-in-charge 16 in the

'tt
J

age of these

camp still

unmarried, expecting

;
.t

malority

child-brides

were already

second chil_d.
u u

, \ v
a .t
M:rri:r'o :tsuch
u u v r r

an
q r r

earlrz
u c l r r J

aclF
q V g

can

\ - q 1 J .

- L l t t V O . \ - L -

i m n a r - . | _ rhr v q ar ra z i l r z ev J

r fr n v rlr n r u

ihe

rr -u r vq rrv z r - h a I j r

emotional, wedlock for

educational a girl such is

and physical

development

of

girls.

With

)
v

comes strong settings

family give find With strain for

and societal birth girls all and the to in that the

expectations nearlv teens ls anv

Since women in

t
)
J

oft.en

a child their this

every year/
u z \ y u v u f r t Y (

it

not or

uncommon to f ourth child.

late

a \ ' z ) 1 a r -n n a t h i r d i {the demand for educational or

implies of

J

intense social

physical opportunity

loss

)
3

young girl.

J

LOSSOF SERVICE ACCESS
Education education. of loss of : Displacement Most obviously access health is of to inevitably there is takes the its tolt of on children's disruption and

-\
J

) )
1
J

problem

schools.

Researches

by UNICEF/ many NGOs, the continuation wel-l-beinq children education ef f ect on

j -1
J

and mental of

professionals crucial armed by for

have shown that

education periods

chil-dren's

psycho-social Usualty

J

a J

during that

conflict conflict

and upheaval-. have only

) ) )

are

affected

non formal adverse

. , ] 1 n ^ r tr_ n , * y a s r
" l J l J " ! u q r r f u '

conf lict

has had a seriouslv

f

\ tt t

11
access schools to formal education. For example, an estimated Afghanistan from to of 2,000 and the 18%

, )

were damaged between rate of boys in

7918 and 1986 in schoof are

J
J

enrollment ln the

primary

dropped reported

30% to

same

period.

Security

forces thus

use many bounds .

t -1

school- buif dings Securrty seem to threats, eclipse

as barracks,

putting of

them out teachers sector

-

:
-t\
J

bomb blasts , drrests the formal education

and absenteeism Educational

')
c i^ )u-ri l r -v e l r r e n t s s h o w a m a r k e d e

decline of

and Schools

and colleges Students courses to

that in

,
'1
t

remain functional these university been extended and exam for to

have report

a backloq that

examinations. their

) -) -)

on an average for

have

a year

waiting

exam papers Problems of

be finalised while

dates to

be re-scheduled. from in educational

safetv

J

fr:rrollinrv
v f ! ! r r Y

and

inStitutions areas. with In

and during Sri Lanka, in of

:

?
J

^ ^ ^ u tr d -s^s e s d r e

common conflict

conffict-affected areas contend basis. of

children order localto

in

ridden

manv challenqes lack poor

, v

attend

school as

on a reqular a result

These include very service each fears by

facilities

destruction/ transport hours are

rnfrastructure
J

and a non-existent to w a l -k In

public f or

which day in

.? .-\

obl iges order to

many chi f dren, attend

several there

school . will

some areas / be stopped to

among

'-.i
t

\v
J

r r : r o n i -q i _ a t h government

children forces in

and interrogated any militants Jaf fna,

order In

smoke out

hrding both of

\

t|

urrrvrrY

rmr\n.r l nnr I
rvvq-

inhabi_tants.

Vavuniya of
in

Town and in

J

which have a heavy
fu hr r vnq r r rr r h r ! Y r
u v

incidence

LTTE movements children
presence of Sri Lankan

must pass
soldiers,

I

a a \! r e r a l

checkpoints

t

tc
J

reach

school.

For

displaced

children

located

in

the

welfare

I

12
centres repcrts find this of is especially harassment of by disconcerting forces. a child rn are tiving given addition, the frequent

child costs a

many parents This where endemic' is the

hidden

educating for

prohibitive' in camps

particularly opportunities Furthermore,
I
I

problem for

families are ten/

employment the age of

scarce

and poverty in

from to

young people the child absence or and his by

many locatrons of which can

are required create where

carry

ID cards, for about the

loss or the her

) ) )

serious such

problems concerns is

parents' are venture abuse' of rt

harassment more than fears to

military

t
)

uppermost, it to school.

reportedly there girls

girls are

boys of

who still sexual at

Although

often

t
)

would appear that

are

considered

be less

risk

berngstoppedandofbeingsubjecttophysicalharm.InSome areas of Batticaloa sought to the country under there heavity to by to their full or partial contror, notably

t
) ) ) ) ) -.\
J

District, recruit

have been periods through the schools.

when the At

LTTE have many

such times

boys and girls sent out Deni-al 0f of the

have area

forgo

their

schooling

and may even be

worried

parents' is often due t.o bureaucratrc

*J )

education

some chirdren

proceduresthatdisplacedchildreninaparticularsituatlonmay be subj ected to the in order to get access to educat.ionar is the lack is or to f acirities of a birth '

-t
: : *: \ \ from *) ParticiPating
w

rn sri

Lanka

most

corrunoncause in to

noted

certificate teachers

(often

rost

dispracement children

) which entrY

used by head Prevent them

as an excuse in

denY Public

examinations

and

school

sports

conpet it ions .

\

) ) ) ) ) faci-lities ) ) ) ) ) ; ) ) ;
J a v

t3
Hea1th care: The in maintenance conflict-affected educational or of property-functioning zones is often health in the health immensely centres may

drfficult.

As with

establishments, situation

be deliberatelv appears services

looted

bombed. The

Afghanistan war, health the

particularly were estimated massive seldom

iflustrative to reach in the

. Even before only 25eoof the

population meant that

Furthermore, health

inequity reached

distribution rural poor at in

services

all

as services The war no

were clinicallv only served to

based and

mostly

concentrated and the services

towns.

compound these Inadequacies in

problems hospitat staff of

public with or

received crumbling

J ) -)

medi_cal- care. facilities, equipment

insufficient added are to

trained severity repoted their

and outdated the problem. to

inadequate care

Health in

: nrofessionals
y ! v !

often

reluctant skills,

remain

conflrctfew

)
I

affected problems for

areas in

and ,

given

generalIy

have very of

)

relocating ridden

themselves. areas is

The recruitment particularly from the

new staff in the So a / many South /

conftict

difficult,

absence of
t

extra to

financial replace formal of for

inducement

government.

') ) : \
!

sclution with Asia, very the

is

trained training.

professionals Within

by volunteers zones in

little input

conflict

international the maintenance It try

and local of basj-c

NGOs has, health the

therefore

*] \ \.
Y

become crucialincluding

provision, non-

J

routine

surgery. to

often and

falls

on to that

governmental care

sector

ensure

pre

and post-nataI and supplies of

\ \
t)

t

and immunisation medicines is

prograrTrmes do not maintained -

collapse,

t

essential

*l

) ) ) ) ) ) \
J

14

IMPOVERISHME,NT
In the absence of with evidence based information, precision the l-ink of to it is difficult conflict to and

ascertain

sufficient Therefore,

between the rely

) economic status. ) ) ccnflict
'i,mrn r a c c i .. '

any analysis is bound

links

between on

and

impoverishment

heavily

3
)

nns and anecdotal regarding
r

evidence health,

backed up by literacy
data.

such statistics and life

as
(-,,\yc\-

exist

basic
E clrILr

l-eve1s

l
a l z n F r - L C:rnr r--J r z f r \

€ ^_-, , r l

) ) ) ) ) people who are ) Reduction limitations n r o n a r :l
Y V r r v ! q r v v \

vr

and

n\ rn q , .Ll _ \r-- O n f l i C t r v D

of

capital., in mind

income it that is,

and

emp1oyment

: With to

the

above

nonetheless,

possible

make the further,

^hServation

Conf Iict

appearS to

marginalise

already

vulnerable is

economicalfy. the This loss is or

The most obvious drastic reduction with a

t ,2
) )

wo.y

_Lrr. wrrJ_\

j ^ "'* rh

this

occurs

through

of

capi-tal,

income and employment. including physical plant, factors

associated of

range of resources

factors,

destruction

agricultural and mass

and industrial Additional conscription,

reduced include

investment, the Ioss of or

) displacement. ) ) ) due to death, breadwinners imprisonment; of landmines of

inj ury, disappearance restrictions; of the

curf ews and ot.her mobility on farming
" r . , l J - v l a r r v r r u ,

planting and other

t
n J

landi

the

closure

factories the of

sources

o m r r n r z m o n ]; _ e C O n O m i C e m b a r g o e s a n d l The loss services / the of livestock and collapse

demiSe Of credit are

lOCal

markets.

2
J )

and essential also common, dS is and

such

as agricultural of

extension/ food

interruption of

commercial investment.

and other

shipments,

) ) J withdrawal private

3
,

15
As a to consequence, rural individual-s and this or whole f amilies may be compelled rn nearbv

leave or

areas In

seek a livelihood way, they

either

cities

abroad.

may come to

be seen simply which they

as economic
f u a ur - a ! e r r o J -u
Y v fi Y r r v !

migrants
.

and the

particular

challenges

r r n n r o v lv r

Effects children young to leads to parents such as

on children in

:The

impoverishment ways. It

of

families the

impacts

upon

a number of usually

increases

pressures schooling.

on the It also of

work,

at

the

expense of

their to

under-nourishment to pay for the and

and mal-nutritioni necessities of

the

inabilitv education, a child' s

basic

a school and to events,

uniform from

writing Social

materials;

withdrawal

reliqious, for which

and cultural is

including

temple festivals,

some offering

necessary.

CNIL AND POLITICAL VIOLATIONS
T h o r . l r ^ , q atD r e s e n c e Ieads to human of of large numbers of and strain security more. living
! ! v Y u u r r

personnelIt entails

often the

riqhts

abuses the

much of
q r l v

militarisation
" r Y r

society, of
v !

under

constant harassment

r z io i I a n r : e - r e s t r i c t i o n
! v v u ! a v u ! v r r

movement
l L L v v v r L L U r r u

anr^l f rcrrrrcnl

and

intimidation.

Check-points, searches of

surveillance of

operations, work, norma]

interrogations, restrictions interaction Violations conflict

homes and places and activists al-I

on the

press

undermine regions.

and community agrainst children the

life

in

most

conflict in of

: Children constant and risk

communities being

af f ected to law

by

area by

face both

subj ected and

viol-at ions

state

non- state

mi I itary

)
I

\ t ; {r
v

16 enforcement bodies' violence, These violations include harassment' detention sexual

j udiciaf extortaon, rorture ' extradisappear and remain missing

and killing'

J

q

Many children after

and unaccounted for often leads

)
\t

the conflict being

has ceased' detained,

Emergency legislation without

to children

frequentfy without the

charge, of a

and |o Legal detention and

\-

interrogations,
*)
J

commonly and/or extremely ill

presence arrest

representative there is an

parent' high

Both during risk of

and in

sexual

abuse'

torture

other forms of of chifdren in

treatment.

A June 2001 study prepared for

of the

situation that in

Afghanistan, areas

uNrcEFr notes of to

=

Tal iban-cont rol Ied being detained

there

have

been reports are alfied

children opposition

under suspicion

that

they

\

I
I I

\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ ,'{
Y

Apparently, conducted in years of population

prisons an ICRC survey of 72 2000, found 32 girls girls

and detention

centres'

and 587 boys under eighteen 232 of the total female rt

age, the in

representing and the boys' consistent in

detention there was a

9%' In terms of trends' increase in

the number of

appears that luvenile

males in

detention all

Afghanistan in Pakistan where 4'000

between 1995 and (with the exception

2000. A survey of of those in the

the prisons of

interior 9't '

Sindh'

access was denied) juveniles' with a study it of is

conducted by sPARc in particularLy provided likely
J

revealed

high

concentration

in the

Punjab'

Neither

information that in both

on the reasons for countries for their a

detention'

although

\

.t\ \ 4 ,

significant or

proportion

juveniles

are held

actual

supposed political

) ) )
d

17 activities. f orces at Even without times to of the special powers granted in low South age of For to security Asia are

t
) ) ) )

conf li-ct, due to

children the in this very the is

vulnerable responsibility

arrest in most

criminal rn

countries

region. set at

example

Bangladesh, India ) ) ) J ) ) J ) J ) early children resident of Children's
1LLOrry

and Pakistan to citLzenship

seven years. are infringed Asia.
.n'5_Ld.

right

and nationality

in

\-\-./rlr-Lr\-u-o.rrE\-LgL,t

^^€Lict-affected Parties to the

w i I c o r n m u n i t i e s wI L ItI hI Ii n \-\J|.uu.L,trrrurg>

,J J l S\oLuLtI Ih

A l t rh l o\ nL o vh 1 n_LL . r .{ r of all

States

CRC are

obliged sovereign

to

uphold

the in

rights

on their

territory, renders

practice

the denial with
r r v y u r f

citizenship to all other

and nationality rights. whO did
v v l r v v r v

them vulnerable the

respect

In
r r v u

Bhutan many members of leave
! v q v v

l t J e n I . i- s n e a k i n c n . y ) r rl a t i O n :
- . y - q i \ r r r ) J . y " - y u r q u ! v r r

nOt from

the
u t l v

Coltnt rv
v v q r r u ! J

f r l

' in t h e have

t
,

1990s under

alleged denied

threat

government status.

forces,

been effectively therr children For in their

citLzenship their

As a consequence to free school ref uge of In

t
) )

have those

Iost

entitlement speakers now

nr^\ri c i nn
r v f v r l .

98, 000 Nepali Nepal there

who have taken the

in ) ) )

camps

South right their

East to

exists

challenge return.

proving

Bhutanese in

citLzenship is highly

and thus

the meantime,

status

Nepal

ambic;uous.

t t
J
.a

THREATSTO THE PHYSICAL INTEGRITY OF CHILD
Child
IvL,T\JIIL

casualties:
W-I\-I. I O.

Many
IC.UI\-,/II

confficts of
\JI ]IIVIT

in
Ug\-II

South
IIO.

Asia
O, II

are -^d

now

being

{ )
I

f o r r o h f r ^ rti h

a combination
\J\JILI.I-,'II,

hi crh-f er:h l---J'-'

IL.TWOIg

traditional by this mix
in

\ ^ / A : r 1 ^ n/ r\
" " " " _ y v r l ! J .
V Y V q T J V I I ! J I \

The variety
to the

of

combat activities
and death of

enabled
chil-d

of
a

r ^ T a t l l ' . ' ' \ r \ zI e a d s

injury

ci-vilians

) ) J wide range Bystander of situations. Some of the most of common are as follows: between

injury

: The sudden

outbreak

gun battl-es

t t

18
opposed crossfire. fact, forces This may is cause inj ury to children in Sri caught up the in

a particular that of

problem

Lanka due to

dlready

stated

many army checkpoints attack/ are

and camps, whj ch very close

are obvious to school s .

targets

military

situated

Bombing and shelling involved in the

: The of

increasingly shells and in Iocations families. incident

sophisticated bombs which pose only often

weaponry are both

launchinq in

dropped and threat to

planted

civilian

an unavoidable the numbers of the to an

children from a

and their single of

Not are

casualties unpredictable

great, contributes

nature fear

such military

activity

atmosphere of In combat : In

and anxietY. and Sri in not Lanka, direct appear f rom to particularly, military children action. elther them as any The

Afghanistan to

are reported age of f he i r
u l r v r !

have been killed does

these

combatants or

discourage treating

suneriors soldiers.

their

enemj-es

adult

Communal massacres: the conflict Whole villages forces of as well

In

Sri

Lanka

and Afghanistan for by the

both of

sides

in

have been responsible have been as by slain

massacre and caught

civifians.

military groups

paramil itary up in a cycle

armed civilian kif lings.

inter-comlnunal

reprisal

Landmines :Bansladesh Scuth Asia Ban Treaty region on the that

and the have

Maldives

are

the

only the

countries (Ottawa)

in Mine

signed

and ratified

production,

transfer,

stockpiling, Bhutan al-one is

and use of considered

landmines . Of t.he remaining

countries,

I9 tc be free weapons I targets, of mines and other which usually to civilians explosive are Iaid for use devices. against Unlike other

such

as guns / are

specrfrc thereby everyday effect,

Iandmines the risk

indiscriminately, going about their

increasing

business . Also,

while

other

weapons have an instantaneous can linger for

mines and explosive to create dangers is the

devices for

many years, continuing the the conflict Federally which there support, border by the supply has

civilians for

long

after

enCed. This Administered
, . .

case/ Areas numbers

example,in of

Tribal Large the

(FATA) of

Pakistan were laid the

Afr^rh:niqf:n. Y , in

mines

Soviets routes to
| \ / v v v r v

1980s as a means to for the

undermine

and arms bases and maim the their

muiahideen. of which this

These devices area.

continue 600

kill

population lives, of

An estimated under the

n o r r n lo h : r r s l o s t 18. A particularly

212 are

age of

disturbing

phenomenon has been the Explosive and North
Maoists in

growing

^ - ^J^. r'L-l \^ .L- -iL \^r nr a n d u s e o f \ L , r lJr State Actors/ notably
groups I

Indigenous in Kashmir
by the

Devices East

(IED) by Non by various
the

India,

D c 1 , c - + a- i- L D l r -L ^ { L

and

Nepal .

Seemingly

ease of

manufacture churns

using and groups

everyday bottles to acquire

items has

such

as pressure even of poorly deadly

r - o n k F r q- m i l k financed
v r r v !

enabled arsenals

militant

large

nvnlnq'i rroq. FUrthermOre, \ / F r \ / I o r - eI i s e d disputes,

mineS such of

and IEDS have beCOme weaponS in aS intra-ethnic violence in the

North West Frontier Children activated are

Province

Pakistan. t.o the use of and impactIEDs .

particularly to

vulnerabl-e remote-controlled)

(as opposed

landmines

20
Due to their the generally body smatler stature and the are proximity to of vital

organs to and maim domestic

surface, cause in

devices to

that the

intended fn

iniure the such

adult s activities

death which the

young .

addit ion, engage,

young may typically often

as collecting

firewood

and water, children

expose them to cdsualties that

particular sometimes strange, the

danger. Amongst younger occur when playing

especially, obj ects

with

explosive

appear to affect

shrny and interesting. likelihood of casualty them at the case three

Gender differences Boys greater a much greater in Af ghanistan more boys

appear of

freedom risk of

movement outside than girls. where than

the home puts
tf'],-

injury in

-L ls n
i -

appears

and also injured

Jaf f na,

there girls.

have been

times

and killed

H . . t n r o r z o ra v e n w h e n t h e
q ani l Dn1 , c: u r o y-r\ r o g t d l n m e s r r /

young

are the

made aware

of

the mines,

risks there

throuqh are

and learn Due to

locat j-on of or their melting

strll

great

dangers.

floods

snows explosive locations. children water In

devices may addition, no choice or to due but

be carried to to the

away from absence of

oriqinal

alternatives, to collect

mav have

ent.er minefields

and firewood

harvest

crops. thorough wilt de-mining the and safety an of such be by ef fective children. as ban on At present and

tll I i m:f ol rz, only furLher
f1. ^-^

deployment seeln distant

ensure

Lllese

dreams in

countries to offered

Afqhanistan and thelr

Sri

Lanka.

For

those is little that

who continue support

in-r ured the

families ncn-state

there

governments

and is

actors

employ such devices.

Such assistance

21
generally left to the NGOs and UN agencies of to provide' levels violence although sexual of risemen and violence rape/

Sexual violence

:In

situations and others the most

armed conflict, of sexual

sexual exploitation W o m e na n d g i r l s boys can also is of also associated impunity reflects that or are

forms frequent at leveI

targets, times. of

be very with that the find offer the

vulnerable general in

Often

lawlessness fected

and climate

prevails

conf Iict-af of

conrmunities - It and vulnerable to

d esperation themselves them to

impoverished to sell

famil-i-es traffickers, against

forced military

daughters

personnel

as protection

attack,

extortion however, is law I of far it

and other is

abuses. that sexual effect violence of the

Increasingly, during conflict

becomi-ng clear an arbitrary custom. rights

more than

side Rather,it of policy.

break down of an instrument

order terror

and social with the

has become and women rt

girls

)yDLUllto.L--L\-(

c r z o f - a m ri + _ l l y ^a the form

violated of multiple

as a deliberate rape and may

Frequently by

takes

be accompanied Such ethnic they

torture , are tribal

forced

marriage

and forced the

maternity. of where

violations cleanslilg, are used and to

particularly conflict both

i c o r T r m o nn and to boundary

context

disputes,

explicitly

humiliate of that the

and

demoralise

individuals, In

undermine the there against took is

psyche

community Tal-iban has

as a whole. have used reported

Afghanistan, violence when they and Taltk

erridence

the It

sexual that

ethnic

minorities. in the

been

over

territorv were

north

and centre

many Hazara violated.

women and qirls

abducted

and sexually

These women

22
have not returned and were
annA rent I v
q-yL'

trafficked

to

Jalalabad,

Kandahar and Pakistan Health inj ury and nutrition from guns / : The high landmines, in the incidence shells of of and south of children' s death and

aerial Asia.

bombardment ls However, upon in order

cause for to

anxiety

many parts impact also

understand

full

conflict their it

children's health that long-

physical and the

well-being nutrition health in this

one must they is

consider Tndeed, a

everyday is IikeIy more

receive. to

children's term extent
I

damaged

broader directly

a nd

indirect

way than

through

violence.

I
I

For example, infection medication death in these are Aside from poor case

ilfnesses all of

such as malaria, may be easily

diarrhoea cured and with

and respiratory the appropriate to lead to

which

I I

often situations generally itlness,

become more prevarent of not conflict recorded for

likely of

a range

reasons.

However'

I I
I

as conflict-related on children's of time. This

casualties. health is on through the '

conflict over rong

impacts periods

)

nutrition with

notably rations

I
refugee and the ) ) ) ) \ ) )
J

populations

kept

dependent

statistics born in of

research

have suggest.ed that lives the with extra

although

children clean to bifl

camps begin (most likely

their due to their

a relatively care afforded status 50% of

health

pregnant

and

lactating

mothers ) , According to

nutrit.ionat over

quickly children then who

deteriorates. are born exhibit thrs

an estimate and

) ;
J

relatively wasting

healthy the of

without

problems

go on to old, and camp

between

ages of how

18 and 23 severely

months

qrves

a a )

an indication

and quickly

23
conditions health is affect adversely that these new lives . Furthermore, unsanitary their qeneral

affected in the

by the camps.

and overcrowded

conditions To be clear,

prevail

malnutritlon Particularly issue rn to of

does not for

simply

or

only there

result is

from also

food shortages. an take important time.

younger

chil-dren

care.

Breastfeeding where primary to fulfil

and food caregivers other

preparation are also tasks, basis account female-

situations earn that

struggling the

an income or children This will

essential

chances

go hungry may, &t of feast

on a regular in part, in

appear to for the

increase.

problem

comparatively

high

incidence

malnutrition

headed households. Disability: colTlmunities Levels af fected to of by disabitity conf lict. It tend is to due to care. rise the Given of sharply violence the in and

f h a r - l - ir r r n l i o n s e breakdown in rs often the

nutrition provision that the

and health

common it

service case

as a consequence children simply malority the

confl-ict, disabilities

needs of

with to of

are seriously heafth care

overlooked. and education areas

The struggle for the

maintain children

basic in

conflict-affected of the particular Sri Lanka,

generally

l_eads to needs of

row prioritisatron fn to the offer Vanni even

additional schools children mental to

a minority. are or unable

area of minimal physical

and hospitals with or sight

services

to

hearing

impairment, In is the a the severe conflict

disability, of of

emotional victims the

problems. there

prcvl-sion shortage

prosthetj-cs necessary

landmine . At

materials

same time,

24
has inevitablv increased the numbers of children
r ^ i if h
vv ! 9 r r

sner:i

al

needs who require

supplementary

assrstance.

CHILD AS ACTIVE PLAYER IN WAR
Invclving of their children human in is wars in war is, Yet one of around the the most serious violations have been

riqhts.

worl-d children

involved While it of Child half
IIOVU

and hostitities. to be exact,the that boys over Coalition the last to Stop the Use than 18

impossible

Soldiers

estimates both

20 years/more the age of

a million
JJCUlT -I-

children into

and girls groups, and

under

l rrza r-.aan":ecruited involved
CTLC I-/ULWCgI

armed

300 r 000 are of these

still

todav

in

more than

30 confficts. old, though

Most

children are

r ra har- ^,aary 5 and 18 years r 1 be servins
v !

Some aS young aS f ive are recruited

known to
r v Y q r u !

in

armed units. forces
in a

Children in

rnto

reorrlar or

irrecrular
can to be

armed
found

many different
variety rule; of armed

capacities.
groups / of

Chrld Iu r h or q e f v v

soldier nI n v \ r ^ l s e d v / y n

wide

central-

government

groups

composed

ethn i c - religious groups,' or

and other

minorities

;

clan-based militias

or

factional and self -

government-backed

paramilitaries,

defence units. C h rl d r e n
\ - A V f V I U U

are
U . | L

especial ly
hrz fhe
V J U l r v q r r L L v v

vulnerable
a

to

conscription of of

and

exnloitaljon

armer-l crrrlllDs as
Y ! v q l

result Children

pre-existing particular targeted for as a way zones

social
Y ! V s I / u

di sadvantage
v v r l v

and deprivation.

d r , ^ . r r r ) q ^ r h na r e r recruitment, cf ensuring

Seen aS a threat

may be directly children Children are may living

and disadvantaged food and shelter. from family

volunteer in

conflict to be

and those

separated

also

more likely

\:
I
d

25
recruited. nroter-t Given lack in of enforcement countries of are of existing legislation of legal Truth is, to

, :

r - hi - l d r e n

such

mean child

absence

t

t

Aal arranf o for
L ] C L C I I U I I L D

the

recruitment of children in

combatants . into

the vast

maioritv

coerced

armed units. there tolls, is often

t
d

In countries :
q u r r v !

engulfed male

long-running due to

wars, risit

where

)

shorl_.^rc of :

combatants to

g death to the

f tghtrng their and

factions .) losses.
f

may resort Disease in like

recruiting

children hit

make up for waring

HIV/efnS in the adult as

may also

groups

\

result
J

decrease in the

population

and so make deployment option. and easily Child soldier

') -; -)

of

children

fight to

an attractive obedient as

may be seen as cheap alternative, that
Y Y v U I /

employ,

manipulated fighter given as more

can even

serve

frontline these

I'

-: \
a

foderzs liohj-er
u v v q J u r r Y r I L v !

\ ^ r e a n o n r \ , / -C o m m a n d e r s v i e w receive little Staft training aS

children

expendable, they
v v r J J v q r r Y

and are pOrterS

easi 1y ava j I able . Of ammunitiOn roles and

\ -,
f,

\/arrz \/^r'rn.r feCrUitS food,cooksrspies
I L L U I I I

may

and concubinesrbut and acting able to

then

move on to or

such as .

m:nni nn -heckpoints, \ \
-t

aS bodyguards

informants are

Later,
v

when they

are

handle of

a weapon, they enemies in short

assigned on the weapons/

*; )
a:

tasks front

such as ambushrexecutioners lines. other Some are sold into that f or this

and fighting for

slavery are in

exchange supply.

\ \ \ \ \ \ \
v
Y

money or A child

commodities training violence: for

soldier's to

aggressive may include

roles

may invol-ve forced to to

defight who and Some

sensitisation each other,

being help

d

punishment

any child children atrocities

offering to in

those

I

were abused,forcing v f nrr-i nrr -h ildren
r V f - U f , r r Y v r l -

innocent to commit

punish their

wrongdoers, own villages.

}r

\t
q

26
children been recruited to into the Lord's kill fn Resistance other Liberia Army in chil-dren I armed Uganda have with clubs,

, a

forced and

form of

gangs to firewood. family soldiers

I
t

rocks

pieces targeted Child family children

factions alt sense the At

\ry ;
t

delrberately of normalitv. of

relationships, would then to be

destroying forced applaud to

witness acts.

-)
J .tt\ J

execution

members and would the

these

checkpoints, means of
! v v y v v u

be forced

have

sex with down the also

women as a children's abuse

humiliating
! v -

women and breaking sol-diers would

t
J

roqr-ror-fr^r

elders.

Older

sexuallv

the children.
Y

-t
')

Commanders ef f ect i vely

today break his

are

able

to

create

torture

conditions, and identity

which and

down a chil-d' s ability Scars
v v a wq!r

personatity a full remain
Tt lh e I v w Ih voU' l e v v t I

t

consequently other
l, "o rnJ o . \

to of

live torture

life

with

and amongst and body
of
\ - / l

: \ rt
t

human beings.
a! u ut !e r q f tu ht ve r

on the

mind

h qa s r r 9

ended.
v t r v v v .

ny e_ r , .J s_ cr lI C . ra r.u lyi f r z n r _ \ r \ /

the

?

individual torture.

is

destroyed, affects family, fear of

which not

is

the the

basic

purpose

of

infl also

icting other is

\xf

Torture the

only

individual, the whole

but social

= members of and ultimately fabric
v

-1

*+
)

permeated with Af Eer effects irritability, I of h^ r.r\/
' " - Y f I

and terror. incl-ude anxiety, depression, fear,

torture

5
\
IU

disturbed introverSion,

memory/ headaches, lOss of

sexual- disorders, visual p r o b l _e m s

\v : t \t \

ConCentratiOn I

etc.

Whether it
fear the of

be recurrent
sleep ,

nightmares,

the inability
anxiety, person, abuse,

to

sleep
of

or the betrayal,

flashbacks, to trust

chronic any other

feel ings deliberate

inability violent

t sel-f injury, behaviours, substance depression,

I

*r :r

-3
\
:) I
It

27
paranoia or anxiety, not onry these psychologicar but consequences families, of war are frrends

T

T
\D

observabre

on survivors

on their

and conlrnunities Torture affects to

as well. children's the intellect. are often these behavior and cognition, who are thus beino of direct

I
v

detrimental or indirect withln

:l : torture

children neglected, children may do,

victims

reprobated are denied gain

and condemned the privilege into and

society. education' schools ' cannot They

usualty

: ) ;

of

an

These children rf however their likely they

never

admission teachers

state

mainstream and

l

education adequately' because notice tactics'

meet are

individuar to to very force rose acquire other

complj-cated

needs complex

t
) :
I

an inferiority other to

they these

f eel-

di f f erent

chi l-dren .

chi ldren bullying throuoh as is

3

deficiencies by physical children

quickly or

and resort mental torture in

t
a
J

whether

scapegoat or they have

neglect. littl-e

confidence

themselves in adults

\

J

self -worth. or the law

chil-dren,s does not to

J .r
4

t.rust

shattered' they are

ds they afraid

seem protect school, are

them. have under

Because

\
,l

they

do not to

want

attend

limited so much

'J

friends stress' ends'

and are Their

unable

concentrate seem worth they

as they living,

t
)

life

does not being, that that

as the of

abuse never or out

t
.}
ft

Their

crime

are

victims

torture

abuse' Girls casted prevairs this from

especialty, the family inabirity right,

have been sexually So among such education usualry of

abused are

t /* ) \ I
t

system. to

children and often into

illiteracy without a rife of

due to

afford

basic

human

* ) ) poverty r

children and

enter

CTime, slavery

situations

vulnerabilitv

where

t

$ i

28
fho'
u l l v J u ! v

I
l

ar^

further

open

to

abuse.

Girls

become

involved

in

prostitution

F
l
I

and trafficking. that, have and one
r r ! Y r r

It

is

estimated children disabled
u r v r r q u v ! J

in

Africa

over in

the

past

60 years / six

two million a adult

million left
u f u l / ! v y v !

been killed million
v q J u q ! u J

battle,

with Children with
v v

I t

orphaned.
! q u v

have their

d i q n r - n r - ' r Ji- o n a f e . l v

hi oh casrral tv of a lack them of

rate

comnared
v v r r r y q ! v v

l I ) ,
comrades smalfer in j ury. because experience

and maturity. to

Therr of

bodies

render

more vulnerable

complications

t
I
) , , ]
international ^^^^--I or non-international, ^rovided children benefit from n a rr t L IJo the
_Lr.l

SAFEGUARDSTO PROTECT CHILDREN
International children in humanitarian war. fn the law of provides broad protection either for

event

armed conflict,

I
) I

9Crruro._L

Pr(,Ls\-Lr\Jrr

|na+-.i^^

IJr\JVrL.rE\-r

f oJrJ _ \c- ir v rir lr icar nJs L\ l r v

nr o- ,t , u tLa rk^ i, nr ov r \ c r r

.in

the

hostrlities. treatment hostrlities.

Non-combatant and covered Given the of by

civilians legal

are

quaranteed on the of

humane conduct of the of

the

provisions vulnerability Additional

I

I
, ,
)i

particular ]-949 of

children,

Geneva Convent ions L911 lay

and their rules

Protocols special

down a series Children

according part

children in

n r n t _ r - t _n n . a i lose that Convention
Drof or-o'l
! r v u v v v ! r ' )

who take

direct

hostilities Protocols, recent

do not the 1989

,

I l
) )

special on the
i-n

protection. Riohts of

The Additional the Child and its

Ootional

particular, in

also

set

limits

on children's

IJdrLrclpdL-Lon

nrrf-i

^-i ^-f-i

hostilities. Paris Principles , 2001 seeks the

) } ) The recent ly framed

I

I

29
uncondrtional groups at duration behaviour countries all of release times, the of even children in the from midst armed forces of conflict intend to or arrned the the (a f f e c t e d

and for affect

conflict.

The Principles of actors

of ,

a broad

range

including:

States

and donor actors,
^n.l

governments ) , human rights development actors,
ad

actors, and security
i.\na /innlrr^inn

humanitarian
aa:rarq fqlAf6

military
nr.r:ni q:l-

n.)n-qj-:fF\

:qq^r^irf

i

ltNt nrcrni

q:r-innc

hm6hf

r'l

-^l-i^--l

,

i-F^

,,,"_rnational
r v. , r ^ r i i I, v !l F ,
v u

:ncl

a.)mmllnilrz

hesccl

nrrr:niq:finnql

Tha

nrin/-inlFe:im

-nLervenLions with ) .
.

the foffowjng

objectives

: chifdren,.
with armed

To prevent
To facilitate and armed

unfawful
the

recruitment
release of

o.r use of

children

associated

forces . with .

groups; the reintegration of all children associated

To facilitate armed forces To ensure

and armed groups; the most protective environment for all children.

CALL FOR ACTION
The international community need to rise to the problem of

'

children

in armed conflicL

by addressing itself

Lo the following

RATIFICATION, IMPLEMENTATTON OF INTERNATIONAL I,EGAJ, STAIiIDARDS :
Despi te still the rul-es part to laid in put down by the hostitities. an end to this international States law, chr-Ldren are primary ensure

taking

have the

responsibility that all

situation are

and need to ratified, :

relevant in

international the national Riqhts of

standards laws, the

respected

and reflected Convention

especially

on the

Child

t 3
) ) Onf i ona l African Protocol Charter to the CRC and Welfare of the Child

30

I

I
)

on the Protocols of the

Riqhts to

Two Additional The Rome Statute

Geneva Conventions Criminal

and CRC Court Action

t
) )

International

The ILO Convention for Elimination of

No.1B2 on Prohibition Worst to comply 126I Forms of of Child

and Immediate Labour; and Protocol

J
)

the

Convention

Relating to

Status with

Refugees

f961 .

I
) ) )

Adopt measures resolutions

various I374

UN Security I31 9

Council I460

vrz.

(I999) ,

( 2 0 0 0) ,

(200I) ,

(2003), 1539 (2004) and L612 (2005). TREATMENT OF CHILDREN Chrldren allegedly who are ACCUSED OF CRIMES UNDER INTERNATIONAI of crimes were under international with law armed forces of LAW

t
)

accused while

I
t t
;
q\

committed

they

associated primarily and not or

or armed groups offences against

should

be considered law;

as victims

international :Capital of

mere perpetrators. for life any

J

THE RIGHT TO LIFE wrthout possibility

punishment shall
u u v v

imprisonment

t
: )

release have
r r q v v

never
u r r v !

be used againsL
r v r r v v

n e r s o n w h o . is n r o r r e c i t o international or

committed
v v r L u L L r

an of f ence if OF is under

a c l ai n s t
q Y q r r r J

u

1
:

domestic

criminal

law

18 vears SOLDIER of

of

aoe

PROGRAMIIES AI{D POLICIES unlawful rights; recrui-tment therefore or

FOR THE BENEFIT use of children

CHILD

: The their

1
f
) ; Y ;

a violation be carried

preventive are

activities formal

must

out

contlnuously.

Where there

disarmament,

demobifisation should be

and reintegration made for children. prevent

(DDR) processes, The absence activities of in

sp€cial a formal pursuit of

provision

b ? ? ?

DDR process/ the release

however, of

should not

31
children from armed forces or armed groups. and programmes of the the for

CONTEXT- SPECIFIC welfare social, children
. r L U Ln P )q rn 1n 9-

PROGRAMMfNG: Strategies comprehensive context

should economic have or
:nd
d.lILr rvvrru!!J

include

analysis

political, reasons or why

and cult.ural

and include with

mav become associated
Tl '/ ^ y">^ v d * - ,a L(
clL|

armed forces

armed

idon1- ifrz

-^dress

them.

ADDRESSINGTHE SPECIFIC
J,L9rrrr_L\-o.rrl

SITUATION OF GIRIS amongst children While there

: There

are

always with

a

- ' i^ n i € i n : n l

number of or

girls

aSsociated

arned forces
I-,U LWggII LII\

armed groups.

are of in

commonalities girls and boys, to or the armed the

l - r n r ..r a a n f h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s + situation for girls

and experiences different j oin in the the

can be very in which of they

relation

reasons and manner groups.

armed forces or

The experience on their ability

being

armed force and emotional

armed group being; life or

has effects and on their
r v ! 1 r u v Y

physical, to

social

well

successfufly

adapt

to

civilian their

rei nf eoraf e into

f amily

and colTlmunity life and reunif

after ication

release.

Ef f ective including
Y v r r v

prevention, educational

protection

p r o g r a r n m e s' income

and vocational and access them. VOCATIONAL to

facilities, Iivelihood

c r e n e r a ti n c a c t i v i t i e s , shoulC be provided REINTEGRATION, for

opportunities

EDUCATION,

AIID SKILLS

TRAINING

AND

E Lf\IELIHOODS: ducation,

Vocational

and skil-Is

training

and / or

opportunities
d l c

to

support

their

own and their

family's

livelihoods

-r

g D D c l l L l

Acdanf j_al elements

f Or

reintegratiOn.

ReintegratiOn

prcgrarnrnes should
.ar-f -irzi t i aq Iu " . r !i r r r ry - =V nr

allow
i - ,rt t o

and encourage
account the

access

to
s

educational
lost educational

childrent

:
I

\

J

32
opportunitJ-es, experrences their age and stage or of deveropment, their potential self

D
3
w
!

with

armed forces well

armed groups lncluding

and the

tc

promote psychosocial Children with with their

being,

a sense of in

*1
U

wcrth.

disability peers. training with

should

-1
!

be included

educatrcnal

activities Educational children while

;

'J
)

and skills

should

recognise or

that

many

who were

associated of

armed forces have learned to lose

armed groups, s kills can be and

-3
missing
u v r l v ! l

years

-\
Y

education, do not want

other

' \ nm l - ' a a-n ^ i e s t h a t r
v v r r r y v

they

and which

') :) :. J

useful

in

civilian learning of

societv. programmes suitable should for adolescents with who have

Acceferated missed years by the formal

school of

be compatibte

and recognised

a
J

system forms of

I S
{J ./ Alternative evening not wish classes to enter should the or girls

education. such as adult to children literacv classes or do or

education

be offered formal

who cannot

educational

svsrem. li kely to of be even reasons, qirls Their

I
5
)

Access to

education f or

training than

prograrTrmesis f or borzs f or poverty,

more drf f icult rncluding to

a variety and the after

!
:

cultural

expectations, work

need for children. to

earn a livelihood,

at. home, or incfude but for

look not

I I
: :

training

progralTlme should considered while with

be restricted to enable

occupations

suitable building the

girls

subseguenr thev

rncorne generation have developed Provision

on the

skills or

and abilities armed sroup. traininq needs of all and

i f f
)

whil-e

armed force relevant suitable

should for

be made for employment,

vocational for the

opportunities

qirls

? t

JJ

q l r v

. e n r i hv n v cJ v J

! 1 1 v !

i n ^ l 'u .v Ar t-Yi n a r

f( - lh O S e

Wlth

diSabilitieS.

Healrrrg the undertaking.

wounds of

war-torn

societies to

is

a long that

and difficult children, safe past

The immediate are

need is

ensure

affor-l_orll-.'./ onflict C Iiving
9 / \ y \ - ! M j . i

adequately protected the

fed,

have aCCeSS to disease. f ive other

with

family

and are

against of

But

ovnori anr-o has underlined caring for unaccompanied

importance

tasks: soldiers; and

children; war;

demobil LZLng child restarting schools;

ho:'l i nrr 1he mental_ wounds of o m h , er k i
v f r r v q ! r \ r r r \ J

nr^r on
v l r

eduCatiOn
v v q v q u ! v I t

f or
! v !

} / v q \

nFFCe.

**************

r
i-.

'l=
i v

+.., l u

34 REFERENCES
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^ E O I

t t
-

a

J.*' ' 't ,: a

Anterican (2000);

60-65.

-l* .

t :

Human Rights
o ' L . L t L v [ , i . / /

Watch.

WorLd Report

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Child

sofdiers.

Available

: . f . h r -f n . / / w w w . h r w . o r g / h r w / w o r l d r e p o r t 9 9 / (a c c e s s e d J u n e 2 0 0 1 ) .

speciaj-/cinifd.html

+--, l tt
1i v*,
{,

l "

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to

Stop

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Use of Stop

Child

Sol-diers:

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London: Coalition Available reports

t.he Use of

Chif d Soldiers,

at : http : / /www. child-soldiers (accessed June 2001 ) -

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1=

tr ..'i-'
ar
J.t
\ \ -{
i/

Becker J.,'Children W o r l _ d .R e p o r t 2004:

as weapons of Human Rights

war'

In:

Human Rights

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and Armed Conf 7ict,

Available

http : / /www.hrw. org /hrw /worldreport2004 (accessed June 2001) -

/ special / chird/htmt

Kalis MA.,'Child .t rti emma I Af rican .
vr!vrlurrst

soldiers Journalat:

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Africa: Conf lict

solutions ResoL ution

to

a complex 2 (2) :

(2002) ; /2002-

\

3I-52.

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43 o)
\

I/accordr

v2 n2 a4.html

Albertyn

R, Bickler '

SW, van As AB,'The effects pediatric

of war on (2003); 19:

ss.a *tr5
\

chi_Idren in Af rica,
zzt-zJz.
n ^ - ^

Surgical- International-

4:

OmonaG, Matheson EM.'Uganda: Lancet (1998); 351: 442' -

stolen

children'

stolen

Iives'

*5r
y"l,I

+= =F
F -i*3
+t I

'!'

Taylor ^^r"f

K.,, . in n o '

child

soldiers

in Forum

Africa: (1999)

the

problem at:

and

the

5UaL-lLr\Jlt>t

Transafrica

Available

http : / /www. transafricaforum.

org / reports / child-soldiers.

pdf

-Fq-

I

I
)
) | ) ,"n E.,' ,oor.Availabfe

3
Liberia: at: child soldlers'

s
Council- on Foreign Relations ' ' php . h t t p : / / w w wc f r . o r g l b a c k g r o u n d / l i b e r i a - k i d s

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