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Topological Theological Cosmology

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By Ronald H. Brady

that leads to an appreciation

of the Divine.

References to mathematical calculations

and musical celebrations

in the Kabbalah you will find.

Section I

six days of creation, as described in the book of Genesis, with

the time-line of the development of the Universe (of several

billion years) as described in the Big Bang Theory. The author

will also discuss,in this section, his theory of Topological

Theological Cosmology (TTC). This is a theory that features an

application of topological concepts to theology and cosmology.

solution set of a (possibibly infinite) system of interconnected

governing Partial Differential Equations (PDE’s) and/or Ordinary

Differential Equations (ODE’s) with the activity of an all

knowing and all powerful Supreme Being. It will be recalled that

the solution of a PDE (or an ODE) of Mathematical Physics

describes the time evolution (or the present and future

activity) of the associated physical system. Therefore the

(topological) identification of one set of activities with

another is not an unreasonable basis for an axiomatic

foundation.

is postulated to govern the behavior of all objects whose mass

and/or energy ranges all the way from the microscopic (or sub-

atomic) level to the cosmological scale. We theorize that this is

equivalent to accepting by faith the existence of a Supreme

Being who governs the behavior of all objects whose mass and/or

energy ranges all the way from the microscopic (or sub-atomic)

level to the cosmological scale.

purely in scientific terms, to the question: what is the meaning

of the Universe?

The Universe is believed to have started with a Big Bang! This

event is believed to have occurred about 13.75 Billion years ago

according to a well researched article in (ref.W.1, p.1).

Initially the temperature of the Universe was extremely high:

approximately 100 Billion degrees K (Crisp, p.1). The Universe

continued to rapidly expand after the Big Bang. This resulted in

a cooling of the temperature of the Universe thus allowing for

the formation of matter.

clump together. This was a prelude to the formation of the

galaxies, stars and planets.

The age of the Solar System has been estimated to be 4.6 Billion

years (www.universetoday.com, p.1). Most astrophysicists believe

that the sun and the planets were formed during the same

astronomical process.

Nebula Theory is the best theoretical description for the

formation of the Solar System.

Solar System formed as the result of the

contraction of a diffuse, gaseous nebular

cloud (consisting primarily of hydrogen

and helium, but with some dust containing

heavier elements)” (Crisp, p.1)

the qualitative description of the early stages of the formation

of the Solar System (and the earth), as described in the book of

Genesis, with that of the Solar Nebula Theory.

According to Genesis 1:2, “And the earth was without form, and

void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep.” A possible

explanation for this is that there could have been a dense thick

sub-cloud (a cloud within a larger cloud formation) surrounding

the earth. This cloud could have prevented light from the proto

sun from reaching the surface of the still forming earth. The

earth was without (a regular spherical) form since it had not

yet accumulated enough mass to generate a gravitational force

field strong enough to transform the earth into a spherical form

or shape.

“And God said let there be light and there was light.” As a

consequence of this divine edict the sub-cloud of dust,

theorized to have existed above, could have dissolved thereby

permitting light from proto-sun to strike the surface of the

proto-earth during the day and light from the stars and the moon

to be visible on the proto-earth during the night.

these events is no less than the probability of the Big Bang

itself. Also the probability of the occurrence of events, such

as the ones that we have theorized, is no less than the joint

probability that the values of all of the important physical

constants would be fine tuned in such a way that life, as we

know it, would be possible.

We estimate that the Universe was 9.15 Billion years old at the

time of the formation of the Solar System. This estimate follows

from a simple computation. Using the estimated age of the

Universe of 13.75 Billion years (Ref. W) and the estimated age

(4.6 Billion years per Universetoday.com) of the Solar System:

we have

Solar System.......................................4.60 B yrs.

formation of the Solar System .....................9.15 B yrs.

Psalms 136:2-3. God in his infinite power could make himself, if

he so chooses, to be the “God of gods of gods of gods...(to the

infinite order)”. In order to make himself at least partially

comprehensible to finite man, God could present himself in a

very very powerful but finite form. How could something that is

infinite be presented in a “finite representation”? To answer

that question lets review some introductory concepts in topology.

Topological Equivalence

real numbers with a finite diameter can be topologically

equivalent to an interval of real numbers with an infinite

diameter. Let the sets S and T be defined by

S = {x ε R | 0 ≤ x < 1 }

and

T = {y ε R | 0 ≤ y < ∞ }

where R denotes the set of real numbers and the symbol ∞ denotes

“infinity”.

f(x) = 1/(x-1) + 1 .

limit of f(x) as x approaches 1. Or, making use of the extended

real number line we may write f(1) = ∞

x ε S where S = { x ε R | 0 ≤ x < 1}, we may then state that f

maps S into T = { y ε R | 0 ≤ y < ∞ } or f:S==> T.

diameter of 1, into the set T with an infinite diameter.

f’(x) = -(1/(x-1)2)

hand limit of f’(x) as x approaches 1. It can be easily shown

that f’(x) ≠ 0 in S and so by the Inverse Function Theorem f(x)

has a differentiable inverse function. So f(x) is a

homeomorphism and therefore S and T are topologically equivalent

since f:S==> T is a homeomorphism

literature also discusses the topological equivalence of all

open intervals in R with the set of real numbers R itself

(Palmieri, p.2)

should so choose, God could create finite representations of

himself and all such finite representations would be

topologically equivalent to God himself.

of his Spirit to reside in a finite volume of plasma (the fourth

state of matter) that had the ability to move with a velocity of

anywhere from zero to nearly the speed of light. For simplicity

we will assume that that velocity was constant during the time

intervals associated with our discussion.

We will also utilize the concept of proper time (from the Theory

of Special Relativity) to characterize the time in a frame of

reference, associated with the Spirit of God, moving with a

constant velocity with respect to a fixed reference point (on

earth). The formula for proper time, as the reader will recall,

may be obtained from the Lorentz Transformation and is a central

concept in the Theory of Special Relativity. We will return to

this concept later.

measurements that will be used in our analysis. Each frame of

reference, in this introductory analysis, will be assumed to

have only one spatial dimension. From the scriptures (Psalms

90:4, KJV) we learn that “For a thousand years in thy sight are

but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night”.

This is equivalent to stating that a thousand years (in the

temporal reference frame of man) are but a DAY from the

viewpoint of (a finite representation of) God. We of course are

aware of the fact that the men of today cannot personally

experience a time span of much over a hundred years. But man

does use instrumentation to estimate and speculate on the

passage of large intervals of time.

of God and man as follows: 365,000 years to man is only one YEAR

to God. We can formalize these concepts in the following manner:

t = 365,000*t’ eq.(1)

observer situated in a fixed frame of reference (designated

by O) on earth. And t’ denotes the time (in YEARS) measured by

(a finite representation of) God with respect to a fixed frame

of reference O’ whose origin coincides with that of the fixed

frame of reference O. It is easy to see that if t’ = 1 YEAR

then t = 365,000 years. Therefore it is clear that

frame of reference of man, we also have

365 DAYS = 1 YEAR

representation of) God. And also, as would be expected,

1 DAY = (1/365)*YEAR

A temporal measure

usually involves a tempo

associated with something moving

to and fro.

But an expo as in exponential

has much growth potential

because it does nothing but grow.

example a map may be drawn to a scale of one inch to 50 miles. A

two hour long motion picture documentary, for example, may

(attempt to) recap the essential developments of a historical

episode (World War II for example) that was 5 years in length.

representation of God, working at a given locale on earth, is

able to do in only one day, the work that it would take a large

successive contingent of men, working one after another, one

thousand years to do. For example, a father working on a solo

basis on a given project could turn it over to his son after 40

years. Then the son could work solo for forty years and then

turn it over to his son...and so on until a thousand years have

transpired. Then the accumulated value of all of their work

(over the thousand year period) would be equal in value to the

work that God could do in only one day (as measured by man).

to) could create an “nth order” finite representation of himself

in which (1000)^n years to man would be only one Day(n) to the nth

order finite representation of God: where n is any positive

integer greater than or equal to 1. So then eq.(1) applies to

the case for n = 1 or a first order finite representation of

God. Hereafter we will restrict our attention to the case when

n=1 and we will also use the terms God and “finite

representation of God” interchangeably.

Now let t’’ denote the proper time of the “Spirit of God” (as

measured at the origin of a frame of reference O’’). We assume

that the origin of the O’’ frame of reference is moving along

the spatial coordinate axis of the O frame of reference with a

constant speed v. We then may write

the Spirit of God. In accordance with the usual conven-

tion, we may set c= 1 for convenience. We then obtain

algebraic form as the standard equation, given for

proper time, in the Theory of Special Relativity.

t’ = t/365,000 eq.(2b.1)

square root we will obtain

According to the Book of Genesis God created the heaven and the

earth in 6 DAYS (with respect to the frame of reference of the

Spirit of God). We have

the Spirit of God, equal to this value.

man.

Now let us suppose that a human - like observer was stationed at

the origin, of the fixed frame of reference O referred to above,

immediately after formation of the earth in accordance with the

time lines associated with the Big Bang Theory. Let us suppose

further that our observer had at his disposal

1) the use of all types of modern instrumentation and techniques

for the estimation and the measurement of time and

2) all of the theoretical tools associated with cosmological

theories such as the Lambda-CDM Concordance Model and the

Nebular Hypothesis. Then he would be expected to measure the

elapsed time t since the Big Bang as being equal to 9.15B years.

We will therefore write

t = 9,150,000,000 years

note that the sum of the digits of 25068 is

25068 ==> 2 + 5 + 0 + 6 + 8 = 21

be 26,000 ± 1400 light years away from (the center of) the sun

(Ref.W#2, P.1). It is an amazing co-incidence that eq.(2b.1),

with t = 9,150,000,000 years, will result in a number of

years (as measured in the O’ frame as t’ = 25068 years)

that closely approximates the number of years that it takes for

light to travel from near the center of the Milky Way galaxy to

the vicinity of the sun!

value of the absolute value |v| of the velocity v, that

corresponds to those time values of t and t’’. The reader will

recall that eq.(3) was obtained from the formula for proper

time. After a careful calculation we arrive at |v| = 0.9709 or

|v| = 0.971

when rounded to three decimal places. Please note that c = 1.000

is the speed of light (in vacuum). We will denote this special

value of velocity by a special symbol vE. So we have

The following passage, “And God saw the light, that it was

good...”, from Genesis 1:4, indicates that God can act as an

observer if he so chooses. The same applies to the Spirit of

God. Therefore if the Spirit of God were to travel at a rate

of 97.1% of the speed of light, then that Almighty Power, in

accordance with the laws of Special Relativity (which were

activated by God himself) will measure an elapsed time of 6 DAYS

= (6/365)YEARS, during the same temporal interval that a fixed

earth bound time measuring device would measure an elapsed

time of 9,150,000,000 years.

Of course no such man made time measuring device exists but for

the sake of our discussion we will assume that it does.

of the exponential function, one of the most important functions

of mathematical physics, we will obtain

So we have

exp(1.02987) = 2.80

10*exp(1.02987) = 28.0

F(x) = x2 + 1

will play an important role in our later analysis but for now we

will evaluate F(x) = x2 + 1 for x = 28. We have

Now let s be the proper time of a God fearing human observer who

is moving with a constant velocity u with respect to the frame

of reference O that is fixed upon the earth. Let t be the

conventional time as measured by an observer at the origin of

the fixed frame of reference O. Then the proper time s (of the

moving observer) is given by

set c (the velocity of light) = 1.

moving observer is given by

observer to observe the 9.15 Billion years of

creation, from the Big Bang up to the formation of the

Solar System, in six “conventional” days, then how fast

would the human observer would have had to travel:

assuming (for this preliminary analysis) that his

velocity was constant?

After performing the indicated operations, we arrive at

constant speed indicated by eq.(3.1a) then he would

have measured (using the clock moving with him) six

days of elapsed time during the same space-time

interval in which a time measuring device, fixed on

earth, would have recorded an elapsed time of

9,150,000,000 years.

The digits, after the sequence of nines on the right side of eq.

(3.1a), are 8,3,8,6,2,1,9,0,6 and 9. The sum of these digits is

52, echoing the number of weeks in a year. The average of these

digits is 52/10 = 5.2. The average of the sequence of 9’s is of

course 9. We are therefore motivated to calculate the

ratio of 5.2 to 9.

We have 5.2/9 = 0.578 rounded to the nearest thousandth. It will

be noted that 1000*0.578 = 578 which is a just a transposition

of 758, a number that we have previously encounter.

of the number 785. Recall eq.(3d)

The fact that F(28) = 785 and 282 = 784 inspires us to perhaps

look in the Book of Numbers for a reference to 785 and/or 784.

Sure enough, passages that can be associated with 784 and 785

can be found in Numbers 7:84 & 7:85.

There are referenes to chargers of silver and bowls of silver.

From Numbers 7:85 we learn that “Each charger of silver weighing

an hundred and thirty shekels, each bowl seventy:...”

We therefore have

Now lets examine each of the numbers 1560 and 840 in their

relationship to the number 785. We note that

relation between 840, 10 and the digits, 7, 8 & 5.

840 = ((7*8*5)/10)*((7+8+5+10)

or

We also have

840 ==> 8 + 4 + 0 = 12

That is to say that the sum of the digits of both 1560 and 840

is 12: the number of the tribes of Israel. The number 12 also

refers to the number of chargers of silver and the number of

silver bowls in the scriptures cited.

numbers of silver and gold. The reader will recall from high

school chemistry that the symbols for the elements silver and

gold are respectively Ag and Au and that the respective atomic

numbers are 47 and 79. It will be observed that

number in the Torah) as a digit. The 4 (from 47) given by 22 = 4

and the 9 from 79 is given by 32 = 9. And 4 and 9 are the squares

of consecutive integers.

atomic number of gold: a very important metal.

numbers: 3/5 = 0.6. It is very interesting that

number of silver.

The three digits of 785 and the number 784 are related by the

following:

((7*8*5)/10)2 = 784

because

Now recall the 1560 shekels of silver and the 840 shekels of

silver referred to above. The ratio of 1560 to 840 to three

decimal places is

Note that the sequence of digits to the right of the decimal

point, 857, is just a transposition of the number 785. Note also

that 13, from the ratio 13/7,is the 7th entry in the Fibonacci

Sequence.

20 = 2.5*8 eq.(4b)

= 3.141592...

side of eq.(4a) as follows:

≈ 3.14 ==> 3 + 1 + 4 = 8

and 2.5 = 2.50 may be obtained from 2.499 by rounding off to the

nearest hundredth.

their most general expression in the form of sets of one or more

Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE’s) or Partial Differential

Equations (PDE’s). If the solution(s) to these equations,

subjected to the appropriate boundary conditions, exist and are

unique then the physical behavior of the system is described by

these solution(s). These equations are aptly referred to as

governing equations. Many examples of governing equations,

describing diverse sets of physical phenomena, may be readily

found in the literature.

sciences) is to discover a unified “Theory of Everything”. The

present author does believe that such a theory does indeed exist

and that man will make progress in moving in the direction of an

understanding of a finite version of such a theory. But a

thorough knowledge of the full and complete Theory of Everything

is frankly beyond the intellectual reach of man-kind: in the

opinion of the present author.

The reason for this belief is that such a complete theory would

possibly consist of a virtually infinite set of high order,

highly non-linear interlocking PDE’s (and or ODE’s) that involve

an unlimited number of dependent and independent variables. For

example, the n-body problem of celestial mechanics consists of a

relatively tame system of ODE’s. But if the n-body problem was

set up to apply to only every object in the Solar System, the

size of an asteroid or larger, then it would still involve an

intractable number of dependent variables: since each object

would have a triplet of spatial coordinates that are functions

of the time t. And this would be only a non-relativistic problem

restricted to the Solar System. But the Sun (the principal

constituent of the Solar System) is only one of a hundred

billion or so stars in the Milky Way. And the Milky Way, in

turn, is only one of a hundred billion or so galaxies!

which is much too extensive for

complete observation

at any one time or place.

Bless God for his infinite power

and might

and his knowledge of the truth

and the light

of all of the mysteries of time and

space.

RHB

terms? Well let us examine the meaning of the mean. The mean is

simply the average: an important concept in stats. The Universe

is an exceedingly large entity. Scientists have defined a large

number of variables to describe it. Since these variables vary

over a large range of values in space and time it is extremely

difficult to define them precisely as functions of the

fundamental variables of space and time. So sometimes the best

that science can do is to estimate or calculate the mean value

of the important cosmological and sociological variables. The

mean is particularly important in quantum mechanics.

We will defer an answer for the time being to the question posed

above. But we will pose another possibly related question: What

is the meaning of the set of all the mean values of all the

scientifically defined variables: including the variables

associate with plant, animal and human life? Could the answer to

this question have anything to do with the meaning of the

Universe: in strictly scientific terms?

but must they always be poles apart?

Can one carefully measure the real world

using his hands and his eyes

and the analytical tools

of the math of the wise

but dream of utopia in his heart?

and the birds make their homes in trees

and fill the air with musical sound.

The birds have wings and so they fly

taking majestically to the sky

from their habitats on the ground.

so who put him in command

so that he would be in control?

He who fashioned man from the dust

and the moisture of the clay

and lifted him up from where he lay

by breathing the breath of life into his soul.

God put man in control.

for he can’t put a storm on hold

or change the course of a hurricane.

But the seasons are the sons of the seas

and when the wind is not a gentle breeze

it may hurry to raise much cain.

who believe not in an evolutionary god

but in a God of gods who made it all.

And who deserves a full measure of praise

for his wonderful creative ways

throughout all the 4 seasons

of winter, spring, summer and fall.

system of PDE’s and/or ODE’s that describes the interactions of

every particle in the universe with every other particle. The

space-time coordinates, velocity, acceleration, the jerk and all

higher orders of motion, as well as the mass, momentum and the

energy, of every particle, are among the independent variables

and/or dependent variables associated with the system. The order

m (order of the highest derivative) and the degree n (which

indicates the level of non-linearity) of the system approaches

infinity as the predictive error of the system approaches zero.

The solution of the system is postulated to exist and to be

unique whenever a set of suitable auxiliary conditions are

specified. Such a solution set will determine the actions and

behavior of every particle in the Universe for all times (past

and present).

of all objects, whose mass and/or energy ranges all the way from

the quantum level to that of the cosmological scale, throughout

all time and space (of dimensions possibly higher than three).

of a governor. The abstract factuality of this should be readily

apparent. The existence of a unique Governing Equation of all

governing equations is assumed to be axiomatic. The existence of

a Governor of all governors is therefore then implied. We

further postulate the existence of a unique Supreme Being of all

of the Universe and topologically identify him with the Governor

of all governors.

of the Universe may be topologically identified with the set of

actions described by the above mentioned set of Governing

Equations. This Governing Equation may be considered to be the

Governing Equation of all governing equations. It is also

expressly postulated that the Supreme Being, in the exercise of

his infinite power and precision, is not restricted by the speed

of light in his movements nor by the Heisenberg Uncertainty

Principle in the precision of his observations and micro scale

manipulations. Nor does he have any difficulty in distinguishing

between sub-atomic “identical” particle that are

indistinguishable to human observers. The Supreme Being also has

the power to do an infinite number of calculations of multi-

variate polynomials and power series simultaneously and

instantaneously. He is not affected by any type of numerical

instabilities that are propagated by rounding or truncations

errors.

space and time, may activate finite representations of himself.

These finite representations may have differing levels of power

and are under the direct and exclusive control of the Supreme

Being.

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