A SUMMER TRAINING REPORT IN COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT BRAND OF JEANS ON GUESS, PEPE, DIESEL
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF REQUIREMENT OF BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ( B.B.A.) XXXXXXXXXXXXXX UNIVERSITY, XXXXXX
TRAINING SUPERVISOR XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX SUBMITTED BY GUNJAN
COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT BRANDS OF JEANS
Perseverance, inspiration and motivation have always played a key role in the success of any venture. Working on this project was a challenge and made us a bit filtery in the beginning. At this level of understanding, it is often difficult to understand a wide spectrum of knowledge without proper guidance and advice .hence, we take this opportunity to express our heart felt gratitude to MR. XXXXXXXXX, for his round o’clock enthusiastic support and commentaries which made this project successful, we are thankful to him for making impossible look easy for us. We also extend our sincere gratitude to MR. XXXXXXXXXXX, for his inspiration, encouragement and for the impetus obtained throughout the course of our project. Finally, we would to like to thanks XXXXXXXXXXX and all of XXXXXXXXXXXXX department, for their motivation and encouragement throughout our endeavor.
1. Executive Summary 2. Objective Of The Study 3. Research Methodology a. Type Of Data Collected b. Primary Sources c. Secondary Sources d. Sampling e. Sample Size f. Sampling Technique 4. Company Profile a. Diesel b. Pepe c. Guess 5. Comparison Between Product And Services a. Product Range b. Product Quality 6. Introduction a. Jeans b. Denim 7. Analysis Of Data Found From Customer Survey a. Questionnaires And Analysis Of Findings i. Section A ii. SectionB 8. Recommendation 9. Conclusion 10.Bibliography a. Web b. Books
THE fashion in India or world is now an industry. There are many player of this field of industry. This industry has many parts like designing, making, marketing, etc like other industries. Jeans is one of the outcomes of fashion industry. It is very popular in young generation due to ‘style”, “durability”, “rough useable”, and also for “comfort ness”. Here we studied some of the famous brands of jeans. This is a comparative study between them and a customer survey describing the tendency and choice of customer regarding the jeans. This report contains the comparative study between three famous brands “GUESS”, “PEPE”, “DIESEL” which manufacture the jeans. These three companies are the main player in this field on the world scenario. The world knows GUESS. Today, it is one of the most widely recognizable apparel companies across the globe, with over 747 GUESS and GUESS Accessory retail stores worldwide and counting. A company known for innovative style, GUESS continues to dress and accessorize the world with fashion-forward apparel, handbags, watches, shoes and more. “Our global store expansion is possible due to the strength of our brand and our licensee relationships. We have long-term relationships with them because we provide a strong brand, marketing and advertising worldwide, consistent image, clear direction for product, a true global strategy and multiple retail concepts, including GUESS stores, Marciano stores, accessories-only stores and our G by GUESS stores.” -Paul Marciano In 2006, GUESS celebrated its 25th anniversary. It is with the same enthusiasm and passion from the beginning that drives the company forward today. One world. One brand.
Pepe Jeans is one of the fastest growing denim and casual wear brands in Europe. The brand has a presence in several countries around the world. Pepe Jeans were launched in India in 1989 and has expanded immensely since then. Pepe Jeans London was established in the chic Portobello Road area of London in 1973. From its origins as a tiny market stall to more than half a US $billion dollar denim and casual wear brand, Pepe has transformed itself to one of the fastest growing jeans-wear labels in Europe. The brand today has presence in more than 80 countries across the world. Pepe Jeans was launched in India in 1989. The brand is currently the leading player in the premium jeans and casual wear segment, enjoying a market share of more than 25 percent. Diesel S.p.A. is an Italian design company. It is best known for clothing aimed at the youth market, particularly jeans, but the brand can now be found on everything from wristwatches to perfume. The company is owned by its founder Renzo Rosso, and is based in Molvena in northern Italy. The company was founded by Renzo Rosso and his former boss Adriano Goldschmied of the AG Jeans company, in 1978. Diesel's milestone years include 1985 (Renzo's complete acquisition of the company), 1988 the hiring straight out of fashion college of current head designer and Creative Director Wilbert Das, 1991 (beginning of the international marketing strategy) and 1996 (opening of Diesel's first flagship store on New York City's Lexington Avenue). In February 2007, the company launched a major intimates and beachwear division for men and women that is carried in the retail and department stores. Diesel Black Gold was announced in November 2007.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
In this project our main objectives are 1. To study about the jeans in the present scenario of the fashion world 2. to study about the tendency and choice of the customer regarding jeans 3. to select three most famous jeans manufacturers. 4. to study about these companies. 5. to compare these companies in the scenario of customer choice, brand value, customer satisfaction, and market. 6. to lay down all the study in this project for better convenience of study, by displaying the tables, charts and survey in a well managed manner.
A Research Design is the framework or plan for a study which is used as a guide in collecting and analyzing the data collected. It is the blue print that is followed in completing the study. The basic objective of research cannot be attained without a proper research design. It specifies the methods and procedures for acquiring the information needed to conduct the research effectively. It is the overall operational pattern of the project that stipulates what information needs to be collected, from which sources and by what methods. TYPE OF DATA COLLECTED There are two types of data used. They are primary and secondary data. Primary data is defined as data that is collected from original sources for a specific purpose. Secondary data is data collected from indirect sources. (Source: Research Methodology, By C. R. Kothari) PRIMARY SOURCES These include the survey or questionnaire method, telephonic interview as well as the personal interview methods of data collection. SECONDARY SOURCES These include books, the internet, company brochures, product brochures, the company website, competitor’s websites etc, newspaper articles etc. SAMPLING Sampling refers to the method of selecting a sample from a given universe with a view to draw conclusions about that universe. A sample is a representative of the universe selected for study. SAMPLE SIZE
The sample size for the survey conducted was 35 respondents. This sample size was taken on 95% confidence level and 6 significant level. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Random sampling technique was used in the survey conducted
COMPANY PROFILE DIESEL
Diesel S.p.A. is an Italian design company. It is best known for clothing aimed at the youth market, particularly jeans, but the brand can now be found on everything from wristwatches to perfume. The company is owned by its founder Renzo Rosso, and is based in Molvena in northern Italy. History The company was founded by Renzo Rosso and his former boss Adriano Goldschmied of the AG Jeans company, in 1978. Diesel's milestone years include 1985 (Renzo's complete acquisition of the company), 1988 the hiring straight out of fashion college of current head designer and Creative Director Wilbert Das, 1991 (beginning of the international marketing strategy) and 1996 (opening of Diesel's first flagship store on New York City's Lexington Avenue). In February 2007, the company launched a major intimates and beachwear division for men and women that is carried in the retail and department stores. Diesel Black Gold was announced in November 2007.
The company has around 3,500 employees in 17 subsidiaries across Europe, Asia and the Americas. Its products are available in 5000 retail outlets, of which 300 are Diesel-branded stores. 200 of these are owned by the company, the rest are franchised. Annual sales were approximately €1.2 billion in 2005 and largely consist of denim sales, but also extremely successful and influential ranges of accessories and children's wear. Most of Diesel's current production is outsourced to small and medium-sized companies. Production of denim jeans is based mainly in Italy. Brands All Diesel collections, including licensed products, are made under the Creative Direction of Wilbert Das. The principal lines are Diesel, the main line, and Diesel Black Gold, a new collection launched in 2007 in the casual-luxury segment. The children's collection is called Diesel Kid. Diesel Denim Gallery offers limited edition denim sold in innovative art-gallery-like spaces. Diesel also offers collections of footwear, intimate (underwear), and bags. Diesel's licensed collections are eyewear (made with Safilo), jewelry and watches (Fossil), and fragrances (L'Oréal). L'Oreal and Diesel launched Fuel for Life (for him and for her) in the fall of 2007. A mini-collection for Adidas was launched in 2008 called Adidas Originals Denim by Diesel. The underwear license is held by the US company Mast Industries Inc., who also make lingerie for Victoria's Secret. Creative Direction Diesel's Creative Director and head designer is Wilbert Das who has worked for Diesel since 1988. Wilbert started as a designer on the Male, Accessories, Leather, and Kids lines. He rose quickly to head the style office and creative areas of Diesel, and in 1993 was given the official title of Creative Director, with responsibilities ranging from directing all product design as well as all communication campaigns. From clothing & accessory design to advertising, new media, merchandising, retail & interior design (including stores, showrooms, offices, hotels), planning of fashion shows & events, as well as
developing new brand extensions such as houseware, furniture and even automobiles. Literally all aspects of the Diesel brand’s style and image continue to fall under Wilbert’s responsibility. Marketing In recent years the company has driven its attention to endorsing young creativity by sponsoring the youth market, by sponsoring several projects such as the Diesel-U-Music Contest or the Diesel Wall artistic programme. Diesel has been the founding partner of International Talent Support in its various forms. Diesel has also offered sponsorship and creative contribution to the 2006 edition of Vienna'sLife Ball AIDS charity, as well as the Sundance Film Festival. Diesel's innovative approach to marketing has let it to be perhaps the first clothing company to market their clothing in video games, and has developed innovative approaches to fashion shows
Pepe Jeans is one of the fastest growing denim and casual wear brands in Europe. The brand has a presence in several countries around the world. Pepe Jeans were launched in India in 1989 and has expanded immensely since then.
Pepe Jeans London
Pepe Jeans London was established in the chic Portobello Road area of London in 1973. From its origins as a tiny market stall to more than half a US $billion dollar denim and casual wear brand, Pepe has transformed itself to one of the fastest growing jeans-wear labels in Europe.
The brand today has presence in more than 80 countries across the world. Pepe Jeans was launched in India in 1989. The brand is currently the leading player in the premium jeans and casual wear segment, enjoying a market share of more than 25 percent. Pepe Jeans is a well known jeans brand. It has sales in over 60 places around the world. Pepe Jeans was originally just a small market on the Portobello road located in West London. The brand was named Pepe, because it was a short word that could be written without much trouble. The supermodel Kate Moss’s first advertising campaign was for Pepe Jeans. The brand was setup by three brothers in 1973. The manufacturing of jeans is done from start to finish by Pepe Jeans Company. The process includes blending of cotton and turning it into web of fibers in the process called Carding. The yarn is then made stronger by spinning it. The dyes used are mostly sulphur and indigos; finally beaming, weaving and last finishing are done and jeans are available to be sold and exported. The unique solutions for apparel and footwear manufacturing, called Styleman are used by Pepe Jeans. Pepe Jeans are known for their diverse apparel collections. They have the Utilitarian collection which comprises of fashion apparel with military attire elements imbibed in it. They vary in colors from green, khakis, grays, tans and olives and have other features like multiple pockets and loose fashion silhouettes. Pepe Jeans contribute to both man and women’s wardrobe by their wide collection of trendy Tshirts, shorts, pants, Jerseys and skirts. The shirts have colored checks and highlighted stripes. The Pepe clothing sports tones of red, yellow, pink, lime and green and some have hand embroidered details. Pepe Jeans host many fashion shows and advertising campaigns and sign many famous models and sports personalities. Pepe Jeans introduced art exhibitions in their birth place- Portobello Road, London. They exhibit the work of local artists as well as international ones.
Pepe Jeans History 1973: Established as weekend road side stall by three brothers Nitin Shah, Arun Shah and Milan Shah. Their shop was located at Portabello Road Market, West London. Before the brand began Nitin Shah worked for a petrol station and was spotted by a man named Shantilal Parmar who ran a jeanswear business. Shantilal Parmar took Nitin Shah on from the petrol station to work for him as a commissioned agent selling jeans. From these begingings and learning all about the jeanswear industry, fabrics, stitching, washes, packaging and marketing from Shantilal, Nitin and his three brothers started there own company Sholemay Ltd trading as Pepe Jeans. Ultimately Shantilal Parmar company manufactured jeans for the three brothers which they sold on the stalls and to other retailers whom they knew.
1975: Number of market stalls grew to 4. This also included Kensington Market, which housed many other denim sellers many of which also became well know jeanswear wholesalers. Due to the fact that Pepe was growing bigger it was necessary to open a boutique at Kings Road, London than a boutique on Carnaby Street followed and latter a warehouse and offices in Avonmore Trading Estate.
In the 80's the brand grew even more and it became one of Europe's best clothing brands. Famous bands like The Smiths made campaigns for the brand. 1973 Established as weekend road side stall by three brothers Nitin Shah, Arun Shah and Milan Shah. Their shop was located at Portobello Road Market, West London. Before the brand began Nitin Shah worked for a petrol station and was spotted by a man named Shantilal Parmar who ran a jeanswear business. Shantilal Parmar took Nitin Shah on from the petrol station to work for him as a commissioned agent selling jeans. From these beginnings and learning all about the jeanswear industry, fabrics, stitching, washes, packaging and marketing from Shantilal, Nitin and his three brothers started their own company Sholemay Ltd trading as Pepe Jeans. Ultimately Shantilal Parmar company manufactured jeans for the three brothers which they sold on the stalls and to other retailers whom they knew. 1975 Number of market stalls grew to 4. This also included Kensington Market, which housed many other denim sellers many of which also became well know jeanswear wholesalers. Due to the fact that Pepe was growing bigger it was necessary to open a boutique at Kings Road, London. Then a boutique on Carnaby Street followed and later a warehouse and offices in Avonmore Trading Estate. 1980s In the 80s the brand grew even more and it became one of Europe's best clothing brands. The song How Soon is Now? by The Smiths was used to advertise the brand in 1988. 1992 Current Pepe jeans logo is introduced.
GUESS COMPANY PROFILE GUESS
Guess, (styled as GUESS?) is an American name-brand clothing line. It is known for its sexualized advertising campaigns, which have featured explicit black-and-white photographs of fashion models and actresses such as Claudia Schiffer, Valeria Mazza, Adriana Lima, Drew Barrymore, Anna Nicole Smith, Paris Hilton and Jordan. Guess also markets other fashion accessories besides clothes, such as watches and jewelry. They also own the line Marciano. Claudia Schiffer, Anna Nicole Smith and Drew Barrymore are Guess models. History The beginning Guess was founded by Georges, Armand, Paul, and Maurice Marciano, four brothers born in Ouarzazate Morocco but who supposedly grew up in the south of France and were influenced by the culture and style in the region. They moved to California in 1977 and founded the company in 1981. Seed money to start the business came from the Nakash family, owners of the Jordache denim empire. Their first product was a three-zipper style of jeans they named "Marilyn" (Style # 1015). Department stores and fashion critics were initially reluctant to carry the new 'stone washed denim' jeans, but in December when Bloomingdale's finally agreed with Georges to stock two dozen pairs of the new jeans as a favor to the brothers. They sold out quickly. Their advertising campaigns began in 1982, and they introduced their iconic black-and-white ads in 1985. The ads have won numerous Clio Awards. Their fashion models have included a number of widelyrecognized supermodels, many of whom first achieved prominence via the ad campaigns. Guess models have included:
Alessandra Ambrosio Valeria Avdeyeva
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Diora Baird Bianca Balti Ana Beatriz Barros Patricia Barros Drew Barrymore Sasha Beznosyuk Toshauna Boake Lauren Bowles Chris Brown Carla Bruni Naomi Campbell Karen Carreno Laetitia Casta Laryssa Castro Chanel Celaya Shannan Click Bree Conden Ksenia Deshtchekina Rhea Durham Lonneke Engel Megan Ewing Roxana Filip
In the 1985 Spielberg movie "Back to the Future", Marty McFly (Michael J Fox) - wore distinctive Guess denim clothing, rumored to have been designed specially for the movie. During the 1980s Guess was one of the most popular brands of jeans. The company was one of the first companies to create designer jeans. While the first jeans were for women, in 1983 a men's line debuted. In 1984 Guess introduced its new line of watches known as "Guess", "Guess Steel", and "Guess Collection (Gc)." The watch line is still in existence today, and has been joined by a number of other accessory sidelines. In 1984, they also introduced a line of baby's clothes, called "Baby Guess". In the 1990's, they also had a division called Guess Home, which featured bedding collections and a number of towel collections. By
the end of the decade, sales dropped and Guess discontinued their home division. Stagnation and Controversy After Abigail's line in the 1980s the company began to take a downturn during the nineties, as other companies such as Calvin Klein, Diesel, Tommy Hilfiger, and Gap began rising in popularity. Guess's sales suffered, and its stock dropped dramatically. As well as increasing competition, Guess also saw a serious tarnishing of its image during this time. More significantly, as awareness of sweatshop use among major corporations grew, Guess was quickly marked as a major offender in this area. In 1992, Guess contractors faced litigation from the US Department of Labor (DOL) due to failure to pay their employees the minimum wage or adequate overtime. Rather than face a court case, $573,000 in back wages was paid to employees. Soon afterward, Guess promised to monitor their contractors for illegal activity, and the company earned a place on the US DOL's 'Trendsetters List', but this position was suspended several years later in 1996 after independent inspectors found violations of regulations at seven of the company's contractors. In the same year the company was sued by the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE), again because of failure to pay the minimum wage or overtime to workers. The settlement, supervised by the US Department of Labor, saw the reinstatement of 8 workers found to have been illegally fired and another $80,000 in back pay given to workers, but almost immediately afterward Guess announced that it was moving its sewing production to Mexico. The company denied that the move was related to these court cases, but its public image continued to suffer. Throughout the nineties, UNITE continued a public relations campaign against Guess, focusing on the experiences of former employees. Eventually, Guess countered with a defamation suit against Unite and several of its officials, while in 1997 the company ran full-page ads in many major American newspapers claiming that
its contractors were 'guaranteed 100% free of sweatshop labour'. The wording of these ads was changed after federal authorities complained that the claims had not been made by anyone in the government and had no official status. While Guess saw its image severely tarnished in the United States, the company still remained fairly profitable. Guess especially began expanding in the less competitive and increasingly lucrative European and Japanese markets. In 2005 Guess pulled a line of t-shirts from the market after Stanford’s Colombian residents called for a boycott of the company. "Ski Colombia: Always Plenty of Fresh Powder" was designed on the tshirts released by the company in the second quarter of 2005 -referencing to Colombia's drug-trafficking problem. Guess sent apology letters to all those who implied the company was setting a negative image of the country, however the letters seemingly left those still unsatisfied. Upswing In the 2000s, the company promoted a different look and sense of style, while the controversy that surrounded the company during the nineties was largely forgotten. As the marketing ads grew increasingly sexier, Guess's sales began to take a turn for the better. In 2005, Guess began catching the eye of many new people (mainly teens) who were unaware of Guess's earlier history. Since mid-2003, the Guess stock has continuously risen, eliciting nothing by positive reviews from stock holders and Wall Street, though the wider community has more mixed opinions. Recently, the clothing and accessories company has redesigned itself, offering several new aspects to the company. Since Guess was looking to make its impact once again on the fashion market, the Marciano brothers called upon hotel heiress and fashion mogul Paris Hilton to feature in a new series of ads. The daring ads were successful in grabbing media attention for the company. The company even promoted a line of Paris accessories including a Guess Paris Hilton handbag.
Today In 2004, Guess celebrated the 20th anniversary of its watch collection, issuing a special-edition Guess watch. The accessories department was also greatly expanded and several stores across the United States were redesigned. Guess also created a lower priced collection sold exclusively through its outlet locations. Guess also introduced its first brand extension, the up-scale female line of clothing and accessories, named Marciano. The line features pricey, runway-inspired styles, and is featured in several retail locations throughout the world, as well as select Guess retail stores. In 2005 Guess began marketing perfume. The company introduced Guess for Women in the spring of 2005. Guess introduced the Guess for Men line in the spring of 2006. Guess has also continued its Guess Kids clothing line into the 2000s, and in 2006, Guess began promoting the clothing line for girls and boys through its factory retail stores. Guess continues to be guided by the Marciano brothers, as cochairmen and co-CEOs. Maurice has overseen the design and its sales growth, while Paul manages the image and advertising. The company operates in many countries around the world with the majority of their stores located in the United States and Canada. In early 2007 Guess introduced a new business concept known as G by Guess. The new brand sought to focus on a target audience similar to Abercrombie's Hollister brand. G by Guess offers chic clothing, popular among teenagers at an affordable price. Many denim styles are priced within the $40 to $50 range. The new brand is priced similar to Express, American Eagle and Gap. Guess? has already begun heavily promoting the new concept is several cities across the United States. Their stores feature eye-catching displays and offer a sassy night-club atmosphere. Around the same time, Guess? disabled their Guess Factory website. The outlet website offered similar styles at similar prices as the G by Guess line. The company's factory stores will still remain open at their
respective outlet mall locations, however the discount product is no longer available through an online retailer. Expansion In October 2006 Guess expanded their shoe line by re-introducing men's shoes. Guess pulled the men's shoe collection from their establishment back in 2003 due to lackluster sales and interest. The initial response was slow, however by early 2007, the new men's footwear line began to increase steadily, and Guess? has continued to push and introduce new designs into the line. The men's footwear line now offers more than 15 styles ranging between sandals to dress shoes. The pricing for the footwear varies between $49, and $140. In November 2006 Guess introduced their Marciano men's line, which is available exclusively through Guess.com, and select Guess and Marciano retailers throughout the country. As of November, 2006 the new men's collection features button up shirts, blazers, and dress pants. The men's line will, like the women's line, be developed and manufactured in Florence, Italy; and will be available for a higher price. As of January, 2007 the Marciano men's line was pulled from Guess? stores due to lackluster sales. The merchandise was marked down, and will be sent to factory outlet stores upon deletion. After the success of the fragrance line which included scents for both men and women, Guess? introduced two new fragrances. Guess? Gold is the latest addition to the women's collection, while Guess? Suede was the second installment for the men's fragrance. Both scents retail for around $50 and are available in several retail locations. With fiscal Spring 2007, Guess entered a new phase with their GC watch collection. The newest additions are in response to the growing demand for designer watches featuring eye-catching designs, and high-end prices. The new watches help to expand the popular GC collection, and help to separate it from the mid-price watches Guess has come to be known for. Moving away from the traditional steel material used to produce the majority of Guess? watches, the company along with Callanen International, the producer of Guess? watches have introduced gold, silver, and diamonds into the designs.
The new products are all Swiss made, and boast a much higher pricer. The GC men's collection now range between $200 and $1,200, while the women's watches are being sold between $200 and $1,000. TAG Heuer, Dolce & Gabbana, and Fendi all place the highest on Guess's competition with entry level high-end watches. D&G, in late 2006 launched a massive campaign promoting their new D&G watch collection, marketing on such TV channels as MTV. During the first half of 2007 Guess introduced a new line G by Guess. Throughout 2008, relatively unknown model Adam Bertrand is set to headline Guess' advertising campaigns. Criticism Guess?, like many other clothing giants, is heavily criticised for its use of clothings made in sweatshops. Many, including band Rage Against the Machine and other bands, celebrities, and human rights activists, have criticised Guess? for its sweatshop labor. Billboards subsequently appeared in Las Vegas and New York featuring a photograph of Rage Against the Machine with the caption "Rage Against Sweatshops: We Don't Wear Guess? – A Message from Rage Against The Machine and UNITE.
COMPARISON BETWEEN PRODUCT AND SERVICES Product range
s/l Feature 1 2 Cost range (Rs) colour Blue Black White Grey fit Loose Tight Butt cut Gender/Age Male Fe-m Kid Pepe Guess Diesel
1200-4000 1000-5000 2400-10000 x x x
s/l Quality 1 2 3 4 5 Life cycle (months) Colour fade Zipper type Zipper life Comfort Pepe 8 – 12 No Premium brass Un breakable Good Guess 7 - 12 No Premium brass Un breakable Good Diesel 10 -16 No Premium brass Un breakable Good
Jeans are pants made from denim. Mainly designed for work, they became popular among teenagers starting in the 1950s. Historic brands include Levi's and Wrangler. Today, jeans are a very popular form of casual dress around the world and come in many styles and
colors, with the "blue jeans" particularly identified with the American culture, especially the American Old West. Americans spent more than $14 billion on jeans in 2004. History Jeans fabric was made in Chieri, a town near Turin (Italy), in the 1600s. It was sold through the harbour of Genoa, which was the capital of an independent republic, and a naval power. The first were made for the Genoese Navy because it required all-purpose pants for its sailors that could be worn wet or dry, and whose legs could easily be rolled up to wear while swabbing the deck. These jeans would be laundered by dragging them in large mesh nets behind the ship, and the sea water would bleach them white. According to many people the jeans name comes from bleu de Gênes, i.e., blue of Genoa. The raw material originally came from the city of Nîmes (France) Serge de Nîmes i.e. denim. Riveted jeans A German-Jewish dry goods merchant Levi Strauss was selling blue jeans under the "Levi's" name to the mining communities of California in the 1850s. One of Strauss's customers was Jacob Davis, a tailor who frequently purchased bolts of cloth from the Levi Strauss & Co wholesale house. After one of Davis's customers kept purchasing cloth to reinforce torn pants, he had an idea to use copper rivets to reinforce the points of strain, such as on the pocket corners and at the top of the button fly. Davis did not have the required money to purchase a patent, so he wrote to Strauss suggesting that they both go into business together. After Strauss accepted Davis's offer, the two men received U.S. Patent 139,121 , for an "Improvement in Fastening Pocket-Openings," on May 20, 1873. In 1885 jeans could be purchased for $1.50. Today, some jeans cost $200 to $500 with limited-edition and collectibles costing up to $2000. Jeans in popular culture
Initially, blue jeans were simply sturdy trousers worn by workers, especially in the factories during World War II. During this period, men's jeans had the zipper down the front, whereas women's jeans had the zipper down the right side. By the 1960s, both men's and women's jeans had the zipper down the front. In the United States during the 1950s, wearing of blue jeans by teenagers and young adults became symbolic of mild protest against conformity. This was considered by some older adults as disruptive; for example, some movie theaters and restaurants refused to admit patrons who wore blue jeans. During the 1960s the wearing of blue jeans became more acceptable and by the 1970s had become general fashion in the United States, at least for informal wear. Notably, in the mid-1950s the denim and textiles industry was revolutionized by the introduction of the stone-washing technique by GWG (Great Western Garment Co.). Entrepreneur, importer, and noted eccentric Donald Freeland of Edmonton, Alberta pioneered the method, which helped to bring denim to a larger and more versatile market. Denim suddenly became an attractive product for all age groups and Freeland became one of the most important innovators in the history of denim and denim products. It should be noted, also, that Freeland contributed to a variety of other denim textile developments throughout his career with Great Western Garments (GWG) Acceptance of jeans continued through the 1980s and 1990s to the point where jeans are now a wardrobe staple, with the average North American owning seven pairs. As imported American products, jeans were somewhat expensive, especially in the case of the Soviet Union which restricted hard currency imports. In Spain they are known as vaqueros or "cowboys," in Danish cowboybukser meaning "cowboy pants" and in Chinese niuzaiku (SC: 牛仔裤), literally, "cowboy pants" (trousers), indicating their association with the American West, cowboy culture, and outdoors work. Similarly, the Hungarian name for jeans is "farmernadrág", meaning "farmer-trousers". Jeans can be worn very loose in a manner that completely conceals the shape of the wearer's lower body, or they can be snugly fitting and accentuate the body. Historic photographs indicate that in the decades before they became a staple of fashion, jeans generally fit quite
loosely, much like a pair of bib overalls without the bib. Indeed, until 1960, Levi Strauss denominated its flagship product "waist overalls" rather than "jeans". Blue jean insulation Recycled blue jean is becoming a popular insulation material (sometimes called Cotton Batt insulation) used in the construction of houses. Due to its low relative synthetic chemical composition and because it is made of recycled materials, it is gaining prominence in green building circles. Like conventional insulation, it moderates heat transfer and reduces sound transfer between floors or rooms. Blue Jean insulation has an R-Value of 13 to 19 (for 3.5 and 5.5 inch batts, respectively) making it a preferable insulator to typical fiberglass batts even without taking into account the environmental considerations
Denim is a rugged cotton twill textile, in which the weft passes under two (twi- "double") or more warp fibers. This produces the familiar diagonal ribbing identifiable on the reverse of the fabric, which distinguishes denim from cotton duck. Denim has been in American usage since the late eighteenth century. The word comes from the name of a sturdy fabric called serge, originally made in Nîmes, France, by the Andre family. Originally called serge de Nîmes, the name was soon shortened to denim. Denim was traditionally colored blue with indigo dye to make blue "jeans," though "jean" then denoted a different, lighter cotton textile; the contemporary use of jean comes from the French word for Genoa, Italy (Gênes), where the first denim trousers were made. A similarly woven traditional American cotton textile is the diagonal warp-striped hickory cloth that was once associated with railroadmen's overalls, in which blue or black contrasting with undyed white threads form the woven pattern. Hickory cloth was characterized as being as rugged as hickory wood—not to mention the fact that it was deemed to be worn mainly by "hicks"—although neither may be the origin of that term [from a nickname for "Richard"]. Records of a group of New Yorkers headed for the California gold fields in 1849 show that they took along four "hickory shirts" apiece. Hickory cloth would later furnish the material for some "fatigue" pantaloons and shirts in the American Civil War. The word dungarees, to identify heavy cotton pants such as overalls, can be traced to a thick cotton country-made cloth, Dongari Kapar, which was sold in the quarter contiguous to the Dongari Killa, the fort of what was then known as Bombay (Hobson Johnson Dictionary). The word entered English with just this meaning in 1696 (OED). Dongri Fort was rebuilt in 1769 as Fort George, Bombay, where the first cotton mill was established in 1854. Dyed in indigo, the traditional cloth was used by Portuguese sailors and cut wide so that the legs could be swiftly rolled up when necessary. Thus, dungarees have a separate history.
Dry denim Dry or raw denim, as opposed to washed denim, is a denim fabric that is not washed after being dyed during its production. Over time, denim will generally fade, which is often considered desirable. Most denim is washed after being crafted into an article of clothing in order to make it softer and to eliminate any shrinkage which could cause an item to not fit after the owner washes it. In addition to being washed, non-dry denim is sometimes artificially "distressed" to achieve a worn-in look. Much of the appeal of dry denim lies in the fact that with time the fabric will fade in a manner similar to factory distressed denim. With dry denim, however, such fading is affected by the body of the person who wears the jeans and the activities of their daily life. This creates what many enthusiasts feel to be a more natural, unique look than predistressed denim. To facilitate the natural distressing process, some wearers of dry denim will often abstain from washing their jeans for more than six months, though it is not a necessity for fading. Often, enthusiasts will just hang their unwashed denim to help get rid of the smell. Selvage denim Selvage denim (also called selvedge denim) is a type of denim which forms a clean natural edge that does not unravel. It is commonly presented in the unwashed or raw state. Typically, the selvage edges will be located along the out-seam of the pants, making it visible when cuffs are worn. Although selvage denim is not completely synonymous with unwashed denim, the presence of selvage typically implies that the denim used is a higher quality. The word "selvage" comes from the phrase "self-edge", the natural edge of a roll of fabric. In this case,denim made on old-style shuttle looms. These looms weave fabric with one continuous cross thread (theweft) that is passed back and forth all the way down the length of
the bolt. As the weft loops back into the edge of the denim it creates this “self-edge” or Selvage. Selvage is desirable because the edge can’t fray like lower grade denims that have separate wefts which leave an open edge that must be stitched. Shuttle looming is a more time-consuming weaving process that produces denim of a tighter weave resulting in a heavier weight fabric that lasts. Shuttle looms weave a more narrow piece of fabric, and thus a longer piece of fabric is required to make a pair of jeans (approximately 3 yards). To maximize yield, traditional jean makers use the fabric all the way to the selvage edge. When the cuff is turned up the two selvage edges, where the denim is sewn together, can be seen. The selvage edge is usually stitched with colored thread: green, white, brown, yellow, and red (red is the most common). Fabric mills used these colors to differentiate between fabrics. Most selvage jeans today are dyed with synthetic indigo, but natural indigo dye is available in smaller niche denim labels. Loop dying machines feed a rope of cotton yarn through vats of indigo dye and then back out. The dye is allowed to oxidize before the next dip. Multiple dips create a deep dark indigo blue. In response to increased demand for jeans in the 1950's, American denim manufacturers replaced the old shuttle style looms with modern projectile looms. The new looms produced fabric faster and wider (60-inches or wider), yet lighter and less durable. Synthetic dyeing techniques along with post-dye treatments were introduced to control shrink and twist. Color Denim Denim Fabric Dyeing is divided into two categories; Indigo Dyeing and second is Sulphur Dyeing. Indigo Dyeing is traditional blue colors or shades similar to blue colors. Sulphur Dyeing (also called Color Denim) is done for specially black colors and other colors like Pink, Grey, Rust, Mustard, Green and Red
ANALYSIS OF DATA FOUND FROM CUSTOMER SURVEY Questionnaires and Analysis Of Findings
The survey was done on 35 people, 17 of them were girls and 18 were boys.
Section A 1. In what age group do you come under? a. 0-10 b. 10-20 c. 20-30 d. 30 and above Finding Table s/l 1 2 3 4 Age group 0-10 10-20 20-30 30 and above No of people 1 25 9 0
No of people 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0-10 1 20-Oct 2 20-30 3 30 and above 4 No of people
2. What is your occupation? a. Business man b. Government officer c. Salaried person d. Any other Findings Table s/l 1 2 3 4 Occupation No of people Business man 0 Government officer 0 Salaried person 10 Any other 25
No of people 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Government officer Any other Business man Salaried person
No of people
3. What is your monthly income? a. below 5000 b. 5000-10000 c. 10000-20000 d. 20000-30000 e. 30000 and above Findings Table s/l Monthly income 1 < 5000 2 5000-10000 3 10000-20000 4 20000-30000 5 30000 < Chart
No of people 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 < 5000 1 500010000 2 1000020000 3 2000030000 4 No of people
No of people 25 0 10 0 0
4. Do you like to do shopping? a. Yes b. No Findings Table s/l Answer No of people 1 Yes 27 2 No 8 Chart
No of people
No 2, 8 1 Yes 2 No Yes 1, 27
Section B 1. Which jeans brand do you prefer? a. Diesel b. Levis c. Guess d. Pepe e. Any other Findings Table s/l 1 2 3 4 5 Brand Percentage Diesel 15 Levis 40 Guess 3 Pepe 15 Any other 27
Percentage 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Diesel 1 Levis 2 Guess 3 Pepe 4
2. Which type of jeans do you prefer mostly? a. Branded b. Local c. No specific Findings Table s/l 1 2 3 Type Branded Local No specific Percentage 50 24 26
No specific 3, 26 Branded 1, 50 Local 2, 24 1 Branded 2 Local 3 No specific
3. How many different brands of jeans do you have? a. Two b. Three c. Five d. Seven e. More than seven Findings Table s/l 1 2 3 4 5 No of brands Percentage Two 26 Three 34 Five 26 Seven 10 More than seven 4
Percentage 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 34 26 26 Percentage 10 4 Two Three Five Seven More than seven 5
4. Why do you prefer a particular brand due to its? a. Price b. Quality c. Durability d. Famous name e. No specific Findings Table s/l 1 2 3 4 5 Causes Percentage Price 0 Quality 57 Durability 22 Famous name 11 No specific 10
Percentage 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 Durability Famous name No specific Quality Price 22 11 10 Percentage 57
5. What price range do you prefer for your jeans? a. 500-1000 b. 1000-2000 c. 2000-3000 d. 3000 and above Findings Table s/l 1 2 3 4 Price range Percentage 500-1000 10 1000-2000 52 2000-3000 10 3000 < 6
P ercentage 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 500-1000 1 1000-2000 2 2000-3000 3 3000 < 4 10 10 P ercentage 52
6. How your after sale is services of your company? a. Good b. Average c. Excellent d. Very good e. Can’t say Findings Table s/n 1 2 3 4 5 Service Percentage Good 40 Average 23 Excellent 27 Very good 9 Can’t say 1
Percentage 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 40 27 23 Percentage 9 1 Good 1 Average 2 Excellent Very good Can’t say 3 4 5
7. Why do you choose a particular company due to its? a. Company’s name b. Friend’s suggestion c. Family choice d. Any other Findings Table s/l 1 2 3 4 Cause Percentage Company’s name 55 Friend’s suggestion 10 Family choice 20 Any other 15
P erc entage 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Com pany ’s F riend’s F am ily c hoic eA ny other nam e s ugges tion 1 2 3 4 10 20 P erc entage 15 55
8. Do you like the promotional activities of your company? a. Yes b. No Findings Table s/l Answer Percentage 1 Yes 100 2 No 0 Chart
P erc entage
No 2 0% 1 Y es 2 No Y es 1 100%
9. At what time do you prefer to buy jeans? a. Discount sale b. Seasonal c. As per requirement d. Once in a month e. Quarterly f. Can’t say Findings Table s/l 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time Percentage Discount sale 10 Seasonal 10 As per requirement 60 Once in a month 3 Quarterly 2 Can’t say 15
Percentage 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 60
Perc entage 10 10 15 3 Once in a month As per requirement 2 Quarterly Can’t say 6
Discount sale 1
10.Which jeans colour do you generally buy? a. Blue b. Royal blue c. Black d. Grey e. No specific Findings Table s/l 1 2 3 4 5 Colour Percentage Blue 20 Royal blue 20 Black 33 Grey 2 No 35 specific
Percentage 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Blue 1 Royal blue 2 Black 3 Grey 4 No specific 5 2 20 20 Percentage 33 35
11.Do you prefer designer jeans? a. Yes b. No c. Both Findings Table s/l 1 2 3 Answer Percentage Yes 25 No 40 Both 35
25% 35% 1 Yes 2 No 3 Both
12.Are you satisfied with the service provided by your brand? a. Yes b. No Findings Table s/l Answer Percentage 1 Yes 100 2 No 0 Chart
1 Yes 2 No
Check list in buying the jeans
With the overwhelming selection of jeans out there, it’s no surprise that it can get pretty complicated when shopping for a pair. Jeans are a staple item in any woman’s wardrobe. You can dress them up with a sexy pair of heels or wear them with your favourite tee and running shoes. You want a pair that fit properly and look good at the same time. The colour, quality, cut and brand are all factors that you need to take into consideration when searching for the perfect jeans. THE RIGHT FIT “Jeans are all about how they fit and there is a perfect pair out there for everyone,”. Boyish Avoid fitted jeans, which can emphasize a straight silhouette. Instead, choose a pair that are pocketless or ones with a curved waistband to show-off your figure. Average Average figures may be more comfortable in a pair of classic-cut jeans. Full Figure Try a boot-cut style to balance out your proportions. Wide Hips To minimize wide hips, try a pair of jeans with diagonal seams or super-low rise ones. Steer clear of anything that’s tapered or high waisted. Short Legs Jeans with pinstripes or cuffed hems look great on women with shorter legs, and those with a larger bottom should choose a lowrise cut with back pockets. Large Thighs If you’re looking for more room in the thighs and calves, choose a style that doesn’t hug the body such as relaxed fit or boy-cut jeans. Jeans with a low waist, low pockets and a slight flare around the ankle also work well. The pant leg should not bunch up at
the ankle; the hem should stop at around the low midpoint of the back of your shoe. SHADES OF BLUE Choosing the ideal shade can be a little tricky. The great thing is that any shade will do as long as you wear it for the right occasion. Lighter shades of blue tend be more casual and dark jeans can be dressed up for a night out. Black jeans are still available but not as popular as they used to be. MATERIAL Most jeans are cotton but jeans with stretch have become all the rage for those seeking comfort. “Stretch denim provides a huge comfort level for anyone. They hug your body and move without you,” says We. The great thing about stretch jeans is that you can wear them tighter with feeling uncomfortable. Stretch eliminates a saggy seat and provides extra comfort and ease of movement. You’ll also find that the most popular jeans get reinvented into different material with exactly the same fit. The next time you fall in love with a particular pair of jeans, check to see if they make them in a different material such as stretch cord, because chances are you’ll be able to find them. TAKING CARE To keep your jeans looking their best, We suggests washing them inside out in cold water. “Many people tend to use a lot of detergent on their jeans and there’s no need for it. If you’re washing a pair of dark jeans, add a spoonful of salt to help preserve the colour.” STYLES AND TRENDS The style of jeans these days are going back to the basics. We says that many brands are manufacturing the classic 5-pocket jeans. “Jeans with whiskering (those with the creases around the front pockets) and sand-blasting (lighter colour around the thigh area) are not as stylish as they used to be.” The trend out there is cleaner, darker denim with a heavier weight. Low-rise flare jeans, which create a great silhouette, are still the latest thing. The up coming holiday season will see jeans
with a nautical theme, according to We. Anything with a low or medium- rise and flare or straight leg will continue to be stylish. Super-low rise jeans are great because they sit on your hips and work for many different body types; just be careful that you don’t expose too much. BRANDS With the many brands out there, you may need to try on many pairs to find the perfect fit. One brand to check out is G-Star. Finally here in Canada, G-Star offers the basic, classic denim we all love. If you’re looking for slimmer jeans, try on a pair of Miss Sixty. Citizens of Humanity are jeans with impeccable tailored lines that fit snug and flare at the bottom; perfect for everyday. For the most flattering jeans, pull on a pair of 7 for all Mankind or Paper Denim and Cloth. Other brands to look out for include Joie, True Religion, Mavi and Earl Jean. HISTORY During the famous California Gold Rush in the 19th Century, miners wanted clothes that were strong and did not wear out or tear easily. Jacob Davis, a tailor from Nevada, took metal rivets (fasteners) and sewed large pieces of denim together so that they wouldn’t tear, to make what we know today as jeans. Davis wanted to patent his idea but didn’t have the money to develop or market his creation. In 1872, he approached Levi Strauss who took his invention and started mass production. It wasn’t until the early 1930’s when actors began wearing jeans on the big screen that jeans became well-known. Jeans today have a huge market in the fashion industry with many different brands, styles and colours to suit anyone’s wardrobe.
Buying It Keep this in mind when shopping for that perfect pair of jeans.
Look for jeans that have at least a 2% Lycra content. This will give you a little stretch and ensure that your jeans hold their overall shape. • Remember that the label plays a part in the final price tag. • When you are in the change-room be sure to crouch and sit down. Make sure the jeans are comfortable to sit in and that they do not expose too much in the back. • Sizing varies greatly from brand to brand. Do not worry about the size on the tag – concern yourself with what feels comfortable and looks good. • Remember to find a retailer with a wide variety of jeans and try on at least a few different pairs. • Finally, buy your jeans a little bit snug – denim tends to stretch and give over time.
The study concludes the company profile of three main players of the jeans wear and a survey among customers about there tendencies. The main parts of the study are.
1. company profile a. Pepe jeans the most known brand among the young
age people. Affordable cost, wide range, best in quality and easy to find in market. b. Guess jeans a company which is very new for Indian market. But a wide range, affordable cost and good quality attracts the customer from middle class as well as higher class. c. Diesel a good known brand for India but cost matters here, so this premium quality product is most popular in higher class. 2. customer tendency a. 10 to 20 year young like it most b. Nearly 40 % market is occupied by these three brands c. Most people likes branded jeans d. Blue and black colours are most demanded e. Designer jeans are still behind the simple one for its comfort matter.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
www.google.com www.yahoo.com www.pepejeans.com www.guess.com www.diesel.com
Research methodology, a step by step guide for biginers—by Ranjan Kumar quality methods in management research – by Evert Marketing Management (10th Edition) Philip Kotler Marketing Management (3rd Edition) V.S. Ramaswamy Research Methodology (2nd Edition) C.R.Kothary Research Methodology S.P. Kasande
iii. iv. v. vi.