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DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH

All terms of English


PROPER AND COMMON NONS
Noun is a name of person, place, things, animals and ideas.
Proper Noun has two distinctive features.
Common Noun refers to general names for people, places and things.

COUNT AND MASS NOUNS


Count Nouns are nouns which can be counted.
Mass Nouns are uncountable.

ABSTRACT AND CONCRETE NOUNS


Abstract Nouns are intangible types of nouns.
Concrete Nouns are nouns that can be perceived by the senses.

GENDER OF NOUNS
Gender of Nouns there are four different genders of nouns; Masculine, Feminine,
Common, and neuter.

Masculine a noun that refers to male.


Feminine a noun that refers to female.
Common a noun that can be either male or female.
Neuter a noun that refers to any living or nonliving object or things.

Possessive Form of Nouns in showing the possessive form of nouns, an


apostrophe () and s are added at the end of a noun.

FUNCTIONS OF NOUNS
Subject it refers to the person, thing, place or idea that the sentence is talking
about.
Subject Complement it is a noun that comes after the linking verb and which
replaces or means the same thing as the subject.
Appositive it is a word or phrase that comes after the subject.
Direct Object it is a noun that directly receives the action of the verb.
Indirect Object it is a noun that indirectly receives the action of the verb.
Object of the preposition it is a noun that comes after the preposition in a
prepositional phrase.

KINDS OF PRONOUNS
Personal Pronouns it is a kind of pronoun that replaces the name of a person.
Demonstrative Pronouns describes a location or a position of a subject.
Interrogative Pronouns usually introduces a question.
Relative Pronouns is a pronoun which links back to its antecedent.
Indefinite Pronouns refers to one or more unspecified beings, objects, or places.
Reciprocal Pronouns expresses mutual actions or relationship.
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns refers back to the subject of the sentence
while an intensive pronoun emphasizes its antecedent, or the subject of the
sentence.
Pronoun Antecedent Agreement that pronouns function as a substitute for a
noun. The antecedent is the word to which the pronoun refers.
Pronoun Determiners is a pronoun in form that functions not as a substitute but
as a modifier.
KINDS OF VERBS
Verb is the part of speech that expresses an action or state of being.
Action Verb expresses a physical or mental action.
Linking Verb tells what the subject is or is like.
Helping Verb is a verb that helps the main verb tell about an action or make a
statement.

Different Forms of Verbs a verb has various form; the present, the present
participle, the past, and the past participle.

TRANSITIVE AND INTRASITIVE VERBS


Transitive Verb has a direct object.
Intransitive Verb does not have a direct object.

THE SIMPLE TENSES


Simple Past Tense expresses an action done in the past.
Simple Present Tense form of the verb expresses present action, habitual action,
facts, general or universal truths, and scheduled future events.
Simple Future Tense denotes an action that is yet to begin or an action that will
take place in the future.

PROGRESSIVE TENSES OF VERBS


Progressive Tense refers to action that is ongoing.
Past Progressive Tense denotes a continuing action in the past.
Present Progressive Tense denotes an ongoing or continuing action happening in
the moment.
Future Progressive Tense denotes a continuing action in the future.

PERFECT TENSES OF VERBS


Perfect Tense of Verbs indicates that in action was completed, finished, or
perfected at a certain period of time.
Past Perfect Tense indicates an action that started and ended in the past.
Present Perfect Tense indicates an action that was started in the past and
continues until the present.
Future Perfect Tense indicates an action that will be completed at a certain time
in the future.

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE


Active Voice the subject performs an action or acts upon the verb.
Passive Voice the subject is no longer active and it is instead being acted upon
by the verb.

Subject Verb Agreement the subject and the verb in a sentence are essential
elements in grammar.

ADJECTIVES
Adjective - is a word used to describe or modify a noun or a pronoun.
Descriptive Adjective answers the question what kind?
Limiting Adjective answers the following question: Which one?, Whose?,
How many?, How much?, What position in a series?.
Comparing Adjectives adjectives have three degrees of comparison; positive,
comparative, and superlative.
Order of Adjectives the proper order of adjectives are Determiner, Ordinal,
Cardinal, Size, Shape, Age, Color, Origin, Material, Qualifier or Purpose.

KINDS OF ADVERBS
Adverb modifies a verb, on adjective, or another adverb.
Adverb of Manner describes how something happens.
Adverb of Place tells where something happens.
Adverb of Time tells when something happens.
Adverb of Frequency tells how frequent or how often something happens.
Adverb of Degree tells the degree or extent to which something happens.

POSITION OF ADVERBS
Front before the subject.
Mid between the subject and the verb.
End after the verb or object.

DEGREE OF ADVERBS
Positive Degree is the base form of the adverb. In the positive degree, no
comparison is made.

SENTENCE PATTERNS
Subject + Intransitive Verb (S-IV) this sentence pattern includes the subject and
an intransitive verb.
Intransitive Verb does not require to receiver on the action.

Subject + Linking Verb + Complement (S-LV-C) this sentence pattern includes the
subject, a linking verb, and a complement.
Complement follows a linking verb and rename or describes the subject.

Subject + Transitive Verb + Direct Object (S-TV-DO) this sentence pattern


includes the subject, a transitive verb, and a direct object.
Direct Object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of the transitive
verb.

Subject + Transitive Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object (S-TV-IO-DO) this


sentence pattern includes the subject, a transitive verb, an indirect object, and a
direct object.
Indirect Object is a noun or pronoun that precedes the direct object and
tells to what or whom or for what or whom the action of the verb is done and
who is receiving the direct object.

Subject + Transitive Verb + Direct Object + Object Complement (S-TV-DO-OC) this


sentence pattern includes the subject, a transitive verb, a direct object, and an
object complement.
Object Complement is a noun, pronoun, or adjective that follows a direct
object and renames or describes it.

KINDS OF SENTENCES ACCORDING TO PURPOSE


Declarative Sentences is used to make a statement of fact, wish, intent or
feeling. This sentence and with a period (.).
Imperative Sentence is used to state a command or request. This sentence
usually ends with a period (.) or in some cases, an exclamation point (!).
Interrogative Sentence is used to ask question. It ends with a question mark (?).
Exclamatory Sentence is used to express a strong feeling or emotion. It ends
with an exclamatory (!).
KINDS OF CONJUNCTIONS
Conjunction is a word that connects, links, or relates clauses with each other.
Coordinating these conjunctions are used to join two or more words, phrases, or
independent clauses of equal grammatical construction.
Subordinating these conjunctions are used to join an independent clause to a
dependent clause.
Correlative these conjunction are used in pairs.

SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES


Simple Sentence has only one complete thought.
Compound Sentence consists of two or more independent clause and one or
more dependent clauses.

COMPLEX AND COMPOUND SENTENCES


Complex Sentence made up of one independent clause and one or more
dependent clauses.
Compound Complex Sentence contains two or more independent clauses and
one or more dependent clauses.