ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL

PERINGATAN: SALIN NOTA INI TERMASUK GAMBARAJAH (boleh photostat dari buku teks) GAMBAR FOTO TAK PERLU CETAK /LUKIS

INTRODUCTION Construction waste recycling is a process of separating and recycling waste material produced during construction, building renovation and demolition. A lot of this construction waste can be re-used. During renovation, all used brick, windows, doors and timbers can be recycled.

SOLID AND WASTE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL MANAGEMENT Construction and demolition contribute large proportion of waste which occupy large area of landfill. Therefore, recycling the waste can solve the critical shortage of landfill area we are facing nowadays. Demolition and construction waste sources include: 1.Waste arise from demolition of entire, or part of building and public infrastructure. 2.Waste arise from building and public infrastructure construction 3.Soil, stones and trees arise from site clearing, public work and foundation work. 4.Road construction material and related material arise from road maintenance activities.

Various type of waste sources

Crushed concrete

Crushed brick

Crushed tile

Crushed ceramic

Plywood and timber

Matel

Oil, paint & container

Construction waste

Construction waste

Re-use of construction material waste
With proper management technique, re-use of construction waste can reduce the need to dispose them. Among the steps to be taken are to: (a)Have an early planning (b)Systematically separating construction waste, and (c)Have good management of construction waste

Early planning
Among the approach that should be considered in early planning are as follows: ‡ Design preparation should be based on standard size, and material purchase should be made according to accurate measurement. ‡ The use of high quality material can help reduce wastage. ‡ Contact document specify standard bill of quantity which meet design, size, materials and dimension requirements. ‡ Identification of possible waste prior to any construction, demolition, or landscaping activities. ‡ Identification of waste that can be recycle. ‡ Place and organise construction waste appropriately.

Separation of construction waste
Among ways to separate construction waste are: ‡ Providing sufficient containers and dustbins for recycling. ‡ Identify types of waste containers and dustbins. Label should be clear. ‡ Train construction staff and workers to separate construction waste accordingly. ‡ Provide proper place to store and protect the construction waste from rain or sun

Construction site which is not properly managed

Management of construction waste
Management of construction waste can be seen as a way to ensure waste produced is properly managed and can be recycled

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

WASTE MANAGEMENT METHOD

Timber

‡ Whenever possible, specify building dimension according to standard timber size. ‡ Modify structure specification to optimise timber usage and reduce waste ‡ Store timber on top flat blocks with cover minimize timber bending and twisting ‡ Set aside cut timber and plywood which can be re-used ‡ Store clean timber sawdust to be used in composting pile or other usage ‡ Timber chunks can be sliced up and used as a material for fuel or fibre

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

WASTE MANAGEMENT METHOD

Wallboard

‡ Order wallboard in optimum dimension to minimise cutting waste ‡ Mortarboard can be obtained in variety of sizes. Design dimension should match the standard size. ‡ Excessive large of mortarboard can be re-used ‡ Re-use concrete blocks and old bricks which are still in good condition. ‡ Crush and re-use as ready-mix concrete aggregate, or road foundation and as building foundation layer. ‡ Estimate carefully to overcome wastage ‡ Collect, accumulate and cover bricks and other brickwork during construction to prevent them from getting dirty. ‡ Concrete blocks, old brick, crushed block and brickwork rubble can be buried on site during the filling of foundation work

Bricks and concrete

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

WASTE MANAGEMENT METHOD

Matel

‡ During construction and renovation works, separate metal materials such as grill and piping for recycling ‡ Sell re-use materials such as iron, lead, copper and aluminium. ‡ Avoid dispose of lead into landfill because it can dissolve into the soil. ‡ Send unused parts to a recycling centre. ‡ Store materials for future works. ‡ During building renovation, identify unused or unwanted cabinets, lamps, bath tub, mortar mix, iron, nails, screws, stationary, piping equipments and transport them to recycling centres.

Paint and solven Miscellaneous

EROSION CONTROL
Soil erosion is the wearing and movement of soil layer due to water, wind and ice. Deforestation, construction and development always cause serious soil erosion. This situation is becoming worst at hillsides

Erosion Control Method
Hydroseeding Hydroseeding is a method of planting grass to minimise erosion. Hydroseeding material mix is made-up timber fibre, compost, bonding materials, water and seeds. Strong grass rooting will grip loose soil and thick leaf can protect soil from running water. Timber fibre helps even distribution of seeds and acts as a cover layer after spraying.

Hydroseeding spraying

Erosion Control Method
Diverting drain The perpose of diverting drain is to reduce rapid water flow at the hill slopes. Diverting drain normally can be seen along the North-South Highway

Diverting drain on hill slope

Erosion Control Method
Guniting Guniting or shotcrete is the spraying of sand, cement and water mixture using high pressure spray. Guniting enables concrete be sprayed to uneven, vertical and high surfaces. It is normally used to protect rock slope from erosion.

Examples of guniting