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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 DEFINATION OF ENGINE:-


The Engine is a device which is convert reciprocating motion into the rotary
motion of shaft: which is produced by fuel energy.

1.2 TYPES OF ENGINE:-

Based on combustion (ignition), fuel used, cooling, application and constructions.


Based on the combustion type:
1. External combustion engines and 2. Internal combustion engines

Based on fuel used:


1. Diesel engines, 2. Petrol engines, 3. CNG engines and LPG engines

Based on cooling system:


1. Air cooled engines and 2. Liquid cooled engines

Based on applications:
1. Stationary engine 2. Rocket engine and 3. Automobile engine

Based on construction:
1. Inline engines, 2. Opposed engines, 3. Rotary engine, 4. V-engines and 5. W
engines

ROTARY ENGINE / RADIAL ENGINE:-

A reciprocating engine may be a heat engine that uses one or over one
reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion.

These engines are used extensively in cars, power generators and aircrafts. Multi-
cylinder engines use over one cylinder that is employed extensively today. These
engines will be inline, v-type, radial or combination of any 2 kinds of engines.

Inline engines are typically employed in four- and six-cylinder configurations, with
all cylinders aligned in one row, with no offset. Theyre getting used in vehicles,
locomotives and aircraft, though the word in-line incorporates a broader which
means in case of aircraft engines.

It is significantly easier to make an inline engine than identical horizontally


opposed or V engine, as a result of each the cylinder bank and crankshaft are often
milled from one metal casting, and fewer cylinder heads and camshafts are needed.
In-line engines have bigger benefits of smaller in overall physical dimensions over
the styles just like the radial, and might be mounted in any direction. Straight
configurations are easier than their counterparts of V-shaped.

The radial engine could be told as a reciprocating kind IC engine during which the
cylinders purpose outward from a central crankshaft rather like the spokes on a
wheel. This configuration was widely employed in giant aircraft engines before
they begin of turbine engines. In an exceedingly radial engine, master-and-
articulating-rod assembly is employed to attach the pistons to the crankshaft.

1.3 APPLICATION:-

In the years leading up to World War II, as the need for armored vehicles was
realized, designers were faced with the problem of how to power the vehicles, and
turned to using aircraft engines, among them radial types.

The radial aircraft engines provided greater power-to-weight ratios and were more
reliable than conventional inline vehicle engines available at the time. This reliance
had a downside though: if the engines were mounted vertically, as in the M3 Lee
and M4 Sherman, their comparatively large diameter gave the tank a higher
silhouette than designs using inline engines.

The Continental R-670, a 7-cylinder radial aero engine which first flew in 1931,
became a widely used tank power plant, being installed in the M1 Combat Car, M2
Light Tank, M3 Stuart, M3 Lee, LVT-2 Water Buffalo.

The Guiberson T-1020, a 9-cylinder radial diesel aero engine, was used in the
M1A1E1, while the Continental R975 saw service in the M4 Sherman, M7 Priest,
M18 Hellcattank destroyer, and the Howitzer. These engines are considered when
high power is required.

1.4 ADVANTAGES:-

1. Shorter crankshaft, hence lighter weight.


2. All cylinders are exposed for better cooling.

3. They are lighter for a given cubic capacity than an inline


engine and at the expense of frontal area there is more even cooling for
the cylinders than is possible with an air-cooled inline or opposed engine.
4. Radial engines deliver their power at low RPM. This is their chief
advantage.

5. You quickly run into some physical limits in trying to


deliver horsepower at high rpm; the power must be transmitted through
the propeller blades to move air mass, and the higher the rpm the shorter
the propeller blades must be to prevent their tips from moving at
trans-sonic speeds, which ruins propeller efficiency.

1.5 DISADVANTAGES:-

1. One of the disadvantages of radials is they use copious quantities of oil and are
rather expensive to overhaul.

2. Unfortunately, the corollary to better cooling in this case is a larger


frontal area with higher drag, which I think is the main reason for the
radial's demise in these aerodynamically conscious times.

3. The main problem (with a "good" engine) is one of gravity. When the engine is
just sitting there oil seeps past the rings and into the combustion chamber
of the lower cylinders.

4. Why when you start a radial it belches lots of smoke and the amount of smoke
gradually lessens as it burns away the excess oil in the lower jugs.
CHAPTER-2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW:-

1901:-C. M. Manly constructed a water-cooled five-cylinder radial engine


1904:-Jacob Ellehammer used his experience constructing motorcycles to build the
world's first air-cooled radial engine

1907:-A three-cylinder engine which he used as the basis for a more powerful five-
cylinder model. This was installed in his triplane and made a number of short free-
flight hops.

1909:- Georges Canton and Pierre Unn patented the original engine design,
offering it to the Salmons company and the engine was often known as the
Canton-Unn.

1914:- Alessandro Anzani had developed radial engines ranging from 3 cylinders.

1917:- While British designers had produced the ABC Dragonfly radial.

1919:- The radial engine was overshadowed by its close relative, the rotary engine
which differed from the so-called "stationary" radial in that the crankcase and
cylinders revolved with the propeller.

1920:- Air-cooled radials could offer an increase in the power-to-weight ratio and
reliability

1925:- J-5 Whirlwind radial engine of 1925 was widely acknowledged as "the first
truly reliable aircraft engine".

The American rival firm to Wright's radial engine production efforts, Pratt &
Whitney, was founded. The P & W firm's initial offering, the Pratt & Whitney R-
1340 Wasp, test run later that year, began the evolution of the many models of Pratt
& Whitney radial engines that were to appear during the second quarter of the 20th
century, twin-row Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp, the most-produced aviation
engine of any single design, with a total production quantity of nearly 175,000
engines.

2.2 WORKING:-

Four-stroke radial engines continuously have an odd variety of cylinders per row to
urge an identical every-other-piston firing order ensuing swish operation that is
achieved by the engine taking 2 revolutions of the crankshaft to complete the four
strokes. As a result there's continuously a two-piston gap between the piston on its
power stroke and therefore the next piston on its compression stroke.

On the opposite hand in case of a good variety of cylinders a three-piston gap


between firing pistons on the primary crank shaft revolution , and solely a one-
piston gap on the second crank shaft revolution is observed, that ends up in an
uneven firing order at intervals the engine. These engines are well balanced.
Theres no unbalanced torque within the plane of radial engines.

Figure 2.1 Radial Engine

The radial engine could be told as a reciprocating kind IC engine during which the
cylinders purpose outward from a central crankshaft rather like the spokes on a
wheel. This configuration was widely employed in giant aircraft engines before
they begin of turbine engines. In an exceedingly radial engine, master-and-
articulating-rod assembly is employed to attach the pistons to the crankshaft.

Four-stroke radial engines continuously have an odd variety of cylinders per row to
urge an identical every-other-piston firing order ensuing swish operation that is
achieved by the engine taking 2 revolutions of the crankshaft to complete the four
strokes. As a result there's continuously a two-piston gap between the piston on its
power stroke and therefore the next piston on its compression stroke.

On the opposite hand in case of a good variety of cylinders a three-piston gap


between firing pistons on the primary crank shaft revolution , and solely a one-
piston gap on the second crank shaft revolution is observed, that ends up in an
uneven firing order at intervals the engine. These engines are well balanced.
Theres no unbalanced torque within the plane of radial engines.

2.3 COMPONENT OF RADIAL ENGINE:-

Piston:-

A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas


compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms. It is the
moving component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston
rings. In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the
cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting. In a pump, the
function is reversed and force is transferred from the crankshaft to the piston for
the purpose of compressing or ejecting the fluid in the cylinder. In some engines,
the piston also acts as a valve by covering and uncovering ports in the cylinder
wall.

Cylinder block:-

A cylinder block is an integrated structure comprising the cylinder(s) of a engine


and often some or all of their associated surrounding structures (coolant passages,
intake and exhaust passages and ports, and crankcase).

The term engine block is often used synonymously with "cylinder block". In the
basic terms of machine elements, the various main parts of an engine are
conceptually distinct, and these concepts can all be instantiated as discrete pieces
that are bolted together. Such construction was very widespread in the early
decades of the commercialization of internal combustion engines.

Today most engines for cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and so on are built with fairly
highly integrated design, so the words "mono block" is seldom used in describing
them; such construction is often implicit. Thus "engine block", "cylinder block", or
simply "block" are the terms likely to be heard in the garage or on the street.
Fuel Injector:-

Fuel injectors are small electro-mechanical devices that are used to spray fuel into
the intake manifold directly in front of the intake valve. The injector has a final
high micron filter in the top inlet side and small hypodermic-sized holes on the
bottom for the atomizing of fuel. The fuel acts as a lubricating agent for the
injector. Water in the fuel is extremely damaging to the injectors due to the fact that
it displaces the lubricating properties of the fuel.

Injectors open and close at the same rpm as the engine. This equates to more than
138,000 times an hour. Fuel injectors are subject to carbon and dirt introduced by a
bad air cleaner element. The type of fuel used and the grade as well as the additives
directly affect the life expectancy of the injectors. The computer controls the fuel
injectors. They have power continuously when the key is turned on. In essence, the
computer grounds the injector, completing the circuit and causing the injector to
open. When the ground is removed, the injector closes.

Figure 2.2 Spark Plug

The average fuel injector duty-cycle is measured in terms of milliseconds. The


average is 1.5 to 6 milliseconds. Fuel injectors come in different sizes depending
on the cubic inches and power demands of the engine. There are two basic types of
fuel injectors. The first is the oldest version, which is the throttle body injection.
This essentially is a system where one or two fuel injectors are located in the
throttle body itself. They supply all the cylinders with a metered amount of fuel
misted into the intake manifold. This charges the intake and the intake valve draws
the fuel into the cylinder.
Figure 2.3 Fuel Injector

Spark plug:-

A spark plug is a device for delivering electric current from an ignition to


the combustion chamber of a engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by
an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine. A spark
plug has a metal threaded shell, electrically isolated from a central electrode by a
porcelain insulator.

The central electrode, which may contain a resistor, is connected by a


heavily insulated wire to the output terminal of an ignition coil or magneto. The
spark plugs metal shell is screwed into the engine's cylinder head and thus
electrically grounded. The central electrode protrudes through the porcelain
insulator into the combustion chamber, forming one or more spark gaps between
the inner end of the central electrode and usually one or more protuberances or
structures attached to the inner end of the threaded shell and designated
the side, earth, or ground electrode(s).
2.4 STROKES OF RADIAL ENGINE:-

1. Intake Stroke
2. Compression Stroke
3. Power Stroke
4. Exhaust Stroke

1. Intake: This stroke of the piston begins at top dead center. The piston descends
from the top of the cylinder to the bottom of the cylinder, increasing the volume of
the cylinder. A mixture of fuel and air is forced by atmospheric (or greater by some
form of air pump) pressure into the cylinder through the intake port.

Figure 2.4 Intake Stroke

2. Compression: With both intake and exhaust valves closed, the piston returns to
the top of the cylinder compressing the air or fuel-air mixture into the cylinder
head.
Figure 2.5 Compression Stroke

3. Power: This is the start of the second revolution of the cycle. While the piston
is close to Top Dead Centre, the compressed airfuel mixture in a gasoline engine
is ignited, by a spark plug in gasoline engines, or which ignites due to the heat
generated by compression in a diesel engine. The resulting pressure from the
combustion of the compressed fuel-air mixture forces the piston back down toward
bottom dead centre.

Figure 2.6 Power Stroke

4. Exhaust: During the exhaust stroke, the piston once again returns to top dead
centre while the exhaust valve is open. This action expels the spent fuel-air mixture
through the exhaust valve(s).
Figure 2.7 Exhaust Stroke

2.5 FIRING ORDER OF RADIAL ENGINE:-

Firing order:-

The firing order is the sequence of power delivery of each cylinder in a multi-
cylinder reciprocating engine. This is achieved by sparking of the spark plugs in a
gasoline engine in the correct order, or by the sequence of fuel injection in a Diesel
engine. When designing an engine, choosing an appropriate firing order is critical
to minimizing vibration, to improve engine balance and achieving smooth running,
for long engine fatigue life and user comfort, and heavily influences crankshaft
design.

2.6 Various firing orders for different engine layouts:-


number of
firing order Example
cylinders

1-2-3 Saab two-stroke, PeroduaKancil engine


3
1-3-2 BMW K75 engine, Subaru Justy engine

Most straight-4s, Ford Taunus V4 engine


1-3-4-2 Some British Ford and Riley engines, Ford
1-2-4-3 Kent engine, Riley Nine
4 1-3-2-4 Subaru 4-cylinder engines, Yamaha
1-4-3-2 R1crossplane
1-2-3-4 Volkswagen air-cooled engine
Proton Wira VDO engine

5 1-2-4-5-3 Straight-five engine, Volvo 850, Audi 100

Straight-6, VolkswagenVR6 engine, Opel


Omega A, Nissan L Engine

1-5-3-6-2-4 Mercedes-Benz M272 engine,


VolkswagenV6's (both engines are 90-
1-4-3-6-2-5 degree V6's)
1-6-5-4-3-2 GM 3800 engine, Rover KV6 engine
1-2-3-4-5-6 General Motors 60 V6 engine, Mazda JE
6 1-4-2-5-3-6 3.0 liter 60-degree V6 engine
1-4-5-2-3-6 Mercedes-Benz M104 engine, Ford
1-6-3-2-5-4 Cologne V6 engine
1-6-2-4-3-5 Chevrolet Corvair
1-6-2-5-3-4 Subaru Alcyone/XT-6/Vortex ER-27Flat-6
Porsche BoxsterFlat-6
Maserati Quattroporte IV V6-4AC-24

7 1-3-5-7-2-4-6 7-cylinder single row radial engine


Chrysler Fifth Avenue, Chevrolet Small-
Block engine, Pontiac, Rover V8
1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2
GM LS engine, Toyota UZ engine
1-8-7-2-6-5-4-3
Porsche 928, Ford Modular engine, 5.0
1-3-7-2-6-5-4-8
HO
1-5-4-8-7-2-6-3
BMW S65
1-6-2-5-8-3-7-4
Straight-8
8 1-8-7-3-6-5-4-2
Nissan VK engine
1-5-4-2-6-3-7-8
Ford Windsor engine
1-5-6-3-4-2-7-8
Cadillac V8 engine 368, 425, 472, 500
1-5-3-7-4-8-2-6
only
1-2-7-8-4-5-6-3
FerrariV8's, (all are flat-plane crank)
1-2-7-3-4-5-6-8
Holden V8
Cadillac North star Engine

1-10-9-4-3-6-5-8-7-2 Dodge ViperV10


10 1-6-5-10-2-7-3-8-4-9 BMW S85, Ford V10
1-8-7-6-5-4-3-10-9-2 Isuzu 10PE1

1-7-5-11-3-9-6-12-2-8-
4-10
1-7-4-10-2-8-6-12-3-9- 2001 Ferrari 456M GTV12
5-11 1997 Lamborghini Diablo VT
12
1-4-9-8-5-2-11-10-3-6- Caterpillar Inc.3412E
7-12 Audi VW Bentley W12 engine
1-12-5-8-3-10-6-7-2-
11-4-9

1L-1R-2L-2R-4L-4R-
Wrtsil-Sulzer 14ZV40/48 V14 marine
14 6L-6R-7L-7R-5L-5R-
diesel
3L-3R

1-12-8-11-7-14-5-16-4-
16 2003 Cadillac V16 engine
15-3-10-6-9-2-13
CHAPTER-3
DESIGN OF PARTS, LINKS AND
MECHANISM

1. Acrylic Box:-

Figure 3.1 Acrylic Box


2. Gudgeon Pin:-

Figure 3.2
Gudgeon Pin

3. Piston:-
Figure 3.3 Piston

4. Connecting Rod:-
Figur3.4 Connecting Rod

5. Plate for connecting rod:-


Figure 3.5 Plate for Joining Of Connecting Rod
6. Main Plate:-

Figure 3.6 Main plate


3.1 LINK OF RADIAL ENGINE:-

There are three types of kinematic chains:-

1. Four Bar Chain

2. Single slider crank chain

3. Double slider crank chain

In the radial engine there is use Single slider crank chain.

Single Slider Crank Chain :-

A Single Slider Crank Chain is a modification of the basic four bar


chain. It consists of one sliding pair and three turning pairs. It is
usually formed in reciprocating steam engine mechanism and I.C.
engine mechanism.

Figure shows single slider crank chain. This type of mechanism


converts reciprocating motion into rotary motion and vice versa.

Figure 3.7 Single Slider Crank Chain


3.2 MECHANISM OF RADIAL ENGINE:-

Figure 3.8 Mechanism of Radial Engine

Earlier, rotary I.C. engines were used in aviation. This mechanism consists
of 7 cylinders in one plane and all revolve about fixed centre O as shown in
figure, while the crank (link 2) is fixed.

In this mechanism, when the assembly rotates, the piston (link 3)


reciprocates inside the cylinder (link 1).

3.3 MATERIAL OF PARTS:-

1. Acrylic Box:-

Material: - Acrylic sheet


Reason: - By using acrylic sheet there is less friction between piston and
piston block.

2. Piston:-

Material: - Aluminum Alloy

Reason: - By using aluminum material for a piston the weight of engine is


reduces and efficiency of engine is increases.

3. Connecting Rod:-

Material:-Aluminum Alloy

Reason: -By using aluminum alloy material for a connecting rod, strength of
connecting rod is increases. So possibility of braking of connecting rod is
decreases.

4. Gudgeon Pin:-

Material: - High Speed Steel

Reason: - In the engine there is produce more temperature The high speed
steel is not change its properties on high temperature. So, we are using high
speed steel.

5. Fixing Plate:-

Material: - Mild steel

Reason:-There are fewer loads on this plate. So, we are using M.S. plate in
model.

6. Main Plate:-

Material: - Mild steel

Reason:-There is no load on this plate. It is only rotates with shaft. So, we


are using M.S. plate in model.
7. Gear :-( 2 gears)

Material: - Mild steel

Reason:-There is only rotate by key and it is connected with other. So there


is using M.S. round bar.
CHAPTER-4
ASSEMBLY OF PARTS
4.1 ASSEMBLED DESIGN:-

Figure 4.1 Assembly of Part

After the assembly of part engine shows as above. In the assembly of part
there is much part as earlier chapter. Main parts of assembly are piston, connecting
rod, gudgeon pin, main plate, other plate for a joining of connecting rod.

There is one acrylic box, which have five slots at same angle 72. Then main plate
is fixed with the shaft. Then other plate is fixed on over it by bolt and nut. Then all
connecting rod are joint on that particular hole by pin.

Before this assembly there is fix piston with connecting rod by gudgeon pin in
holes. Then all part is assembled in the acrylic box.

Thus we prepare model of radial engine.


CHAPTER-5
CANCLUSION
5.1 CANCLUSION:-

In the DIPLOMA MECHANICAL ENGINEERING we study many subject


related to the design of machine, thermal engineering, fluid mechanics and
hydraulic machines, basic engineering drawing, CAD, estimating and costing,
manufacturing engineering etc. subjects in three years.

All subjects are very important in our engineering life.. By studding of this project,
we will learn how to make estimating of part, costing of part, material selection for
the part, mechanism of machine, drawing of part in Auto CAD and Cero or Pro-E
etc. matter are learn during five semester.

Thus, we make this report using our knowledge of earlier semester and also make
model of radial engine in 6th semester by using above details.
CHAPTER-6
REFERENCES FOR PROJECT
6.1 REFRENCES FOR PROJECT

Websites

1. www.wikipedia.com

2. Google group.html

3. Ask.com

4. Uc browser

5. Macmaticscard.com

6. Ferrari chat.com

7. Google books.rar

8. Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp.rar

PDF Files

1. Paper on Design and analysis of radial engine, Clear energy system

2. Paper on Radial Engine, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela,


India.

3. Makerbot Design of Radial Engine.

Design Files

1. Pro-e