Feature #1: The editor inside the box: Use the Spelling
... especially if you're writing to me! If I've said it once, I've said it 100 times: Please, if you're sending e-mail, writing a letter, or creating a Web
site, please make use of the spelling checker. Either turn on this feature so that it automatically notifies you when you've misspelled a word,
or press F7 to launch the spelling checker yourself before you've completed your task. It's simple, it's quick, and it's the courteous thing to do.
And before I forget, Word 2010 and Word 2007 both have has this fabulous feature: Instead of just giving you the squiggly read line to
indicate a spelling error a green squiggly line for a grammar error, Word 2007 introduced a new member of this flagging community: The
blue squiggly line. It flags words that are likely inappropriate, considering their content. Interested in finding out more? Read program
manager Jonathan Bailor's Office Hours column The next generation of the spell checker.
Feature #2: Say it, don't spray it: The Bcc box
Now this one I KNOW I've mentioned before. Bcc is an abbreviation for blind carbon copy. If you add a recipient's name to this box in an e-
mail, a copy of the message is sent to that recipient, and the recipient's name is not visible to other recipients of the message. Consider using
the Bcc box when:
y You want your mailing list to remain private.
y You want to protect your recipients from possibly getting on a spammer's list. Consider this: If you send out a message to 10 people (and
you don't put their e-mail addresses in the Bcc: box), if each of those 10 people forwards it to 10 other people, and if each of those 100
people forwards it to 10 more people, your original 10 e-mail addresses are now available to 10,000 strangers. (This is how a version of that
"six degrees of Kevin Bacon" game gets started.) Chances are pretty good that one of those 10,000 recipients is a spammer.
Of course, there are other reasons to use the Bcc box, but I'll leave you and your sneaky mind to come up with those.

Feature #3: I came, I saw, I rewrote: Revision marks
Writers and editors have to work together; it's a law of nature, like gravity or a feeling territorial about a parking space. Using revision marks
in Word is one way to keep track of all the changes ³ agreed upon or otherwise ³ that you, as a writer or a reviewer, talk about as a
document is written. Using Word's built-in reviewing tools, such as comments or tracked changes, is a lot easier than getting out the red pen
or using strikethrough formatting (or whatever). Make use of this handy feature; it really facilitates the reviewing process.

Feature #4: Get yourself some insurance: Protect your
Security is a big word these days, and you'd be wise to pay attention. There are many aspects to computer security, and being who I am, I'm
here to encourage you to make your Office documents as secure as you can. Some of the ways you can do this are to password-protect your
documents, presentations and spreadsheets; lock your shapes in Visio and prevent changes to files; protect your InfoPath form designs.
I'm not going to say that security is a simple, straight-forward topic; it isn't. But if you read the information we have out there and follow
some of our guidelines, you can rest assured that your Office documents will be a lot more secure than if you just close your eyes and hope
for the best.

Feature #5: I know what I mean: AutoCorrect
This is one handy feature that I use a lot, and I use it in two ways:
1. I type "Crabby Office Lady" a lot; all day long, in fact. But since I've created an AutoCorrect entry for it, all I have to do is type "COL" and my
Office program detects what I really mean and fills in the full phrase for me.
2. I can also use AutoCorrect to automatically detect and correct typos, misspelled words, grammatical errors, and incorrect capitalization. See, I
tend to type fast and quite erroneously. I often type "teh" instead of "the" and "nac" instead of "can." Since I've set up the AutoCorrect to
note that, it changes the words back to what they should be. Does this make me lazy? Perhaps. But it saves me time, too.

Feature #6: Help me, I'm drowning: AutoArchive
Your mailbox is growing and growing ... and growing. You need a place to store all those items that you can't delete but don't need on a daily
basis, and you need a way to do it automatically. AutoArchive in Outlook is the way to handle it. It's on by default and runs automatically at
scheduled intervals, clearing out old and expired items from folders. Old items are those that reach the archiving age you specify. Expired
items are mail and meeting items whose content is no longer valid after a certain date, such as a meeting you had four months ago that still
appears on your calendar. I like to think of it as spring cleaning, but it's easier and can happen more frequently, at any interval you desire.

Feature #7: Decorating made simple: The Format
The Format Painter, is one of the most handy little features I know. It's a way to copy any formatting you want to duplicate: fonts,
shading, borders, and more.
You basically select the text that you want to copy, click the Format Painter button and then select the text to which you want to apply
formatting. If you want to apply the same formatting to more than one item, select the formatting you want, double-click Format Painter,
and then select each word, phrase, or paragraph you want to apply formatting to. When you're finished, press ESC. No guessing, no multiple
steps, and you can use the Format Painter in just about any Office program.

Feature #8: Leverage someone else's work: Use a
When time is of the essence (and when is it not?), no one is a better friend to you than a template. In a nutshell, a template is a pre-designed
document, spreadsheet, presentation or any other type of Office document that's been created by a template elf. It has all the colors, layouts,
bullets, fonts, and whatever else you want to make your Office document sparkle. All you have to do is plug in your content and away you go.
A template saves you the burden of having research and design skills, and it saves us the burden of reminding you that you need to brush up
on your research and design skills.

Feature #9: Show, don't just tell: Use some Clip art
I often get e-mails from folks asking me if they can use the clip art on our site for their documents, spreadsheets, e-mail signatures, etc.
People: If it's on our site, you can use it. Why would we have it there? Just to tempt you? Yes, use our clip art for all your artistic (and I do
realize that's a broad term) needs!

Feature #10: Say it loud, say it proud: Give feedback
I know: You think we're not listening, that we just make these products year after year, without thinking about you or your needs. That just
isn't true. In fact, some of us spend a majority of our time listening to you and your ideas. But we can't listen if you're not talking. So please,
make the effort and tell us what you like, what you don't like, and what you wish you could have.


Once Windows is loaded into the memory of the computer, the focus is placed on the desktop.
The desktop is designed to act just like an actual desktop. The desktop is a window that covers
your entire computer screen. It is the interface through which all of the programs are accessed.
All other programs run on the top of the Windows desktop.

The Windows desktop is comprised of three key elements:
1) Icons 2) Start menu & 3) Taskbar

1) Icons:
Icons can be further classified into five categories:
Ø Folder Icons: When a folder icon is double clicked, a folder window is opened displaying the
contents of the folder.

Ø Program Icons: When a Program icon is double clicked, the corresponding program is loaded
into the memory of the computer and the application starts running in a Window.

Ø Document Icons: When a document icon is double clicked, the document itself is opened. For
e.g., (Word processing program, spreadsheet, database etc.

Ø Shortcut Icons: Shortcut icons provide an alternate way to open programs, documents, and

Ø System Icons: System icons are mandatory programs or files that are located on your desktop.
User is not allowed to delete the system icon, since deleting the system icon would mean
deleting the actual program from the hard drive of the computer. Examples of System Icons are
Recycle Bin, My Computer, and Network Neighborhood etc.

? Recycle Bin: Any file that is deleted from the hard disk of the computer is moved to a separate
folder called Recycle Bin. The files stored in the bin can be restored to their original location by
using the 'Restore' option of Recycle Bin. To empty the Recycle Bin, simply right click on this
icon and-select 'Empty Recycle Bin' option.

? My Computer: Double clicking the "My Computer" icon will open a window that displays the
contents of the computer. All the files and folders available in the computer can be viewed here.
It also allows you to display the system and hardware information.

? Network Neighborhood: "Network Neighborhood" icon displays windows from other
computers and resources, like printer, connected to the network.

Impuct Prlnters
An lmpuct prlnter hus mechunlsms slmllur to those of u typewrlter. Form churucters or lmuges, creutlng u
mechunlsm such us u hummer or wheel ugulnst u rlbbon prlntlng, so thut the lmuge on puper. Impuct
prlnters ure dlsuppeurlng, but you cun stlll get ln contuct wlth u dot-mutrlx prlnter. A mutrlx prlnter
contulns u prlnt heud of smull plns thut strlke u rlbbon of lnk to form churucters or lmuges. Prlntheuds ure
wlth 9, 18 or 24 uvullublePlns, whlch offers 24-pln ls the best prlnt quullty. Dot-mutrlx prlnters offer u
cholce between the quullty of pro|ect output, u rough-looklng 72 dots per lnch vertlcully, whlch muy be
ucceptuble for druft documents und reports, und u quullty polnt, u shurp-looklng 144 polnts per lnch
vertlcully, whlch ure more sultuble for u flnlshed product thut wlll be shown to other people.
Dot mutrlx prlnters through 40-300 churucters per second (cps) und some gruphlcs for prlnt, even
lfPluybuck quullty ls poor. The tupes ure for llmlted use of colors uvulluble. Dot mutrlx prlnters ure nolsy,
expenslve, und muy be repluced by multl-purt forms prlntlng, multlple coples of u puge thut ls not ut the
sume tlme, the prlnter nlnlmpuct cun do.
A dlfferent klnd of lmpuct thut the prlnter ls not used wlth mlcrocomputers. Lurge computers use hlgh-
speed llne prlnters thut prlnt u vurlety of churucters ut once, und not u slngle churucter ut u tlme. Some,
culled chulnContuln prlnter fonts embedded ln u chuln of rotutlon, wlth the exceptlon of the prlnter rlbbon,
the churucters on u tupe rotutlon. Speed up to 3000 llnes per mlnute, lt muy be posslble wlth these
Non-Impuct Prlnter
Non lmpuct prlnters, used ulmost everywhere now be fuster und quleter thun lmpuct prlnters becuuse they
huve fewer movlng purts. Not lmpuct prlnter forms churucters und lmuges wlthout dlrect physlcul contuct
between the prlntlng und puper.
Two typesNon lmpuct prlnters, often used wlth mlcrocomputers ure luser prlnters und lnk|et prlnters.
Luser Prlnter: Llke u mutrlx prlnters, luser prlnters produce lmuges wlth dot polnts. However, us ln u
photocopylng muchlne, these lmuges on u drum, treuted wlth u puy us mugnetlc lnk toner (powder),
creuted und then trunsferred from drum to puper.
գ There ure good reusons why luser prlnters ure so populur. They produce crlsp, shurp lmuges of text und
gruphlcs, provldlngResolutlon of 300 dpl to 1,200 dpl, whlch ls locuted neur the quullty (NTO). They ure
qulet und fust. 4-32, you cun text-only puges per mlnute for euch mlcro-computer for prlntlng, und more
thun 120 puges per mlnute for mulnfrumes. (Puges wlth more gruphlcs to prlnt more slowly.) You cun
prlnt) ln muny fonts (styles und slzes. The more expenslve models cun prlnt ln vurlous colors.

dot Matrix printer:
A dot Matrix printer is an "Impact" printer.
It is call an "Impact" printer because it actually strikes the page it is printing on,
through a ribbon i.e. coated with ink.
The ribbons usually ending a long time.
They are mostly used for Text and Numbers, not pictures.
They are a bit loud, and usually pretty large surrounded by size
Impact printers are mostly used in an organization that needs to print on "Triplicate"
forms or "Duplicate" forms.

Laser printers:
Laser printers are special because they don't have a moving "Head".
They are really softness and usually are the fastest at printing.
But they aren't very small.
Laser printers are also the most expensive of the three you mentioned.. (Especially the
color ones!)
The toner last a really long time, but costs a good bit more to top up when it runs out.
A laser printer is the most durable, longest lasting of the three, probably because they
don't own a moving "Head" to get jammed or broken.
When a print is made on a laser printer, a special lead called a "Charger" or "Charging
Wire" first creates the print or document on the paper (invisible to you and me),
consequently the paper is passed through the "Toner" which sticks to the imitation that
the charger created.
Then the toner is "Set" using heat so that it will stay on the treatise.
(That's why paper coming out of a laser printer feel warm to the touch)

web search engine is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. The search results are
usually presented in a list of results and are commonly called hits. The information may consist of web
pages, images, information and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in
databases or open directories. Unlike Web directories, which are maintained by human editors, search
engines operate algorithmically or are a mixture of algorithmic and human input.

Dumb terminals:
Device which consists of a keyboard and a monitor, and a connection to a full-fledged (intelligent)
computer usually a server PC, minicomputer, or a mainframe computer. Dumb terminals have no
'intelligence' (data processing or number crunching power) and depend entirely on the computer (to
which they are connected) for computations, data storage, and retrieval. Dumb terminals are used by
airlines, banks, and other such firms for inputting data to, and recalling it from, the connected

Intelligent terminal:

A terminal that often contains not only a keyboard and screen,
but also comes with a disk drive and printer, so it can
perform limited processing tasks when not communicating
directly with the central computer. Some can be programmed by
the user to perform many basic tasks, including both
arithmetic and logic operations. In some cases, when the user
enters data, the data will be checked for errors and some
type of report will be produced. In addition, the valid data
that is entered may be stored on the disk, it will be
transmitted over communication lines to the central computer.

An intelligent terminal may have enough computing capability
to draw graphics or to offload some kind of front-end
processing from the computer it talks to.

Hardware Requirements

The following information represents the minimum hardware requirements necessary to
successfully install Red Hat Linux 9:
- Minimum: Pentium-class
- Recommended for text-mode: 200 MHz Pentium-class or better
- Recommended for graphical: 400 MHz Pentium II or better
Hard Disk Space (NOTE: Additional space will be required for user data):
- Custom Installation (minimum): 475MB
- Server (minimum): 850MB
- Personal Desktop: 1.7GB
- Workstation: 2.1GB
- Custom Installation (everything): 5.0GB
- Minimum for text-mode: 64MB
- Minimum for graphical: 128MB
- Recommended for graphical: 192MB

Software Requirements
This system works with both the 2.0 and 2.2 kernels. The script to keep the tunnel up requires a
reasonably modern bash. I have however noticed that certain distribution's versions of bash don't
play too well with the script.

Seek time is one of the three delays associated with reading or writing data on a computer's disk
drive, and somewhat similar for CD or DVD drives. The others are rotational delay and transfer
time. In order to read or write data in a particular place on the disk, the read/write head of the
disk needs to be physically moved to the correct place. This process is known as seeking, and the
time it takes for the head to move to the right place is the seek time. Seek time for a given disk
varies depending on how far the head's destination is from its origin at the time of each read or
write instruction; usually one discusses a disk's average seek time.
The use of computers and Information Technology (IT)-based systems in mainstream
businesses has redefined workplace practices, operational metrics and business
models. Top management and key business executives have been able to leverage the
various capabilities of computer-based systems and productivity software technologies
to get a better handle on business operations, channelize employee productivity and
address strategic goals. The importance of computers in management cannot be
1. In order to be competitive, mega corporations, large-workforce organizations and even small
and medium businesses need to do long range corporate planning in a systematic manner.
Such organization development initiatives encompass human resources development,
finance and budget allocation, procurement and supply chain, sales and marketing,
research and development. Automated business processes, advanced computer systems
and allied software applications provide companies with reports, tools and practices to
address strategic objectives and the techniques and methods to achieve organizational
2. Computer networks connected over an intranet-based system or Web-based environment
can communicate with one another. In modern businesses, business owners and enterprise
decision makers need employees to communicate instantly with each other, collaborate and
share files, information and relevant documents quickly in order to execute work-related
tasks and pursuits. Use of e-mail systems, instant messaging tools and more recently social
networking applications has also enhanced swifter communication with business partners,
customers, suppliers and other key external stakeholders.

Transactions Management
3. Organizations and businesses perform thousands of transactions at varied customer and
business partner --facing interfaces. Purchase managers, inventory system professionals
and accounts and financial personnel need to keep track of invoices, purchase orders,
payment gateways on organization websites and all transactions at the operational level.
Computer systems integrate varied transaction processes and activities and facilitate real-
time tracking of transactions. IT applications speed the process of transaction activities and
help in calculations, generation of accurate summaries and reports.
Decision Making
4. In contemporary businesses, gigabytes and masses of data and information is generated on
a daily basis. Computers, IT systems and allied software programs help companies to
classify, arrange, systematize and analyze information. Use of CRM solutions, Enterprise
Resource Planning (ERP) systems Management Information Systems (MIS) and database
systems enable companies to operationally manage business processes and functional
areas. Market intelligence, sales reports and customer insights generated from such
systems aid business managers, top management and project heads in important decision
making processes.
Improve Productivity
5. One of the primary purposes of deploying large-scale computer systems, software,
networking and IT tools is to gain productivity on all levels in an organization. All
departments, manufacturing and production facilities and offshore centers should be able to
leverage the capabilities and of modern IT systems and technologies and function more
effectively and efficiently. Used strategically, computers streamline employee workflows,
operational activities and functional processes, ensure better control in business
management and impact the bottom-line.

Multimedia is media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. The term
can be used as a noun (a medium with multiple content forms) or as an adjective describing a
medium as having multiple content forms. The term is used in contrast to media which only use
traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia includes a combination of
text, audio, still images, animation, video, and interactivity content forms.
Multimedia is usually recorded and played, displayed or accessed by information content
processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live
performance. Multimedia (as an adjective) also describes electronic media devices used to store
and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art; by
including audio, for example, it has a broader scope. The term "rich media" is synonymous for
interactive multimedia. Hypermedia can be considered one particular multimedia application.
Multimedia finds its application in various areas including, but not limited to, advertisements,
art, education, entertainment, engineering, medicine, mathematics, business, scientific research
and spatial temporal applications. Several examples are as follows:
[edit] Creative industries
Creative industries use multimedia for a variety of purposes ranging from fine arts, to
entertainment, to commercial art, to journalism, to media and software services provided for any
of the industries listed below. An individual multimedia designer may cover the spectrum
throughout their career. Request for their skills range from technical, to analytical, to creative.
[edit] Commercial
Much of the electronic old and new media used by commercial artists is multimedia. Exciting
presentations are used to grab and keep attention in advertising. Business to business, and
interoffice communications are often developed by creative services firms for advanced
multimedia presentations beyond simple slide shows to sell ideas or liven-up training.
Commercial multimedia developers may be hired to design for governmental services and
nonprofit services applications as well.
[edit] Entertainment and fine arts
In addition, multimedia is heavily used in the entertainment industry, especially to develop
special effects in movies and animations. Multimedia games are a popular pastime and are
software programs available either as CD-ROMs or online.
[edit] Education
In Education, multimedia is used to produce computer-based training courses (popularly called
CBTs) and reference books like encyclopedia and almanacs. A CBT lets the user go through a
series of presentations, text about a particular topic, and associated illustrations in various
information formats. Edutainment is an informal term used to describe combining education with
entertainment, especially multimedia entertainment.
[edit] Engineering
Software engineers may use multimedia in Computer Simulations for anything from
entertainment to training such as military or industrial training. Multimedia for software
interfaces are often done as a collaboration between creative professionals and software
[edit] Industry
In the Industrial sector, multimedia is used as a way to help present information to shareholders,
superiors and coworkers. Multimedia is also helpful for providing employee training, advertising
and selling products all over the world via virtually unlimited web-based technology
[edit] Mathematical and scientific research
In mathematical and scientific research, multimedia is mainly used for modelling and simulation.
For example, a scientist can look at a molecular model of a particular substance and manipulate
it to arrive at a new substance. Representative research can be found in journals such as the
Journal of Multimedia.
[edit] Medicine
In Medicine, doctors can get trained by looking at a virtual surgery or they can simulate how the
human body is affected by diseases spread by viruses and bacteria and then develop techniques
to prevent it.
[edit] Document imaging
Document imaging is a technique that takes hard copy of an image/document and converts it into
a digital format (for example, scanners).
[edit] Miscellaneous
In Europe, the reference organization for Multimedia industry is the European Multimedia
Associations Convention (EMMAC).

The term memory hierarchy is used in the theory of computation when discussing performance
issues in computer architectural design, algorithm predictions, and the lower level programming
constructs such as involving locality of reference. A 'memory hierarchy' in computer storage
distinguishes each level in the 'hierarchy' by response time. Since response time, complexity, and
capacity are related
, the levels may also be distinguished by the controlling technology.
The many trade-offs in designing for high performance will include the structure of the memory
hierarchy, i.e. the size and technology of each component. So the various components can be
viewed as forming a hierarchy of memories (m
) in which each member m
is in a sense
subordinate to the next highest member m
of the hierarchy. To limit waiting by higher levels, a
lower level will respond by filling a buffer and then signaling to activate the transfer.
There are four major storage levels.

1. Internal ʹ Processor registers and cache.
2. Main ʹ the system RAM and controller cards.
3. On-line mass storage ʹ Secondary storage.
4. Off-line bulk storage ʹ Tertiary and Off-line storage.

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a set of computer programs that controls the
creation, maintenance, and the use of a database. It allows organizations to place control of
database development in the hands of database administrators (DBAs) and other specialists. A
DBMS is a system software package that helps the use of integrated collection of data records
and files known as databases. It allows different user application programs to easily access the
same database. DBMSs may use any of a variety of database models, such as the network model
or relational model. In large systems, a DBMS allows users and other software to store and
retrieve data in a structured way. Instead of having to write computer programs to extract
information, user can ask simple questions in a query language. Thus, many DBMS packages
provide Fourth-generation programming language (4GLs) and other application development
features. It helps to specify the logical organization for a database and access and use the
information within a database. It provides facilities for controlling data access, enforcing data
integrity, managing concurrency, and restoring the database from backups. A DBMS also
provides the ability to logically present database information to users.

Microsoft Access, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle and FileMaker Pro are all
examples of database management systems.

Financial Calculations for Excel is a special financial toolbox with the essential financial
calculators for users who need a simple tool. The most useful financial calculations are
solved easily with this practical, but powerful set of calculators. The calculators are easy
to use, with many features and options.

There are 14 powerful financial calculations for Excel:
y Valuation of flows: Periodic Mixed Cash Flows, Growth, Flows with Constant Growth
y Financial Analysis: Ratios, Gordon Growth Model, Price / Earnings
y Inversions: Bonds
y Loans: Loans with Payments, Rate and Payment Objectives, Payment Schedule,
Discounted Notes (Factoring), Comparison of Mortgage with Points
y Personal: Conversions and Miscellaneous Calculations, Live Currency Converter

There are several differences between computer hardware and software. However,
the fundamental difference between hardware and software is that hardware is a
physical device something that you're able to touch and see. For example, the
computer monitor you're viewing this text on or the mouse you're using to navigate is
considered computer hardware.
Software is code and instructions that tell a computer and/or hardware how to
operate. This code can be viewed and executed using a computer or other hardware
device. However, without any hardware software would not exist. An examples of
software is Microsoft Windows, an operating system that allows you to control your
computer and other programs that run on it. Another example of software is the
Internet browser you're using to view this page.
A Compiler is a program that translates code of a programming language in machine code
*****Translated source code into machine code***** .
A compiler is a special program that processes statements written in a particular programming
language and converts them into machine language, a "binary program" or "code," that a
computer processor uses.
A compiler works with what are sometimes called 3GL and higher-level languages (3rd-
generation languages, such as Java and C
Interpreters translate code one line at time, executing each line as it is "translated," much the way
a foreign language interpreter would translate a book, by translating one line at a time.
Interpreters do generate binary code, but that code is never compiled into one program entity.
Interpreters offer programmers some advantages that compilers do not. Interpreted languages are
easier to learn than compiled languages, which is great for beginning programmers. An
interpreter lets the programmer know immediately when and where problems exist in the code;
compiled programs make the programmer wait until the program is complete.
Interpreters therefore can be easier to use and produce more immediate results; however the
source code of an interpreted language cannot run without the interpreter.

Compilers produce better optimized code that generally run faster and compiled code is self
sufficient and can be run on their intended platforms without the compiler present
System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to
provide and maintain a platform for running application software.
The most important types of system software are:
y The computer BIOS and device firmware, which provide basic functionality to operate and
control the hardware connected to or built into the computer.
y The operating system (prominent examples being Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X and Linux),
which allows the parts of a computer to work together by performing tasks like transferring data
between memory and disks or rendering output onto a display device. It also provides a
platform to run high-level system software and application software.
y Utility software, which helps to analyze, configure, optimize and maintain the computer.
In some publications, the term system software is also used to designate software development
tools (like a compiler, linker or debugger).
System software is usually not what a user would buy a computer for - instead, it can be seen as
the basics of a computer which come built-in or pre-installed. In contrast to system software,
software that allows users to do things like create text documents, play games, listen to music, or
surf the web is called application software
Application Software:
It is a program written for, or by, a user to perform a specific job.
General purpose application software such as electronic spreadsheet
has a wide application. Specific purpose application software, such as
payroll and sales analysis is used only for the application for which it is
The system software controls the execution of the application software
and provides other support functions such as data storage.

Third generation computers
Third generation computers use semiconductor memories in addition to, and later instead of, ferrite core
memory. The two main types of semiconductor memory are Read-Only Memory (ROM) and read-and-
write memories called random-access memory (RAM).

A technique called microprogramming became widespread and simplified the design of the CPUs and
increased their flexibility. This also made possible the development of operating systems as software
rather than as hard-wiring.

A variety of techniques for improving processing efficiency were invented, such as pipelining, (parallel
operation of functional units processing a single instruction), and multiprocessing (concurrent execution of
multiple programs).

As the execution of a program requires that program to be in memory, the concurrent running of several
programs requires that all programs be in memory simultaneously. Thus the development of techniques
for concurrent processing was matched by the development of memory management techniques such as
dynamic memory allocation, virtual memory, and paging, as well as compilers producing relocatable code.

The LILLIAC IV is an example of a third generation computer.
fourth generation computer
fourth generation computer - A computer built using Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) integrated
circuits, especially a microcomputer based on a microprocesseor, or a parallel processor containing two
to thousands of CPUs.

VLSI made it routine to fabricate an entire CPU, main memory, or similar device with a single integrated
circuit that can be mass produced at very low cost. This has resulted in new classes of machines such as
personal computers, and high performance parallel processors that contains thousands of CPUs.