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ISSN 2394-3777 (Print

ISSN 2394-3785 (Online)
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International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJARTET)
Vol. 3, Special Issue 13, March 2016

Study the Structural and Optical Properties of
Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles
A. Samuelraj Visuvasam1, N.R.Dineshbabu2
PG Student1, Assistant Professor2
V V College Of Engineering.

Abstract- Nickel Oxide (NiO) was successfully prepared via the
Sol-gel method. NiO nanoparticles was characterized using On the opposite hand, nanotechnology raises several
some comprehensive techniques such as X-ray diffraction problems like issues concerning the toxicity and
(XRD), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), environmental impact of nanomaterials, and their potential
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron
effects on global economics, moreover as
Microscopy(TEM), and UV visible Spectra (UV-vis). The
crystalline nature of the NiO nanoparticles is characterized speculation concerning varied doomsday scenarios. These
through XRD. FTIR spectra revealed the presence of oxygen concerns have led to have a discussion among support teams
containing functional groups in NiO nanoparticles. The surface and governments on whether or not special regulation of
morphology was showed from SEM images and the presence of nanotechnology is secured.
component was observed from Elemental Analyzer (EDAX).
TEM image showed that the NiO nanoparticles about 50 nm. Nanotechnology covers each current work and ideas
The test of UV-vis spectrometer indicated the NiO they are additionally advanced that has the projected ability
nanoparticles possessed excellent optical properties and to construct things from the bottom up, using techniques and
analyzed the refractive index, optical bandgap, optical
tools being developed nowadays to form complete, high
conductivity, Extinction coefficient and urbach tail. Using these
absorption spectra, we further examined the NiO nanoparticle performance compact products, two main approaches are
to explore the possibility of using them as a material for utilized in engineering. Within the "bottom-up" approach,
applications such as solar cell, active optical filters, Adhesive materials and devices are designed from molecular elements
and coloring agents for enamels. that assemble themselves chemically by principles of
Keywords—elemental analyzer, extinction coefficient, molecular recognition. In the "top-down" approach, nano-
diffractio, refractive index. objects are made from larger entities without atomic-
I. INTRODUCTION level management. Nanostructure and technology could be a
broad and knowledge base area of research and development
Nanoscience primarily deals with synthesis, activity that has been growing worldwide. it has the potential
characterization, exploration, and exploitation of for revolutionizing the ways during which materials and
nanostructured materials. The materials that are products are created and also the range and nature of
characterized by at least one dimension in the nanometer functionalities may be accessed. Nanomaterials are
range is named nanomaterials. The process, structure and employed in variety of applications is being widely
properties of materials in tens to many hundreds of researched nowadays across multiple domains. Nickel oxide
nanometer vary are research areas of interest over the past nanoparticles seem in green powder type, and are ranked as a
years. Areas of physics like nanoelectronics, nanomechanics, very toxicant and also they will cause an allergic skin
nanoionics and nanophotonics have evolved throughout the reaction, prolonged harmful effects to aquatic life,
previous couple of decades to produce the basic scientific and attainable harm to organs as a result of prolonged
foundation of nanotechnology. As researchers realize ways or continual exposure.
to characterize and pattern materials at the nanometer length
scale, resolution is happening in nanotechnology and Nanosized metallic powders are used for the
engineeringto be used in data technology, biotechnology, and production of gas tight materials, dense parts and porous
energy and environmental applications, new materials with coatings. Cold welding properties combined with the
outstanding electrical, optical, magnetic and mechanical malleability make them appropriate for metal-metal bonding
properties are being developed quickly. particularly within the electronic industry. NiO
Nanotechnology could also be able to produce several new semiconductor become a remarkable topic in the new space
materials and devices with an enormous range of of research due to the quantity impact, the quantum
applications, like in drugs, electronics, biomaterials energy size effect, the surface effect and also the
production, and consumer product. macroscopic quantum tunnel effect, nano-crystalline NiO is
predicted to possess several improved properties than those

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no traces of often enhanced by the addition of NiO. the method permits for the synthesized through thermal decomposition of the (2. as specialty chemicals and catalysts.01 mole of nickel nitrate (Ni(NO3)2· 6H2O) was then added to the F108 ethanol Polyethylene glycol of molecular weight 6. However. oxide is formed by heating a combination of nickel powder and water at one thousand °C. equimolar quantity of Nickel sulphate heptahydrate and oxalic acid in minimum amount of water. Finally it was washed with dry acetone and vacuum chamber.10- several nickel salts. supply. OptiFDTD may be yield by stirring equivalent amounts of 2. most flourishing methodology of preparation is through As the reaction is fast. The double copolymer in the as-made sample was used to control the distilled water is used is for preparation of solution. 3.9-dimethyl- 1. user-friendly software system phenanthroline in distilled water with NiCl2· 6H2O in that enables pc assisted design and simulation of advanced ethanol [33. NiO is formed via decomposition of 2. the vacuum pump.000 solution and stirred vigorously for 1 h. 10. the DC power dried under vacuum for some hours. precursor to The mononuclear 2.10- a powerful. The bulk pure material to be evaporated was laid on the water-cooled copper crucible. 20. nickel powder reacts with oxygen to initially PEG melted. a element in fuel cells. the simplest and carbon impurities were observed in the final residue of NiO. This precursor is prepared by dissolving were aged and dried at 343K in an oven for 48 h.9-dimethyl-1.10-phenanthroline)NiCl2 complex precursor at devices with terribly fine structural details. phenanthroline-nickel(II) complex was isolated in excellent and it's a flexible hydrogenation catalyst. The resultant solid was ready by multiple strategies.9- effective and powerful simulation and analysis of sub-micron International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJARTET) Vol. ClOx as expected gases bi-products. going to completion within 10 pyrolysis of a nickel(II) compounds like the hydroxide. i. 40 mass%) were added to dilute the a) Preparation of Nickel oxalate ethanol solution. two compounds of nickel can be prepared via two approaches as given as follows. nonstoichiometry ii) Thermal Decomposition NiO is employed as an element within the nickel iron battery.NiO may be made ground well in a pestle and mortar. NOx. and b) Preparation of Nickel Oxide (NiO) the water-cooled copper crucible. The above prepared Nickel Oxalate was mixed water cooled and served as the cathode. which was also area NiO. The Light green precipitate of nickel oxalate dehydrate obtained was filtered through sintered glass funnel and washed with double The material includes the stainless steel distilled water. In some commercial processes. the exact temperature of nitrate. The role of the block was obtained commercially (Merck Chemicals). 0. Uniform and spherical NiO 1) Synthesis Of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles nanoparticles with weak agglomeration were collected. Ni rod with 10 mm diameter is precursor with a fuel leads to the formation of high surface mounted in an insulated and axial manner. the gas supply device. ISSN 2394-3777 (Print) ISSN 2394-3785 (Online) Available online at www. then frothed and finally ignited to give provide NiO. the water-cooled collection cylinder. 400 °C. This mixture was iv) Anodic Arc Plasma Method well stirred in a three-necked flask. and ignites auto-catalytically. highly integrated. with Polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the weight ratio 1:5 and 149 All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARTET . March 2016 of micrometer-sized NiO particles.e. Thermal decomposition of Nickel Oxalate which served as the anode.34]. The resulting sol solutions as precursor. growth of nanoparticles and coat the nanoparticles to prevent them from further oxidation and aggregation.9-dimethyl-1. using a Synthesis from the weather by heating the metal in oxygen thermocouple the highest temperature of the reaction was will yield grey to black powder that indicates found to be around 500°C. It was observed that than 400 °C. NiO nanoparticles can be successfully passive photonic element. Upon heating higher placed in a crucible and heated in air. min. the rate for this reaction are On cooling to room temperature. Special Issue 13. that yield a light green powder. green nickel NiO as a residue. i) Combustion Method iii) Sol-gel Method In combustion method. the plasma generator with a high frequency initiator. employing nickel oxalate homogeneous colloidal solution. the reaction could not be measured. These The NiO is synthesized through self-propagating nanoparticles were easily dispersed in ethanol to form a low temperature combustion route. MATERIALS AND METHODS atmosphere to NiO powder product and COx.ijartet. NiO nanoparticles can be amounts of water (H2O) (0. and carbonate.10-phenanthroline organic and chloride ligands in open II.

The Ni(OH)2 have been prepared through a new mixed reverse micro precursors were prepared via the precipitation transformation emulsion route. Nano crystalline NiO has been prepared environment was automatically ignited between the Ni successfully by a simple chemical route using NiCl2·6H2O electrode and the nozzle by high-frequency initiator. The droplets were rapidly cooled and combined to the hydroxide. Aerosol-OT. the loose nanoparticles could dispersed. Materials mainly used nickel size of around 54 nm have been synthesized via the nitrate hexahydrate. methods. n-Propanol. defect free metal oxide (NiO) nanoparticles with diameter ~40nm was synthesized through Using hydrothermal method. NiSO4 ·6H2O (water/surfactant/co surfactant/ oil-phase) was used to and urea. formed the nickel (NO3)2. sodium hydroxide. Face was maintained by the current source at the pre-established centered cubic Nano crystalline nickel nanoparticles values of the voltage and current. nano structures of chemical synthesis route. by chemical precipitation method with the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). range have been prepared by the decomposition of nickel cupferronate or acetate under solvothermal conditions. and Ga2O3 were diameter ranging from nanometer to few hundred fabricated from aqueous solutions of the respective metal nanometers and lengths up to 10mm have been realized from nitrate hydrate and hexamethylenetetramine by hydrothermal a simple chemical route. Zinc International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJARTET) Vol. the ionized gases were driven hydrate as reducing agent and EG as capping agent. Cyclohexane. The particles were transported from the nucleation and vii) Polymerized Complex Methods growth region to the inner walls of the cylinder by the free inert gas convection between the hot evaporation source and Synthesizing the spherical. Nickel nitrate. A nickel through the nozzle outlet and form the plasma jet. The NiO samples were successfully obtained by synthesize nickel oxide nanoparticles. 3. Nanoparticles of nickel oxide PEG) and cationic (CTAB) surfactants. The chemical reaction. polymerized complex method. The hydrothermal calcinations method is used for solutions of nickel chloride and sodium hydroxide with the synthesis of NiO nanoparticles by using Ni different molar ratios of NiCl2 and NaOH. NiO phase was nucleated homogeneously out of the aerosol nanoparticles have been prepared by the decomposition of systems. NiO. Special Issue 13.99%) was heated and melted by the large-scale synthesis of hierarchical α-Ni(OH)2 high temperature. to the selective construction of urchin and flowerlike hierarchical α-Ni(OH)2 and NiO microspheres consisting of When the vapor was supersaturated. and metal atom detached from the metal microspheres. size tunable. Nano particles of fcc-NiO phase were obtained by heating the dried resin resultant of a mixture of NiO/MWNTs nano composites have been prepared gelatin and NiCl2. Thus. respectively. Under argon pressure and prepared at 60ºC from NiCl2 precursor using hydrazine electric discharge current. and evaporated into atom soot. and polymeric (PVP. Crystalline cubic NiO rods with various kinds of oxides: ZnO.6H2O in aqueous solution. HMT and NaOH as starting materials. which and NaOH aqueous solution at a temperature of 70°C. where metal atoms diffused around and collided with self-assembled under the cooperative direction of urea and O atom to form NiO at high temperature due to the oxidation anions in nickel salts. the solid precursor for the subsequent surface when the plasma jet kinetic energy exceeds the metal topotactic transition to NiO upon calcination. The electric arc in the inert precursor materials. and Nickel Chloride. Quaternary micro emulsion method. CuO. (1 : 4 by volume ratio) was backfilled as a reactant gas to iron nitrate. a new radial 1D nano wires and 2D nano plates. Above the evaporation source was a region of supersaturated metal In this facile synthetic system. of aqueous method. The bulk salt–urea–H2O ternary system has been developed for the metal nickel (purity 99. simply tuning the Ni salts leads reaction. stable nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles by be obtained. vi) Chemical Methods viii) Thermolysis Methods Single crystalline. hydroxide precursor which on thermal dehydration resulted Nanoparticles of NiO with average diameters in the 3–24 nm in NiO nano crystals with rod like morphology. hierarchical structure is vapor. which originated from Na2C2O4. citric acid and ethylene glycol were used as reach the desired pressure. superficial energy. 150 All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARTET .ijartet. ISSN 2394-3777 (Print) ISSN 2394-3785 (Online) Available online at www. reduction of nickel nitrate at room temperature in a TX- 100/n-hexanol/cyclohexane/water system by a reverse micro v) Chemical Precipitation Method emulsion route. form primary particles by an aggregation growth mechanism. Chemical precipitation is the approach utilized Nickel oxide (NiO) nano crystallites with a crystal for the production of NiO. the vacuum The Nano crystalline nickel zinc ferrite was chamber was pumped to Pa and then a mixture of O2 and Ar prepared via chemical synthesis.6H2O. March 2016 In the process of preparation. The micro emulsion calcining the Ni(OH)2 precursor with different calcinations was prepared by Tween-80. well the cooled collection cylinder.

870. Pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) has been widely solution.67. The XRD patterns then they are thermally transformed into uniform nickel of the product ensure that the shaped material is nickel oxide. MgO and NiO were Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive produced from droplets of aqueous salt solution in the flame X-ray (EDX) analysis (accompanied) performed on a Hitachi spray pyrolysis reactor. 43. (220). A relative intensity of the characteristic peaks. and 2. 62. The peaks nickel acetylacetonate in an externally heated tube flow positions showing at 2θ = 37.5 g of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) depending on the nickel precursor used.070 nm. NiO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using 1 g of nickel nitrate hexahydrate By using a domestic microwave furnace and (Ni(NO3)2•6H2O) and 0. and International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJARTET) Vol. (311). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was taken with a JEOL-3010 operating at 200KV.1540 nm). respectively. The greenish precipitates were washed obtained. 3. synthesized by microwave firing through the thermal Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy by using decomposition of nickel carboxylate precursor employing NICOLET 205 spectrometer (as pellets in KBr).00 prepared by a simple. The generation of (oxidizer) and sugar. followed by solution-phase oxidation with Nickel oxide nanoparticles were fabricated by a atmospheric oxygen at 200°C to form Ni(core)/NiO(shell) laser ablation technique using the third harmonic of an nanoparticles with shell thicknesses of 2−3 nm. Ultraviolet – visible xi) Chemical Vapour Deposition Methods (UV-vis) absorption spectra were obtained from a Varian Cary 5E spectrophotometer. or NiO are to room temperature. X–ray powder diffraction method using Ni(OH)2 precursor which is obtained from (XRD) by employing a Seifert (JSO-DEBYEFLEX 2002) nickel nitrate and sodium hydroxide. however additionally in their simple aqueous solution method with urea as precipitant. ISSN 2394-3777 (Print) ISSN 2394-3785 (Online) Available online at www. NiO nanoparticles with average particle size of 25 method. NiO has been synthesized by microwave induced with distilled water and completely ethanol for six times to chemical synthesis route using metal organic complex of get rid of impurity. crystalline size of 45-55nm have been prepared by microwave irradiation using nickel nitrate and sodium hydroxide solutions as the starting materials. oxide nanoparticles [89]. up to 500°C.200. fast. The ultrahigh pseudo capacitive nickel oxide nano particulate films on the nickel foils are prepared through a The purity and crystallinity of the as-synthesized two-step in which nickel hydroxides are electrodeposited on NiO nanoparticles were examined by using powder X-ray the nickel substrate in 0. and (222) crystal planes of the majority NiO. the sample was kept underneath sintering at 400 ºC for 3h. Ni metal.08 M Ni(NO3)2 aqueous solution and diffraction (XRD) as shown in Fig. Ni/NiO nanoparticles were It is seen from the XRD patterns that the diffraction peaks synthesized by metal organics chemical vapor deposition of are low and broad owing to the tiny size effect. the Nanoparticles of nickel oxide with an average ultimate product of the particle was obtained in black colour. After that. that is in 151 All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARTET . NiO nanoparticles using a high-power. different nano of smartly stirring the answer. S. after five minutes nickel acetate or dehydrated nickel formate.6H2O applied for the generation of nanoparticles.380 is promptly indexed as (111). then it absolutely was cooled sized materials.ijartet. Nano crystalline metal oxides (ZnO. combustion method using Ni(NO3)2 .33. glycine as a fuel. xii) Solution Methods Of these diffraction peaks is absolutely indexed to the face- centered cubic (FCC) crystalline structure of NiO. The nano Nd:YAG laser and sintered NiO targets in an on-axis crystalline nickel oxide (NiO) particles can be successfully configuration under argon pressures of 0. Nickel oxide (NiO) The synthesized NiO nanoparticles were nano-particles were produced via a rapid microwave-assisted characterized by the subsequent. Nano-sized NiO was diffractometer with Cu-Kα1 radiation (λ=0. 1. 75. the final products were dried in vacuum nickel in a domestic type microwave oven (2. (200). high-brightness NiO. at 120ºC for 6h. Nickel oxide (NiO) nano wire was synthesized by a not solely in peak position. Special Issue 13. reactor at moderate temperatures. The a) Characterization of synthesized NiO nanoparticles precipitation of nickel hydroxide after dry was irradiated by microwave radiation for short time.45 GHz). either tetra hydrated dissolved in 90 ml of absolute water. nm were prepared by anodic arc method . and SnO2) powders with an average particle diameter continuous wave (CW) fiber laser source at a wavelength of of 18–55 nm is prepared with the surfactant-mediated 1. March 2016 size series of ligand-stabilized Ni nanoparticles with ix) Laser Ablation Methods diameters between 8−24 nm was prepared by solution chemistry.1. Nanoparticles of ZnO.200.4500. All the chemical reagents utilized in this experiment were of analytical grade and were used as received while x) Microwave-Assisted Preparations not further purification.Ni/NiO composites. economical and eco -friendly Pa .200.

θ is the Bragg angle. 2 Characterization of SEM image and EDX The surface morphological studies and composition pattern analysis of the nickel oxide nanoparticles were allotted using SEM and EDX images shown in Fig. 3. The typical particles size was measured to be 27 nm that is in good agreement with calculated particles size by XRD analysis. March 2016 accordance with that of the quality spectrum (JCPDS. Counts A 200 100 a) SEM image 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Position[°2Theta] (Copper (Cu)) Use of TEM for determining the particle is most popular over X-ray line broadening. 04-0835). b) EDX pattern Fig. 2 a-b. No. From the SEM analysis. one will conclude the formation of nanoparticles granular structure.15418 nm).Scherrer’s formula is 27 nm of NiO nanoparticles. broadening owing to the crystal dimensions. The crystal size of the as synthesized nickel oxide nanoparticles calculated from the diffraction peaks using the Debye. This technology Fig. that is. samples are single phase and no the other impurities distinct diffraction peak except the characteristic peaks of FCC phase NiO was detected.ijartet. Chosen area electron diffraction pattern of the components except Ni and O were determined. 152 All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARTET . Special Issue 13. ISSN 2394-3777 (Print) ISSN 2394-3785 (Online) Available online at www. 3b. A typical SAED patterns taken from the individual nanoparticles was shown in Fig. The EDX spectrum for NiO Fig. This result shows that the physical phases of the NiO nanoparticles have higher purity ready during this work. β is the FWHM (full width at half most intensity). Moreover. 1 Characterization of XRD Pattern spectra is more direct and less probably to be suffering from experimental errors and/or alternative properties of the The XRD pattern shows that the particles like strain or a distribution in the size. 3b. no further peaks similar to any other analysis. λ is the X-ray wavelength employed in XRD (0.Scherrer’s formula: D = K λ / cos where K is a constant (0. The figure indicates that almost all particles are fine and spherical whereas some are International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJARTET) Vol. 2(b) discovered that the presence nanoparticles size and morphology of primary nanoparticles of Ni and O because the solely elementary species within the will be further confirmed from imaging by TEM sample. The diameter of the nanoparticles calculated by the Debye. samples shown in Fig. 2a depicts the well distributed NiO nanoparticles shown in Fig.9). for NiO nanoparticles are polycrystalline structure.

‘NiO Nanoparticles Synthesis by Chemical Precipitation and Effect of 153 All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARTET . March 2016 a) TEM image Fig.. 4 Characterization of UV spectra a) Direct bandgap b) SAED pattern Fig. and Hosseini D. 3a shows the UV-Vis absorption spectra of the as-synthesized NiO nanoparticles. the optical band gaps (Eg) of NiO nanoparticles can be predicted by using the following equation: (Ahν)n = B(hν. K. According to the data of the absorption International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJARTET) Vol. (2008). ISSN 2394-3777 (Print) ISSN 2394-3785 (Online) Available online at www. Special Issue 13. The band gap is set by using extrapolating the linear portion of the plot shown in Fig.ijartet. the worth of the absorption edge of the samples is 318 nm.Eg) b) Indirect bandgap Fig. Sadrnezhaad S. 3b-c. 3.. 3 Characterization of TEM image and SAED pattern Fig. 5 Direct and Indirect Bandgap References [1] Bahari Molla Mahaleh Y.

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