Ocean Engng. Vol. 5, pp. 243267. ~) Pergamon Press Ltd., 1978. Printed in Great Britain.
00298018/78/08010243 $02.00/0
HIGH
SPEED
SHIP
STRUCTURAL
DYNAMICS,
APPLICATION
TO DESIGN
PRACTICAL
JULIO G. GIANNOFTI President, Giannotti & Buck Associates, Inc., Annapolis, Maryland, U.S.A.
1.
INTRODUCTION
ONE OF the most important considerations in the development of rational structural design loads criteria for high speed ships is the availability of techniques for predicting the magni tude, spatial distribution, and frequency of occurrence of the seaway induced loads. Equally important is the need for advanced structural analysis techniques in order to predict the response of the structure to these loads. With the increasing demand for faster and lighter ships, such as planing hulls, air cushion vehicles, hydrofoils, surface effect ships, and recently winginground effect machines, the need for these methods has become even more serious. Operation at speeds in the 50 to 80 knot range in high sea state as in the case of future SES's, ACV's, hydrofoils and planing hulls represents a formidable challenge to the structural designers of these craft. Furthermore, it is reported that a winginground effect machine is being developed in the USSR for transporting troops at speeds up to 300 mph. The possibility of impacting a wave at such high speeds emphasizes the need for reliable structural dynamic loads and response analysis techniques. This paper is an attempt to present as concisely as possible a methodology for predicting rationally the magnitude of the severe dynamic loads acting on advanced high speed hulls as a result of wave impacts. Having accomplished this the next step is to use this information as input to, say, Nastran finite element structural models to investigate the dynamic response of the overall hull to the transient impact forces as well as the local response of the hull plating to the corresponding high impact pressures. In addition to being able to predict the excitations and responses deterministically, the designer should be able to have some measure of the frequency or probability of occurrence of these as a function of the craft operational envelope. Included here are the effects of displacement, speed, heading, operational mode (hullborne or cushionborne as in the case of SES's and ACV's) and operational environment (wave height and period). Thus, based on experimental observation adequate statistical distributions such as Rayleigh, Weibull, Generalized Gamma, etc. are used to describe the statistics of the loads and their combination so that rational structural design criteria can be developed. Dynamic hull loads can be of two different natures: steadystate and transient. The first are the result of phenomena such as propellerhull interaction, machineryhull transmission and seaway component excitation of hull girder response (known as "spring ing"). Transient dynamic loads, on the other hand, can result from hydrodynamic impacts
243
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244 Jt~Ho G. GIANN~.)'I I1
on the hard structure due to slamming in waves, green water loading of the superstructure, emergency impact loads arising from loss of cushion pressure in SES's or ACV's, bo~ seal and skirt induced loads due to slamming in the cushionborne mode of SES's and
ACV's respectively, wave impacts on the bottom of a hydrofoil hull while in the foilborne mode, etc. This paper is devoted to the problem of high speed hulls subjected t~ transient dynamic loads, specifically those associated with ship hydrodynamic impact, as these arc usually the critical seaway induced dynamic loads in the design of high speed ships. Other dynamic transient loads which may induce severe damage to the hull structure ~tre th~se associated with air blast Ioadings and underwater explosions. These loads and the response of the structure to them can be analyzed ustng the same methodology presented here. In the case of steadystate dynamic loads, the igroblems are well treated in the technical literature on conventional displacement ships (Kline. 1975:
Noonan, 1975) and therefore, are not included as part of the present discussi,~r~.
The next sections of this paper
have been organized in a logical sequence so that tt~e
reader can develop a clear understanding of the procedures involved it~ ti~e dynamk analysis of high speed ship structures and their practical applications to design. Thus, the representation of the excitation or wave impact loads is discussed first along with a discussion of the differences between overall and local loading considerations. The next step is to briefly describe the methods for representing the overall structure and its components by means of finite element models. Finally, the finite element models are excited by the impact loads and pressures in order to predict the response of the overall hull and its components to the impact forces and pressures respectively.
2.
THE
EXCITATION:
WAVE
IMPAC'I"
FORCES
AND
PRESSISRES
When studying the problem of ship slamming, there are two problems to consider.
The first is the effect of the slam or impact force on the overall hull.
When this force is
superimposed on the quasistatic waveinduced forces their combined effect can be quite serious and must be carefully included in the structural analysis and design process. In the
second place, at the local level, the impulsive pressures associated with the occurrence
of an impact
can induce severe damage to the plating of the structure, thus making it
imperative to perform a dynamic analysis of the local structure in both ti!e elastic and plastic ranges. In addition to the impact force acting on the overall hull and the localized action of the impact pressures there is a vibrational effect associated with the slam occurrence. The latter is known as whipping which is a high frequency load following tile initial impact causing a shudder throughout the entire hull. Figure 1 shows a simplified representation of a slaminduced whipping stress superimposed on the quasistatic bending stress. The impact usually generates the first peak of a compressive (sagging) whipping stress on the deck of the ship as the waveinduced stress passes from hogging to sagging. In Fig. 1. %o is the quasistatic wave bending stress, %~ is the slam induced stress (the first two peaks mentioned previously), or,,,0 is the whipping stress generated by the hull vibration. cr is the additive portion of ~m above the peak wave stress %0 and ,? is the phase angle considered to be a random variable. In the specific case of the advanced vehicles supported by a cushion of air such as an SES or an ACV there is a fourth phenomenoi~ to consider when a slam occurs in the cushionborne mode. As the wave and the inflated seal (or skirt) come in contact with a wave the seal (or skirt) will deform and simultaneously the air
High speed ship structural dynamics, practical application to design
....
iv
:Tr!
245
~ho: 
wave stress 

o~so : siam stress 

~ = whipping 
stress 

8: 
additive 
portion 
of 
~o 

~I, : 
phase angle 

Flo. 
]. Definitions 
of stresses and phase angles involved in slamming. 
pressure inside it will build up inducing a high transient load on the hull. If the seal collapses completely and a hard structure impact does occur it is quite likely that the magnitude of the resulting load will be attenuated by comparison with the load which would have
resulted if the seal were absent. This attenuation is due to the
reduction in the rigid body
motion of the craft associated with the cushioning effect of the seal. There is also the possibility that air entrapment at the instant prior to seal collapse against the hard structure may further attenuate the resulting impact pressure.
Hydrodynamic impact simulation
The parameters of interest to the designer impact are the following: 
of a structure 
subjected 
to hydrodynamic 

 
Peak impact pressures 

k 
. 
Impact pressure distributions 

 
Average impact pressures 

 
Impact or wetted surface area 

 
Total impact force 

. 
Time histories of impact pressure and force 

 
Accelerations. 
All of these parameters can be represented mathematically through the application of simple principles of hydrodynamics and rigid body dynamics. The peak impact pressures are a function of the effective angle of impact between the
body and the surface of the water as well as the magnitude of the stagnation line velocity
at each instant of time. Figure 2 illustrates
the simple case of a Vwedge as it comes in
contact with a calm water surface with initial velocity V1. The stagnation point p at successive instants of time moves outwards with a velocity V,2. As the pressure is zero infinitely
246 JULIO G.
GIANNOTT[
r~ ,
rt
!
J"
V~
Wt.
P~
tx : 0
P,
0
Flo. 2.
Hydrodynamicimpact of a Vwedge against a calm water surface.
far from the wedge on the water surface Bernoulli's equation can be applied to obtain the pressure P,. at p giving
P.,
=
½ oVa"
where p is the density of the water.
(I)
The stagnation velocity Vz is a function of the effective angle of impact and of the normal velocity at impact, I,~. For the specified case of a ship operating in waves, the effective angle of impact is obtained at the point of impact in terms of the local angle of deadrise, the hull trim angle and the local slope of the wave surface. The initial velocity at impact is the velocity of the impact point normal to the surface of the hull structure. This velocity is the resultant of the hull velocities in sixdegreesoffreedom and the local wave orbital velocities. If Equation (1) is applied to the limiting condition of zero impact angle then the stagnation velocity V,, approaches infinity and so will the values of the peak pressure Pro. This of course is not realistic, and it turns out that at small impact angles (under about 10°) air entrapment between the structure and the water surface plays a significant role in reducing the magnitude of P,, below values calculated using Bernoulli's equation. In these cases Equation (1) must be replaced with empirical relationships obtained from drop tests using bodies with simple geometries under controlled impact conditions. Chuang, 1973 conducted a series of drop tests in calm water and waves using three dimensional bodies where the angle of impact and the impact velocities were systematically varied. Based on these results the peak pressure P,, is written as
P,,
:= Pt
+
Pv
(2a)
where Pt is the pressure contribution due to the velocity of the craft normal to the wave and is given by
Pi
=
kp V,,".
(2b)
In Equation (2b) p is the density of the water, Vn is the velocity normal to the wave and k is an empirical constant given by the regression equation
High speed ship 
structural dynamics, practical application to design 
247 

For 0 
< 
~ < 
2.2°: 

k 
= 
0.045833 ~ 
= 
0.149167 ~ = 
0.32 

For 
2.2 
<_~ < 
11°: 

k 
= 2.1820894 
 
0.9451815 ~  0.2035741 
~ 

 
0.0233896 ~2 = 
0.0013578 ~4 

 
0.00003132 {5 

For 
11 
< 
~ 
< 
20°: 
(2c) 

k 
= 
4.748742 
 
1.3450284 ~ t 0.1576516 {2 

 
0.0092976 ~3 F 0.0002735 ~4 

 
0.00000319864 a5 

For 
20 ° 
~ 
~: 

k 
= 
(1 
+ 2.4674 tan2{) 0.76856471/288 
where ~ is the impact angle.
In Equation (2a), Pp is the planing pressure associated with the velocity component tangential to the wave surface. Figure 3 shows a comparison between the predictions based on the stagnation pressures of Equation (1) and the empirical relations given by Equation
FIo. 3.
Initial peak impact pressures vs effective impact angle.
248 JuL10 G. GIANNOrTI
(3) for a twodimensional model of an inclined plate dropped at several values of vertical
velocity and a forward velocity of 70 ft s ~ at different angles
of impact. It is clear that
at angles under 10° Equation (1) departs significantly from the experimental observations represented by Equation (2). However, at angles of 10° and above the two ~ets of curves converge and the peak impact pressures can be predicted on the basis of stagnation line velocity. The peak impact pressures by themselves are of little use for design since they are felt only by a very small area of the plating. In fact the peak pressures obtained experi
mentaly are only seen by an
area of the size of the diaphragm of a pressure gauge whose
typical diameter is measured in fractions of an inch. However, the peak pressures are used for estimating the magnitude of the average pressure which is the parameter of interest for plating design. The average pressure acting on the wetted area of the structure is obtained from the spatial pressure distribution and can be calculated using the approximate relation
ship
P,,,,
:
P,,,
',1
(1
....
2F~/rO'~', .
(3]
where P,, is the peak pressure and ~ is the effective angle of impact. Figure 4 shows the variation of the ratio P,,,/P,,~ as a function of impact angle for a typical V section. Also shown in Fig. 4 is the shape of the instantaneous pressure distribution along the surface of the body. The average pressure given by Equation (3) has been superimposed on that distribu
tion to show its equivalency to the actual pressure envelope. The point
of action of the
,0.8
0.6
2;,2
0.1
0
Stagnation 
point 

~urfoce Water , : ~ 
F~ c 
~i 
JH 

, 
 p 
/ 
i I 

// 
Approximate 
! 

/ 
/ 
formula 
i 

/~ //zz/'' /" 

I 
1 
i 

Effecttve 
impoc ~r angle, 
degrees 
FIG. 4.
Pressureratio Pay/P,,, VS effectiveimpact angle.
High speed ship structural dynamics, practical application to design
249
resulting force associated with the pressure envelope acting on the wetted area, usually known as the center of pressure 7, is given by
^{C} 
.... 
I 
 
0.5 
[U0t/2)] 
0.~o7 
(4} 
C 
where c is the wetted length. In order to translate the average impact pressure into an impact load the instantaneous value of wetted area must be known. This can be accomplied by means of a sixdegreeof freedom impact simulation computer program developed by Band, 1969. At each instant of time the dynamic simulation procedure yields the position of the immersed portion of the structure with respect to the wave surface. To account for the fact that the water level is disturbed during impact the water surface is assumed to be splashed up along the immersed portion above the level of the undisturbed wave surface. The amount of this splash up is shown in Fig. 5 where QaXa is the splash up above the immersion Va measured with respect to the undisturbed wave surface. The factor Qa is given by
Qa
~ hi2

2~.{n/2) 
l}/n
(5)
which is an expression derived from impact and planing theories.
The product of the average pressure acting on each elemental length (shaded area in
Fig. 5) of the
affected portion of the hull times the wetted area of that element, which is
determined as explained above, provides a value for the total force acting on each element. The vertical, transverse, and longitudinal components of these elemental forces are summed to provide the total forces acting along the three axes of the ship. Since both pressures and forces are computed at each increment of time the pressure and force time histories associated with a given impact can be readily plotted and used in local and overall hull structural analyses respectively. In view of the fact that the weight of the ship is assumed to be exactly counterbalanced by the buoyancy forces and that the drag is assumed to be exactly equal to the thrust of the propulsion device, the only out of balance forces during ship slamming may be assumed to be the impact forces determined as described above. By applying the elementary laws of dynamics, it is therefore a simple matter to determine the accelerations of the ship along its three axes as well as the angular accelerations about those axes. In the step by step method used for the calculation the accelerations thus determined are integrated to allow the velocities at each instant of time to be calculated, and the velocities are in turn integrated to determine the displacements with respect to time. The geometric orientation of the hull which results from the calculation is then used at the next instant of time to determine the wetted area, the stagnation velocity, the peak and average pressures, and these are in turn integrated to provide new values for the acceleration.
hnpact loads design criteria
With
the advent of new and more rational methods
of structural design of marine
vehicles the use of probabilistic techniques for predicting the frequency of occurrence of any type of load of a given severity are becoming quite common. It is the probability
250 JUl_lO G. GIA/fNOTrl
domain (in conjunction with the time domain) which offers a route for combining loads of different origin for the purpose of developing rational structural loads design criteria. A complete coverage of this topic is given by Band et al., 1976. With this in mind it is appropriate to present the results of the impact simulation in a form which can be readily used as input to these techniques. Thus each of the impact situations is simulated assuming
0
3
X 3
3atum
plane
V 2 is true velocity of local stagnation in space
ii
Stagnation line
½ 
/ /' 
/ 

^{W} \ 

v, 

'fective 
stern 

Pressure 
disfrubutiOCI 
I/I is velocity of "effective stem" relative 

to water surface 

P,.n " I12 p ( V 2) 2 = stagnation pressure 

Pay = P2(I (I 
2 .~/Tr 
)2)=average pressure 

io.s(~/~)o.so7 

. location 
of center of pressure 
\ 
0 3 splashup factor= 22~(~:I)/rr
F
FI6.5.
Wetted area and pressure distribution for a typical slam.
that a certain probability distribution describes the occurrence of impacts of a specified
severity. This, of course, is not an arbitrary assumption but, rather, it is based on observa tions of experimental results with either test models or fullscale ships. For example, in
the area of catamaran slamming it has
been established (Hadler et al., 1974) that the
frequency of occurrence of impact follows a Rayleigh distribution and it is given by
f=
~
e½{(hlahP
+
(v/~v)'}
(6)
In Equation (6) ~v and eh are respectively the rootmeansquare (r.m.s.) amplitudes of the vertical velocity and vertical displacement of a given impact point on the hull with respect to the wave surface; h is the height of the impact point above the level water surface
High speed ship structural dynamics, practical application to design
251
at the normal operating conditions; ~ is an arbitrarily chosen slamming or impact velocity measured as the relative vertical velocity of the impact point at the instant of first immersion. Equation (6) really represents the frequency of occurrence of an event where the point in question makes contact with the water with an initial velocity exceeding v. The frequency of occurrence of water contact only at that point is given by
f
=
e½ (ia/<~h)=
(7)
The inputs of relative displacement and velocity used with these expressions are obtained from available motions programs (Lavis et al., 1972) or from experimental data. It is pointed out, however, that the use of the Rayleigh distribution is not necessarily applicable to all cases. The proper distribution to be adopted can differ from one type of vehicle to the other and careful consideration must be given to its selection. This is particularly true of air cushion vehicles and surface effect ships. Once the distribution is chosen and the magnitude of impact pressures and forces taking place with given frequencies of occurrence are established for specific displacement, heading and sea state then short and long term term predictions of these loads can be carried out. The latter requires previous definition of the operational envelope of the vehicle depending on the geographic region where it is expected to perform its functions. With inputs of vehicle geometry, inertia, motions and velocities along with wave conditions and heading, the impact simulation is used to generate impact pressure and impact force timehistories. For design criteria development, for example, this information can be obtained from the vehicle operational envelope. Figure 6 shows the operational envelope for a typical ACV in the cushionborne mode. All ship headings are considered equally probable and so are the ship displacements. Each sea state is represented by its significant wave height, Hlf8, and the ship's speed range includes astern, hover and ahead
._
~
.=
0.09
o.o9
.o
o
o.?
.097
°
o
"
1, :T
o,3
__
__
,
.....
;,
0.348
20
l
40
C rofl"
2,~
____
F~_
I
I
I
0.224
l
60
speed,
i
80
knots
I.,,
Speed
1
I O0
F~G. 6.
AALC mission probabilities envelope oncushion over water.
252 JULIO G. GIANNOTII
conditions. A plot of probability of frequency of occurrence of vertical impact load for this ACV with given displacement, heading, speed, sea state and mode of operation is shown in Fig. 7 as obtained using the impact program described earlier. With the probabi
a=l
_o
^{g} o
a,
g
7, E
Fl{i.
0.4~ 
...................................................... 

O.3 

0,2 

O. 

o 
I I_llL 
I 
L 
I 
II 
~""~,. 
I 
1J_j 

106 
[05 
104 
tO5 

Frecluency 
of 
occurrence, 
occurrences/see 

7. Long term vertical slamming load AALC mission. 
lity of the vehicle being in a specific condition defined by the operational envelope of Fig. f~ one can enter Fig. 7 and establish the impact force associated with that probability or frequency of occurrence. If, for example, it is established from the operational envelope
that the design impact load is to be
that occurring once in
10 5 s
then
the
value
chosen
from Fig. 7 would be about 150,000 lbf. In addition, the timehistory of this load can be obtained from the impact simulation and is shown in Fig. 8.
25 
Actual 
pulse 
force 



~Tdeallzed 
half s~ne 

pulse T:O,09 
sec 

20 

0 

! ' 15 

0 

u 
tO 

O 
0,02 
0.04 
0,06 
0.00 
Oo LO 

"Time, 
sec 
Design vertical slamming force pulse applied at bo~.
The impact simulation can also be used to generate parametric design information on magnitudes and frequency or probability of occurrence of impact loads as a function of displacement, heading, speed, station at which the impact occurs and sea state. Illustrative examples for a hypothetical ACV are given in Figs 9 and 10.
High speed ship structural dynamics,
practical application to design
253
bow impact; different probabilities of occurrence.
A specific problem of interest to the designer of vehicles supported by a cushion of air is the effect of the presence of the inflated seals or skirts on the magnitude and frequency of occurrence of slamming loads. The overall effect is a reduction in the frequency of occurrence of hard structure impacts and the resulting loads are smaller in comparison to
the case where the seal or skirt is absent.
[t is important to realize, however, that the sear
^{f} \
\
~8
Flu.
10.
Maximum vertical impact force vs probability of occurrence of impacts at the bo~
of a hypothetical ACV; SS6; V
: 50 knots; heading
=:: 180 °, 90 °, 0".
254 JULIO G. GIANNOTTI
or skirt slam induced loads are still considerable and must be accounted for in the estimate of overall hull loads acting on surface effect vehicles. Having obtained the total impact loads which are important for overall hull structural loading considerations, the next step is to analyze the local effects of the impact phenomenon and develop local impact loads criteria. This requires looking very closely at the impact pressure pulse as it travels over the surface of the plating as shown by the schematic of Fig. 11. Typically, as the
Successive 
_~ 
__ ~.~_ 
. ~/ 
, ._ 
~ 

pressure 
'~~ 
I\ 
/ 
\ \ 
~: 
~"~>~ 

distributions 
/\ 
/ 
\ 
/' 
.~>:f 
V3 

//~ 
"" 
 
/ 
woter lines 
FIG. 11.
Impact pressure distributions as a function of time for local plating.
wetted length increases, the pressure peak decreases and the pressure distribution varies. Any individual strip of plating will sense an abrupt rise in pressure as the peak approaches it, followed by a more gradual decay. The impact program is equipped with subroutines which perform this type of analysis, and Fig. 12 shows predicted impact pressure pulses for the case of an inclined panel making contact with the water surface at very high speed. The pulses axe shown in a simplified form which is required in order to use it as input to a finite element model of the plate. The finite element model gives the stresses and strains experienced by the plate and allows one to establish equivalent pressures for us in local plating design as well as the dynamic load factors associated with hydrodynamic impact.
400 _
ul ~o0
n'
t
Q.
200
I00
o.ot
2
4
(5
8
I0
Length
in
in
J2
i
14
I6
F]G. 12.
Pressure distributions at selected timeuniform over ½ in. strips for a flat test panel
at high impact velocity.
18
High speed ship structural dynamics, practical application to design 255
3. HULL STRUCTURAL MODELS AND RESPONSE
The common practice in the analysis of displacement ships subjected to transient dynamic loads has been to represent the hull structure as a freefree beam with several attempts to improve this type of modeling in order to study the vibrational response of the ship. Appendix A contains a summary of some of the most significant contributions in this area for the past 15 yr as reported recently by Mansour and d'Oliveira (1975). Although the approach of representing the hull as a one dimensional vibrating structure seems to provide reasonably good design numbers for conventional displacement monohulls
the same may not be true of unconventional hulls such as an ACV or an SES. One dimensional beam theory does not account for shear lag effects, local vibrations and coupling between horizontal and torsional vibrations all of which can play important roles in the structural response of the unconventional hulls. However, a few attempts have
been
made to include some of these effects in the analysis of conventional hulls s u bjected to
dynamic loads. Leibowitz and Schwendler (1965) developed a three dimensional beam shellsprung body model of the NS "Savannah" with the propeller and shafting treated as a sprung body attached to a beamshell system representing the hull. Kline and Cough (1957) developed a model of a ship with doublebottom girder capable of independent local deformations by means of two beams interconnected by rigid links and springs. In spite of these efforts it is apparent from recent experience with the development of structural design criteria for surface effect ships that the use of more sophisticated tech niques such as finite element structural models is imperative. The advantage of using finite element techniques is that a much more detailed and realistic two and three dimensional representations of the hull in question can be achieved. One such computer program has already been developed for performing dynamic analysis of conventional hulls at the Netherlands Ship Model Basin (1971). In the case of weight critical high speed hulls, the use of Nastran finite element models is starting to prove its effectiveness as a very useful design tool. Thus, one, two and three finite element models of these hulls can be developed. One dimensional representations are designed to provide a simple model for initial load analysis and parametric studies where primarily gross ship response is desired. With one dimensional finite element models the designer can perform normal modes analysis, impactinduced transient response analysis and waveinduced frequency response analysis. Longitudinal stations used for defining the model relate directly to the two and three dimensional stations. All structural elements are bar elements and assume uniform section properties over their length. The section properties of crosssectional area, longitudinal moment of inertia and shear stiffness are based upon full ship calculated properties. The ship mass is distributed into lumped mass points existing at the grid points of the model. Two dimensional finite element models are constructed with the goal of providing a principal loads model with which the majority of the loads analysis may be performed. They are a very useful tool for generating internal loads and accelerations for subsequent use in detailed stress analysis. Types of analysis performed here include normal modes analysis, waveinduced frequency response analysis and impactinduced transient response analysis. The two dimensional models are designed to approximate the overall structural behavior of the three dimensional ship as closely as possible. In this case, the design of the individual model structural elements considers the longitudinal and transverse as well as torsional stiffness of the fullscale ship. Additionally, vertical shear stiffness in both the longitudinal and transverse directions is accounted for. Stress recovery coefficients are
256 JULiO G. GIA~qorrt
chosen at each element to represent as closely as possible, longitudinal and transverse extensional stresses at the desired keel and deck levels due to overall hull bending. The longitudinal stations are located according to the fullscale ship transverse bulkhead locations. The ship mass for each of the operating weights is distributed into lumped mass points existing at each of the grid points of the model. Threedimensional finite element representations of a fullscale hull are designed with the intention of providing a detailed model closely representing the structural behavior characteristics of the actual ship while maintaining a model size and computer run within reasonable limits, It is primarily a verification tool to be used after the most critical condi tions have been identified by the use of the one and two dimensional analysis. For example, in the case of a surface effect ship only a three dimensional model is suitable for investigating sidehull impact conditions and the definitions of frame loadings. Figures 13 and 14 show examples of such structural element models, l'he shaded area,~ on the skirt structural model of Fig. 13 indicate where compressive loads would occur, which of course would wrinkle the fabric. A minor adjustment in geometry removed the wrinkles and the design finalized. Figure 14 is a structural model of the JEFFA landing craft. The finite element models discussed above can be used for different purposes. First it is possible to obtain the natural frequencies and model shapes of the ship's hull for different weight conditions for longitudinal bending, transverse bending and torsion, In the case
SESIOOA
BOW SEA~
......
C(_
........
CRAFT
~'727,/7Fo M PR ES S I v Ell
II ....
STRESS
:
,
I
1
FK;.
13.
Structural
model of the SES100A
bow seal.
High speed ship structural dynamics, practical application to design
JEFF (A} STRUCTURE
257
~"
x'~i~~ ~,.c~~
~'~'~=~
'

...".
'
Fx6. 14.
Structural model of the JEFFA landing craft.
II
 ~o 

Is1" mode 

846 

~° 

2nd 
mode 

3638 

/// 

3rd 
mode 

5266 

v/I 
r 

4¢tl 
mode 
11870
FIcJ. 15. Vibrations of a cantilever plate divided into four triangular elements; modal shapes. Data:E=30 ~ 1061b/in~;t =0.1in;L =2in;b ~=lin;V=0.3;density~ =:0.2831b/ins. The numbers listed show frequencies in cycles/s.
258
JULIO G. GIANNO'lq I
of the structure of an SES, for example, a two dimensional flat plate model can be adapted to predict the natural frequencies and modal shapes of the hull. Figure 15 shows the output of the finite element model of a cantilever plate illustrating tiffs method. The second type of information which can be readily obtained from the finite element model of a high speed ship hull is the overall hull response to dynamic transient loads. Of primary importance is the need to establish the dynamic load factor (DLF) of the hull. The DLF is defined as the ratio of the total flexible body load to the total rigid body load. The impact force timehistories predicted via the impact simulation discussed in the previous section can be used to excite the finite element model of the hull. In order to determine the DLF two separate transient response computer runs can be performed. One run would represent the flexible and rigid body hull structure response to the transient impact force while the second run would simulate only the flexible body response in which the rigid body modes are deleted from the analysis. The difference between these two cases is the rigid body hull response upon which is based the DLF. Thus, in terms of bending moment the dynamic load factor is defined by
DLF =
Total flexible body dynamic moment Rigid body moment
At the time of writing of this paper the results of finite element analyses of hull structure response of high speed ships such as the SES have not been published in the open literature. However, to illustrate the type of output which is obtained from similar analyses, the results presented by St. Denis and Fersh for the hull of the "Wolverine State" are quite useful. St. Denis and Fersh (1968) treated the hull as a Timoshenko beam and the solution was obtained using a finitedifference technique. Their model was excited with unit impulses
of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 second applied at 25 jo~ of the ship's length from the bow. Time increments of 0.0001 to 0.02 s were used. Three sets of values of flexural and shear rigidities
were introduced, namely,
normal, 75 ~,i of normal and 50 ~
of
normal. The normal set of
values corresponds to the ship as built. Damping was not included in the analysis and their preliminary results indicated that the influence of structural flexibility is to reduce the
maximum bending moment in the hull structure. This effect is demonstrated in Figs. 16
and
17.
The finite element models discussed above are meant to be used in the analysis of the overall hull structural response to dynamic loads. However, the structural designer is also interested in the local plating response and the development of effective local load envelopes which will result in low structural weight and still keep plate damage at acceptable levels. The reponse of thelocal plating of a high speed ship subjected to slamming loads is expected to be nonlinear for two main reasons. First, the deflections arising from the highly impulsive loads are usually beyond the classical small deflection range. Second, inelastic stressstrain
behavior (yielding) is experienced in local regions of the plating. In order to design the local structure against dynamic impulsive loads such as those arising from ship slamming it is necessary to establish equivalent or characteristic impact pressure distributions which can be used readily to estimate plate dimensions and possible damage. This can be done using standard finite element or finite difference models. Examples of these techniques are MareCDC and Ansys (nonlinear finite element programs) and
High speed ship structural dynamics, practical application to design
15
259
! 
°o.,, 
\\ 

~o 
\\\ 
/// 
~/ 
\ 
.... 
I 

'~l~ 
~ 

_~o1~ 
I 
L 
I 
I 
r 
L 
I 

0 
62 
124 
186 
248 
510 
372 
434 
496 

X 
in 
ft 
Flo. 16. Envelope of maximum bending moments along length of ship corresponding to a unit impulse of 0.1 sec duration applied at the quarter point of the hull~of the "Wolverine State" as built (normal rigidity) and of derived hulls of 75 and 50~o normal rigidities.
18
16
14
.Q
"¢
12
.¢
E to
o
E
"0
(Z3
6
4
Z
0.50
I
0.60
Fraction
l
0.70
of flexural
rigidity
I
0.80
and
I
0,90
shear
hO0
F16. 17. Maximum bending moment at various locations corresponding to a unit impulse of 0.1 sec duration applied at the forward quarter point of the hull of the "Wolverine State".
260 JuLIO G.
GIANNf)TTI
Petros 2 (nonlinear finitedifference method). For illustration purposes, Fig. 18 shows the shell element as used in the MarcCDC finite element program. The element shown is an isoparametric, doubly curved thin shell element which can be degenerated to a flat plate element. The element employs nine points of integration within the quadrilateral with stresses calculated at eleven stations through the thickness at each integration point. Hence, there are 99 points at which stresses may be obtained in each element. This option is particularly advantageous in an elastic/plastic analysis since plasticity effects can be observed progressively through the element with increasing load. A coarser mesh may also be used without significant loss in accuracy.
:
K2
e7
"N
"'.~/"
"\
~
IqG. 18.
MarcCDCfinite element modal used in plating response analysis.
The digitized impact pressure pulses such as those shown in Fig. 12 can be fed into the plate Nastran model in order to predict the resulting stresses and strains. In order to effectively deal with the variety of real loading situations encountered during the service life of the hull, a characteristic load pattern must be defined for each critical operating condition. This load pattern referred to as the "standard load" by Freudenthal (1954) should be defined in the simplest possible terms. In the case of slamming pressures it appears that it is reasonable to assume a uniformly distributed pressure over the entire panel instead of the real loading which is a traveling, nonproportional distributed pressure. From observations of test results it appears that the pressure time history can be approximated by an equilateral triangle with peak value P,, and pulse duration t~t. These two parameters must be related to real load variables such as peak pressure, average pressure and stagnation velocity. The final step in this procedure is to estimate the dynamic load factors of a plate subjected to hydrodynamic impact. This can be accomplished using the standard methods
of structural dynamics where curves of DLF vs the ratio ta/T (ta pulse
duration;
T
natural period of the structural element) for a given pulse shape are used to estimate the extent of dynamic load relief. Thus, Fig. 19 represents the response of a onedegreeof freedom undamped elastic system subjected to an equilateral load pulse. It must be realized that when dealing with a hydrodynamic impact situation the computation of the natural period T must include the hydrodynamic mass effects. This will result in a larger value of T compared to that of the structural element alone. Finally, while in the elastic range the dynamic effects may be insignificant, an analysis in the plastic range may show increased
High speed ship structural dynamics, practical application to design
261
Plo. 19.
t# /T
Maximum response of onedegree elastic systems (undamped) subjected to equi lateral triangular load pulse.
load carrying capacity of the structural element under consideration. Figure 20 shows a design chart to be used in estimating dynamic load factors for the case of a blast pressure with initial peak triangular pulse shape.
 
Volue 
of 
I/DLF 
(30to0.60) 

..... 
Volue 
of 
fm/T" 
(6.0to0.4) 

;So 
/ ///7/' 
. 

0.8 

_ 

 

~ 
~ 

. 
4 ~
O.
I
t~
i~
1.0
Ourot
ion
Period
=
",, 
,, 
60 _{:}_{/} 

" ~. 
1.0410~ 
 

 
0.96 

~ 
~ 
~_ 
__ 
0.85 

~ 
~ 
0.8 

~_,,___ 
~_>~_~ 

I0 
50 

f dd .. 

7" 
Fia. 20.
Design chart for initial peak triangular force pulse on elastoplastic system.
262 Jtn.lo G. GtAa~rNoTrl
Estimates of local slamming damage
Analytical expressions for simplified cases can be used directly to estimate the deflections and the extent of permanent damage induced to the local structure by impulsive slamming pressures. Jones and Waiters (1971) give an approximate solution of the permanent deflec tion of a dynamically loaded rectangular plate under uniform transient load. Thus, the permanent deflection of a uniformly loaded, fully clamped rectangular plate based on plasticity theory is given by
for 

and 

f.Oo 

m 

h 

for 

where 

Pc 
= 

% 
= 

h 
= 

oo 
= 

p 
= 

= 

no 
= 
°° 
 
i 
3(3rlo ) 

1 
<P 
~ 
2(9 
 
7•0 
+ 
2q0 z) 

Pc 
3(3  
q0) 

[P 
( 
P 
)2 
411°(2 rl°) {1 

+ 
 
3ono) 

211 
no(2 hal, 

t 

p 
~ 
2(9 
 
7rh 
q 2no ~) 

Pc 
3(3  
rio) 
(8)
3

rio
.J
(9)
static collapse pressure for a clamped perfectly plastic rectangular plate
12z~h~
(3

2n0)ap~
yield stress of material in pure tension plate thickness maximum permanent deflection (damage) at plate center
slamming impact pressure
ap/bp _< 1 =
~(~3
+
~
plate aspect ratio
~).
The above formulas apply to a plate for which the time duration of impact is much longer than the natural period of the plate as is the case for ship slamming. Jones (1973) presents curves of oo/h vs a nondimensional impulse parameter I' for fully clamped rectangular plates of different aspect ratio subjected to a triangular pressure pulse. Some of these curves are given in Fig. 21. The impulse parameter I' is defined as
I'
pT
(Oh2ec)
½
(t0)
where T is the natural period of the fully clamped plate.
High speed ship structural dynamics, practical application to design
263
r/=,oo
I0
(a)
3
3
2
/3 =0
t
2
4
6
I ~
8
IO
5
4
5
2,5
/2.75
1.5
1.25
(b)
3 r
,/~= 0.2
//
2
I
o
z
(c)
~.~ 00
Io
ajo
,8:0,75
///~
i 
5
4
:5
2.5
275
1.5
~1.25
0
2
4
ii6
8
I0
(d)
B=
I
z
I
0
2
"q : oo 
tO 

/ 
~.~,~ 
~ 
4 

3 

2.5 

2 

1.75 

1.5 

1.25 

4 
6 
8 
10 

I" 

"r/oo // 
IO 

4 

3 

2.5 

12.75 

1,5 

_{I} _{,}_{2}_{5} 

4 
6 
8 
I0 

I' 
FIG. 21.
Maximum permanent lateral deflections of fully clamped rectangular plates subjected to a triangular pressure pulse.
In the area of damage induced to curved surfaces such as cylindrical and spherical shells and shell intersections the reader is referred to the work reported in Jones et aL, 1973; Jones et al., 1972. These results could be applied to the prediction of slamming damage to portions of the hull exhibiting curvature. Figures 22 and 23 show plots of the ratio o3o/h vs total applied impulse for aluminium and steel cylindrical shell panels with included angles of 90 °. Figure 24 shows the same deflection data of Figs. 22 and 23 plotted vs the nondimensional impulse parameter ~,h/R where
X  PVo2R2/Gsh, V o  Impulsive Velocity.
R is the mean radius of the cylindrical panel, and the other symbols are as previously defined. Superimposed on these experimental points are deflection predictions made using
264 JUL10 G. GIANNOT'II
~'6ra h 
0,082in, 

zx h 
0.091 
in, 

Oh 
0,124 in 

7 

0,8 
0,4
1, 
I 
L 
L 

0.4 
0.6 
0.8 
1.0 

Total 
impulse, 
tb 
sec 
0.2 1.2
FIo, 22.
~%/h vs total impulse for aluminum 6061 T6 cylindrical shell panels with 2a ~ 90L
2.0
o 
h 
~ 0,076 
in. 
Ah 
=0,108 
in. 

oh 
'0,120 
In. 
1.6
1,2
wo
h
0.8
0.4
i. 
[ 
I 
.......... 
I 

0.8 
i.6 
2.4 
3.t 

Impulse, 
tb 
see 
FIo. 23.
¢oo/h vs total impulse for hot rolled mild steel cylindrical shell panels with 2ct ~ 90 °.
a finite difference technique. Points 1 and 2 are predictions for the aluminium specimens while 3 and 4 correspond to the steel specimens. Reasonably good agreement with the measured data was achieved.
High speed ship structural dynamics, practical application to design
265
1.8 
I 

1.6 

1.4 

1.2 

I.o 

(a "T" o 
o.e 

0.6 

0.4 

0.2 

0 

V and 
0 
ore 
finite 
[] 
h 
0.082 
in. 

Ah 
0.091 
in 
AL 
6061 
T6 

o 
h 
0.124 
in. 

• 
h 
0.076 
in. 

• 
h 
0.108 
in. 
Mild 
sfeel 
~3 

oh 
0.120 
in. 

[2 

• 
O0 

• 
5 
4 

vl 

•A 

o 
A 

I 
2 
5 
4 
5 
6 

h 
H/R 

difference 
results 
FIG. 24.
o~o/h vs the nondimensional impulse
parameter 2h/R for all aluminum 6061 T6
and hot rolled mild steel panels (2~z =
90°).
4.
CONCLUSIONS
The procedures for conducting dynamic analyses of overall and local hull structures presented here for the case of impact loads due to slamming can be used with dynamic loads of different origin. The need for these advanced techniques for predicting loads coupled with the use of finite element structural response models and the use of plasticity theory is the result of the increasingly stringent strength/weight ratios imposed on modern high speed marine vehicles.
APPENDIX
A
SUMMARY
OF ANALYSES OF HULL STRUCTURAL
RESPONSE TO TRANSIENT DYNAMIC
LOADS BASED ON A RECENT SURVEY BY MANSOUR AND d'OLIVEIRA, 1973
Author 
Analysis and Results 
ANDREWS 
A method for determining the elastic body response of a ship to a seaway was 
ANTONIDES 
developed. The ship was divided into equal sections, and for each one a forcing function and masselastic parameters representing the hull were computed. The forcing function was considered to include an unsteady hydro dynamic component, obtained from the measured rigidbody motions, and a hydrostatic component. The ship was essentially treated as a freefree beam and the waves were assumed to be trochoidal. The damping coefficient was given a zero value throughout the computations. Developed a computer program to evaluate hull responses to a traveling 
CHURCH 
slamming force by the normal mode method. The ship hull is considered as a nonuniform beam divided into twenty sections. The virtual mass is lumped and connected with weightless rigid rods hinged at the masses and impact forces are considered as discrete forces acting vertically on each mass. Developed a model to study the elastic motions and hull girder stresses of a 
HELLER AND JASPER 
ship with appreciable bow flare in heavy seas. Church concluded that the bending moment for a given ship design can be expressed as a function of the peak bow immersion, which is linearly dependent on the wave crest height. Developed a semiempirical design procedure for predicting the response of planing craft hulls subjected to dynamic impact loads. 
266 JULIO G. GIANNOTTI
HYLARIDES 
Suggests the finiteelement method as an effective means of taking into account 

KAPLAN 
the spatial composition of the hull, providing a much more realistic three dimensional representation of a ship structure. As a result the imperfections of the beam method essentially caused by considering the hull as a one dimensional vibrating structure are eliminated. The work evaluates and contributes to the mathematical models of describing 

KL~NE AND CLOUGH 
shipwave interaction, and it is mostly concerned with the computer simulati on of waveinduced structural loadings, including not only bottom impact slamming but also bow flare slamming and springing, or waveexcited main hull vibration. The structural model adopted is the freefree beam, and a definition of the bottom impact forcing function si~mlar to the one given by Andrews and Leibowitz is followed. Kaplan concludes that it is not con venient in practice to represent the bending moment due to slamming in a spectral form, and suggests as a more effective way the timehistory representa tion which can be combined directly with the timehistory output due to the slowly varying waveinduced bending moment. The random wave input is obtained through a whitenoise generator adequately filtered to produce a desired spectral form. Attempted the use of an improved model to study the dynamic response of the 

LEIBOWITZ 
hull, including slamming. The influence of bulkhead spacing, machinery and cargo location, hull girder and doublebottom stiffnesses were analyzed by these authors. Their model included a main elastic axis, representing the primary flexural behavior of the hull girder, and an additional axis accounting for the double bottom, which is in fact capable of independent local deforma tions. At intervals, the two axes were coupled either by rigid connections representing the bulkheads or by springs allowing a certain degree of relative movement of the two girders. Finally, buoyancy springs provided it support to the model. The slamming load or forcing function was assumed to be a half sine wave impulse applied to the flexible bottom structure at a particular station near the bow. The work represents a refined extension of Andrews' report with more precise treatment of certain parameters such as added mass, description of the waves, and damping. The computations were based on an experimental knowledge of the ship's rigidbody motions relative to the waves, which were taken from graphical records of periods of time when slamming was actually known to have occurred. 

MAN,SOUR and 
d'OLIVEIRA 
A mathematical formulation of the vibratory bending moment due to bottom 
ST. DENIS and FEaSH 
impact slamming in regular waves was developed. The hydrodynamic problem concerning the definition of the loads is first discussed and a particular physical model is adopted for determining the hull vibratory behavior. Based on this formulation, a general computerized procedure leading to the timehistory representation of the midship bending moment is developed. Finally, an illustrative example of application to a Mariner ship is described and the results are related to some available data. Investigated the effect of ship stiffness on the hull structural response. They treated the ship as Timoshenko beam and the solution was obtained using a finitedifference technique. Damping was not included in the analysis. Their preliminary results indicated that the influence of structural flexibility is to reduce the maximum bending moment in the hull structure. 
REFERENCES
ANDREWS, J. N. 1963. A Method for Computing the Response of a Ship To a Transient Force. DTMB Report
1544.
ANTONIDES, G. P. 1972 Computer Program for Structural Response to Ship Slamming. NSRDC Report
..
4
SADgE.
BAND, E. G. U. 1969. Study of Bow Impact Loads for lO0ton Surface Effect Ship. Wyle Laboratories Payne
Division Working Paper 180082. BAND, E. G. U., GIANNOTrI, J. G. and LAVlS, D. R. 1976. Prediction of Hydrodynamic Impact Pressures on ACV and SES Structures, AIAA/SNAME Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference, Arlington. Virginia
High speed ship structural dynamics, practical application to design 267
BARTHOLOMEW, R. J. 1974. Rational Dynamic Loads Analysis for Air Cushion Vehicles in Random Seaway or Terrain, AIAA 74322. BIGGS, J. M. 1964. Introduction to Structural Dynamics. McGrawHill. BIGGS, J. M. 1961. Design of Structures to Resist Nuclear Weapons Effects. ASCE Manual No. 42; American Society of Civil Engineers. CHUANG, SL. 1973. Slamming Tests of ThreeDimensional Models in Calm Water and Waves., NSRDC
Report 4095. CrIURCH, J. W. 1962. Computer Modeling of the Elastic Response of Ship to Sea Loads. 4th Symposium on
Naval Hydrodynamics. FREUDENTHAL, A. M. 1954. Safety and the Probability of Structural Failure. Proceedings of ASCE (August
1954).
GIANNOTTI, J. G. 1975. A Dynamic Simulation of Wave Impact Loads on Offshore Floating Platforms ASME Paper 75WA/OcE4. HADLER,J. B., LEE, C. M., JONES, H. D. and BIRMINGHAM,J. T. 1974. Ocean Catamaran Seakeeping Design, Based on the Experiences of the USNA HA YES, paper presented at the annual meeting of SNAME. HEELER, S. R. and JASPER, N. H. 1960. On the Structural Design of Planing Craft. Quarterly Transactions of the Royal Institute of Naval Architects.
HYLARIDES, S. 1971. Ship vibration Analysis by Finite Element Technique. Netherlands Ship Research Centre Report 1535 (May 1971). JONES, N., DUMAS, J. W. and GIANNOTTI,J. G. 1972. The Dynamic Plastic Behavior of Shells, Pergamon Press, pp. 129. JONES, N. 1973. Slamming damage. J. Ship Res. 17, 2. JONES, N., GIANNOTrI,J. G. and GRASSlT, K. E. 1973. Art experimental study into the dynamic inelastic behavior of spherical shells and shell intersections. Archs Mech. Engng 20, 3346 JONES, N. and WALTERS,R. M. 1971. Large deflections of rectangular plates. J. Ship. Res. 15, 2. KAPLAN, P. and SARGENT,T. P. 1972. Further Studies of Computer Simulation of Slamming and Other Wave Induced Vibratory Structural Loadings on Ships in Waves. SSC231. KLINE, R. G. 1975. Springing and Hydroelastie Problems of Large Ships. paper presented at the SNAME First Ship Technology and Research (STAR) Symposium in Washington. KLINE, R. G. and CI.OUGH, R. W. 1957. The Dynamic Response of Ship's Hull as Influenced by Proportion, Arrangement, Loading and Structural Stiffness. SNAME Spring Meeting. LAVIS, D. R., JONES, J. C. and BARTHOLOMEW,R. J. 1972. Response of Air Cushion Vehicles to Random Seaways and the Inherent Distortion in Scale Models. AIAA Paper 72598. LEmowlxz, R. C. 1962. Comparison of Theory and Experiment for Slamming of a Dutch Destroyer. DTMB Report 1511. LEIaOWITZ, R. C. 1963. A Method for Predicting Slamming Forces and Response of a Ship Hull. DTMB Report 1691. LEIBOWITZ,R. C. 1965. Three Dimensional (BeamShellSprung Body) Vibration Analysis of NS SA VANNAH, DTMB Report 1728. LEIBOWlTZ, R. C. 1971. DASH, Computer Program for Dynamic Analysis of Ship Hulls. Netherlands Ship Research Centre Report 159S. LEWIS, E. V., HOFFMAN,D., MACLEAN, W. M., VAN HOOFF, R. and ZUBALY, R. B. 1973. Load Criteria for Ship Structural Design. SSC240; AD 767 389. MANSOUR, A. and D'OLIVERIA,J. M. 1975. Hull bending moment due to ship bottom slamming in regular waves. Ship. Res. 19, 2. MANTLE, P. J. 1975. Air Cushion Craft Seminar for U.S. Navy Personnel. Presentation at NAVSEC. NOONAN, E. F. 1975. An Assessment of Current Shipboard Vibration Technology. Paper presented at the SNAME Ship Structure Symposium in Washington. ST. DENIS, M. and FERSH, S. 1968. The Effect of Ship Stiffness upon the Structural Response of a Cargo Ship to an Impulsive Load. SCC186. SCHUMACHER, J. G. and BROWN, P. E. 1975. Local Response of 2KSES Wet Deck Panels. Schumacher and Associates, Inc. ZmNK]EW1CZ, O. C. 1971. The Finite Element Method in Engineering Science. McGrawHill. Zr~r~KIEWlCZ, O. C. 1974. MARCCDC, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis Program. Pedro V. Marcal and Associates; MARC Analysis Research Corporation, 13, Version F.