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Original Article

Waste Management & Research

29(1) 1319

Challenges and issues in moving towards ! The Author(s) 2011

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sustainable landfilling in a transitory DOI: 10.1177/0734242X10383080
country Malaysia

P Agamuthu and SH Fauziah

Malaysia disposes of 28 500 tonnes of municipal solid waste directly into landfills daily. This fact alone necessitates sustain-
able landfills to avoid adverse impacts on the population and the environment. The aim of the present study was to elucidate
the issues and challenges faced by waste managers in moving towards sustainable landfilling in Malaysia. Various factors
influence the management of a landfill. Among them is the human factor, which includes attitude and public participation.
Although Malaysias economy is developing rapidly, public concern and awareness are not evolving in parallel and therefore
participation towards sustainable waste management through the reduce, reuse and recycle approach (3Rs) is severely
lacking. Consequently, landfill space is exhausted earlier than scheduled and this is no longer sustainable in terms of security
of disposal. Challenges also arise from the lack of funding and the increase in the price of land. Thus, most waste managers
normally aim for just enough to comply with the regulations. Investment for the establishment of landfills generally is
minimized since landfilling operations are considered uneconomical after closure. Institutional factors also hamper the
practice of sustainable landfilling in the country where 3Rs is not mandatory and waste separation is totally absent.
Although there are huge obstacles to be dealt with in moving towards sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, recent developments
in waste management policy and regulations have indicated that positive changes are possible in the near future.
Consequently, with the issues solved and challenges tackled, landfills in Malaysia can then be managed effectively in a
more sustainable manner.

Sustainable landfill, public participation, reduce, reuse and recycle (3Rs), institutional driver, economic driver
Date received: 4 June 2010; accepted: 8 August 2010

Introduction transitory countries such as Malaysia. Although landlls

The increase in population has been one of the factors which are contributing economical values in terms of energy and
translate to higher generation of waste. In most developing carbon reduction potentials in developed countries, most of
countries the impact is more profound due to the rapid eco- the landlls in Malaysia contaminate the environment with
nomic growth. As a result, the higher purchasing power the free emission of landll gas and leachate (Fauziah et al.,
enables the community to consume various new types of 2007; Agamuthu et al., 2009b).
products leading to the composition of the waste generated Landlling is an essential necessity for waste management
becoming more complex and highly heterogeneous. from an economic point of view regardless of the pre-treat-
In Malaysia, the increase in the complexity of waste gener- ments prior to waste disposal, particularly in developing
ated is evident from the 1980s to the 2000s (Agamuthu et al.,
2009a). Although Malaysias economy makes it among the
Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur,
most progressive transitory countries in the world, waste Malaysia.
management is in rather a poor state. Developed nations
such as Denmark, Austria, Germany and Japan have ecient Corresponding author:
P. Agamuthu, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya,
waste management systems to deal with the waste generated Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
by their citizens but similar scenarios are non-existent in Email:

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14 Waste Management & Research 29(1)

nations. Malaysia, which has a daily generation of more than and the construction of more sanitary landlls were high-
30 000 tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW), disposes of lighted (Agamuthu et al., 2008). To full Class IV regula-
approximately 95% of MSW directly into landlls. tions, it is compulsory that a landll has a proper leachate
Therefore, the need for sustainable landlls is very crucial treatment system in addition to a gas removal system, a sep-
to avoid undesirable impacts to human health and the envi- arate unloading and working area, daily cover and enclosing
ronment. Unfortunately, economic growth, which has been bund, elimination of scavenging activities and environmental
given higher priority than the concept of sustainable waste protection facilities. Although the urgent need calls for the
management, has resulted in the environment being sacriced immediate action towards a sustainable landlling system,
for the sake of economic aspirations. Thus, sustainable land- the target is yet to be achieved. This is due to the fact that
lling is too complex for the country to achieve. Although there are numerous obstacles to sustainable landlling in the
various strategies have been implemented over the years to country. The objective of the present study was to elucidate
improve the waste management system in the country, the the challenges and issues faced by waste managers in making
pace of progress is too slow to cater for the ever-increasing landlls in Malaysia sustainable. Various factors that tackle
threats of improper management of landlls. the challenges will be analysed via waste management issues
Furthermore, the relative humidity of more than 90% and that exist in the country, in order to identify possibilities for
an annual precipitation of 18002600 mm in Malaysia means improving the landlling system in Malaysia.
that there are additional climatic factors to be considered
during the design and planning of landlls. The coastal
areas in Malaysia have a high water-table meaning that exca-
vation, sometimes, is not possible beyond 1 m depth in order In Malaysia, during the early 1970s with low population den-
that landlls sited in these areas do not pose a greater risk of sity the need for a centralized waste management system did
groundwater contamination by leachate. These factors fur- not seem important. Aside from the fact that the waste was
ther compromise the attainment of sustainability in composed of organic materials, the quantity produced was so
Malaysian landlls. low that individual waste generators or municipalities han-
An incident in 2007 in which the water catchment area in dled the waste themselves. Among the methods utilized then
Klang Valley was contaminated with leachate from adjacent were burning or burying waste within the compound of the
landlls, exposed the seriousness of the environmental waste generators or utilizing it as animal feed. As most dwell-
impact from unsustainable landlls (The Star, 2007). The ings were located on large pieces of land, space was available
immediate repercussion saw the closure of several landlls for burning or burying waste, or rearing domestic animals.
in Malaysia, on a direct order from the Federal However, the late 1970s saw the initiation of the development
Government (The Star, 2007). This paved the way for more of centralized residential areas where government ocers
signicant improvement of landlls in Malaysia where open- were given quarters during the period of their service, and
dumps at unsuitable locations such as those adjacent to rivers the private sector purchased private houses in newly con-
and water catchment areas were closed in phases. In addi- structed housing schemes. The development of housing
tion, currently operating open dumps would undergo schemes throughout the country particularly in urban areas
upgrading to improve the facilities to Class IV landll required the local government and municipal authorities to
(Table 1), a total ban of new open dumps was imposed, ensure that good sanitary and health conditions were pro-
vided for the area.
This initiated some rudimentary waste collection systems,
Table 1. Classification of disposal site in Malaysia which involved MSW being hauled from residential areas for
Landfill class Criteria/facilities available
disposal at dumping grounds owned by the municipalities.
The disposal sites were mainly located in unwanted areas
Class I Minimum facilities fencing and perimeter and acted as mere open dumps. As the generation per capita
drains was less than 0.5 kg day1 and consisted of highly putrescible
Class II Additional facilities from Class 1 gas waste materials, natural degradation minimized the pollution
removal system, separate unloading and
working area, daily cover and enclosing
intensity to the surroundings.
bund, elimination of scavenging activities The open dumps were usually small to cater for the need
and environmental protection facilities of a single municipality with population less than 10 000
Class III Additional facilities from Class 2 leachate people. The MSW volume in Kuala Lumpur was only 99
recirculation system allowing the collec- tonnes day1 in the 1970s and so this minimal waste man-
tion, recirculation and monitoring of agement system was sucient to deal with the disposal
landfill leachate
(Agamuthu, 2001). At that time MSW in the country,
Class IV Additional facilities from Class 3 leachate
which included commercial, residential and non-hazardous
treatment system
industrial waste, was collected by the municipalities for

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Agamuthu and Fauziah 15

disposal. It excluded hazardous waste materials such as most municipalities, including those in Malaysia, which is
toxic waste generated by industries, which was managed sep- closely related to unsustainable landlling practices.
arately by Kualiti Alam Pvt. Ltd. Waste generation has since In 1998 alone, 228 licensed dumping sites were reported to
increased with population expansion. Table 2 depicts the the Ministry of Science Technology and Environment of
generation of waste by individual states in Malaysia from Malaysia, and these caused contamination to the surround-
1996 to 2009. ing areas (Haznews, 1998). This is due to the fact that project
developers and local authorities failed to adhere to the guide-
lines stipulated for the development of a disposal site.
Current state of MSW management Various factors inuence the management of a landll.
The traditional waste management system practised by local Among these is the human factor which includes attitude
government and the municipalities began to be inecient and and public participation.
very unsustainable when Malaysian waste generation per
capita increased from 0.5 kg day1 in late 1980s to more
than 1.3 kg day1 of waste in 2009 (Agamuthu et al.,
Human factor
2009b). In certain cities, such as Kuala Lumpur and The human factor plays an important role in establishing an
Petaling Jaya, the generation increased to 1.52.5 kg capita1 appropriate management of a landll. This is due to the fact
day1 (EPU, 2006; Agamuthu et al., 2009b). To date, annual that human activities are the main generators of waste which
waste generation in Malaysia has reached 11 millon tonnes requires a proper treatment system. In more environmentally
with more complex compositions mainly with putrescible concerned nations, positive attitude leads to high public par-
waste (55%), paper (13%) and plastic (19%) (Fauziah ticipation in matters concerning the environment. Therefore,
et al., 2009). The remaining portion of the waste contains implementing strategies that involved the public, such as
rubber and textile, wood, metal, glass, and miscellaneous source separation, can be achieved in due course. As a
items with the contributions of 4, 1, 3, 2 and 3%, respectively result, waste materials are managed eciently and landlls
(The Star, 2002; Fauziah et al., 2004). To date, approxi- are more sustainable, with longer life-span and operating
mately 95% of the waste collected (which is 75% of waste period.
generated) is landlled (Agamuthu et al., 2009b). Figure 1 Although Malaysia is a country with rapid economic
illustrates the typical composition of MSW in Malaysia. development, public participation in environmental issues is
The World Bank (1999) reported that waste management very low. Despite the running of various campaigns, such as
is one of the three major environmental problems faced by recycling adverts, to instil awareness among Malaysians,

Table 2. Generation of MSW in Malaysia according to states (19962009)

States Solid waste generated (tonnes day1)

1996 1998 2000 2002 2004* 2006* 2008* 2009*

Johor 1613 1786 1915 2093 2255 2430 2578 2655

Kedah 1114 1215 1324 1447 1559 1680 1782 1835
Kelantan 871 950 1034 1131 1213 1302 1382 1423
Melaka 433 480 515 563 605 650 690 711
Negeri Sembilan 637 695 757 828 890 957 1015 1046
Pahang 806 879 957 1046 1125 1210 1284 1322
Perak 1286 1402 1527 1669 1795 1930 2048 2109
Perlis 165 180 196 214 230 247 262 270
Pulau Pinang 916 999 1088 1189 1278 1375 1458 1502
Selangor 2380 2595 2827 3090 3322 3573 3790 3904
Terengganu 743 811 883 965 1038 1116 1184 1219
Kuala Lumpur 2105 2305 2520 2755 3025 3323 3525 3631
WP Labuan NA NA 46 70 74.3 81.2 86.1 88.7
Sabah NA NA NA 2490 2642 2887 3062 3154.3
Sarawak NA NA NA 1905 2021 2208 2343 2413
Total 13 070 14 589 15 587 21 452 23 073 24 969 26 489 27 284
NA, not available.
*Extrapolated figures. (MHLG, 2003; Agamuthu et al., 2009).

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16 Waste Management & Research 29(1)

2% 3%
1% 3%
4% 55%



Organic waste Paper Plastic Textile/ rubber

Wood Metal Glass Others

Figure 1. Typical municipal solid waste composition in Malaysia (Fauziah and Agamuthu, 2009).

there has been a failure to motivate the community to syndromes are very prevalent among Malaysians and so
respond positively. Concern and awareness among the the establishment of landlls on appropriate sites becomes
public in Malaysia have not evolved in parallel with the extremely dicult. Similarly with the construction of pre-
living standards and therefore participation towards sustain- treatment facilities such as compactor and transfer stations,
able waste management through the reduce, reuse, recycle the siting is always sturdily opposed by the public and non-
approach (3Rs) is severely lacking. Currently, recycling is governmental agencies (NGOs) (Agamuthu et al., 2009a).
only at 5%. Although studies indicated that more than The strong resistance from the public towards new waste
70% of Malaysians are aware of the recycling concept, less management or disposal facilities has caused the location
than 25% are actually participating (Irra, 1999; Fauziah of a new landll to be moved further away from the city
et al., 2009). More than 70% of Malaysians stated that centre, that developing the area incurred higher costs for
they refuse to recycle because the recycling facilities provided the construction of the new infrastructure.
are insucient and 65% indicated that recycling is an incon-
venient practice for them (Fauziah et al., 2009). As a result,
more than 80% of the recyclables in the waste stream are
Economic factor
disposed of into landlls. This causes the volume of MSW to Even though Malaysia is a developing country with a pro-
increase at 3% per year rather than decrease with ecient gressive economy, economic constraints are among the issues
recycling practices. to be tackled in establishing sustainable landlling practices.
In addition, illegal dumping has become a serious matter From the economic point of view, the challenges arise from a
to be tackled by waste managers (, 2003). lack of funding and the increase in the price of land.
In 2003, 500 drums of paint sludge and glue were dumped The lack of nancial assistance from the government for
illegally at a ravine in an isolated disused area and more than waste management in Malaysia, means that only well estab-
RM12 million (US$3.4 million) were spent for the clean-up lished and multinational companies can aord to tender to
(The Star, 2002). In the Klang Valley alone, more than 52 provide waste treatment and disposal facilities. As a result,
illegal dump sites or hotspots were reported to accumulate sanitary landlls in Malaysia are only owned by private con-
more than 933 tonnes of waste (Bernama, 2010). The waste cessionaires that belong to well-established companies.
materials cleared from these illegal dumping sites are sent To make matters worse, the existing national policy on
into landlls resulting in the landll space being exhausted waste management in the country discourages nancial insti-
earlier than anticipated. As a result, it hinders the practice of tutions such as banks from investing in waste management
sustainable landlling as the waste materials collected did not projects. Therefore, waste managers with small amounts of
undergo any pre-treatment prior to disposal. This unplanned capital are impeded from improving their disposal sites.
activity will increase the management cost of the landlls, Loans from banks are unavailable, resulting in smaller
making the existing practice no-longer sustainable. The waste management companies having little or no opportunity
occurrence of illegal dumping is generally due to the not to venture into the establishment of sustainable landlls. As a
bothered attitude among the waste collectors whose main result, most waste managers normally aim for just enough
concern is to prot from their illegal action. to comply with the regulations instead of self-sustained land-
Also, the NIMBY (not in my backyard), LULU (locally lls. In addition, the increase in the price of land has resulted
unacceptable land use) and NOTE (not over there either) in new landlls being located in areas with very minimal

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Agamuthu and Fauziah 17

Table 3. Number of operating disposal facilities in Malaysia Disposal fees or the tipping fees in a landll are highly
throughout 1990s and up to 2009 regulated by local government due to the fact that the gov-
Year 1990 1998 2003 2009 ernment are paying concessionaires for their waste manage-
ment services. Hence, landll owners and landll operators
Total 230 177 144 190 are not able to charge a rate that is sucient to generate
additional income for future improvement of their landlls.
infrastructure, or none at all, in order to minimize the capital As a result of the economic factors, investment in landlls is
cost of the landll. Table 3 shows the uctuation of the generally at the minimum as it is considered uneconomic
number of operating disposal facilities in Malaysia within once the landll has been closed. This hinders improvement
the last 20 years. towards sustainable landlling practices in the country.
The fact that landlls are seen as a mere burden and not
as a commodity in Malaysia is another aspect that impedes
the establishment of sustainable landlls. This is because
Institutional factor
landlls are mere disposal sites for waste and once a landll Aside from the economy, the existing policies in the country
is closed, it retains no further economical value. Typically also make sustainable landlling dicult to achieve. This
this results from the fact that the revenue from tipping fees institutional factor also becomes a major issue of concern.
is no longer available for the landll owners and landll The institutional factor hampers the practice of sustain-
operators once the landll ceased its operation. The absence able landlling in the country due to the lack of proper waste
of a gas-harvesting system resulted in landlls not being able management policy. The absence of an appropriate policy
to generate revenues from methane conversion. Collection of hinders the implementation of an integrated waste manage-
landll gas to be converted into electricity is not feasible and ment system in Malaysia. As a result, 3Rs is not mandatory
uneconomical as most landlls in Malaysia are only a few and waste separation is totally absent. Although the MSW
hectares in size and the capacity of waste received is insu- stream contains signicant amounts of recoverable materials,
cient to generate an adequate volume of gas which is viable the non-existence of source segregation makes resource
for extraction. In addition, most of the landlls in Malaysia recovery very costly. In addition, the waste disposed into
are non-sanitary ones that rely mainly on natural clay lining landlls in Malaysia is highly commingled with wet and
as the landll liners and have no infrastructure for the col- putrescible components. The moisture content of the waste
lection of landll gas and leachate. The establishment of can reach 70 to 80%. The warm climate of the country (27
these disposal sites were mainly based on the traditional con- 34 C throughout the year) enhances rapid degradation of the
cern of getting rid of waste. These landlls are not designed putrescible components; landll gas generation begins early
with the intention of generating resources such as methane to in tropical conditions and becomes an important factor to be
prot the landll owners and landll operators. Therefore, considered in landll management. This indiscriminate prac-
existing non-sanitary landlls in Malaysia only practice pas- tice of non-separated MSW disposal into landll is highly
sive release of landll gas where the installation of gas pipes unsustainable. It translates into the loss of valuable resources
are done as the waste cells are receiving waste. such as metal components, paper and plastics, and the deg-
Only the newly established landlls are designed with radation of the environment with increased environmental
appropriate landll liners to prevent leachate migration to pollution from leachate and landll gas. Aside from that,
the groundwater system and a suitable gas collection system this unsustainable practice also results in the shortening of
to harvest the gas. Air Hitam Sanitary Landll, the rst san- the landll life-span where waste cells which can be optimized
itary landll in Malaysia, produces 2 MW of electricity from with only garbage also cater for the recyclable items. As a
the conversion of methane. Similarly, newer sanitary landlls result, a sustainable landlling practice is not achievable.
are capturing landll gas for the purpose of energy conver- In addition to the lack of appropriate policy, waste man-
sion. However, the national policy on energy that is practised agement is also highly political and competitions among the
by the country fails to enhance this green approach. This is ruling parties in the countries are jeopardizing the waste
due to the low price of electricity in the country the electricity management system. As waste management is a very sensi-
tari for Malaysia ranges from RM0.22 (US$0.06) to RM0.45 tive issue, it is usually used to solicit votes among the people
(US$0.13) per kWh (Ministry of Energy, Green Technology during an election. Moreover, with the indierent attitude
and Water, 2009). It is at this low level due to government among the public towards environmental concerns including
subsidies. As a result, the electricity tari reduces the market issues on appropriate waste management, it is impossible to
potential of electricity produced via the conversion of landll achieve improvement. Even the newly passed Solid Waste
gas. In addition, with the high annual precipitation (1800 and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007 is ridiculed by
2600 mm), the capping of landlls is necessary to minimize opposition parties with the claim that the Act deprives the
the leachate volume. As a consequence, capping means addi- public of their rights. This has led to the federal government
tional costs for landll management. playing safe in making statements regarding this issue so as

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18 Waste Management & Research 29(1)

to avoid loss of votes in the coming election in 2012. This is to the environment, their concerns for the actual environ-
seen as a lack of political will in the ruling government with mental impacts are generally low. Therefore, it is important
regard to improving the current waste management system. that more campaigns and workshops should be organized by
Thus, no voluntary eort has been taken by most waste man- appropriate parties such as the government agencies includ-
agers to improve the current state of their landlls. As a ing Ministry of Housing and Local Government, Ministry of
result, 90% of disposal sites in Malaysia remain as non-sani- Education, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment
tary landlls, which lack pollution prevention features such and the Economic Planning Unit. An integrated approach
as bottom lining, leachate treatment and gas collection sys- from these various agencies may contribute a concensus to
tems. As in most developing countries, more than 15% of 187 formulate and deliver a more appropriate and eective cam-
million tonnes of Malaysian carbon emissions were contrib- paign and workshops to the general public and relevant
uted to by landll gas emissions. stakeholders. Waste management campaigns must begin
The lack of institutional factors is very much due to the with the dissemination of information to secure the publics
absence of an appropriate policy to roll out regulation as to agreement or co-operation. The public must be clearly
the proper approaches that should be taken by waste man- informed of their direct contribution towards waste genera-
agers in ensuring a sustainable waste management system and tion and the direct consequences resulting from their action.
sustainable landll practice in the country. The Solid Waste Earlier campaigns to introduce recycling in the country were
and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007 were passed in able to improve the recycling rate from 0.5% in 1990 to 3%
July 2007, by the parliament in the hope to improve the cur- in 2000, and to 5% to date (Agamuthu and Fauziah, 2010).
rent waste management practice in Malaysia. The implemen- The campaigns involved various media including the mass
tation of the Act will pave the way for federalization of waste media and distribution of posters. The small success in
management in the country by shifting the responsibility from improving the recycling rate could be magnied with more
the State Governments to the Federal Government. However, intense campaigns and more organized workshops. The
the Act is yet to be implemented (although it is 3 years since it increase in the recycling rate can be translated to a more
was gazetted) and the potential benets from the implemen- sustainable landlling practice since the life-span of the land-
tation of the Act are still uncertain. ll can be lengthened and revenue can be earned from the
recyclables collected.
Economic factors play crucial roles in pushing the general
The Solid Waste and Public Cleansing
public and the relevant stakeholders towards a positive
Management Act 2007 response on waste management issues. A more eective
The main objective of the Act is to improve and ensure high response normally can be obtained when it involves mone-
quality services in solid waste management. The Act was tary benet. A rewarding system and/or a ne system based
adapted from best management practices in solid waste man- on the carrot and stick concept should be implemented.
agement from Japan, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and This will not only result in a higher positive response, but
the United States of America, and focused mainly on the in the long run it may instil a positive attitude among
management of public cleanliness. The main strategies are Malaysians once it becomes their natural habit. Source sep-
to implement ecient solid waste treatment, interim treat- aration for example can promote 3Rs since the waste gener-
ment and nal disposal of solid waste particularly landlls. ators deal with the actual waste separation at their premises.
The Act also introduced strategies such as 3Rs, a mandatory Involvement in recycling activities can be expected to
commitment on waste segregation and severe penalties for increase signicantly. In addition to that, more facilities for
non-compliance with the regulations stipulated within the recycling need to be provided by the relevant authorities.
Act. With the implementation of the Act, it is hoped that This is because convenience should come in parallel with
attaining sustainable landlls is achievable although no awareness to participate in recycling activities. This is to
clear directive has been issued with regards to the benchmark ensure that recycling practice will be completely participated
dates of the implementation. To date, the federal government by the waste generator. The rewarding system can also
is still in the preparatory phase in formulating and gazetting reduce the negative syndrome of NIMBY, LULU and
subsidiary regulations. However, several challenges need to NOTE. This can be accomplished by introducing appropri-
be tackled to ensure the sustainable waste management and ate strategies such as the exemption of waste management
landlling practices are sustainable in the long run. fees scheme and provision of free power supply to residential
areas that are near neighbours of the landlls. This approach
has been proven to obtain a positive response from the recip-
Overcoming challenges to sustainable
ients as reported in Spittelau in Austria and Osaka in Japan
landfilling in Malaysia (Best Practice UN-Habitat, 2002). A direct consequence of
The most critical challenge is the change of attitude among this eect would be fewer objections among the public on
the public. Although Malaysians are aware of issues relating issues related to the locations of new landlls in the country.

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Agamuthu and Fauziah 19

The expected high positive attitude among the general Development Co-organized by the United Nations Department of
public can also assist in tackling the illegal dumping issue Economic and Social Affairs (UN/DESA), Ministry of the
Environment, Government of Japan (MoE-Japan), the United
in the country. The problem arises from the lack of capacity Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD), and sup-
for enforcement. Aside from the involvement of the public in ported by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES).
general, the perception of landlls owners and landll oper- Agamuthu P, Fauziah SH, Khidzir KM and Chong LP (2008) Issues and
challenges of 3Rs in the Asia and Pacific regions. Paper presented in
ators also needs to be changed. The concept of landlling as
the Asian Productivity Organization Conference 2008, Asian
a protable and sustainable business should be embedded Productivity Organization. Tokyo, Japan. pp.12.
into the landlls owner. This can be achieved through appro- Agamuthu P, Fauziah SH and Khidzir K (2009a) Evolution of solid
priate, enforceable policy whereby landlls are seen as con- waste management in Malaysia: impacts and implications of the
Solid Waste Bill 2007. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste
tinuous prot-making facilities through the revenue from Management 11: 96103.
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sector and the appropriate nancial assistance. dumps (online newspaper article: February 20, 2010).
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ditions in Malaysia also complicate the challenge towards
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