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You are on page 1of 17

machine

x y

(input)

f (output)

Definition of a function f

A function f is defined to be a correspondence f between 2 sets A and B

satisfying the following

x A ! () y B s.t. () f ( x ) = y. Then f

is called a function from A (domain) to B.

A R, B = R

functions.( A = R + = (0,+))

A R, B = R 2

f : R R2

Image of f = f = f ( R) = { f (t ) : t R}

=1.

(iii) f (t ) = (r ( sin ), r (1 cos ))

the circle rolls along a straight line.

A R , B = R 2 2

f (r , ) = (r cos , r sin ) = ( x, y )

f is not 1-1.

f (2, ) = ( 3 ,1)

6

7

f (2, ) = ( 3 ,1)

6

(r,)(x,y)polar coordinate()

f (r,)

S = {(r , ) : 0 r 2,0 }

f ( S ) = {(r cos , r sin ) : 0 r 2,0 }

Fibonacci Sequence

an + 2 = an +1 + an , a1 = a2 = 1

+1 = ( ) .

: 2 2 , , +1 2 .

, , +1

an +1 an

Solution xn +1 = , xn =

an + 2 an +1

x y 0 1 x

f = = .

y x + y 1 1 y

1 1

f

1

f f 1

f

f

sin x tan x

, [ 1,1] , R

2 2

1

2 2

1

sin x tan x

cos x sec x

[0, ]

3

[ 1,1] 0,

, R ( 1,1)

1 2 2 1

cos x sec x

(I,III)

cot 1 x, csc 1 x

csc 1 x sec 1 x

Exponential Functions()

f ( x ) = a x

, a>0

1.

2. e

3. Application

=

y a , a > 0 , (0,1) .

x

= 3, 1.1.

> 0, 1.

.

2.1828.

Example 1

400,000km102cm

M-E

Solution k

2 k 10 7 > 4 10 5

12

k > 2+

log 2

k = 42.

Example 2

Rutherford (1871-1937)

Let p(t) t

half-life p(t).

t

Solution p (t=

) p0 2

t ln 2

= p0 e , x= .

2

Example 3 (The Age of the Uranium in Our Solar System )

(1GYr 109 years) How old is our Solar System

235

U half life 0.707 GYr

238 238

U (t ) U (0)

(II) 235

= 137.8 () 235

1

U (t ) U (0)

t t

1 2

U1 (t ) = U1 (0) 2 , U 2 (t ) = U 2 (0) 2

1 1

t

U (t ) ln 137.8

1 = 137.8 = 2 2 1 t = 5.97 Gyr

U 2 (t ) 1 1

ln 2

2 1

()

()

(i) log a a =

x , xR ; a

x log a x

=

x , a, x > 0.

(ii)log

a ( xy ) =

log a x + log a y , a, x, y > 0.

(iii) x

log a =log a x log a y , a, x, y > 0

(iv) y

log c b

= log a b , a, b, c > 0.

(v) log c a

=

log e x ln x, x > 0.

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