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.

machine
x y
(input)
f (output)

Domain = all possible inputs, Range = all possible outputs.


Definition of a function f
A function f is defined to be a correspondence f between 2 sets A and B
satisfying the following
x A ! () y B s.t. () f ( x ) = y. Then f
is called a function from A (domain) to B.
A R, B = R

Polynomials, Trigonometric functions, Exponential and Logarithm


functions.( A = R + = (0,+))

A R, B = R 2

(i) f (t ) = (cos t , sin t ), (ii) f (t ) = (h + r cos t , k + r sin t )


f : R R2
Image of f = f = f ( R) = { f (t ) : t R}
=1.
(iii) f (t ) = (r ( sin ), r (1 cos ))

CycloidThe curve traced out by a point p on the circumference of a circle as


the circle rolls along a straight line.
A R , B = R 2 2

f (r , ) = (r cos , r sin ) = ( x, y )
f is not 1-1.

f (2, ) = ( 3 ,1)
6
7
f (2, ) = ( 3 ,1)
6
(r,)(x,y)polar coordinate()
f (r,)
S = {(r , ) : 0 r 2,0 }
f ( S ) = {(r cos , r sin ) : 0 r 2,0 }
Fibonacci Sequence
an + 2 = an +1 + an , a1 = a2 = 1
+1 = ( ) .
: 2 2 , , +1 2 .
, , +1
an +1 an
Solution xn +1 = , xn =
an + 2 an +1
x y 0 1 x
f = = .
y x + y 1 1 y

1 1
f
1
f f 1
f
f

sin x tan x

, [ 1,1] , R
2 2
1
2 2
1
sin x tan x
cos x sec x

[0, ]
3
[ 1,1] 0,
, R ( 1,1)
1 2 2 1
cos x sec x

(I,III)

cot 1 x, csc 1 x
csc 1 x sec 1 x
Exponential Functions()
f ( x ) = a x
, a>0

1.
2. e
3. Application


=
y a , a > 0 , (0,1) .
x

Facts = 2, 0,1 = 2 0.7.


= 3, 1.1.

> 0, 1.
.
2.1828.
Example 1

Moon-Earth (M-E) 384,400km


400,000km102cm
M-E

Solution k
2 k 10 7 > 4 10 5
12
k > 2+
log 2
k = 42.
Example 2

Rutherford (1871-1937)

Let p(t) t
half-life p(t).
t

Solution p (t=
) p0 2

t ln 2
= p0 e , x= .
2
Example 3 (The Age of the Uranium in Our Solar System )

(I) 238U half life 4.468 GYr


(1GYr 109 years) How old is our Solar System
235
U half life 0.707 GYr
238 238
U (t ) U (0)
(II) 235
= 137.8 () 235
1
U (t ) U (0)

Solution Let U1 (t )= 238U (t ), U 2 (t )= 235U (t ), 1 = 4.468, 2 = 0.707


t t

1 2
U1 (t ) = U1 (0) 2 , U 2 (t ) = U 2 (0) 2
1 1
t
U (t ) ln 137.8
1 = 137.8 = 2 2 1 t = 5.97 Gyr
U 2 (t ) 1 1
ln 2
2 1
()
()
(i) log a a =
x , xR ; a
x log a x
=
x , a, x > 0.

(ii)log
a ( xy ) =
log a x + log a y , a, x, y > 0.
(iii) x
log a =log a x log a y , a, x, y > 0
(iv) y
log c b
= log a b , a, b, c > 0.
(v) log c a
=
log e x ln x, x > 0.