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Pier Design

- Bridge Pier
- Design of Pier
- Culvert Final
- Design of Pile and Pile Cap Final
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- Abutment Design
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- 73M bridge
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- COMPUTATION OF LOAD
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7.500 m

C.L.

0.185 0.185

+ 449.530 m (bottom level of deck )

0.25 m

1.30 m VRCC PIER CAP

+ 448.230 m 1.05 m

FSL + 445.605

2.275 m 3.750 m 2.275 m

5.175

VRCC PIER

CBL + 443.955

+443.055 m

1.5

0.60

VRCC Footing + 442.455 m

4.60 m

DETAIL OF PIER & FOUNDATION

0.800 3.60 m

4.600 m

P L A N

Hydraulic Particulars :-

1 Design Discharge through the Bridge = 9.903 Cumecs

2 Effective Linear Water Way @ FSL = 13.450 m

3 Maximum Mean Velocity of Flow at FSL V = 0.64 m/sec

4 Full Supply Level FSL = +445.605 m

5 Scour Level :- = +443.375 m

6 Founding levels of Pier = +442.455 m

7 Safe BearingCapacity of Soils. (Assumed) = 35.000 t/m2

8 Number of Spans. = 2.000 Nos

9 Span c/c. of bearings = 10.370 m

10 Full Supply Level FSL = +445.605 m

11 Bottom of Deck = = +449.530 m

12 Road Level = +450.420 m

13 Height of Deck .= = 0.790 m

14 Thickness of Wearing Coat = 0.100 m

15 Canal Bed Level CBL = +443.955 m

16 Top of RCC Footing = +443.055 m

17 Thickness of Footing = 0.600 m

18 Scour level = +443.375 m

II - 5

Superstructure and Loadings & Type of Substructure :-

2 Total width of the Decking = 7.500 m

3 Carriageway Width = 7.500 m

4 Thickness of Uniform Wearing coat in CC M30 = 0.100 m

5 Type of Substructure Piers = VRCC

= 0.800 m thick

Design Loadings :-

Unit Weight of RCC = 2.500 t/m3

Unit Weight of PCC = 2.400 t/m3

2 Type of Live loads :- = One lane of Class - 70 R

+ Two Lanes of Class - A

( I ) DEAD LOADS :-

(i) Calculation of Vertical Loads from Superstructure :-

Span C/C of bearings = 10.370 m

Thickness of Expansion Joints = 20 mm

Total length = Clear Span + ( 2 x Bearing Width )

= 10.000 + 0.740

= 10.740 m

From MOST Drg. BD/9-75 Dead Load of pier

= 184.58 t

(a) Dead weight of caping beam 800 mm width at Top and bottom of pier

Depth Tapering from 250 @ Top to 1300 @ Pier.

7.500 m 0.800 m

+ 449.530

0.25

+ 448.230 1.05

3.750 m 0.8

1.875 m 2.950 0.400 1.875 m

0.400

Caping Beam. Section.

Weight of Rectangular portion = Deep = 0.25 mm

7.500 x 0.800 x 0.250 x 2.500 = 3.750 t

Weight of Tapered portion = Height = 1.05 mm

Area = 5.225 x 1.05 = 5.4863 m2

Total area = 5.486 m2

Weight of Taper portion = 5.486 x 0.800 x 2.500 = 10.973 t

Hence the weight of caping beam = 3.750 + 10.973 = 14.723 t

0.800

Plan of Pier

II - 6

(b) Dead Weight of pier

Size of Pier 3.750 x

0.800 with Triangular cut waters.

Top of Bed Block = 449.530 m ; Bottom of Pier = 443.055 m ;

Bottom of Caping Beam = 448.230 m ; FSL = 445.605 m ;

Height of Pier = 448.230 - 443.06 = 5.175 m

Height of Pier up to FSL = +445.61 - +443.1 = 2.55

Area of Pier = x 0.50 0.800 x 0.400 = 0.320 m2

2.950 x 0.800 = 2.360 m2

Total Area of Pier = 0.320 + 2.360 = 2.680 m2

Weight of Pier :-

Dry = 2.680 x 5.175 x 2.500 = 34.672 t

15% Buoyancy = 2.680 x 5.175 - 2.55 x 2.500 =

+ 2.680 x 2.550 x 2.35 33.647 t

100% Buoyancy = 2.680 x 5.175 - 2.55 x 2.500 =

= 2.680 x 2.550 x 1.500 27.838 t

( c )Dead Weight of footing :

Size of Footing = 4.600 m x 3.600 m

Thickness Footing = 0.60 m

Area of Footing = 4.60 x 3.60 = 16.560 m2

Volume Rect. = 16.56 x 0.30 = 4.968 m3

Taper = ( 2.80 + 3.60 ) x 4.60 x 0.30

2 = 4.416 m3

Total Volume = 4.968 + 4.416 = 9.384 m3

100% Buoyancy - Footing = 9.384 x 1.500 = 14.076 t

Without Buoyancy = 9.384 x 2.500 = 23.460 t

VRCC Pier

3.750 m 0.400 m

0.60

VRCC Footing. 0.300 3.600 m

Effective Span = 10.37 m

a). Class 70-R Wheeled Vehicle :-

I II III IV V VI

17 17 17 17 12 12

0.185 0.185

A 10.37 m c/c. B

Diagram for C.G. of Loads

17 ( 1.37 + 4.42 + 5.79) +12 x( 7.92+9.44)

C.G. of Loads = 4 x 17 + 12 x 2

= 405.18 / 92 = 4.404 m from Load I (17 t)

4.404 m 92 t

4.219 m 6.1509 m

10.370 m c./c.

Final Load Diagram

Maximum reaction without Impact = 92 x 6.1509 = 54.57 t @A

10.370

Minimum reaction without Impact = 92 - 54.57 = 37.43 t @B

II - 7

b) Class - A Loading ( 1-lane ) :-

I II III IV

11.4 11.4 6.8 6.8

1.20 4.30 3 2.055

0.185

A 10.37 m c/c. B

Diagram for C.G. of Loads

11.4x(1.20) +6.8 x ( 5.5+8.5)

C.G. of Loads = 11. 4 x 2 + 6.8 x 2

= 108.880 / 36.40 = 2.991 m from Load I ( 11.4 t)

Class - `A' : contd..

36.4 t

2.991 m

A B

10.37 m c./c.

Final Load Diagram

Maximum reaction without Impact = 36.4 x 7.5638 = 26.550 t

10.37

For Two lane Maximum reaction without Impact = 26.550 x 2.00

= 53.100 t@A

Minimum reaction without Impact = 36.400 - 26.550

= 9.850 t @B

(III) ECCENTRICITIES AND LONGITUDINAL FORCES :-

Effective width = 0.76 m

A Eccentricities :-

Bearing width = 0.370 m

0.76

0.185 0.185

Along Traffic (Longitudinal ) = 0.380 - (0.37/2)

= 0.195 m

Moment due to DL eccentricity of S.S : 184.58 x 0.195 = 17.997 t-m

2

b) Live Load Eccentricity :-

Eccentricity along traffic = 0.195 m

70 R Transverse Eccentricity across traffic

C/L of load C/L of deck

1.2 0.85 1.2 0.85

2.65 1.1

3.75

ET = 1.20 + 0.425 + 2.05 + 2 - 7.5

2

= 1.100 m

Max. Moments due to L.L.Ecentricities :-

(Including Braking Force Reaction = 3.710 t )

( without Impact)

Load = 53.100 + 3.710

= 56.810 t

Transverse = 56.810 x 1.100 = 62.491 t-m

Net moment = 73.569 t-m

II - 8

II - 9

B Longitudinal Forces :-

a) Braking Force :-

The braking force will be 20% of Train of Loads ocuupying the Span and will be acting at 1.20m above

RFL of 450.420 m

Consider Class 70-R wheeled : Height of S.S = 0.790 + 0.10 m

Braking force = 20% of 92.000 0.890

92 x 20% = 18.400 t

Force to be considered on each pier = 18.400 / 2 = 9.200 t

10.370

= 3.7084 t

say 3.710 t

Hence Moments due to Braking force from Bearing Level of 449.530 + 443.055 & + 442.455

Upto Bottom of Pier = 9.200 x ( +449.53 - +443.055 ) = 59.570 t-m

Upto Bottom of Foundation + 442.5 m

9.200 x ( +449.53 - +442.455 ) = 65.090 t-m

Consider Class A Loading : Height of S.S = 0.600 m

Braking force = 20% of ( 36.4 x 2 )

= 72.800 x 20 %

= 14.560 t

10.370

= 2.9345 t

Say 2.940 t

Hence Moments due to Braking force from Bearing Level of 449.530 443.055 & 442.455

Upto Bottom of Pier = 7.280 x ( 449.530 - 443.055 ) = 47.138 t-m

Upto Bottom of Foundation cap = 7.280 x ( 449.530 - 442.455 ) = 51.506 t-m

b) Water Current :-

Presumed to be hitting the Pier at 20o to flow.

IRC:6-2000 Cl.213.5

Mean velocity of Water Current = 0.640 m/sec

Max. Velocity @ FSL = V = 2 x v

= 2 x 0.64 = 0.905 m/sec

Square of Max. Velocity = V^2 = 0.905 ^2 = 0.819

k = 1.5 for square ended piers as per Cl.213 of IRC :6 - 2000

V = Max. Velocity of Water Current.

Inclination of flow considered = 20 degrees.

Cos 20o = 0.9397 Sin20o = 0.342

Width of Pier = 3.750 m

Thickness of Pier ( Cut Waters ) = 0.800 m

Scour level for Pier = +443.375 Bottom of Footing = +442.455

II - 10

+445.605 0.819 FSL

Ht = 2.230 m

Water Current Intensity Diagram.

( i ) Water Current on Pier : 2

2

( v sin 20 0

)

P = 52 k V 2

52 x 0.900 x 0.819 x Sin 20^2 = 4.4842 Kg/m2

2 2

)

52 x 0.9 x 0.819 x Cos 20^2 = 33.854 Kg/m2

2

=

3

Forces due to water current on Pier :

Longitudinal = 4.484 x 3.750 x 2.230 = 0.037 t

1000

Transverse = 33.854 x 0.800 x 2.230 = 0.060 t

1000

Moments due to Water current on Pier :-

Longitudinal = 0.037 x ( 1.487 + 0.320 ) = 0.068 t-m

Transverse = 0.060 x ( 1.487 + 0.320 ) = 0.109 t-m

( ii ) Water Current on Footing :

Length of footing = 4.600 m

Width of footing = 3.600 m

There is no Water current effect on Footing.

Moments due to Water current on Pier :- for Footing design.

Longitudinal = 0.037 x ( 1.487 + 0.320 + 0.600 )

= 0.090 t-m

Transverse = 0.060 x ( 1.487 + 0.320 + 0.600

= 0.145 t-m

c) Wind Force :-

As per IRC:6-2000. Maximum wind load acts when the Canal is Dry.

Wind force as per Cl. 212.3 should be doubled.

Case - 1 :- Dry Condition.

CBL = +443.955 m

RCL = +450.420 m

BOD = +449.530 m

Wind force on Deck : Deck Length = 8.450 m ;

Kerb + parapet 0.275 +0.600

Slab + W C 0.790 +0.100

Average height of deck = ( 0.890 + 0.875 ) 2.000

= 0.883 m

Height of Deck = +450.413 - +443.955 = 6.457 m

Total Deck length = 10.740 m

II - 11

As per Cl. 212.3 of IRC:6-1966 - Table - wind pressures,

H P So, for H= 6.457 m

for 2m 52 kg/m 2

Say P= 75.059 kg/m2

for 4m 63 kg/m2

6m 73 kg/m2

8m 82 kg/m2

Wind force on Deck = 75.05875 x 1.765 x 10.74 = 0.711 t

2x 1000

This force will be acting at half the height of the deck Level =

449.530 + 1.765 = + 450.413 m

2

Wind force on Moving Loads :- As per Cl. 212.4 of IRC:-6:2000.

The Intensity of wind force on moving loads = 300 kg/m

Acting @ 1.5 m above RFL = 451.920 m

Length of Class -A , vehicle = 5.50 m

Hence force acting on Live Load = 300 x 5.500 = 1.650 t

1000

Force effected on each Pier = 1.650 / 2 = 0.825 t

Calculation of wind force moments on Deck :-

Due to Wind force on Superstructure :-

At Bottom of Pier = 0.711 x ( 450.413 - 443.055 ) = 5.234 t-m

At Footing = 0.711 x ( 450.413 - 442.455 ) = 5.661 t-m

due to wind force on moving loads :-

At Bottom of Pier = 0.825 x ( 451.920 - 443.055 ) = 7.314 t-m

At Footing = 0.825 x ( 451.920 - 442.455 ) = 7.809 t-m

Total Wind moments on Deck :- (LWL condition)

At Bottom of Pier = 5.234 + 7.314 = 12.548 tm

At Footing = 5.661 + 7.809 = 13.470 tm

But Wind force as per Cl.212.6 of IRC:6-2000 -

Minimum 450 kg/m of wind on loaded structure acting at RFL = 450.420 m

Hence force on Deck 450 x 10.740 = 2.417 t

=

1000 2

Moments due to this force :

At Bottom of Pier = 2.417 x ( +450.42 - +443.055 ) = 17.798 t-m

At Footing = 2.417 x ( +450.42 - +442.455 ) = 19.247 t-m

The Moments as per Cl.212.3 & Cl. 212.4, will be considered.

Wind force as per Cl. 212.7 :- On Unloaded Structure : One span Laid = 10.740 m ;

Intensity of wind = 240 kg/m2 ;

This is acting @ half the height of Deck = +450.413 m

Wind Force on Deck = 10.740 x 0.883 x 240 = 2.275 t

1000

Force on Pier = 2.275 / 2 = 1.137 t

Moments due to this force : Cl.212.7 of IRC:6-1966,

At Bottom of Pier 1.137 x ( +450.41 - +443.055 ) = 8.368 t-m

At Footing 1.137 x ( +450.41 - +442.455 ) = 9.051 t-m

Case - 2 :- FSL Condition :-

FSL = 445.61 m Spans Length = 10.740 m

Height of Deck above FSL = 450.420 - 445.605 = 4.815 m

As per Cl. 212.3 of IRC:6-1966 - Table - wind pressures,

H P So, for H= 4.82 m

for 2.00 m 52.00 kg/m 2

Say P= 67.075 kg/m2

for 4.00 m 63.00 kg/m2

6.00 m 73.00 kg/m2

Wind force on Deck = 67.075 x 0.883 x 10.740 = 0.318 t

2 x 1000 < 0.711 t

II - 12

This force will be acting at half the height of the deck Level = 450.413 m

II - 13

The Design moments due to wind force

Resolving along and across Traffic :

for CBL & FSL Conditions :

For Pier Design = Longitudinal = 12.548 x 0.320 = 4.015 t-m

Transverse = 12.548 x 0.660 = 8.282 t-m

For footing design = Longitudinal = 13.470 x 0.320 = 4.310 t-m

Transverse = 13.470 x 0.660 = 8.890 t-m

for Unloaded Condition : One span laid = 10.740 m ; span laid.

For Pier Design = Longitudinal = 8.368 x 0.320 = 2.678 t-m

Transverse = 8.368 x 0.660 = 5.523 t-m

For footing design = Longitudinal = 9.051 x 0.320 = 2.896 t-m

Transverse = 9.051 x 0.660 = 5.973 t-m

(VI) DESIGN OF FOUNDATION @ + 442.455 m

The Foundations are designed for Both the Spans Laid and One span Laid conditions.

Foundation Level = +442.455

Scour Level = 2 dsm = +443.375

0.800 m +443.375

0.400

+443.055 m

2.800

0.600 m

Foundation Level. +442.455 m

R.C.C. Footing. 3.600 m

1 Both the Spans laid Condition :-

a). Service + LWL Condition :-

Vertical loads :-

1 Dead Load From Superstructure = 184.580 t

2 Weight of Caping Beam = 14.723 t

3 Weight of Pier = 34.672 t

4 Weight of Footing - with out buoyancy = 23.460 t

Total Dead loads = 257.435 t

Live Load Reactions :-

1 Total Live Loads = = 56.040 t

Total Dead + Live loads for Design = 313.475 t

2 Braking force = 9.200 t

II - 14

Moments about 442.455 m Level :-

S. No. Type of Force Load LA Long. Trans.

1 Dead Load Moments 257.44 1.875 482.691

2 Live Load Eccentricity 56.04 0.195 10.928 62.491

313.47 493.618

3 Braking Force 9.200 7.965 73.278

Moments without Wind 566.896 62.491

4 Wind Force ( On Loaded structure) 4.310 8.890

Moments with Wind 571.207 71.381

X = 493.62 313.47

= 1.575 m

e = 1.575 - 1.8

= 0.225 m

Ml = 313.475 x 0.225

= 70.636 t -m

Section Properties :- Size of Footing = 4.60 m x 3.60 m

Area A = 4.60 x 3.60 = 16.56 m2

Section Moduli =

Zl = 4.60 x 3.60 ^2 / 6 = 9.936 m3

Zt = 3.60 x 4.60 ^2 / 6 = 12.696 m3

Foundation Pressures :- Service + LWL.

a). Without Wind : 313.47 ( +/- ) 70.64 ( +/- ) 62.49

16.56 9.94 12.70

= 18.93 ( +/- ) 7.11 ( +/- ) 4.92 = 30.961 / 6.898 t/m2

< 35 t/m 2

16.56 9.94 12.70

= 19.19 ( +/- ) 7.54 ( +/- ) 5.62 = 32.355 / 6.025 t/m2

< 35 x 1.333 = 46.655 t/m2

b). Service + FSL - Condition :-

Vertical loads :-

1 Dead Load From Superstructure = 184.580 t

2 Weight of Caping Beam = = 14.723 t

3 Weight of Pier ( 100% buoyancy ) = = 27.838 t

4 Weight of Footing - 100% buoyancy = = 23.460 t

Total Dead loads = 250.601 t

Live Load Reactions :- = 56.040 t

Total Dead + Live Loads = 306.641

Moments about 442.455 m Level :-

S. No. Type of Force Long. Trans.

1 Dead Load Moment 482.69

2 Live Load Eccentricity 10.928 62.491

3 Braking Force 73.278 0.000

4 Water Current 0.068 0.145

Moments without Wind 566.90 62.636

5 Wind Force ( On Loaded structure) 4.310 8.890

Moments with Wind 571.21 71.526

Section Properties :- Size of Footing = 4.60 x 3.60 m

Area A = 16.56 m2 Zl = 9.936 m 3

Zt = 12.696 m3

X = 493.618 306.641

= 1.610 m

e = 1.610 - 2

= 0.390 m

Moment about centre = 306.64 x 0.390

= 119.7 tm

II - 15

Foundation Pressures :-

a) Without Wind : 306.64 ( +/- ) 119.7 ( +/- ) 62.636

16.560 9.936 12.696

= 18.517 ( +/- ) 12.043 ( +/- ) 4.934 = 35.494 / 1.540 t/m2

> 35 t/m2

b) With Wind : 306.64 ( +/- ) 123.97 ( +/- ) 71.526

16.560 9.936 12.696

= 18.517 ( +/- ) 12.477 ( +/- ) 5.634 = 36.628 / 0.406 t/m2

< 46.655 t/m2

2 One Span laid Condition :-

a). LWL Condition :-

Vertical loads :-

1 Dead Load From Superstructure 184.58 = 92.290 t

2

2 Weight of Caping Beam = 14.723 t

3 Weight of Pier ( Dry ) = 34.672 t

4 Weight of Footing - 100% buoyancy = 23.460 t

Total Dead loads = 165.145 t

5 Total Live Load = 58.279 t

6 Braking force = 9.200 t

Total DL + LL = 232.624 t

Moments about +442.455 m Level :-

S. No. Type of Force Load LA Long. Trans.

1 Dead Load Eccentricity 165.15 2 330.290 0.000

2 Total LL Moments 58.28 1.355 78.968

3 Braking force Moment 9.20 9.165 84.318

Moments without Wind 493.576 0.000

4 Wind Force (Unloaded Section) 2.896 5.973

Moments with Wind 496.472 5.973

Section Properties :- Size of Footing = 4.60 m x 3.60 m

Area A = 16.560 m2 Zl = 9.936 m3 Zt = 12.696 m3

X = 496.47 232.62

= 2.134 m

e = 2.134 - 2

= 0.134 m

ML = 232.62 x 0.134

= 31.224 tm

Foundation Pressures :-

a) Without Wind : 232.624 ( +/- ) 31.224 ( +/- ) 0.000

16.560 9.936 12.696

= 14.047 ( +/- ) 3.143 ( +/- ) 0.000 = 17.190 / 10.905 t/m2

< 35 t/m 2

16.560 9.936 12.696

= 14.047 ( +/- ) 9.101 ( +/- ) 0.470 = 23.619 / 4.475 t/m2

< 46.655 t/m 2

1 Dead Load From Superstructure = 92.290 t

2 Weight of Caping Beam = = 14.723 t

3 Weight of Pier ( 100% buoyancy ) = = 27.838 t

4 Weight of Footing - 100% buoyancy = = 23.460 t

Total Dead loads = 158.311 t

5 Total Live Load = 58.279 t

6 Braking force = 9.200 t

II - 16

Total Load = 225.790 t

II - 17

Moments about +442.455 m Level :-

S. No. Type of Force Load LA Long. Trans.

1 Dead Load Eccentricity 158.311 2.000 316.622 0.000

2 Total LL Moments 58.279 1.905 111.021

3 Braking force Moment 9.200 6.015 55.338

Moments without Wind 482.981 t - m

4 Water Current 0.068 0.145

Moments without Wind 483.049 t - m 0.145

5 Wind Force ( On Unloaded structure) 2.896 5.973

Moments with Wind 485.945 t - m 6.119

X = 485.945 225.790

= 2.152

e = 2.152 - 2.000

= 0.152 m

Moment = 158.31 x 0.152 = 24.0950796 t-m

Section Properties :- Size of Footing = 4.60 x 3.60

Area A = 16.560 m2 Zl = 9.936 m3 Zt = 12.696 m3

Foundation Pressures :-

a) Without Wind : 158.311 ( +/- ) 24.095 ( +/- ) 0.145

16.560 9.936 12.696

= 9.56 ( +/- ) 2.425 ( +/- ) 0.011

= 11.996 / 7.123 t/m2

< 35.000 t/m2

16.560 9.936 12.696

= 9.560 ( +/- ) 2.717 ( +/- ) 0.482

= 12.758 / 6.361 t/m2

< 46.655 t/m2

DESIGN OF RCC FOOTING @ +442.455

The maximum pressures are due to Service + LWL (without wind ) condition.

Pressure on Soil :-

Without Wind : 313.475 ( +/- ) 70.636 ( +/- ) 62.491

16.560 9.936 12.696

= 18.930 ( +/- ) 7.109 ( +/- ) 4.922 = 30.961 / 6.898 t/m2

0.800 m

RCC Pier

1.400 m

0.400 1.00

0.30 2.80

0.600 3.60 M x

0.30 Foundation

0.858

DETAIL OF PIER FOUNDATION.

3.60 m

0.858

Y X

6.898

Pier 25.226 30.961

1.400 Y

X

21.603 1.400

II - 18

PRESSURE DIAGRAM

II - 19

With 50mm Cover and 16 mm Bars :

Effective depth = 600 - 50 - 8 = 542 mm ;

= 54.2 Cms ;

Moment due to Uniform Pr. 21.603 x 1.4 ^2 = 21.171 t-m

2

Triangular Pr. = ( 30.961 - 21.603 ) x 1.4 x 1.400 x 2

2 3

= 6.114 t-m

Total = 27.285 t-m

Deduct :-

Self weight = 0.300 x 1.400 x 1.4 ^2 = 0.412 t-m

2

+ 0.30 x 1.400 x ( 1.000 + 0.400 ) ^2

2

= 0.412 t-m

0.3 x 0.400 x 1.400 x ( 0.400 x 1 + 1.000 )

2.000 3

= 0.10 t-m

Total due to self weight = 0.918 t-m

Using M-20 Grade Concrete : and 16mm tor bars - Q = 8.290 t/m2

100 x 8.2899

Area of steel = 26.366 x 100000 = 27.453 cm2

2000 x 0.886 x 54.200

Minimum steel @ 0.12 % = 0.12 x 54.200 x 100 = 6.504 cm2

100 20 mm ; tor 114.44 mm

Distribution steel = 0.300 x 27.453 = 8.236 cm 2

and 12 mm; tor. @ 200 mm c/c.at Bottom Transverse. cm2.

Check for Shear at`d' from face of Abutment = X-X= 858 mm ; from Edge.

Shear Force / meter = ( 30.96 + 25.226 ) x 0.858 = 24.104 t

2

Deduct Self Weight = 0.300 x 1.400 x 0.858 = 0.360 t

+ 0.30 x 1.400 x 0.4 = 0.084 t

2

Total Self weight = 0.444 t

Shear Stress = 23.66 x 1000 = 4.365 kg/cm 2

100 x 54.2

100 As / bd = 0.446 Allowable

c =

2.104 kg/cm2

< 4.365 kg/cm2

HENCE NO SHEAR REINFORCEMENT IS REQUIRED.

At Top provide nominal steel 12 mm, tor @ 150 mm, c/c. Bothways.

7.540 cm2

the dimensions of pier and reinforcement in it is adopted from Most drawing no:BD/8-75 & BD/9-75

design the footing considering above dead loads and live loads

II - 20

DESIGN OF RETURN WALLS : (Beyond berm level)

unit wt of earth = 2.100 t

0.3 + 451.170

0.15 W 11

+ 450.645

+ 450.420 Road level

W3

W4 W1

W2

1.350

W5 0.45

1.650 + 448.330

II - 17

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