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WORKING PROCEDURE No.:CSB/SD/QAQC/003


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NDE PROCEDURE MAGNETIC
Date: 30/3/2010
PARTICLE TESTING

NDE PROCEDURE -
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING

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PARTICLE TESTING

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION DESCRIPTION PAGE


1.0 Purpose 3
2.0 Scope 3
3.0 Reference 3
4.0 Definition 3
5.0 Procedures
5.1 Qualification of Personnel 4
5.2 Magnetizing Apparatus 4
5.3 Detecting Medium 5
5.4 Contrast Aid 7
5.5 Field Intensity Indicator 7
5.6 Surface Condition 9
5.7 Electrical Safety 9
5.8 Test Technique 9
5.9 Test Procedure (Yoke Method) 10
5.10 Acceptance Criteria 13
6.0 Special Requirement 14
7.0 Records 14
7.1 Reporting
Appendices

Appendix 1 Inspection Acceptance Criteria


Appendix 2 Procedure To check On the Magnetic
Field Strength of Ac Y6 Yoke
Appendix 3 Magnetic Particle Testing Form

1.0 PURPOSE

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PARTICLE TESTING

It is to carry out Magnetic Particle Inspection on ferromagnetic


materials and welds for structural / tubular and piping to meet
the codes requirements

2.0 SCOPE

This procedure establishes the method and process for Magnetic


Particle Inspection using a magnetic yoke for detection of
discontinuities on surface or sub surface of ferromagnetic
material. Magnetic Particle Examination shall be carried out after
Visual Examination of the joint has been accepted.

3.0 REFERENCE

ASME section V (2007) - Nondestructive Examination


ASME / ANSI B31.3 (2007) - Petroleum Plant and Petrochemical
Refinery Piping
AWS D1.1 2006 Edition - Structural Welding Code Steel
CSP- 04 Rev.4 -Project Specific Procedure
Guidelines

4.0 DEFINITIONS

CSB - Calidad Sdn Bhd


ASTM - The American Society for Testing and
Material
ASTN - The American Society for Nondestructive
Testing
JPK - Jabatan Pembangunan Kemahiran
PCN - Personnel Certification of Nondestructive
Testing

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PARTICLE TESTING

5.0 PROCEDURES

5.1 Qualification of Personnel

Personnel performing the magnetic particle testing shall be


trained and certified to NDT Level II in Magnetic Particle
Inspection in accordance with an approved company written
practice established in compliance with ASNTs SNT-TC-1A
(Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive
Testing), JPK/MLVK Level II, CSWIP level II & PCN level II.

In addition, the above personnel are required to undergo an


eye examination for visual acuity and as minimum be able
to read at least the Jaeger J2 Chart.

5.2 Magnetizing Apparatus

5.2.1 Prior to use, the magnetizing power of


electromagnetic yokes shall have been checked
within the past year. The magnetizing power of
permanent magnetic yokes shall be checked daily
prior to use. The magnetizing power of all yokes
shall be checked whenever the yoke has been
damaged or repaired.

5.2.2 Each alternating current electromagnetic yoke


shall have a lifting power of at least 10 lb (4.5 kg)
at the maximum pole spacing that will be used.

5.2.3 Each direct current or permanent magnetic yoke


shall have a lifting power of at least 40 lb (18 kg)
at the maximun pole spacing that will be used.

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PARTICLE TESTING

5.2.4 Each weight shall be weighed with a scale from a


reputable manufacturer and stenciled with the
applicable nominal weight prior to first use. A
weight need only be again if damaged in a
manner that could have caused potential loss of
material.

Performance check shall be carried out every week by


use castrol strip and lifting block, result of the
performance check shall be recorded. Refer to Appendix
I of this section for the procedure to check the
magnetizing force of yokes. Use of permanent magnet
shall be limited to as where the use of AC Yoke is not
practical. Weight stenciled with the applicable nominal
weight prior to first use .A weight of this type shall be
made available upon request by PCSB at all sites where
MPI is performed.

5.3 Detecting Medium

5.3.1 Premix Black Magnetic Ink having a


concentration from 1.2 to 2.4mL per 1OOmL of
vehicle for nonfluorescent particles unless
otherwise specified by the particle manufacturer.
The particles shall not be toxic and shall be free
from substances like rust grease and dirt. The wet
method shall be applicable up to a maximum
temperature of l35F (57C).

5.3.2 Type of premix magnetic ink: used shall include


Ardrox or Magnaflux brands.
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When aerosol spray is used, care should be


taken to ensure sufficient ventilation at the
location of test and no naked flame is close by.
White contrast paint used shall include Androx or
equivalent.

5.3.3 Dry iron powder red or yellow colour may be used


where temperature of parts to be tested is
higher than 130F (54C) but lower than
600F/315C (not recommended for overhead
position).

5.3.4 The following detecting medium shall be used for


examination:

Manufactur Brand Type Color


er
Magnaflux Magnaflux 2 Yellow
Magnaflux Magnaflux 8A Red
Table: Dry Iron Powder

Manufactur Brand Type Color


er
Magnaflux Magnaflux 7HF black
Chemetall Ardox 800/3 black
Helling Helling NRS103 black

Table: Premix Black Magnetic Ink

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5.4 Contrast Paint


When test is performed on a surface, which may not
provide sufficient color contrast to the magnetic ink used, a
contrast aid in the form of a thin white adherent paint
coating may be applied to the metal surface. This coating
thickness (dry thickness) shall thin uniform layer.

The following material shall be used as contrast paint:

Manufacture Brand Type Color


r
Magnaflux Magnaflux WCP-2 White
Chemetall Ardox 8901-W White
Helling Helling NR.104A White
Table 3: Contrast Paint Used
5.5 Field Intensity Indicator

5.5.1 A Burmah 'Castrol' strip or pie shaped


magnetic Field Intensity Indicator shall be used to
indicate that sufficient field intensity has been
applied.

5.5.2 Sufficient field intensity would be indicated by


the detection of the three lines artificial defect in the
indicators. The MPI technician shall carry the magnetic
field indicator with him at all times while performing
magnetic particle inspection.

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Figure 1: Burmah Castrol Strip Calibration

5.5.3 The Burmah Castrol strip is located parallel to the


weldment or approximately to the weldment at the
actual pole spacing to be used in the examination. The
Yoke Magnetic Pole is placed on the area,
perpendicularly to the axis of the Burmah Castrol
Strip.

5.5.4 Switch on the current flow and apply black magnetic ink
on the Castrol Strip.

5.5.5 If the three lines are clearly visible, then the


conclusion that can be made is the AC Yoke has
sufficient magnetic field to meet the requirements.

5.5.6 The MPI Technician shall carry the field intensity


indicator with him at all times while carrying out MPI.

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5.6 Surface Condition

Surface of the ferro-magnetic material to be tested and all


adjacent areas within at least 1 inch shall be dry and free
from rust, oil, grease, paint or any other material that may
hinder the movement of iron powder or the interpretation of
result indicatios. Welded surface should be free of flux
covering. Light grinding may be necessary to remove very
rough weld surface and paint coating, which may give rise
to spurious indication on the area being examined

5.7 Electrical Safety

AC Yoke equipment shall be subjected to PCSB approval


and shall be properly earthed Current supply shall be fitted
with an earth-leakage current circuit breaker. The circuit
shall trip with a leakage current to earth of not more than
10mA.

5.8 Test Technique

5.8.1 Use of Yoke- Magnetic Flow Technique

The use of the magnetic Yoke favours the detection of


flaws where the major axis lies transverse to the line
joining the pole pieces of the yoke. As such, two
magnetizing application, each being at right angle to
the other, should be applied over the same area.
When an indication is found, a third application
should be made at an axis where maximum
indication is obtained.

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5.9 Test Procedure (Yoke Method)

5.9.1
Wet Method

5.9.1.1 Clean and dry area of test free from rust,


oil, grease or any other material that
may obstruct movement of iron
particles or impair result interpretation.
Grind lightly if necessary.

5.9:1.2 Apply thin coat of white contrast paint on


area of test. Allow the paint to dry.

5.9.1.3 Place yoke on the area of test in a


direction where a second application at
90 to this first axis is possible. Ensure
good contact of yoke to the test piece.
Switch on current flow.

5.9.1.4 Apply magnetic ink either through


aerosol (wet method) or onto area where
magnetic field has been induced, with
the current still on.

5.9.1.5 Observe for indications formed by the


magnetic ink.

5.9.1.6 Cut of current flow before removing the


yoke.

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5.9.1.7 Repeat step 5.9.1.3 to 5.9.1.6 at an axis


perpendicular to first test.

5.9.1.8 When an indication is found, perform


step 5.9.1.3 to 5.9.1.6 at an axis
perpendicular to the axis of the indication
in order to obtain maximum sensitivity.
5.9.1.9 If in doubt, step 5.9.1.3 to 5.9.1.6 should
be repeated, and the indication
reevaluated until a result can be obtained.

5.9.1.10 Repeat step 5.9.1.3 to 5.9.1.7 over the


entire area of test. Maintain an overlap of
approximately 50rnm to ensure 100%
coverage of area of test.

5.9.1.11 Remove remaining solvent after test.

5.9.1.12 Record flaw indications, found with respect


to their location, size and type.

The number 1, 2 show the sequences of Yoke


Magnetic Pole during MPI
Figure 2: Yoke Scanning pattern and sequences
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5.9.2 Dry method

5.2.9.1 Clean and dry area of test free from rust,


oil, grease or any other material that may
obstruct movement of iron particles or
impair result interpretation. Grind lightly if
necessary.

5.2.9.2 Place Yoke on the area of test in a direction


where a second application at 90 to this first
axis is possible. Ensure good contact of Yoke
to the place. Switch on current flow.
5.2.9.3 Apply fine magnetic powder onto area where
magnetic field has been induced, with the
current still on
5.2.9.4 Observed for indication formed by the iron
powder.
5.2.9.5 Mark of defect location with the magnetic
field still induced
5.2.9.6 Cut of current flow before removing the Yoke.

5.2.9.7 Repeat step 5.9.2.2 to 5.9.2.6 at an axis


perpendicular to first test.

5.2.9.8 When an indication is found, perform step


5.9.2.3 to 5.9.2.6 at an axis perpendicular to the
axis of the indication i n order to maximum
sensitivity.

5.2.9.9 If in doubt, step 5.9.2.3 to 5.9.2.6


should be repeated, and the indication
reevaluated until a result can be obtained.

5.2.9.10 Repeat step 5.9.2.3 to 5.9.2.7 over the


entire area of test. Maintain an overlap of
approximately 50mm to ensure 100%
coverage of area of test.

5.2.9.11 Remove remaining solvent after test.

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5.2.9.12 Record flaw 'indications, found with


respect to their location, size and type.

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5.10 Acceptance Criteria

Indication shall b e evaluated in terms of the acceptance


standards o f the referencing code section:

Accept I Reject Criteria shall be in accordance to


Appendix 6, ASME VIII Div.l for piping and Table 6.1,
Section 6, AWS D1.1 (2006) Section 6 for Structural.

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6.0 Special Requirements

Not applicable

7.0 Records

7.1 Reporting

All tests carried out shall be reported in a format that


contains the f o l l o w i n g information:

i. Job Identification.
ii. Date of Test.
iii. Type of Equipment Used.
iv. Type of Technique Applied
v. Identification of weld/ Component
vi. Type of magnetizing Current
vii. Result Interpretation
viii. Name and signature of tester.

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APPENDICES

TABLE 6.1
Inspection Acceptance Criteria
Discontinuity Category and Statically Cyclically Tubular
inspection Criteria Loaded Loaded Connecti
Non- Non- ons (All
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Tabular Tabular
Connectio Connectio Loads)
n n
(1) Crack Prohibition
Any crack shall be

unacceptable, regardless of size
or location
(2) Weld/Base Metal Fusion
Through fusion shall exist
between adjacent layers of
weld and between weld and
base metal
(3) Porosity & linear indication
(A) CJP groove welds in butt
joints transverse to the
direction of computed
tensile stress shall have
no visible piping porosity.
For all other groove welds
and or fillet welds, the x x
sum of the visible piping
porosity 1 mm or greater
in diameter shall not
exceed 100 in any linear
inch of weld and shall not
exceed 20mm in any
300mm length of weld
(B) The frequency of piping
porosity in fillet welds
shall not exceed one in
each 100mm of weld
length and the maximum
diameter shall not
exceed 2.5mm.
exception: for filler welds
x
connection stifeners to
web, the sum of the
diameters of piping
porosity shall not exceed
10mm in any linear inch
of weld and shall not
exceed 20mm in any
300mm length of weld
(C) CJP Groove welds in butt
joints transverse to the
direction of computed
tensile stress shall have
no piping porosity. For all x
other groove welds, the
frequency of piping
porosity shall not exceed
on in 100mm of length
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and the maximum


diameter shall not
exceed 2.5mm
(4) Undercut
(a) For material less than 1
in. [25 mm] thick,
undercut shall not exceed
1/32 in. [1 mm], with the
x x
following exception:
undercut shall not exceed
1/16 in. [2mm ] for any
length of weld

(b) In primary members,


undercut shall be no
more than 0.01 in. [0.25]
deep when the weld is
transverse to tensile
x
stress under any design
loading condition.
Undercut shall be no
more than 1/32 in.[1mm]
deep for all other cases.
= Applicable
X = Not Applicable

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ACCEPTANCE I REJECTION CRITERIA FOR PIPING &


PRESSURE VESSEL

Acceptance/Rejection Criteria for piping and pressure vessel shall be in accordance


with ASME VIII, appendix 6.

1)Indications of size .5 1.6mm to be considered as non relevant


indications.
2) Any crack shall be unacceptable, regardless of size and location.
3) Any other linear indications shall be unacceptable.
4) Rounded Indications greater than 4.8 mm diameter are unacceptable.
5) Four or more rounded indications in line separated by less than 1.6
mm edge to edge are unacceptable.

Linear indications are those L> 3 W

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PROCEDURE TO CHECK ON THE MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH OF ACY6YOKE

Equipment : AC Magnaflux Y-6 Yoke or equivalent

Weight : 4.5 kg ferromagnetic steel test plate with


clean and flat surface

Procedure : The legs span of yoke should be adjusted to the


actual leg separation to be used in the
examination. Ensure good contacts are being
adjusted between the yoke and the surface of the
test price.

Connect the equipment to the AC source. With the


yoke in the proper contact with the weight (test
plate) surface, press the switch of the machine and
lift.

If the yoke can lift the weight, then conclusion can


be drawn that the AC yoke has sufficient magnetic
field strength to meet the requirement

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