"Othello" A Critical Review Similarities and Dissimilarities Between ‘Hamlet’ and ‘King Lear’

Comparison and Contrast between ‘ The Rape of the Lock’ and Paradise Lost (Book I, IX) 4- A Critical Appreciation of Robert Frost’s Poetry 5- Language experts can produce new letters 6- Sound sheen is very commen in the world languages 7- Languages are by the men and for the men

"Othello" A Critical Review
Prof. Niamat Ali Depatment of English Govt. Islamia College, Kasur Pakistan

Shakespeare, the crown of English literature, can rightfully boast of his marvelous achievements as a dramatist. His plays both comedies and tragedies, have a sterling worth of their own. The magnet of his plays pulls the iron dust of thoughts, and the reader feels himself bound by silky ropes of interest and pleasure. He maintains such an artistic balance in his writings as is found in an expert acrobat walking on a tight rope. His tragedies develop from beginning to an end as a rose progresses from budding to withering .Thoughts’ scent and feelings’ shade can be viewed in wordy flowers through the eye of imagination. Lost with Hamlet, ruined with king Lear, stunned with Macbeth and stupefied with Othello, the feels himself much maturer as the finds a treasure of knowledge, wisdom, expression and power. At the same time, some faults can be traced out as some spots can be seen on the shiny face of moon. In the following passages an effort has been made to present a critique of Othello. On the very onset, we discuss the various causes of popularityfalleninOthello’lot. Unique charaacters have been used in it who arrest our attention.In this regard ,first of all Desdemona’sbeauty,nicety,adventurousness,etc., charm the reader to the back bone. He wishes to keep her in his view all the time and when she is slain he feels a great grief in his heart for this delicacy of nature. Secondly, Othello’s unparalleled strength and bravery make the piece extra-ordinarily magnetic. H.Coombes remarks: “Any feeling that is made to apear more important than it really is can be called inflated”

We ever expect something most wonderful from this mountain of might. But this mountain proves a volcano that busts and burns to ashes not only himself but also others. Thirdly, Iago’s role casts a magic effect on the reader. He works wonders like Fate according to his own will. He seems more cunning than devil himself; wearing the thick mask of honesty, he cuts the ground from under the feet of the simpletons. His planning is just like the movement of the puppet master who makes others obey his beck and call without an iota of doubt. His so called honesty is like the darkness of Evil. Cassio’s role makes the play more playful and magnetic.Hibraverycumsimplicity,his attraction of personality and Desdemona’s sympathy for him create doubts that something will happen recently. Two momentous events thicken the interest of the play. In the beginning ,clouds of war make the atmosphere very very alluring. All senses become alert to know something or the other about the imminent war. The arrival of the messengers with one’s toes after the other’s heel make the reader as well as the audience spell bound to await the coming bloody- field. Along with others, Desdemona herself wishes to visit the bloody fields to confirm Othello’s bravery and skillfulness.Then instead of war, storm is involved to draw the senses to another natural phenomenon that is most captivating for those who are on the secure shores. The storm destoys the Turkish fleet, shatters their might ,even crumbles the very skeleton. Now we describe some other causes of interest in the play.Othello is lost for some moments and interest is strengthened; it is diverted from one spectacle to another. The whole play presents stormy situation. In the beginning, Desdemona’s elopement is an emotional storm for her aged father, Brabantio, the sudden information of the advancement of Turkish fleet is the political storm for the State ; misunderstanding between Othello and Desdemona is the domestic storm; then at last Desdemona’s muder is the criminal storm. Thus the playwright shuffles the situation from one storm to another. What else can attract man’s attention more than a sound storm. It is at the same time both success and failure on the part of the author, who has expertly handled these storms. But he has made the storm the centre of the reader’s thoughts not his artistic skill to make a piece of copper look like a golden one. The author uses the Herculean bow of exaggeration to shoot fickle arrows of imagination on all sides. Situation, character and language all are saturated with exaggeration. A humble obedient girl departs from her home all alone at midnight and goes across a stream to marry her lover. Her aged father, who himself had enjoyed love

marriage, remained totally unaware like a tree from all of this emotional attachment between Desdemona and Othello. And it is not a duration of a short while but a long span of more than one year and the father could not even imagine such a self evident exposure. It seems merely the subjective approach flourishes on the banks of exaggeration. I.A.Richards says: “The two pillars upon which a theory of criticism must rest are an account of value and an account of communication.” On the very nightof the marriage,the news of war alarm the atmosphere. It shows the secret agencies of the kingdom are too poor. They had no notion before it that the mighty enemy had been planning for war against them. Even storms can be predicted, why the war cannot be? Unexpectedly the storm comes and the fleet is shattered. Again the author has made full use of his subjective authority because no ship or person of the Venetions has been traced out by the storm. It does not seem a natural storm but the Furies begot by the curses of the Venetians. The winds of exaggeration can be felt blowing on the coasts of Cypress. Then overnight the married love-palace is razed to the ground on the basis of a baseless doubt. Desdemona has spent no separate time with Cassio. Cassio visits the castle once or twice and that also during the day.He has been their confidential friend and companion for an long time. Othello is so childish that he cannot see the truth in Desdemona’s eyes, rather the blind minded commander finds Cassio’s kisses on her lips. A commander has no insight to understand her household affairs; how he can make his army fight for the state. He lacks intelligence to see behind the scene. This unexpected, sudden and somewhat irrational misunderstanding make the situation exaggerative. It seems the author ,not the conditions draw the rope to hang the characters. The handkerchief episode is just a welding or engrafting of some inferior shoot in a superior one. Othello exposes the importance of the handkerchief when it is lost; he must have done so at the moment of presenting it. This love- gift must not be a usual commonplace piece of cloth that may fall with a simple jerk of knees. And at that very moment true hearted Emilia picks it up and takes it to her wicked husband even with the belief that he may use it in some devilish activity. And she does not tell about it to Desdemona even when Othello demands its very furiously in her presence . This scene could become convincing if Desdemona had not been there. But when she is

present and a skirmish occurs between her beloved couple and she is also loyal, she must have exposed the secret of the lost handkerchief . Thus the situation becomes unconvincing rather, exaggerative. And exaggeration is oppression for the rational minds. Roderigo has been is love with Desdemona for a long time. Her father Brabantio knows the fact. He cherishes her glance, spends money, time and energy for her. But Desdemona is absolutely unaware of Roderigo’s condition . Though Desdemona doesn’t love him yet his presence could be in her awareness. But the author has kept her in complete isolation that is to a large extent unconvincing is a locality where the same wind visits all corners. Othello, the commander in chief, watches Cassio and Bianca from a distance. But he has no suspicion of the illegal relations between the two.Then he falls down unconscious and Cassio comes their abruptly and Iago tells him that Othello suffers from epilepsy.Both Cassio and Iago have spent almost the equal duration with Othello. It can be asserted that Cassio has been closer to him than Iago is who has got his comfidence only a while ago. The ridiculous situation is that Iago knows this secret that is a lie but Cassio doesn’t. And Cassio, a brave man, runs away from the situation when when his loyalty demanded. In the end Othello doesn’t prove to be an obedient commander in chief but a brazen faced self-conceited man occupied not by wisdom but by blind vigour to commit suicide after the murder of a marvelous lady. Thus the play is mot masterpiece of art but of exaggeration. The language of the play also creates a negative impression. Discursive , unnecessary, long dialogues made the language cumbersom and to some extent oppressive. The reader wishes to know what happens next but the playwright stops him to listen to some flowery expressions to make the reader realize the mastery of the artist. Desemona’s passionate condition where Othello did beguile her to tears and she gave him a world of sighs must have made Brabantio aware of her heart. Brabantio, a senior courtier, also seems to be totally unware of the imminent war and he hasn’t told Desdemona anything about it. This non-awareness of war among the characters is far from convincing. He openly disobeys the orders brought by Lodvico and doesn’t make Cassio the commander in chief as are the orders.Rather he rebels against the state and acts upon the plan of murdering Cassio. It proves he hasn’t the forbearance of a good soldier. About all such

matters, Lodvico remarks: I am sorry that I am deceived in him (Act iv,sc-i) The play fails to prove Othello’s bravery except that he murders an innocent and delicate lady, Desdemona: Othello: Sweet soul take heed take heed of perjury Thou art on thy death- bed. He expresses his foolishness in these words: My wife my wife, my wife I ha’ no wife (Act iv,sc-ii) Towards the end of the play,disliking against Othello goes on increasing among the characters and the reader, as Emilia utters: O, the more angel she was, And you the blacker devil! She further abuses this mighty being: O gull , O dolt As ignorant as dirt ; thou hast done a deed (Act v Sc-ii) He himself shatters his rationality when he declares about the sexual intercourse between Desdemona and Cassio: A thousand times committed; Cassio confessed it While it is only the exaggeration of his poor fantasy. He is further deprecated when just before his suicide he expresses his prejudice against other nations of the world: like the base Indian I took the circumcised Dog And smote him thus. Othello plays as a jealous lover while Roderigo plays as a foolish lover. The first murders Desdemona while the second is murdered for her.

Othello’s might and bravery act lower than his status while Roderigo’s weakness and foolishness act higher than his position. Both of them have one target_ Cassio, but both of them are blinded by Iago. The impartial analysis of the play leads us to the conclusion that though it is one of the four major tragedies by Shapkespeare, yet it has some logical, technical and psychological defeacts. The overall impact and popualarity of the play are impressive enough to cover these drawbacks.

References Ralph.P.Boas and Edwin Smith NewYork Chicage I.A.Richards Principles of Literary Criticism Routledge and Kegan Paul LTD Broadway House; 68-74 Carter Lane Enjoyment of Literature Harcourt, Brace and company

H.Coombes Literatrure and Criticism Penguin Books (1966)

Similarities and Dissimilarities Between ‘Hamlet’ and ‘King Lear’
Prof. Niamat Ali Depatment of English Govt. Islamia College, Kasur Pakistan

Literature has ever used its weapons and strategy to explain the

countless enigmas present in life. In his efforts, a littérateur looks at life from one side and then from an- other. Each literary artist does the same job though the devices and ways are separate. Human nature is the most complex knot that perhaps can never be opened completely. Every action has some cause and effect, but there is no permanent rule to govern the whole of human behaviour. Robert.E.Knoll has the opinnion “To provide useful information is the function of the literature of knowledge; narration is part of the literature of power. The literature of power, of the imagination, moves the emotions; only incidentally instructs the mind.” William Shakespeare, the greatest dramatist, in English literature also and again. No doubt he has added a lot to the wisdom of the world. His plays and poetry are a praise -worthy heritage of man for all times. Literature is man in words and this thing applies to Shakespeare’s plays maximum. Each study of any of his plays, fills our minds with information about human nature, society and life. Hamlet, King Lear, Othello and Macbeth are regarded as his greatest tragedies. Among these four, the first two have superiority. In the following passages, an effort is made to bring out the similarities and dissimilarities between the two greatest master pieces. First of all, we glean out some similarities in Hamlet and King Lear.Both are very sensational tragedies; we are stunned when at the end the stage in strewn with corpses of very extraordinary persons. It becomes hard for us to bear the impact cast by the bloody scenes of the end. When extremely intellectual Hamlet and extremely gracious King Lear breathe their last, we are taken aback. In the play Hamlet, King Hamlet dies before the beginning, Polonius is slain unknowing by Prince Hamlet, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are beheaded in England as the report says, Ophelia drowns in the stream, Laertes takes the revenge of his father’s murder, Hamlet takes the revenge of his father’s murder, Gertrude drinks poison and gives up her ghost. In this way tragic effect goes on becoming stronger with the passage of time. in the play King Lear, The death of Goneril and Regan is suggested thus: Alb. Gent, Alb. Who dead? Speak,man. Your lady, sir , your lady: and her sister. By her is poisoned; she confesses it. In the duel between Edgar and Edmund, Edmund is

defeated to death: The Gods defend her! Bear him hence a while. (Edmund is borne off) Cordelia is hanged and King Lear dies of the grief: Lear. And my poor fool is hanged! No ,no,no life! Look on her, look, her lips, Look there, look there! (Dies)

Kent is also not willing to live in this world without King Lear: Kent. I have a journey, sir, shortly to go; My master calls me, I must not say no. Similarly in Hamlet we find a number of deaths that make the whole atmosphere more than gloomy. Horatio points to two deaths in these words: Hor. So Guildenstern and Rosencrantz go to it. Polonius is slain by chance by Hamlet: Pol. (behind) O, I am slain. Ophelia announces her father’sdeath and her own in these words: Ophelia. And will a not come again? And will a not come again? No, no , he is dead , Go to thy death- bed He never will come again. His beard was as white a snow, All flaxen was his poll. He is gone, he is gone, And we cast away moan. God a mercy on his soul. And of all Christian souls. God buy you.

Gertrude’s last words are: Queen: No, no, the drink, the drink ! O my dear Hamlet! The drink!the drink!I am poison’d. (Dies)

King Claudius dies thus:

Hamlet: Laertes Hamlet

Here, thou incestuous, murderous, damned done, Drink off this potion. Is thy union here? Follow my mother. (King Dies) Mine and my father’s death come not upon thee, Nor thine on me. (Dies) So tell me, with the , occurrents more and less While have solicited – the rest silence. (Dies)

Both the tragedies, Hamlet and King Lear, revolve around kings, princes, princesses, courtiers. In Hamlet, Claudius, though illegal, is the king ;Hamlet is the prince, Polonius is the courtier, Leartes and Opelia are the issue of Polonius, Gertrude is the Queen. Hamlet is to take revenge of his father King Hamlet from his uncle Claudius who is the King now. Polonius is slain by Hamlet by chance. Laertes comes back to take the revenge of his father from Hamlet. Ophilia grows mad and drowns in the stream and dies. Hamlet loves Opeilia more than forty thousand brothers. Laertes wounds Hamlet illegally; Hamlet wounds Claudius to death; Gertrude drinks a poisoned cup thus the tragedy is completed. In King Lear, Lear is the king; Goneril ,Regan and Cordelia are his daughters or princesses; Kent is his courtier; Gloucester is the governor of a state; Edgar and Edmund are his sons. King Lear divides his state between his three daughters. Goneril and Regan deceive him with their flattery, but Cordelia remains truthful. King Lear gets angry with her and utters Nothing comes out of nothing Thus she is dishonored, but the prince Of France marries her and takes her to France. The two daughters Goneril and Regan treat King Lear badly. Edmund makes illegal relations with both of them. King Lear becomes nearly mad. Cordelia takes him to France and gives her treatment. In the end war breaks out between England and Francex. That is won by England, Cordelia is hanged. Goneril and Regan poison each other, King Lear, Edmund and Kent also die. Thus this story is also the story of palaces, King and war. The themes of both the plays are ‘state’ and ‘sex’. In Hamlet, Claudius wants to rule. the state and enjoy sex with Gertrude. Gertrude also enjoy sex with her brother-in-law that is religiously an incest. And this mentality is the base of the whole action in the play. For this purpose King Hamlet is killed that is the beginning of the play.

For this purpose prince Hamlet is sent to England to be killed there, that is the middle of the play. And for this very purpose, a duel is arranged between Leartes and Hamlet that is the end. Thus ‘state’ and ‘sex’ can be safely called the themes of the play Hamlet. In King Lear, Goneril and Regan get the state with flattery and later on develop illegal sexual relations with Edmund, who himself is the illegal son of Gloucester. For the enjoyment of these two senses, Goneril and Regan fight a war against. France and then poison each other. Thus play becomes a sermon against the greed of state and sex. Along with main plots and themes both the plays have also sub-plots and sub-themes. In Hamlet there is the sub-plot of ‘play within play’Hamlet- Ophelia love affair, journey to England and Laertes journey to france. Similarly along with main themes of sex and state, there are sub-themes of revenge as the main theme.) , love, journey, friendship, death, treachery etc. With the combination of all these plots , sub-plots, themes and sub- themes, the play becomes a unique collection of a variety of thoughts and feelings In King Lear, there are also sub-plots like Edgar-Edmund sub-plots and also sub themes like treachery,selfishness, faithfulness, truth, war. Thus the play becomes a forest of thoughts. Both the heroes Hamlet and King Lear have tragic flaw or hamartia. Hamlet’s tragic flaw is over-thinking and King Lear thinking after action( thus both of them suffer from their flaws). Hamlet is often lost in philosophies: The times is out of joint, O cursed spite That ever I was born to set it right (3) He ponders over the world thus: How weary, stale, flat and unprofitable Seem to me all the uses of this world! (4) He believes in fate: A divinity that shapes our ends, Rough-hew them how we will. Similarly King Lear is an old person but he fails to understand the universal principle that might is right. He in the beginning, expresses his heart thus: ….. know that we have divided in three our kingdom; and our

fast- intent to shake all cares and business from our age, conferring them on younger strengths. And when he comes to know the practical fat, he utters: And when I have stol’n upon these son-in- laws Then kill, kill, kill, kill,kill, laws, Both the play have comic relief In Hamlet the Grave Diggers’ scene serves the purpose. When Hamlet returns from the shore, he finds a grave being dug. He has a talk with the grave-digger and his companion: Hamlet Grave: (Sings) Ham. Grave. ... whose grave’s This sirrah? Mine, Sir. O a pit of clay for to be made--I think it be thine indeed, for thou lies in’t You lie out on’t sir, and therefore its not yours. For my part, I do not lie in’t, yet it is mine.

Similarly, fool’s presence in the play, King Lear, creates comic relief. His remarks are replete with wisdom and humour: Fool.(a) A fox, when one has caught her, And such a daughter, Should sure to the slaughter, In my cap would buy a halter, So the fool follows after Why to keep ones eyes of either side’s nose,that What a man cannot smell out he may spy into Thou should’ st o have been old till thou hast been wise


Madness is another common theme in the two plays. Though the mental software is very badly affected by the circumstances, yet they don’t loses their senses completely. Hamlet’s madness is very doubtful even for the characters. Claudius employs Rosencrantz andGuildenstern to know the secret of Hamlet’s heart but they fail. Polonius also makes unsuccessful effort. Even the queen and Claudius are not clear about it. King . It shall be so, Madness in grear ones must not go unwatched

In King Lear, the hero reaches the boundery of madness. An old man is crushed by the young storms. His mental software is more badly affected than that of Hamlet. He really requires treatment for recovery. He himself utters: Lear: O! let me not be mad, not mad, sweat heaven Keep me in temper; I would not be mad

But the fool defines a mad person thus: Fool: He is mad that trusts in the tameness of a wolf, a horse’s health, a boy’s love, or a whore’s oath. In the bulk of similarities, there are also some points of dissimilarities in the two plays. In Hamlet, the hero Hamlet is a young man with all the potential of youth in his body. Literature William Henry Hudson Publisher Hudson London Every man belongs to this race and age, and no matter now marked his personality, the spirit of his race and age finds expression through him. He is surrounded by old and experienced persons like Claudius, Polonius, Gertrude. Some young characters of his age are also there but all of them hypocrites and insincere except Horatio who behaves as a faithful friend. Hamlet often fails to understand the games played by others. But in the nick of time, he comes to know the facts and acts accordingly. And he has to utter: How all occasions do inform against me? And for him the time is out of joint And he cannot set it right. In King Lear an aged ,grey haired man is fighting against young forces of man and nature. King Lear’s daughters Goneril and Ragan, and Edmund have manipulated against him to bring about a disaster. The old man fights against his nature. His vast kingdom becomes a prison for him.

The forest becomes his palace to held his court there with the fool and Edgar. Though being old, he fails to understand the nature of his daughters. Kent and Edgar give him a support but it is useless to cry over spilt milk. There is internal storm in Hamlet but there is external storm in King Lear. In the maddening storm of thoughts, Hamlet finds it hard to choose his way of action. And in the storm of the forest King Lear’s mind loses its grip over senses. Gertrude describers Hamlet’s action thus: Queen: Mad as the sea and wind when both contend Which is the mightier.

King Lear describes the storm: Lear: Blow winds and crack your cheeks! Rage blow! Your cataracts and hurricanes spout Till you have drench’d our steeples drownd the cocks!

The characters of Ophelia and Cordelia also provide us with the stuff of contrast. between the two tragedies. Ophelia is a young damsel just like a puppet in the hands of her father. She becomes a cat’s paw for Polonius against her lover Hamlet. But Cordelia is a complete contrast. She turns against her father for truth. She is not ready to flatter her father insincerely. She is a symbol of truth, loyalty and balance, while Ophelia has only the delicacy of body and heart. She is stark blind towards Hamlet and is not affected even the least when he is in the getup of a mad person. But she turns mad when her father is killed by Hamlet. She seems be to a symbol of Electra-complex. In one sense Ophelia commits suicide but Cordelia is hanged. Polonius dies before Ophelia but king Lear dies after cordelia’s death. Ophelia obeys two male characters, Polonius and Laertes while Cordelia fights against two sisters , Goneril and Regan. Thus two opposite natures are presented before us. Hamlet is dethroned by force and fraud while King Lear willingly abdicates from his seat and divides it into parts. Hamlet is robbed by his clever uncle Claudius while King Lear himself bestows his state on others. Hamlet is appointed by the Ghost to take the revenge while

King Lear is helpless against circumstances. Aldous Huxley says: “Changes in external circumstances are, of curse, accompanied by changes in internal circumstances.” King Lear has simple and practical sense of language while Hamlet has a difficult and intellectual sense of language. It is requires a greater force of mind to reach the depth of meanings while in King Lear language seems to be very facile. In Hamlet supernatural elements have been presented as common characters while in King Lear there is nothing like this. In Hamlet, the Ghost becomes the motivator whereas in King Lear Goneril’s and Regan’s behavior becomes the motivater of the whole action. In Hamlet Laertes takes revenge from Hamlet and Hamlet takes revenge from Claudius. But King Lear fails to take his revenge. Edgar takes revenge from Edmund but nature takes revenge from Goneril and Regan. Hamlet seems to be wiser and more philosophic than King Lear, and King Lear seems to be more active and energetic than Hamlet. What a contrast! The sum and substance of the above discussion leads us to the conclusion that both the greatest tragedies have some similar and some dissimilar aspects. Perhaps the human nature is so complex and vast that it cannot be confined to some limits. It is also a mixture of so many passions, thoughts, ideas, motives, etc. Both the plays put us into the wilderness of bewilderment where nothing is certain. Life has been obscure and it will ever remain the same. In both the plays curtains are drawn leaving the audience to ponder and ponder and ponder. Robert.E.Knoll Contrasts Harcourt, Brace and Company New York

William Henry Hudson An Outline History of English Literature Hudson London. Aldous Huxley The Olive Tree Oxford University Press (1947)

Comparison and Contrast between ‘ The Rape of the Lock’ and Paradise Lost (Book I, IX)

Prof.NiamatAli Depatment of English Govt. Islamia College, Kasur Pakistan

Once epics enjoyed a high status in the realm of literature. Poets wrote them with extra ordinary skill and people read them with penetrating attention. A common man could afford long hours to read or listen to the epic sung or narrated. With the passage of time, political ideas under went a sea change, social trends were also metamorphosed with the revolutionary changes, people’s bent towards literature also turned over a new leaf and epic was replaced by other genre of literature like novel, short-story. The present climate is not suitable for the old tree of epic to flourish, rather it is dwindling with the fastness of the wheel of society. In the following passages an effort is made to present the comparison and contrast between two famous epics in the English literature: The Rape of the Lock and the ‘Paradise Lost’ (Book I, IX). The Paradise Lost by John Milton is a traditional epic where as the Rape of the Lock is a mock epic.

An epic is a narrative poem in which the poet describes a series of adventures made by the dignified hero. Language is sublime and often Goodness gets victory over Evil. Discussing the vast scope of Paradise Lost, F.E. Hutchinson says: “It ranges over all time and space and even beyond them both it depicts heaven and earth and chaos, the imagined utterances of super natural beings, events before the emergence of man upon earth, the history of man from the creation and by prophecy, to the end of time, and his eternal destiny.” Dr. Johnson remarks: “Milton considered creation in its whole extent, and his descriptions are therefore learned.” The mock epic can be defined as a poetic form written in the epic structure and its subject is ridiculously trivial. It mainly aims at satirizing socially vulnerable points. The writer makes every possible effort to make it charming so that those who are laughed at may not be annoyed. Pope himself says about this genre of literature: “It is using a vast force to lift a feather.” The rape of the lock is a mock-epic in the best sense of the term. Hazlitt has called the poem “The perfection of the mock-epic.” In the beginning of an epic, the poet makes an invocation to the Muse or the Holy Spirit to help him write some thing praiseworthy and everlasting. He, with all his ability and store of thoughts and vocabulary, cannot do so without that supernatural assistance. Following this tradition, and keeping his religion in his mind, Milton entreats the Holy Spirit: O spirit, that dost prefer Before all temples the upright hart and pure, Instruct me what in me is dark illumine, What is low raise and support. The poet also tells the purpose of his adventure: I may assert eternal providence

And justify the ways of God to man. Alexander Pope in his mock-epic The Rape of the Lock has followed the tradition of the commencement and also the purpose: Say what strange motive, Goddess; could compel A well bred lord to assault a gentle belle? I sing this verse to Caryll, Muse is due This even Belinda may vouchsafe to view The purpose of the poem is expressed thus: Slight is the subject but not so the praise If she inspire and he approve my lays. An epic is specified with a great task; the hero and other main characters are involved in some Herculean problem. Long journeys, fatal fights blood curdling harassment, wars, etc., work like pillars to maintain the high canopy of the epic’s tent. In Paradise Lost, there is a grand battle between the limitless forces of God, and those of Satan. Such a great war has never been fought in the history of man. The great thunder that followed the rebel angels to the hell makes the reader stunned. Then in book IX, there is the expulsion of man from heaven. The greatest tragic event in the history of man. In his first speech, Satan remarks about his battle: (5) (i) And hazard in the glorious enterprise, Joinned with me once, now misery halh joined

His utmost power with adverse power opposed. In dubious battle on the plains of Heaven, and shook his throne. (6) The construction of a grand pandemonium is no boubt a great task: ………and blazing cressets, fed With naphtha and asphaltus, yielded light As from the sky. (7) The grreat tragedy of man occurs in book IX when Eve eats the forbidden fruit: So saying, her rash hand in evil hour Forth reaching to the fruit, she plucked, she ate. Earth felt the wound, and Nature from her seat Sighing through all her works gave signs of woe, That all was lost. Wearing the glasses of magnification, when we cast a glance at ‘The Rape of the Lock’, we are suddenly stunned to find the ‘great task’ of cutting the lock of hair unfairly of a fair damsel: (8) The meeting point the sacred hair dissever From fair head, for ever, and for ever; (9) The war of sexes is presented in a beautiful way: All side in parties and begin the attack; Fans clap, silks rustle, and touhg whalebones crack; (10) Death spreads every where: One died in metaphor, and one in song. (11) Trivial actions like this are happening :

She smiled to see the doughty hero slain, But, at her smile, the Beau revived again. Great characters are a requirement for great action. In Paradise Lost, Satan’s character has been portrayed by Milton in a splendid way. His stature is suggested thus: (12) Prone on the flood, extended long and large, Lay floating many a rood; (13) His shield and spear are brought before us like this (14) …………. His ponderous shield,

Hung on his shoulders like the Moon,……………….. (15) His spear, to equal which the tallest pine Hewn on Norwegian hills, to be the Mast Of some great Ammiral, were but a wand. He has a great sympathy for his followers and is grieved to see them in that perdition. He encourages them like a brave leader and puts before them the plan of their life: (16) Fallen Cherub, to be weak is miserable Doing or suffering. (17) To so aught good never will be our task.

Adam and Eve have the perfection of humanity; Adam’s strength of body and mind, and Eve’s charms have been beautifully described by the poet. Thus the epic can boast of grand characters. While in The Rape of Lock very timid characters have been created. The Baron is the mockery of bravery. The fop makes an adventure to get a lock of hair of a girl. Before coming to the Hyde Park, he bows before gods to heavenly powers to make bless him with the prize of the lock. This scene is enough to laugh at a youngman like the Baron.

Then prostrate falls and begs with ardent eyes Soon to obtain and long possess the prize: Belinda behaves just like a delicate doll whose aim is only to attract others. This nymph, to the destruction of mankind Nourished two locks, which graceful hung behind The two characters are suitable for a mock-epic. Sir Plume also behaves in a ridiculous way: When bold Sir Plume had drawn Clarissa down, Cloe stepped in, and killed him with a frown; Clarissa and Thalestris are also coquetts Almost all the society has fallen into vices. Here the game of chess has been presented as a war in the battle field. Thus the action in a mock-epic is trivial as is required. A very prominent traditional quality of an epic is the proper use of machinery. In the Paradise Lost, very grand machinery has been employed. There are mighty angels like Gabriel, and fallen engels like Satan, Beelzbub; they are further explained as gods of various regions where they established their temples and large populations of human beings followed their evil teacings. Moloch, Chemos, Baalim and Ashtareth, Astarte, Thammuz, Dagon, Osiris, Isis, Orus, Belial, etc. make up the machinery of the epic. The major part is played by Satan himself. Almost all fallen angels engage in contructing the great Pandemonium. Then Satan’s adventure to enter paradise, the revolutions around the earth and then penertrating to a serpent makes the piece very attractive. Similarly machinery has been employed in ‘The Rape of the Lock’. There is Ariel, the head of all the spirits. Then there are four types of the spirits: salamanders, nymphs, gnomes, sylphs. These spirits play an active part in the overall action of the mock-epic. There is also Spleen that has a mood of her own and who

spreads coquettery and Megrim in the world. Thus machinery in both the epics works like soul in the body. Riaz Hassan says: “A living poem should have a body, a soul and a mind. The body would be its form, the soul its inspiration, and the mind its message.” By using machinery, both the poets have fulfilled the qualities of a living poem.


A brighter wash to curl their waving hairs Assist their blushes and inspire their airs.

(19) To fifty chosen sylphs of special note, We trust the important charge, the petticoat; (20) Ariel himself shall e the grard of shock. (21)Episodes are part and parcel of an epic. An epic is just like the tree of oak that spreads its branches in every direction. Episodes inerease the dimensions of a piece and the volume of the writing is also multiplied. Tradition is also satisfied. Milton has used a number of episodes in Paradise Lost Book I.The description of angelic gods is merely the addition of episodes, then the construction of the Assembly Hall etc . Are the episodes that make the main plot more attractive . Book IX has allusions to mythological characters like Dryad, Delia, Pomona, vertumnus, Ceres, Neptune, Juno that work like short episodes. Similarly in The Rape of the Lock, episodes have been given proper room and position. The first dream of Belinda, the game of chess, the adventure of the Umbriel all work like episodes. If these episodes are deleted from the main plot, the epics would look like logs not trees in the shade of which thoughs and passions can get some rest, peace and pleasure. Especially if episodes are removed form the Rape of the Lock, it would lose most of its charm. But the abundance of episodes can also mar the charm of a

masterpiece. Style adopted by the poet is the most important thing in an epic. The whole edifice of the epic is supportd, embellished and dignified by the style of the writer. In this regard both Milton and Pope succeed in proving their skill. The first one adopted the Grand Style that became famous in the English literature. And the second one adopted the method of mockery that was suitable for his piece. The over all language is dignigied and effort has been made to sustain the level of the language. For the grand style, Milton used epic similes:

(22)Thick as Autumnal leaves that strow the brooks In Vallombrosa, where the Etrurian shades High over-arched embower; or scattered sedge Afloat, when with fierce winds Orion armed Hath vexed the Red-Sea coast………………. (23) In shape and gesture proudly eminent, Stood like a tower William Henry Hudson remarks: “But often the influences which most profoundly affect literature are not literary ; they are influences which belong, not to book but scholarship, general life, politics, society.” We find that Milton fulfills all the demands. Milton’s style is replete with extreme terseness that not only pleases but also casts a spell on the reader: To do aught good never will be our task, But ever to do ill our sole delight. There is also verbal music in his words:

She fair, divinely fair, fit love for gods, For the further variety in his style, Milton uses inverted constructions: Creator wise, danger tasted, intended wing depressed, fair colours mixed, etc. The style of The Rape of the Lock is also sublime but according to the need. The poet cemploys a great force to lift up a feather. Try has been made to extend similes to make them epic like: (24) Bright like the sun, her eyes the gazers strike, And, like the sun, she shines on all alike. Exaggeration is also a part of style, note the exaggeration of the line: (25)Belinda smiled, and all the world was gay, And at the same time it reminds us that we are reading a mock-epic. In epics references to mythology are made: (26)Whether the nymph shall break Diana’s law, Or some frail China jar receive a flaw: Than mythological character like Pallas Mars,Latona, Hermes, are mentioned in the rape of the lock. In an epic, the poet has his intermissions where he shows his presence. In Paradise Lost, we find: So spake the patriarch of mankind but Eve Persisted; yet submiss though last, replied: Similarly in The Rape of the Lock, we find Pope saying: (27)O thoughtless mortalls; ever blind to fate, Too soon dejected, and too soon elate. In an epic there are speeches of characters. We find in Paradise

Lost the speeches of Satan and Beelzbub in book 1, then in book IX, there are speeches of Adam, Eve and Satan. The same method has been used by Alexander Pope in the Rape of the Lock. Belinda, Clarissa, Thalestris, the Baron, Ariel, all have their speeches. These speeches increase interest in the piece and also help us understand the inner feelings of the characters. The titles of the epics are also attractive, Paradise Lost is a universal topic and every human being can be interested in it. While “The Rape of the Lock” is a ridiculous topic. The grave sense of ‘rape’ has been connected with a lock. Thus the titles fulfill their relevant needs. An epic has a good sized length and breadth. Everything is explained with full satisfaction. Paradise Lost with its twelve books leaves no aspect unexplained. While The Rape of the Lock has only seven hundred and ninety lines. Its brevity multiplies its charm and a compact pleasure is enjoyed by the reader. In epics, characters have grand passions according to their position. As in Paradise Lost, Satan is full of grand passions. Though infane, his task to over throw God is no doubt a great passion. Then he burns in the fire of revenge and enters paradise against God’s orders and succeeds in bringing about man’s fall. His great passion is a force for his great adventures. Milton’s Satan proves a mighty mountain of courage. Standing in the burning ground, he doesn’t fall into the quagmire of dispair. He utters very boldly: Farewell, happy fields, Where joy for ever dwellls: Hail, horrors, hail, Infernal world, and thou profoundest Hell, Reveive thy new possesser: one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. The mind is its own place, and in itself. Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven. But in a moke-epic passions are also trivial, the young men want to

entrap girls and vice versa. Belinda says: Oh hadst thou, cruel! been content to seize Hairs less in sight, or any hair but these! The whole piece brings before us social vices along with personal drawbacks. Kalimuddin Ahmad asserts: “It is only a realization of truth that gives life its meaning –and art its significance.” The Rape of the Lock gives us the realization of the English society of the Eighteenth century. Thus the two epics have a large number of aspects where they compare and contrast with each other. But each of them has its own worth and quality. With respect to grandeur, Paradise Lost impresses us very much but with respect to humour and pleasure, The Rape of the Lock brings us a glass of laughter. (28)William Henrry Literature An Outline History of English

(G.Bell and Sons LTD London) (1963) (29)Riaz Hassan Aristotle’s Poetics Practical Criticism and Some Aspects of

(The Imperial Book Depot The Mall Lahore.) (30)Kalimuddin Ahmad Psycho –Analysis and Literary Criticism (National Book Foundation Islamabad Pakistan )

A Critical Appreciation of Robert Frost’s Poetry
Prof. Niamat Ali Depatment of English Govt. Islamia College, Kasur Pakistan

Robert Lee Frost stands as a towering personality among the American poets not only of the twentiecth but probably all the centuries to come. He can be regarded as the crown on the head of American poetry. A wide spread range of the themes in his poems make him the poet not only of New England but the whole world. Almost every reader feels that Robert Frost’s thoughts are also his own. As Mirza Ghalib(an urdu poet)says: Dekhna takreer ki lazat k jo us ne kaha Mn ne ye jana k goya ye b mere Dil mn hay. Not only with respect to themes but also the expert use of poetic devices make his poetry pleasing rather matchless in the realm of American poetry. In the following passages, we present a brief analysis of his poetry along with a short sketch of his life. He was born in San Francisco on 26th March, 1874. His mother herself was a poetess and educated woman. He was only eleven when his father passed away because of tuberculosis. His mother adopted teaching to make both ends meet. He joined Dartsmouth college in 1892. He did a number of jobs to be a support for his family. He married his school fellow Elinor White in 1895 and tried to settle down as a school-teacher.He migrated to England in 1912. He stayed there for three years and got his first book, A Boy’s Will, published in 1913. In 1913 he returned to New England, America. He

was awarded the Pulitzer prize and also invited to the Inauguration of President Kennedy. He died in January 1963. His life with respect to misfortunes, struggle and success reminds us of the famous American president Abraham Lincoln. In fact Robert Frost has the same prominent status in American poetry as Abraham Lincoln has in American politics. A brief analysis of Frost’s poetry a nosegay, a bouquet, or a bed,

whatever we may call it, his poetry has sweet smelling colorful flowers that sparkle like gems in the light of conscious and understanding. A charming spectacle where the beauties of words can be viewed in their climax . Sometimes ‘Frost’ becomes more charming than clear light; and sometimes confusion pleases us more than clarity does . Most of the conditions of mind can be experienced in Frost’s poetry. (Kenneth Quinn remarks: “A poem is a representation of the writer’s understanding of the human condition, a reorganization of experience which can be felt as essentially true, but doesn’t have to be true as it stands”. We find that Frost’s poems are the same. A list of his books is suitable to be mentioned here: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) A Boy’s Will (1913) North of Boston (1914) Mountain Interval(1916) New Hampshire (1923) West Running Brook (1928) A Further Range (1936) A Witness Tree (1942) Steeple Bush

(9) (10)

Two Masques In the Clearing

(1945) (1962)

Randall Jarrell remarks that Frost’s early poetry is different from the later. But we assert that the personality and originality of the poet can be viewed in each and every line by the poet. As soon as we knock at the door of a Frost’s poem, we are welcomed warmly with open arms by a lady called Nature. Nature is a so wide spread in his poems that we feel we are roaming with Wordsworth but without any supernatural mysticism of the Romantics. Nature in its real and practical sense can be viewed in Frost’s poems: (31)Snow falling and night falling fast, oh, fast In a field I looked into going past, And the ground almost covered smooth in snow, But a few weeds and stubble showing last. (Desert Places) (32)But as I said it, swift there passed me by On noiseless wing a bewildered butterfly. (The Tuft of Flowers) © My little horse must think it queer To stop without a farmhouse near Between the woods and frozen lake The darkest evening of the year. (Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening) The lines quoted above make it clear to us that nature for Frost is as it is in practical sense both pleasing and frightening. Simplicity is the hallmark of Frost’s poems; the poet of nature

keeps his poems in their natural figure, without any artificial make up to decorate them. But it is said that slow waters run deep; this simplicity is very subtle and deceptive. As an Urdu poet says: Is sadgi pe kon na mar jaey ay Khuda Karte hain katal or hath mn talwar b nahi (The simiplicty of my beloved kills me with out a sword) His simplicity needs no shackles to sustain itself because truth is ever green. His simplicity is replete with truth both practical and thematic. His simplicity reminds us of English poets like William Blake , Davies and Urdu poets like Mir, Dard, Nasir Kazmi. Some instances are: (33)She turned and sank upon her skirt at that, And her face changed from terrified to dull. (Home Burial) (34)The bear puts both arms around the tree above her And draws it down as if it were a lover (The Bear) © Out of the mud two strangers came And caught me splitting wood in the yard. (Two Tramps in Mud Time) An example of the Urdu poet Mir Take Mir: Mir sahib zamana nazuq hy Dono hathon se thamea dastar (O Mir the time is very critical, take full care of your honour) Frost is the poet of man out and out . Almost all the natural, philosophical and social descriptions and narrations have taken man in their centre. Pleasure, worries, miseries,fears,etc,every idea is related with man. He is never lost in his philosophies nor ravished by any

social or political impetus. Aristotle says : Since those who imitate, imitate men in action, and these must necessarily be either worthwhile or worth less people. Frost is always with humanity as a whole, not in pieces and portions: (35)He hates to see a boy the fool of books. (The Death of the Hired Man) (36)Off he goes always when I need him most. (Mending Wall) © We’ll both be married to the brook. (West-Running Brook) (d) He says again,” Good fences make good neighbours; (Mending Wall) This involvement of man in his poetry makes it more pleasing and reflective,because without man the universe is aimless. Robert Frost has a balanced philosophy of life. He is neither a pessimist to see darkness all around nor an optimistic fool who fails to understand the practical and realistic sense of life and nature. Though sometimes he is frightened by nature yet he enjoys it his fill. About social life also he remains a practical thinker who bases every experience on some or the other cause. This philosophy is at the same time modern and scientific and at the same time not non-relogious. (a)Some say the world will end in fire Some say in ice. (Fire and Ice)

(b)The woods are lovely, dark and deep, But I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep, And miles to before I sleep. (Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening) © Something there is that doesn’t love a wall, (Mending Wall) Thus his philosophy is based on rationality not on any ununderstandable mysticism. Along with the philosophy of life and nature it is suitable to discuss Frost’s philosophy of religion. In this connection it is safe to say that he advocates neither for religion nor against religion. He, like a gentleman, does not interfere into other people’s private affairs. It is a fact that the world is governed by one religion that is humanity, and the other religions have partial impacts on man. Frost has adopted this greatest religion without throwing arrows against others. In fact, he loves man, he thinks about man and he talk with man. He is against the artificial divisions that force man cut his brother’s throat. A poet of nature and man can never be narrow minded or limited in his approach . At the same time, he does not allow to let loose the reins of morality and good behaviour. Sister M.Judine opines: “It was to the poets in particular that men turned for a redefining of their plave in the cosmic scheme of things. What they found

was a diversity of minds and spirits __ all eager to defend. The cause of beauty and truth against the ugliness of industrilism and commercialism so prevalent in England.” (37)The universal cataract of death That sepends to nothingness (West-Running Brook) (38)Our life runs down in sending up the clock. (West-Running Brook) Imagery grants poetry a pleasing flavor and Frost is not unaware of it. He uses images in his poems so artistically that we feel some liking for forest or other objects of universe. It is the expertness of a narrator that he does not reject the low beings rather mentions them to make his poetry realistic and natural. Some instances can be quoted from Frost’s poems: (39)But no, I was out for stars: I would not come in. (Come In) (40)A doe from round a spruce stood looking at them. (The Onset) © The butterfly and I had lit upon, Nevertheless, a message from the dawn, That made me hear the wakening birds around, And hear his long say the whispering to the ground. (The Tuft of Flowers) (41)Were he not gone, The woodchuck could say whether it’s like his

Long sleep, as I describe its coming on, Or just some human sleep . (After Apple-Picking) Irony, the salt of narration, makes almost everything tasty, impressive and praiseworthy. Frost makes a skillful use of this weapon of writing . His poems are replete with ironic senses: (42)Something there is that doesn’t love a wall (Mending Wall) (43)The loneliness included me unawares (Desert Places) © I’d like to get away from earth a while And then come back to it and begin over. (Birches) (44) Irony distinguishes one thing from others: I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference; (The Road Not Taken) (e) Irony makes the situation dramatic; Magnified apples appear and disappear, (After Apple-Picking) (f) Irony exposes the base of somebody’s behaviour He will not go behind his father’s saying. (Mending Wall) (g) Irony explains some idea: Men work together, I told him from the heart, Whether they work together or apart; (The Tuft of Flowers) The use of devices like pathetic fallacy, similes and metaphors

embellish writings if they are used properly. Poetry remains blank without an expert use of these devices. Sublimity can’t be achieved with out the impressive application of these tricks. Frosts uses similes and metaphors in his poems so beautifully as stars are fixed in the sky: (45)And hear his long scythe whispering to the ground. (Pathetic fallacy)( The Tuft of Flowers) (46)My little horse thinks it queer (Transferred epithet)( Stopping by Woods) © Well, those days trouble Silas like a dream. (Simile) (The Death of the Hired Man) (d) That brought him to that creaking room was age. [ Transferred Ephithet] (An old Man’s winter Night) (e) His all pine and I am apple orchard . [Metaphor] (Mending Wall) (f) Nevertheless, a message from the dawn (The Tuft of Flowers) (g) I shall laugh the worst laugh I ever laughed. [Alliteration] (Home Burial) Most of the writers and almost all poets develop from particular to general, and from region to universe. This characteristic can be easily traced out from Frost’s poetry. The first reading of most of his poems puts us to delusion that he is a local poet. He often moves about in his New England and searches out the subject of his poems . But a second and deeper reading brings the fact before us that he is a poet of all the world and of all times. Peculiar instances become symbols of general happenings.

(47)In ‘Stopping by Woods…. the traveler, the poet himself, is in fact every man of the world; the night is the time of life ; the horse is consciousness, destination is the end of life. The charm of the simple poem becomes a symbol of life and this quality makes the poet a universal one. (48) In ‘After Apple Picking’ the picker is the every man of the world, apples are desires ,barrel is the greed of man, Ice-block is man’s life, hoary grass is this world, etc. Thus the poem also becomes an explanation of life. (49)“The Road Not Taken” indicates those people who don’t follow the beaten rut but create something new- often the great revolutionaries turn the tables, great scholars propound new theories , great leaders make the fortune of a nation and convert slaves into masters. Thus the poem, in fact, is a code for successful life. Love has been the greatest theme in poetry all over the world. Mostly. love between a young man and a damsel has been the centre of thought. But Frost has extended the theme of love to the whole humanity, rather universe. His approach is more realistic. Though the feelings of love among youth is a fact, yet love between mother and son, brother and sister, friends is not a dream land story. But poets have paid little attention to this aspect. Frost has behaved exceptionally: (50)Something these is that doesn’t love a wall (Mending Wall) (51)Earth’s the right place for love: I don’t know where it’s likely to go better. (Birches) Only where love and need are one,

And the work is play for mortal stakes, Is the deed ever really done For Heaven and Future’s sakes. (Two Tramps in Mud Time) Loneliness has ever invited poets all over the world. The famous Urdu Poet Mirza Ghalib utters: Rahay ab esi jagah chal kr jahan koe na ho Apna , praya, meharban, na-meharban, koe na ho. (Now I wish to go to that place where there is nobody) English poetry is also replete with the themes of loneliness. Robert Frost is also a lover of the same beloved of poets. We find him alone in most of his poems. He is alone in jumping on birches, he is alone in apple picking he is alone in Desert Places, he is alone in the Road Not Taken, he is alone in the Tuft of Flowers, etc. This loneliness has been the theme of the universe. Most of the stars are in loneliness. Man is alone in grave also. Thus loneliness in poetry makes it universal. Frost’s poetry has the characteristic of lyricism. Short lines strike heart just like sharp arrows and impress the reader maximum. That is why his simplicity is called deceptive. This simplicity and sharpness reminds us of Geoffrey Chaucer: (52)Some say the world will end in fire, Some say in ice (Fire and Ice) (53)I went to turn the grass once after one

Who mowed it in the dew before the sun. (The Tuft of Flowers) © Snow falling and night falling fast , oh, fast In a field I looked into going past. (Desert Places) In some poems, we find some sense of fear . This fear is also not baseless because in nature fear in always hovering on human beings. This sense of fear makes Frost ‘s poetry more realistic. Without fear, the balance of the universe will be disturbed; the same will happen without hope. (54)I advocate a semi- revolution The trouble with a total revolution (A Semi Revolution) (b) I have it in me so much nearer home To scare myself with my own desert places. (Desert Places) The concise but comprehensive discussion about the salient features of Robert Lee Frost’s poetry leads us to the conclusion that he is a great poet not only of the present but all the times to come. He will ever be remembered not only in books but in minds and on tongues. He will ever he remembered with honour and prestige. His themes will ever sustain the high roof of his glory and fame. He will ever be regarded as a poet of man and then of universe. Simple diction, short sentences, layers of meanings, comprehensiveness of thought, natural scenes, common characters, etc., will ever advocate for his high position among American poets. (55)Kenneth Quinn How literature Works (The Macmillan Press Ltd

London) (56)Aristotle Poetics (The University of Michigan Press.) (57)Sister M.Judine Sister M.Gratia Mordern English Writers (The Macmillan Company New York) (1961)

Language experts can produce new letters
Maqsood Hasni

For expression often two methods are adopted: 1. Conversation 2. Writing Without a language the process of expression cannot obtain an existence. A language obtains to an existence by the words while the words are come to an existence by the sounds. The alphabet is not equal in counting in the languages of the world. Each sound has it own culture, civilisation, atmosphare of economy and atmosphare of politician. A rule can not be fixed for a word when the meanings and shapes it supplies to another language. The circle of circumstances and attitude of another language change the shape of that word . Like these examples • • • • Words vote file advice and sport have different figures in the Urdu and in the Punjabi. Votroon Votraan, Votain Faelain, faeloon, faelaan Sportraan, spotroon, spotran

• • • • •

Edition of words can also be seen i.e Research’mar (researcher), Mint’mar (mintue) (hurry up) The Arabic words jaloos, oqaat and khasam has meanings differing in the punjabi and in the Urdu. The Arab word hosla has prononciation differing in Punjabi, Mivati, Gojri and Pothohari. The word Suzuki is used for a machine while the real meanings are different in Japanese.

The speaker and the writer, these foreigners use in the second place the local uses of the routine. The thing interesting is this that the person uses it intentionally. The custmer must still have completely awearness their origen and Prononciation organised to us. The cause of this fact is this that the custmer is besides a native listener of that zone. He wants to carry out what he wants. He has not tention or worry for the disposition of the phrases. The disposition of a line of poetry does not follow the fixed rules of the linguistics. Like example: According to poetic installed: Modat hoe hai yaar ko mehmaan kiay howay (Ghalib) Second the rule of installed language: Yaar ko mehmaan kiay howay modat ho gae/chali hai.. No doubt language has a key list as far as it regards the expression but the language is not going to express enough the ideas or the sensitiveness or the thoughts. The expression completes with someone other fountains. For exxample: • • • • • • • Tone of the conversation Style of the conversation Sense of the conversation Positions their lies speaker Positions their lies of the listener Atmosphare and condition of the place to the times of the conversation Situation

• • • • • •

Reference to the competitions Signs of the body of the speaker Impressions of the forehead of the speaker Movments of the hands (during the meeting) Distingtion between direct or indirect naration Personal taste and interest as far as it regards to go on the meeting

In case of indirect naration, the value of the talk will not remain more then a translation. The talk of that side of the wall can be rasied many complecations and confusions. Because the listener has not knowledge of the situation, need, atmosphare of the meeting as also the body and the forehead it is not in his look. We listen the music or the different type sounds in the radiophonic and periodic banns of the TV. Both elements are necessary for the comprehension the expressions and the points of the view. These elements have an importencein the called ones. In fact to write something, is a written talk. The different marks are used in the writing (. , - ! ? : ‘ ; “ ” ?!( ){ } ) for the freest assembling of the expression. The reader perhaps an expert in the reading but without these marks he cannot clearly understand the meanings of the writing. These marks have their own meanings and can help in the assembling of the meanings of the writing. i.e Roko, mat janay doo. Roko mat, janay doo. At the times of the conversation, the language of the body of the speaker, impressions of the forehead, passes the remains of the marks within the bounds of the supervision of the listener. Not only he listens to the words that besides look at the marks of the body and of the impressions of the forehead. During the listening only to be able of the meeting but from the look power besides does one relative job. The blind people obtain both the work from their ears (that they observes and that listens to). While the deaf people obtain both the work from their eyes. (that they observes and that looks to). Their look power does double job. This position is not a maximum common. A person listens to sar sar (snake’s moving sound) while nothing is before him. With the help of this voice he is able to know that this

sound is touching of the snake. A person sees certainly the movment over a bundal of cotton he will automatically come to know that something is moving under the bundal of cotton and he will consider this sure matter of great care. If the experts in language take some pain they can do a lot with the help of these helping elements. They can produce more and more new letters. For example: A man with his mark of the hand asks to some one have your seat please or to sign by hands to leave the place, if the overseeing person understands the means of these signs so these signs can be converted into letters. Considering like these marks I can introduce the hundreds examples. It is my faith that if the experts in the languages take the living interest and pain sure they will earn good results for their labour.

Sound sheen is very commen in the world languages

Maqsood hasni

After a deep, long, sensative thinking and linguistic experiments of books and interviews with the experts on languages that I have mentioned four points in my writings: a. languages alphabets of exercise are insufficient to meet the streat talking and some very personal conversations / interviews. b. This is a serious and hot need of this age that linguistic experts must do their best to invent and create some more alphabet sounds. c. Crunt alphabets of the languages have more than one sound in speaking or writing but they are not in record. d. Languages experts should get sounds from nature, streat talks or children talks. They can easily convert these sounds into symbles for alphabet. These points are connected. Someone took them serious, but their attempts turtle are not sufficient to meet the needs of this age. With the passage of time due circumtences different lifestyles and

preferences have been totally changed. In every moment of life challenges encountered strange horrible and hard events. These are stand before men as a policy and not as qualified engineer. Geting to register for these events available alphabets are not enough. Poets and writers events paining people face a very uncomfortable. They cover and to over come this deficiency through the sounds made compounds. But this attitude is incorrect and so low standered by all means. These compounds always create complications in prononciation. For example, sheen sound is very commen in the world languages. In eastren, specially sub-continent languages have this sound almost like a part of the sound alphabet. But languages of the west have not this sound like the sound of alphabet. They use more than six compounds for this sound: 1- Ch cliche nietzoche, Fitche, charade, chauvanism 2 - CE croce 3 CI facial precious 4 - Sh shift, sheet, shirt, shawal, shrink 5 - Si asia, malaysia 6 - Ti action, mention essential potential residentional, confidentional These compounds are also other sounds shine. Reader feel difficulty to pronounce these sounds to made up. What bad or wrong in addtion of a sound on regular bases in alphabet of the world's languages instead of using many many different types of compounds. S is available in the alphabets of the westeren languages. After S shes sound can be adapted. It can be demonstrated by a second s under line or a line could be put on it. It can be read shes. Do see this added sound in English alphabet: a ay an apple b bi book C ce cat d de dog e ee egg f eff fan g ge/gi girl h eh hen i ae inkwell j jay jug k kay kite l el lemon

m em mango n en nothing o oo orange p pe/pi pen q ku r ar rail s es sachool s shes sirt, screening, seet, sawal, srink, korose, nietzose, Crose, Fasal, presous, consous, asa, Malaysa, Menson, essensal, potensal, t te/ti tree u yo umblrella V vi van w dablu whistle, west x ex xrays y wae year z zee (zed Amercian)zoo Certainly first time s (shes) will be appeared as a stranger, but when it will become part of the alphabet sound, people will not feel strange with.

Languages are by the men and for the men
Maqsood Hasni

It's a common and open fact that every language sounds and words are getting effect from local and forigen languages . But each language has its own style, word's culture, language speaking, listening and writing system, grammar, sentence requirements, the speaker's attitude, flexsibility in form of organs, its people's behaviour, needs of socity, the economic situation and the circle and social relations. These facts and and many other references are most effective helper to invent new sounds and words with the help of imported words from other languages. If these sounds and words will follow the rules of that language then these words or sounds will have got room in that language or tounge otherwise they will not have space/place in that

language. During this process something new take place in that language. For example: 1-The worlds can not be written in Roman characters with the za'ay Farsi (‫.)ژ‬ To resolve this matter, compound/substitute sounds j/g/y/ion will be used i.e. mijgaan/miya/mijda/television/decsion 2 - Which language is governed other languages spoken words can be converted that the language sounds available from its own alphabet sounds rather than the original speech sounds. For ready reference please see these examples: (‫( ذ , ز , ض, ظ‬Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Punjabi Saraeki. Pothohari, Gojri etc.) reads: ‫ ذ ذکر‬zikr ‫ ذریعہ‬zaria ‫ ز ارزاں‬arzaan ‫ نماز‬namaz ‫ ض ضعیف‬zaeef ‫ عرض‬arz ‫ ظ ظالم‬zalim ‫ ظرف‬zarf kamisan (wife) camizn insted of camisan nozomi (Wish) nozomi, insted of nosomi oozora (Heaven) oozora insted of oosora 3 - Where the sounds are not available there substitute sounds can be used. For reference check out these examples: ‫ ت تلوار‬talwaar ‫ تربوز‬tarbooz ‫ ڑ آڑو‬aaru/aadu ‫ ریڑی‬rairi/raidi 4 - Words get associated with that language. See these examples: a. advice advice laina, advice karna, advice hona etc. bound bound karna, bound hona, bound nikalna etc. care care karna, care hona, care daina etc. b. vote votroon, votaan, votraan, votain etc. sport spotraan, spotoon, spotain etc. c. mintue mint'mar 5 - Sigular plural and sexual identity are lost: * word media is used sigular in Urdu, Punjabi saraeki, Gojra, Barahvi, Gujrati, Pothohari, Pakhto etc. * these words: hoor, ahwal, asami, oqaat are prural in Arabic but are used singular in many languages of the sub-continent. * Firdoos is a Persian word. It is fimine in Punjab, but oposist sex in Sarhad. 6 - In the new language the words often fail to remain their meanings. ie. sex animal

glass, jaloos, etc. have not used in their orignal meaning in Urdu, Punjabi etc. As these examples I can present here hundreds. These six examples are enough to demonstrate that words and sounds can not keep their forms and meanings in orignal in other languages. Like many other languages, English have taken hundreds of words and sounds from other languages. English words and sounds have not taken themself to remain in the orignal sounds, forms or meanings. After migration in this language we can not identify their oriban. If the new language to meet the sustitute sounds then what need to deliver through composed migirated sounds?! Hundreds words started by ch and provide sound kaaf (k). I think this is not fair because ch is composed at a time many sounds. For example: ch sh ‫ ش‬sheen shes s nietzoche cliche, Fitch, charade, chauvanism Khay ch ‫ خ‬kh Munch, Zelicha (qibti) Chay ch ‫ چ‬chest, chair, Chester ch kaaf K ‫ ک‬chemical kemi kl chemist ke mist chiasma ki az'ma chiasmus ki az'mas chimeric ka merik chlorophyl klo ra fil chrismal kriz'ml christ krist chrome krom chronic karonik chromite kromit chroma kroma These words get start by compound ch and are providing sound k. These words are almost came from the greek. Here my goal is depending on three things: 1 - The English alphabet has its own registered alphabet letter k. What it need to start these words by ch. While this thing was decided that English is a language with its own identity. Because to start migrate words with their original style rules and linguistics established. The compound ch that give sound k (kaaf) canbe written by letter k. 2- chrismal kriz'ml chiasmus ki az'mas reason rezan season seazan treason treazan prose proz rose roz pose poz nose noz hose hoz lose loz resume rezum

resist rezist cosy cozi misery mizeri In many words sound s is giving sound z what need to write it with s why not with z? Many words are available in English, which are providing their orignal sound s (‫-س‬seen). Please see these words: Dose dos Loose loos Noose noos Goose goos 3 - The third point is that some words end with e and this aditional e has no function in a word. For example look at these words: resume, Dose, loose, prose, pink, pose, nose, hose, lose, chromium, chromite I think after removing this extra e, no bad effect can be seen at any stage. Of course this argument can not easily diagest and a book written logic that are different from the language of the street. My opion is that this place to get all the writings in the books of the street and all the writings are on the road but not above or below ground. Literature is by the men and for the men. Languages are by the men and for the men.