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1. Some nouns always take a singular verb.

Scenery, advice, information, machinery, stationery, furniture, abuse, fuel, rice, gram, issue,
bedding, repair, news, mischief, poetry, business, economics, physics, mathematics, classic,
ethics, athletics, innings, gallows.
(A) The scenery of Kashmir
are enchanting. (Incorrect)
(B) The scenery of Kashmir is enchanting. (Correct)
(A) He has given advices. (Incorrect)
(B) He has given advice. (Correct)
(A) The Indian team defeated the English by innings. (Incorrect)
(B) The Indian team defeated the English by an innings. (Correct)
(A) Mathematics are a difficult subject. (Incorrect)
(B) Mathematics is a good / difficult subject. (Correct)
Note if you have to indicate that the number of news, advice, information or furniture is more
than one, the examples listed below can be followed:
(A) I have a lot of news to tell you. (Incorrect)
(B) He has sold many pieces of his furniture. (Correct)

2. Some nouns are singular in form, but they are used as plural nouns and always take a
plural verb.
Cattle, gentry, vermin, peasantry, artillery, people, clergy, company, police.
(A) The cattle is grazing in the ground. (Incorrect)
(B) The cattle are grazing in the ground. (Correct)
(A) The clergy is in the church. (Incorrect)
(B) The clergy are in the church. (Correct)

3. Some nouns are always used in a plural form and always take a plural verb.
Trousers, scissors, spectacles, stockings, shorts, measles, goods, alms, premises, thanks, tidings,
annals, chattels, etc.
(A) Where is my trousers? Incorrect
(B) Where are my trousers? Correct
(A) Spectacles is now a costly item. Incorrect
(B) Spectacles are now a costly item. Correct

4. There are some nouns that indicate length, measure, money, weight or number. When
they are preceded by a numeral, they remain unchanged in form.
Foot, meter, pair, score, dozen, head, year, hundred, thousand, million.
(A) It is a three years degree course. Incorrect
(B) It is a three year degree course. Correct
(A) I have ten dozens of shoes. Incorrect
(B) I have ten dozen of shoes. Correct
5. Collective nouns such a jury, public, team, committee, government, audience, orchestra,
company, etc. are used both as singular; otherwise the verb will be plural
(A) The jury was divided in this case. Incorrect
(B) The jury were divided in this case. Correct
(A) The team have not come as yet. Incorrect
(B) The team has not come as yet. Correct

6. Some nouns have one meaning in the singular and another in the plural:
Advice = counsel advices = information
Air = atmosphere airs = proud
Authority = command, authorities = persons in power
Good = wise goods = property
Iron = metal irons = fetters, chains
Force = strength forces = army
Content = satisfaction, contents = things contained
Physic = medicine physics = physical sciences,
Respect = regards respects = compliments
Work = job works = compositions, factories,.
Earning = income earnings = sowings
Quarter = one fourth quarters = houses
Examples
(A) Air is necessary for human life.
(B) It is bad to put on airs.
(A) I have eaten one quarter of the cake.
(B) I live in the government quarters.

7. People are often confused or they commit mistake in the use of certain nouns.
(A) Lecturership is wrong: lectureship is correct.
(a) There are twenty candidates for lecturership. Incorrect
(b) There are twenty candidates for lectureship. Correct
(B) Freeship is wrong; free studentship is correct.
(a) Ramesh has applied for freeship. Incorrect
(b) Ramesh has applied for free studentship. Correct
(C) Boarding is wrong; boarding house is correct.
(a) Mohan lives in a boarding. Incorrect
(b) Mohan lives in a boarding house. Correct
(D) Family members is wrong; members of the family is correct.
(a) Vivek and Ramesh are my family members. Incorrect
(b) Vivek and Ramesh are the members of my family. Correct
(E) English teacher is wrong; the teacher of English is correct.
(a) Dr. Raina is our English teacher. Incorrect
(b) Dr. Raina is our teacher of English. Correct
(F) Cousin brother or sister is wrong; only cousin is correct.
(a) Geeta is my cousin sister. Incorrect
(b) Geeta is my cousin. Correct
(G) Room in a compartment or a bench means unoccupied set.
(a) There is no room on this bench. Correct
(H) Our, yours, hers, theirs are correct.
(a) This house is ours. Incorrect
(b) This house is ours. Correct
Note: The same principle applies to yours , hers and theirs.
(I) Wages means punishments when used in singular.
(a) The wages of sin is death.
(J) It also means charges for the labour when used in plural sense.
(b) The wages of daily workers have been raised.

8. Also remember the subtle difference in the usage of these pairs of nouns
(A) The noun habit applies only to an individual whereas custom applies to a society or
country.
(a) Poor children often become a victim of bad habits.
(b) Tribal in India have many interesting customs.
(B) Cause product a result, while reason explains or justifies a cause.
(a) Scientists try to find out the cause of a phenomenon.
(b) You have a good reason to be pleased with your students.
(C) Man is used in ordinary sense while gentleman is a man of character.
(a) Man is mortal.
(b) He is a gentleman at large.
(D) Men plural of man: people is used for persons.
(a) There are five men in the room.
(b) The people of Bihar are simple.
(E) Shade a place sheltered from the sun; shadow the shade of a distinct form or object.
(a) The villagers sat under the shade of trees.
(b) He is even afraid of his own shadow.
(F) Cost amount paid by the shopkeeper; price amount paid by the customer.
(a) The cost of production of automobile items has gone up.
(b) Sometimes the buyers have to pay higher price for necessary items.
(G) House a building to live in: Home ones native place.
(a) Quarters area houses allotted to us for a definite period.
(b) My home town is Muzaffapur.
(H) House a building to live in; Home ones native place.
(a) The shopkeepers welcome customer with smiles.
(b) The lawyer discusses the cases of his clients.
9. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number and gender.

For example:
Every man must bring his luggage.
All students must do their home work.
Each of the girls must carry her own bag.
Each students must bring their books.
Each student must bring his books.

10. While using everybody everyone, anybody, and each the pronoun of the
masculine or the feminine gender is used according to the content.
I shall be happy to help each of the boys in this practice.
But when the sex is not mentioned, we use the pronoun of the masculine gender.
Anyone can do this job if he tries.
Each of the six boys in the class has finished their tasks.
Incorrect
Each of the six boys in the class has finished his task.
Correct

11. The pronoun one must be followed by ones.


One must finish his task in time. Incorrect
One must finish ones task in time. Correct

12. Enjoy, apply, resign, acquit, drive, exert, avail, pride, absent, etc., when used as
transitive verbs, always take a reflexive pronoun after them. When self is added to my,
your, him, her, and it, and selves to our and them they are known as reflexive
pronouns.
He absented from the class.
He absented himself form the class.

13. Who denotes the subject and whom is used for the object?
Whom do you think won the award? Incorrect
Who do you think won the award? Correct
Who area you talking to? Incorrect
Whom are your talking to? Correct

14. When two or more singular nouns are joined together by either or; neither nor, ;
and or, the pronoun is singular.
Either Ram or Shyam will give their book. Incorrect
Either Ram or shyam will give his book. Correct
15. When a singular and a plural noun are joined by or, nor, the pronoun must be
plural.
Either the engineer or his mechanics failed in his duty. Incorrect
Either the engineer or his mechanics failed in their duty. Correct

16. Whose is used for living persons and which for lifeless objects.
Which book did you select? Incorrect
Whose photograph is lying there? Correct
What book do you read? Incorrect
Which book do you read? Correct

17. Each other is used when there are two subjects or objects and one another when
there are more than two.
Rameo and Juliet loved each other
Those five friends, who are sitting there, love one another.
All the students of the class are friendly; they love each other. Incorrect
All the students of the class are friendly. Correct

18. When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it must be in the singular number and in
the neuter gender if the collective noun is viewed as a whole.
The jury gave its verdict.
Here the jury gives the idea of one whole.
If the collective noun conveys the idea of separate individuals comprising the whole, the pronoun
standing for it must be plural.
The jury were divided in their opinions.
Here, the jury gives the idea of several individuals.
The team are divided in this opinion about playing on Sunday. Incorrect
The team are divided in their opinion about playing on Sunday. Correct

19. If pronouns of different persons are to be used together in a sentence, the serial order of
persons should be as follows; second person + third + first person in a good normal
sentences. But in fault is to be confessed, the order will be; first person + second person +
third person. RULE-231
You, he and I have finished the work. Normal sentences
I, you and he are to blame. Confession [memory tool-Put urself first in bad sense/bad works :)]
Ram, I and you have finished our studies. Incorrect
You, Ram and I have finished our studies. Correct

20. Some is used in affirmative sentences to express quantity or degree. Any is uses in
negative or interrogative sentences.
I shall buy some apples.
I shall not buy any apples.
Have you bought any apples?
But some may be correctly used in interrogative sentences which are, in fact, requests.
Will you please give me some milk?
I shall read any book. Incorrect
I shall read some book. Correct
Have you bought some apples? Incorrect
Have you bought any apples? Correct

21. The use of few, a few and the few should be used with care. They denote number.
Few means not many. It is the opposite of many. A few is positive and means some at
least. It is the opposite of none. The few means whatever there is.
A few men are free from fault. Incorrect
Few men are free from fault. Correct
Here the sense is negative and thus a few is wrong.
Few boys will pass in the examination. Incorrect
A few boys will pass in the examination. Correct
Here the sense is positive and thus few is incorrect.
I have already read a few books that are on the bookshelf. Incorrect
I have already read t he few books that are on the bookshelf. Correct
Here the sense is whatever there is.

22. Use of less and fewer


Less denote quantity and fewer denote number.
No less than fifty persons were killed. Incorrect
No fewer than fifty persons were killed. Correct
There are no fewer than five litres of water in the jug. Incorrect
There are no less than five litres of water in the jug. Correct

23. Use of little, a little, the little.


Little means hardly any
There is a little hope of his recovery. Incorrect
There is a little hope of his recovery correct
A little means some, though not much.
Little knowledge is a dangerous thing. Incorrect
A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. Correct
The little means not much but all there is.
The little milk that is in the pot may be used for the patient. Incorrect
The little milk that is in the pot may be used for the patient. Correct
24. Use of elder, older.
Older refers to persons as well as things and is followed by than.
Ram is elder than all other boys of this area. Incorrect
Ram is older than all other boys of this area. Correct
Elder is used for members of the family.
Suresh is my older brother. Incorrect
Suresh is my elder brother. Correct

25. normally than is used in the comparative degree, but with words like superior,
inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior and prefer to is used.
Shelley is junior than Wordsworth. Incorrect
Shelley is junior to Wordsworth. Correct
I prefer reading than sleeping. Incorrect
I prefer reading to sleeping. Correct

26. when a comparison is made by using a comparative followed by than, the word other
must be exclude the thing compared form the class of things with which it is compared.
He is stronger than any man. Incorrect
He is stronger than any other man. Correct
Any man includes the man himself and thus the sentences will be absurd.

27. In some cases, the comparison is subtle and must be given proper attention.
The climate of Ranchi is better then Gaya. Incorrect
Here the comparison should be between the climate of Ranchi and the climate of Gaya.
The climate of Ranchi is better than the climate of Gaya. Correct
Or
The climate of Ranchi is better than that of Gaya. Correct
That of means the climate of
If the traits are in plural, it will be those of.
The clothes of DCM are better than those of Mafatalal.
The scenery of Kashmir is better than Shimla. Incorrect
The scenery of Kashmir is better than that of shimla. Correct

28. many a is always followed by the singular verb.


Many a man were followed by the singular verb. Incorrect
Many a man was drowned in the area. Correct

29. If the subject is the number of the singular verb is used.


The number of students are very small. Incorrect
The number of students is very small. Correct
30. When as well as, along with, together with, no less than, in addition to and not
and with join two subjects, the verb will be according to the first subject.
Ram, as well as his ten friends, are going. Incorrect
Ram, as well as his ten friends, is going. Correct
The teacher, along with the students, were going. Incorrect
The teacher, along with the students, was going. Correct

BEST Spotting Error Rules with Examples


PART-1
By
Avi
-
June 7, 2015

Hello Friends!!! To help you in English section.We are providing you BEST Rules for Spotting
Error with Examples,which is common for all the IBPS,SBI exam,LIC ADO,SSC CGL and other
competitive exams.

RULES AND EXAMPLES

1. Some nouns always take a singular verb.


Scenery, advice, information, machinery, stationery, furniture, abuse, fuel, rice, gram, issue,
bedding, repair, news, mischief, poetry, business, economics, physics, mathematics, classic,
ethics, athletics, innings, gallows.
(A) The scenery of Kashmir
are enchanting. (Incorrect)
(B) The scenery of Kashmir is enchanting. (Correct)
(A) He has given advices. (Incorrect)
(B) He has given advice. (Correct)
(A) The Indian team defeated the English by innings. (Incorrect)
(B) The Indian team defeated the English by an innings. (Correct)
(A) Mathematics are a difficult subject. (Incorrect)
(B) Mathematics is a good / difficult subject. (Correct)
Note if you have to indicate that the number of news, advice, information or furniture is more
than one, the examples listed below can be followed:
(A) I have a lot of news to tell you. (Incorrect)
(B) He has sold many pieces of his furniture. (Correct)

2. Some nouns are singular in form, but they are used as plural nouns and always take a
plural verb.
Cattle, gentry, vermin, peasantry, artillery, people, clergy, company, police.
(A) The cattle is grazing in the ground. (Incorrect)
(B) The cattle are grazing in the ground. (Correct)
(A) The clergy is in the church. (Incorrect)
(B) The clergy are in the church. (Correct)

3. Some nouns are always used in a plural form and always take a plural verb.
Trousers, scissors, spectacles, stockings, shorts, measles, goods, alms, premises, thanks, tidings,
annals, chattels, etc.
(A) Where is my trousers? Incorrect
(B) Where are my trousers? Correct
(A) Spectacles is now a costly item. Incorrect
(B) Spectacles are now a costly item. Correct

4. There are some nouns that indicate length, measure, money, weight or number. When
they are preceded by a numeral, they remain unchanged in form.
Foot, meter, pair, score, dozen, head, year, hundred, thousand, million.
(A) It is a three years degree course. Incorrect
(B) It is a three year degree course. Correct
(A) I have ten dozens of shoes. Incorrect
(B) I have ten dozen of shoes. Correct

5. Collective nouns such a jury, public, team, committee, government, audience, orchestra,
company, etc. are used both as singular; otherwise the verb will be plural
(A) The jury was divided in this case. Incorrect
(B) The jury were divided in this case. Correct
(A) The team have not come as yet. Incorrect
(B) The team has not come as yet. Correct

6. Some nouns have one meaning in the singular and another in the plural:
Advice = counsel advices = information
Air = atmosphere airs = proud
Authority = command, authorities = persons in power
Good = wise goods = property
Iron = metal irons = fetters, chains
Force = strength forces = army
Content = satisfaction, contents = things contained
Physic = medicine physics = physical sciences,
Respect = regards respects = compliments
Work = job works = compositions, factories,.
Earning = income earnings = sowings
Quarter = one fourth quarters = houses
Examples
(A) Air is necessary for human life.
(B) It is bad to put on airs.
(A) I have eaten one quarter of the cake.
(B) I live in the government quarters.

7. People are often confused or they commit mistake in the use of certain nouns.
(A) Lecturership is wrong: lectureship is correct.
(a) There are twenty candidates for lecturership. Incorrect
(b) There are twenty candidates for lectureship. Correct
(B) Freeship is wrong; free studentship is correct.
(a) Ramesh has applied for freeship. Incorrect
(b) Ramesh has applied for free studentship. Correct
(C) Boarding is wrong; boarding house is correct.
(a) Mohan lives in a boarding. Incorrect
(b) Mohan lives in a boarding house. Correct
(D) Family members is wrong; members of the family is correct.
(a) Vivek and Ramesh are my family members. Incorrect
(b) Vivek and Ramesh are the members of my family. Correct
(E) English teacher is wrong; the teacher of English is correct.
(a) Dr. Raina is our English teacher. Incorrect
(b) Dr. Raina is our teacher of English. Correct
(F) Cousin brother or sister is wrong; only cousin is correct.
(a) Geeta is my cousin sister. Incorrect
(b) Geeta is my cousin. Correct
(G) Room in a compartment or a bench means unoccupied set.
(a) There is no room on this bench. Correct
(H) Our, yours, hers, theirs are correct.
(a) This house is ours. Incorrect
(b) This house is ours. Correct
Note: The same principle applies to yours , hers and theirs.
(I) Wages means punishments when used in singular.
(a) The wages of sin is death.
(J) It also means charges for the labour when used in plural sense.
(b) The wages of daily workers have been raised.

8. Also remember the subtle difference in the usage of these pairs of nouns
(A) The noun habit applies only to an individual whereas custom applies to a society or
country.
(a) Poor children often become a victim of bad habits.
(b) Tribal in India have many interesting customs.
(B) Cause product a result, while reason explains or justifies a cause.
(a) Scientists try to find out the cause of a phenomenon.
(b) You have a good reason to be pleased with your students.
(C) Man is used in ordinary sense while gentleman is a man of character.
(a) Man is mortal.
(b) He is a gentleman at large.
(D) Men plural of man: people is used for persons.
(a) There are five men in the room.
(b) The people of Bihar are simple.
(E) Shade a place sheltered from the sun; shadow the shade of a distinct form or object.
(a) The villagers sat under the shade of trees.
(b) He is even afraid of his own shadow.
(F) Cost amount paid by the shopkeeper; price amount paid by the customer.
(a) The cost of production of automobile items has gone up.
(b) Sometimes the buyers have to pay higher price for necessary items.
(G) House a building to live in: Home ones native place.
(a) Quarters area houses allotted to us for a definite period.
(b) My home town is Muzaffapur.
(H) House a building to live in; Home ones native place.
(a) The shopkeepers welcome customer with smiles.
(b) The lawyer discusses the cases of his clients.

9. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number and gender.

For example:
Every man must bring his luggage.
All students must do their home work.
Each of the girls must carry her own bag.
Each students must bring their books.
Each student must bring his books.

10. While using everybody everyone, anybody, and each the pronoun of the
masculine or the feminine gender is used according to the content.
I shall be happy to help each of the boys in this practice.
But when the sex is not mentioned, we use the pronoun of the masculine gender.
Anyone can do this job if he tries.
Each of the six boys in the class has finished their tasks.
Incorrect
Each of the six boys in the class has finished his task.
Correct

11. The pronoun one must be followed by ones.


One must finish his task in time. Incorrect
One must finish ones task in time. Correct

12. Enjoy, apply, resign, acquit, drive, exert, avail, pride, absent, etc., when used as
transitive verbs, always take a reflexive pronoun after them. When self is added to my,
your, him, her, and it, and selves to our and them they are known as reflexive
pronouns.
He absented from the class.
He absented himself form the class.

13. Who denotes the subject and whom is used for the object?
Whom do you think won the award? Incorrect
Who do you think won the award? Correct
Who area you talking to? Incorrect
Whom are your talking to? Correct

14. When two or more singular nouns are joined together by either or; neither nor, ;
and or, the pronoun is singular.
Either Ram or Shyam will give their book. Incorrect
Either Ram or shyam will give his book. Correct

15. When a singular and a plural noun are joined by or, nor, the pronoun must be
plural.
Either the engineer or his mechanics failed in his duty. Incorrect
Either the engineer or his mechanics failed in their duty. Correct

16. Whose is used for living persons and which for lifeless objects.
Which book did you select? Incorrect
Whose photograph is lying there? Correct
What book do you read? Incorrect
Which book do you read? Correct

17. Each other is used when there are two subjects or objects and one another when
there are more than two.
Rameo and Juliet loved each other
Those five friends, who are sitting there, love one another.
All the students of the class are friendly; they love each other. Incorrect
All the students of the class are friendly. Correct

18. When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it must be in the singular number and in
the neuter gender if the collective noun is viewed as a whole.
The jury gave its verdict.
Here the jury gives the idea of one whole.
If the collective noun conveys the idea of separate individuals comprising the whole, the pronoun
standing for it must be plural.
The jury were divided in their opinions.
Here, the jury gives the idea of several individuals.
The team are divided in this opinion about playing on Sunday. Incorrect
The team are divided in their opinion about playing on Sunday. Correct

19. If pronouns of different persons are to be used together in a sentence, the serial order of
persons should be as follows; second person + third + first person in a good normal
sentences. But in fault is to be confessed, the order will be; first person + second person +
third person. RULE-231
You, he and I have finished the work. Normal sentences
I, you and he are to blame. Confession [memory tool-Put urself first in bad sense/bad works :)]
Ram, I and you have finished our studies. Incorrect
You, Ram and I have finished our studies. Correct
20. Some is used in affirmative sentences to express quantity or degree. Any is uses in
negative or interrogative sentences.
I shall buy some apples.
I shall not buy any apples.
Have you bought any apples?
But some may be correctly used in interrogative sentences which are, in fact, requests.
Will you please give me some milk?
I shall read any book. Incorrect
I shall read some book. Correct
Have you bought some apples? Incorrect
Have you bought any apples? Correct

21. The use of few, a few and the few should be used with care. They denote number.
Few means not many. It is the opposite of many. A few is positive and means some at
least. It is the opposite of none. The few means whatever there is.
A few men are free from fault. Incorrect
Few men are free from fault. Correct
Here the sense is negative and thus a few is wrong.
Few boys will pass in the examination. Incorrect
A few boys will pass in the examination. Correct
Here the sense is positive and thus few is incorrect.
I have already read a few books that are on the bookshelf. Incorrect
I have already read t he few books that are on the bookshelf. Correct
Here the sense is whatever there is.

22. Use of less and fewer


Less denote quantity and fewer denote number.
No less than fifty persons were killed. Incorrect
No fewer than fifty persons were killed. Correct
There are no fewer than five litres of water in the jug. Incorrect
There are no less than five litres of water in the jug. Correct

23. Use of little, a little, the little.


Little means hardly any
There is a little hope of his recovery. Incorrect
There is a little hope of his recovery correct
A little means some, though not much.
Little knowledge is a dangerous thing. Incorrect
A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. Correct
The little means not much but all there is.
The little milk that is in the pot may be used for the patient. Incorrect
The little milk that is in the pot may be used for the patient. Correct

24. Use of elder, older.


Older refers to persons as well as things and is followed by than.
Ram is elder than all other boys of this area. Incorrect
Ram is older than all other boys of this area. Correct
Elder is used for members of the family.
Suresh is my older brother. Incorrect
Suresh is my elder brother. Correct

25. normally than is used in the comparative degree, but with words like superior,
inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior and prefer to is used.
Shelley is junior than Wordsworth. Incorrect
Shelley is junior to Wordsworth. Correct
I prefer reading than sleeping. Incorrect
I prefer reading to sleeping. Correct

26. when a comparison is made by using a comparative followed by than, the word other
must be exclude the thing compared form the class of things with which it is compared.
He is stronger than any man. Incorrect
He is stronger than any other man. Correct
Any man includes the man himself and thus the sentences will be absurd.

27. In some cases, the comparison is subtle and must be given proper attention.
The climate of Ranchi is better then Gaya. Incorrect
Here the comparison should be between the climate of Ranchi and the climate of Gaya.
The climate of Ranchi is better than the climate of Gaya. Correct
Or
The climate of Ranchi is better than that of Gaya. Correct
That of means the climate of
If the traits are in plural, it will be those of.
The clothes of DCM are better than those of Mafatalal.
The scenery of Kashmir is better than Shimla. Incorrect
The scenery of Kashmir is better than that of shimla. Correct

28. many a is always followed by the singular verb.


Many a man were followed by the singular verb. Incorrect
Many a man was drowned in the area. Correct

29. If the subject is the number of the singular verb is used.


The number of students are very small. Incorrect
The number of students is very small. Correct

30. When as well as, along with, together with, no less than, in addition to and not
and with join two subjects, the verb will be according to the first subject.
Ram, as well as his ten friends, are going. Incorrect
Ram, as well as his ten friends, is going. Correct
The teacher, along with the students, were going. Incorrect
The teacher, along with the students, was going. Correct
English : BEST Spotting Errors Rules with Examples Part 2

By

Avi

June 8, 2015

Hello Friends!!! To help you in English section.We are providing you BEST Rules for Spotting
Error with Examples,which is common for all the IBPS,SBI exam,LIC ADO,SSC CGL and other
competitive exams.

Read : BEST Spotting Error Rules with Examples PART-1


31. A great many is always followed by a plural noun and a plural verb.
A great many student has been declared successful. Incorrect
A great many students have been declared successful. Correct

32. If two subjects are joined by either or, neither nor, the verb agrees with the subject
that is near.
Either Ramesh or I are to do this work. Incorrect
Either Ramesh or I am to do this work. Correct
Neither he nor his friends is reading. Incorrect
Neither he nor his friends are reading correct

33. When two singular nouns joined by and point out the same thing or person, the verb
will be singular.
Bread and butter make a good breakfast. Incorrect
Bread and butter makes a good breakfast. Correct
The collector and the District Magistrate are on leave. Incorrect
The collector and District Magistrate is on leave. Correct

34. One of always takes a plural noun after it.


It is one of the important day in my life. Incorrect
It is one of the important days in my life. Correct

35. Use of not only and but also; examine the sentences given below:
He not only comes for swimming but also for coaching the
learners. Incorrect
He comes not only for swimming but also for coaching the
learners. Correct
36. Scarcely and hardly are followed by when and not by than.
I had scarcely entered the room than the phone rang. Incorrect
I had scarcely entered the room when the phone rang. Correct

37. Though is followed by yet and not by but.


Though he is poor but he is honest. Incorrect
Thought he is poor, yet he is honest. Correct

38. No sooner is followed by than.


No sooner had I entered the class when the student stood up. Incorrect
No sooner had I entered the class than the students stood up. Correct

39. Lest must be followed by should.


Read regularly lest you will fail.
Read regularly least you should fail.

40. such is followed by as.


He is such a writer that everybody should read his books. Incorrect
He is such a wrier as everybody should read his books. Correct

41. So is followed by that.


Sarita was popular with her classmate that she always had incorrect
Some people coming to her for advice.
Sarita was so popular with her classmate that she always had correct
Some people coming to her for advice.

42. Unless express a condition. It is always used in the negative sense. Thus not is never
used with unless.
Unless you do not labour hard, you will not pass. Incorrect
Unless you labour hard, you will not pass. Correct

43. until expresses time. It has a negative sense and thus not should never be used with it.
Wait here until I do not return. Incorrect
Wait here until I return. Correct

44. Since indicates a point of time and for stands for the length of time.
He has been reading the book since two hours. Incorrect
He has been reading the book for two hours. Correct
Two hours is a length of time and thus for is correct.
It has been raining for Monday last. Incorrect
It has been raining since Monday last. Correct
45. as if used to convey the sense of pretension. When as if is used in this sense, were is
used in all cases, even with third person singular.
He behaves as if he was a king. Incorrect
He behaves as if he were a king. Correct
The sense of time and tense is also very important. Certain important rules are listed below.

46. A past tense in the principal clause is followed by a past tense in the subordinate clause.
He saw that the clock has stopped. Incorrect
He saw that the clock had stopped. Correct
There are, however, two exceptions to this rule:
(1) A past tense in the principal clause may be followed by a present tense in the subordinate
clause, when it expresses a universal truth.
The teacher observed that the Earth moved round the sun. Incorrect
The teacher observed that the Earth moves round the sun. Correct
(2) When the subordinate clause is introduced by than, even if there is past tense in the
principal clause, it may be followed by any tense required by the sense in the subordinate clause.
He helped him more than he helped his own children. Incorrect
He helped him more than he helps his own children. Correct

47. if two actions in a sentence are showing happing in the past, one after the other; the
tense of the action happening first should be past perfect and that of the second should be
past indefinite.
The patient died before the doctor arrived. Incorrect
The patient had died before the doctor arrived. Correct

48. Two actions in the past, one depending on the other, should have the sequence as
follows:
Past perfect + future perfect
Had + past participle + would + have + past participle
If you had worked hard, you would have succeeded in the examination.
Or
Had you worked hard, you would have succeeded in the examination.
If you would had practiced regularly, you would won the match. Incorrect
If you had practiced regularly, you would have won the match. Correct

49. If, in a sentence, two actions are indicated and both are to take place in future, the
sequence of tense will be as follows:
The principal clause in present indefinite; and the subordinate clause in future indefinite.
If I go the Delhi, I shall attend the seminar.
If I go to Delhi is the principal clause and I shall attend the seminar is the subordinate clause.
If it will rain, I shall not attend the meeting. Incorrect
If it rains, I shall not attend the meeting. Correct

50. When an action has taken place in two clauses of a sentence, it is used in both the
clauses according to the requirement.
My brother has and is still doing excellent work for his
organisation. Incorrect
M y brother has done and is still doing excellent work for his
Organisation. Correct

51. When there is a sense of continuity, that is, when a thing has taken place in the past and
still continue in the present, the prefect continues tense form of t he verb should be used.
Indian is independent for the last forty six years. Incorrect
Indian has been independent for the last forty six years. Correct
The use of article is also an important matter and one must be careful about it.

52. before a consonant a is used.


A boy, a horse, a woman.
But a is also used before words like university, useful, unicorn, union, European, and one, etc.,
because these words began with a consonant sound.
Here is an university. Incorrect
Here is a university. Correct
An European lives in my area. Incorrect
A European lives in my area. Correct
It is a one rupees note. Incorrect
It is a one rupee note. Correct
52. Similarly, words like hour, honest, heir, etc, take an before them as they begin with a
vowel sound.
I have been waiting for him for a hour. Incorrect
I have been waiting for him for an hour. Correct

53. Some important points to remember regarding the omission of a/an/the:


1. Before a common noun used in its widest sense, e.g.
Man us mortal.
2. before names of materials.
Bronze is a useful metal.
3. Usually before proper names.
Patina is the capital of Bihar.
4. Before abstract nouns used in general sense.
Beauty fascinates people.
5. before language.
English is a very popular language in the Delhi University.
6. Before school college, church, bed, table, hospital, market, and prison, when
these place are visited or used for their common purpose.
My Christian friends go to church every Sunday.
But the is used with these words when we refer to them as a definite place, building or object
rather than to the normal activity that goes on there.
I met my friend at the church.
7. before names of relations, like father, mother, aunt, uncle, cook and nurse.
Father is very happy today.
8. before predicative nouns denoting a unique position that is normally held at one time by one
person only.
He was elected chairman of the Board.

54. Uses of the


1. W hen the object is unique.
The earth, the sky, the equator.
2. before superlatives
The best, the finest, the most
3. with proper nouns like seas, rivers, group of island, chains of mountains, deserts,
newspaper, buildings, religious books, gulfs,.
The Arabian sea, The Ganges, The Taj Mahal,
4. before a proper noun, when it is qualified by an adjective.
The immortal Kalidas.
5. before an adjective, when the noun is hidden.
The rich should be kind and helping.
6. before musical instruments.
I know how to play the harmonium.
7. with a class of things.
The crow is a clever bird.
8. The should be used before both comparative degrees when they are used in a sentence for
proportion.
Higher we go, cooler we feel. Incorrect
The higher we go, the cooler we feel. Correct

55. What to speak of is incorrect; the correct expression is not to speak of.
What to speak of running, he cannot even walk. Incorrect
Not to speak of running, he cannot even walk. Correct

56. When there is the sense of dislike, hesitation, risk, etc., in a sentence, we should use a
gerund instead of a verb. A gerund is that form of the verb which ends in ing and can be
used in the place of a noun.
I dislike to see a film late in the night.
I dislike to seeing a film late in the night.
Young girls hesitate to talk to strangers.
Young girls hesitate talking to strangers.

`57. Cent per cent and word by word are wrong. Hundred per cent and word for
word are correct expressions.
You are never cent per cent sure of your success in a incorrect
competitive examinations.
You are never hundred per cent sure of your success in correct
A competitive examination.
I can reproduce this lesson word by word. Incorrect
I can reproduce this lesson word for word. Correct

58. Since, because, as, for, all means because, but there is a different in their
degree. Since and because are used for stronger cases and as and for for weak cases.
I respect him as he is my teacher. Incorrect
I respect him because he is my teacher. Correct

59. Use of when and while: Proper attention must be paid to these words. when
indicates a general sense and while implies a time during the process of doing a work.
When learning to swim, one of the most important things is to incorrect
relax.
While learning to swim, one of the most important things is to correct
relax.

60. Sometimes the error lies in the use of words. Proper attention must therefore, be given
to appropriateness of words.
Prakash was leading a happy and leisurely life after his retirement
form his service. Incorrect
Prakash was living a happy and leisurely life after his retirement
form his service. Correct

BEST Spotting Error Rules with Examples PART 3

By

Avi
-

June 9, 2015

Hello Friends!!! To help you in English section.We are providing you BEST Rules for Spotting
Error with Examples,which is common for all the IBPS,SBI exam,LIC ADO,SSC CGL and other
competitive exams.

Read : BEST Spotting Error Rules with Examples PART-2


61. If in a sentence an apposition has been used, the verb will follow not the apposition but
the noun or pronoun preceding it.
You, my son, is a good boy. Incorrect
You, my son, are a good boy. Correct

62. Proper, abstract and material nouns have no plural except when they are used as
common nouns.
The house is built of bricks. Incorrect
The house is built of brick.
Correct

63. Clauses in sentences beginning with a relative pronoun (who, which, that) take a verb
according to the noun or pronoun preceding the relative pronoun.
It is I who has done it. Incorrect
It is I who have done it. Correct

64. The relative pronoun should be near as possible to its antecedent so that no ambiguity
arises.
The boy is my cousin who stood first in the mile race.
The boy, who stood first in the mile race, is my cousin.

65. When two singular nouns joined by and are preceded by each or every the pronoun
used for them is singular.
Each man and each boy is responsible for their action. Incorrect
Each man and each boy is responsible for his action. Correct

66. Sometimes a pronoun is used w here it is not required at all.


He being an M.A., he is qualified for the post. Incorrect
He, being an M.A., is qualified for the post. Correct

67. If a pronoun comes after a preposition it should be used in the objective case.
Between you and I neither of us is correct. Incorrect
Between you and me neither of us is correct. Correct
68. When a pronoun come after like and unlike it takes objective case.
A man like I will not do it. Incorrect
A man like me will not do it. Correct

69. A pronoun takes an objective case after let.


Let I do it. Incorrect
Let me do it. Correct

70. Pronoun joined by and remain in the same case.


He had her brother and sister. Incorrect
He and she are brother and sister. Correct
He and me are friends. Incorrect
He and I are friends. Correct

71. When pronouns of second person and third person are used as subjects, the pronoun
following them will be according to the second person pronoun.
You and he must bring his books. Incorrect
You and he must bring your books. Correct

72. When pronouns of second person and first person are used as subjects, the pronoun
following them will be first person plural form.
You and I must finish your work in time. Incorrect
You and I must finish our work in time. Correct

73. But is also used as a relative pronoun. When a sentence has a negative noun or
pronoun, but can be used with it. In this case but means: who not; that not.
Here was none but laughed to see the joker.
Here the meaning of but laughed is who did not laugh.
There is no bird but flies.
But files means that does not fly.

74. The relative pronoun that is used in preference to who or which after adjectives in
the superlative degree.
The wisest man who ever lived made mistakes. Incorrect
The wisest man that ever lived made mistakes. Correct
This is the best which we can do. Incorrect
This is the best that we can do. Correct

75. The relative pronoun that is also used in preference to who and which after the
words all, same, none, nothing and (the) only.
He is the same man who he has seen. Incorrect
He is the same man that he has seen. Correct
Man is the only animal who can talk. Incorrect
Man is the only animal that can talk. Correct

76. The same rule applies after the interrogative pronoun who and what.
What is there which I do not know? Incorrect
What is there that I do not know? Correct

77. When there are two antecedents, a man and an animal or two things before the relative
pronoun, we should use that.
The man and his dog which passed through this road were incorrect
killed.
The man and his dog passed through this road were killed. Correct

78. The case of the noun or pronoun preceding or succeeding the verb to be should be the
same.
It is him who came to see us. Incorrect
It is he who came to see us. Correct
It is me who caught the thief. Incorrect
It is I who caught the thief. Correct

79. when two qualities of a person or thing compared more or less is used before the
adjective and the adjective following them take positive degree.
Suman is better than brave. Incorrect
Suman is more good than brave. Correct

80. When two or more adjectives are used to show the qualities of the same man or thing, al
the adjectives must be in the same degree.
Sita is more intelligent and wise than Rita. Incorrect
Sita is more intelligent and wiser than Rita. Correct

81. Very is used with adjectives in the positive degree and with present participles.
He is much stronger man. Incorrect
He is a very strong man. Correct
It is a much interesting book. Incorrect
It is very interesting book. Correct

Much is used with adjectives in the comparative degree and with past participles.
He is very stronger than I am. Incorrect
He is much stronger than I am. Correct
I am very obliged to my friend. Incorrect
I am much obliged to my friend. Correct

82. To show equality as is used before and after the adjective.


I can run as fast, if not faster, than you. Incorrect
I can run as fast as, if not faster, than you. Correct

83. Certain adjectives do not admit of comparison and thus they always remain in the
positive degree.
Absolute, annual, chief, circular, complete, entire, extreme, excellent, full,
impossible perfect, right, round, unique, universal, whole, etc.

84. More than one indicates a plural sense, but it is treated as a sort of compound of one.
Thus it agrees with a singular noun and takes a singular verb.
More than one employees were killed in the accident. Incorrect
More than one employees was killed in the accident. Correct

85. A verb must agree with its subject and not with the complement.
Our only guide at night were the stars. Incorrect
Our only guide at night w as the s tars. Correct

BEST Spotting Error Rules with Examples PART 4

By

Avi

June 10, 2015

Hello Friends!!! To help you in English section.We are providing you BEST Rules for Spotting
Error with Examples,which is common for all the IBPS,SBI exam,LIC ADO,SSC CGL and other
competitive exams.

Read : BEST Spotting Error Rules with Examples PART-3


86. If the plural subject denotes a definite amount or quantity taken as a whole, the verb is
singular.
Forty miles are a good distance. Incorrect
Forty miles is a good distance. Correct
Two thirds of the book were rubbish. Incorrect
Two third of the book was rubbish. Correct

87. The plural heaps and lots used colloquially for a great amount take a singular verb
unless a plural noun with of is added.
There are lots of book. Incorrect
There is lots of book. Correct
There is lots of books to read. Incorrect
There are lots of books to read. Correct

88. When qualified by each or every two singular subjects, if even connected by and,
take a singular, if even connected by and, take a singular verb.
Each boy and every girl were given rewards. Incorrect
Each boy and every girl was given rewards correct

89. The following Vern are always followed by an infinitive:


decide, plans, expect, fail, hope, intend, learn, promise, refuse, want,
agree, consent, try, love, etc.
I refuse meeting him. Incorrect
I refuse to meet him. Correct

90. the following verbs and phrases should be followed by gerund which is a verbal noun:
enjoy, admit, deny, appreciate, regret, avoid, consider, stop, looking forward
to, accustomed to, is used to, do not mind, object to, etc.
I am looking forward to receive your replay. Incorrect
I am looking forward to receiving your replay. Correct
He is used to work hard. Incorrect
He is used to working hard. Correct

91. The word to is frequently used with the infinitive, but is not an essential part of it. For
example, after certain verb (bid let, make, need, dare, see, hear,) we use the
infinitive without to.
Bid him to go there. Incorrect
Bid him go t here. Correct
Make him to stand. Incorrect
Make him stand. Correct
I saw him to cry. Incorrect
I saw him cry. Correct

92. The infinitive is used without to after had better, had rather, would rather,
sooner than, and rather than,
You had better to ask permission form him. Incorrect
You had better ask permission from him. Correct

93. Than should be used after no other.


I met on other man but Mr. Roy. Incorrect
I met no other than Mr., Roy. Correct
Ram has no other claim except his degrees. Incorrect
Ram has other claim than his degrees. Correct

94. After the word know, how or when should be used before using an infinitive.
I know to write French. Incorrect
I know to write French. Correct

95. A verb may take an infinitive or a gerund according to its implication. If the verb
indicates a purpose, an infinitive should be used and if the verb indicates a cause, a gerund
should be used.
He went to school for seeing the principal. Incorrect
He went to school for see the principal. Correct
He was turned out to copy answers. Incorrect
He was turned out for copying answers. Correct

96. adverb as is not used with verbs like appointed, elected, considered, called, but
it is used with regard,
He was elected as President of our society. Incorrect
He was elected President of our society. Correct
I regard Ramesh my friend. Incorrect
I regard Ramesh as my friend. Correct

97. After the verb doubt that should not be used. if or whether should be used in its
place.
I doubt that Ravi will come. Incorrect
I doubt if Ravi will come. Correct

98. Often a mistake is committed in the use of adjectives and adverbs. An adjective is
correctly used with the verb when some quality of the subject, rather than of the action of
the verb, is to be expressed.
The flowers smelt sweetly. Incorrect
The flowers smelt sweet. Correct

99. It is a common practice is conversation to make a statement and ask for confirmation;
as, Its very hot, isnt it? Two points are to be kept in mind. If the statement positive, the
pattern will be
Auxiliary + nt + subject.
Examples:
It is raining, is it? Incorrect
It is raining, isnt it? Correct
Your are not busy, arent you? Incorrect
You are not busy, are you? Correct
The point to note here is that the question tag will always have the same verb from which we
have in the main statement:
I have finished my work, didnt I? Incorrect
I have finished my work, have nt? Correct

100. There are certain common errors which should be avoided.


(a) The two first is a meaningless expression for it implies that two things may be first. We
should say the first two.
The two first chapters of the novel are dull.
The first two chapters of the novel are dull.

(b) Only should be placed immediately before the word it qualifies.


He only lost his ticket in the stampede. Incorrect
Only he lost his ticket in the stampede. Correct

(c) An infinitive verb should not be spit.


I request you to kindly to help me. Incorrect
I request you kindly to help me. Correct

(d) Care should be taken in the use of verbs.


The doctor saw the pulse of the patient. Incorrect
The doctor felt the pulse of the patient. Correct
He told the truth. Incorrect
He spoke the truth. Correct
Do not speak a lie. Incorrect
Do not tell a lie. Correct
Our team made a goal. Incorrect
Our team scored a goal. Correct
He is taking a bath. Incorrect
He is having a bath. Correct
I tell my prayers in the morning. Incorrect
I say my prayers in the morning. Correct
Tips and Tricks for Cloze Test
By
samridhi
-
December 12, 2015

Hello Aspirants, In all of your exams approx, 10 questions come from the topicCloze test in
English Section.so here we are providing you some tips & tricks to easily approach Cloze
test.

Cloze Test is one of the Important part in English Section in Banking, SSC & many other
competitive Exams. in this exercise where the candidates are provided with a passage which has
certain words missing from it.It follows logically that to ace such an assessment, candidates
must have a strong command over English language, along with a flair for grammar and a good
vocabulary. More importantly, it is important to understand the flow and context of the passage.
There are many ways to solve a cloze test of any comprehensive paragraph. Here We are sharing
some tips & Tricks which will help you to get good score in your exams.
1. Read Complete Passage First of all go through the complete passage and get a rough idea
about the content and the spirit of the passage.You can then go on to think of the appropriate
words that suit the situation being described and proceed to filling in the blanks.

2. Link the Sentences In a passage mostly all the sentence are logically related to each other.
These logics will give you an idea about the appropriate word for the blank space.

3. Eliminations unnecessary words from provided options Sometimes you will easily spot
the correct answer, if you get the answer immediately mark it. If not then eliminate the
improbable options one by one and get the right answer.

4. Go with Frequently Used Words Sometimes, you may not be able to decide between two
words. In this case, if you see a word in the options that is frequently used with the words around
the blank, then pick that option.

5. Practice Practice Practice Check out your cloze test with answers and note down your
marks with date. Do the practice of at least 3-4 cloze test every day and check your Score &
progress. Practice can only the thing by which any problem can be tackle. so keep practice
regularly.
English Questions: Conjuctions
By
Avi
-
May 23, 2015

What is this?
Conjuctions-In grammar, a conjunction is a part of speech that connects words, sentences,
phrases, or clauses.

Why important ?
from Exam point of view,it is important because they are useful in Spotting errors.These are
sometimes wrongly used and sometimes not in pair.

1.eitheror
Hindi Ya to ye ya vo
Use : used in a sentence in the affirmative sense when referring to a choice between two
possibilities

Sentence : You can either sing or dance in the show.


Note : Verb is always used according to last Subject.
Example- ~Either Seema or Nisha is going to dance( Nisha-singular .so, is)
~Either the coach or players are going to stage. (players-plural. so,are)
~Their mortgage will be repaid if either of them dies (One or the other of two people or things)
~It wont do any harm, but wont really help either (Used to indicate a similarity or link with a
statement just made)

2.neithernor
Hindi Na to ye na to wo
Use : used in a sentence in the negative sense when referring to a choice between two
possibilities
Rest is same like case of Either -do it urself-

3.not onlybut (also)


Hindi-Keval itana h nahi, balki ye bhi
Use-We use not only X but also Y in formal contexts
Example ~ The car not only is economical but also feels good to drive.
Note~ sometimes in spotting errors in place of not only , only notis given,that is error part
~sometime given like- Sita dance not only but also sings good.( dance before not only is
wrong,action comes after not only)

3.whetheror
Hindi-Chahe ya
Use-Used to link alternatives
Example~ It doesnt matter whether the theory is right or wrong.

4.no soonerthan
Hindi Koi jaldi nai, Jaise hi
Use-Used to convey that the second event mentioned happens immediately after the first:
Example ~She had no sooner spoken than the telephone rang

5.ratherthan
Hindi-Bjaaye
Use-Used to indicate ones preference in a particular matter
Example ~shed rather die than cause a scene

6.asas
Hindi-Jitna ki
Use-For comparison
Example~She is as sweet as sugar

7.lest
Hindi- tah-ki , aesa na ho ki,nai to,warna
Use-With the intention of preventing (something undesirable); to avoid the risk of.
Example~ he spent whole days in his room, wearing headphones lest he disturb anyone .

8.Even though vs Even if


Hindi dono ka bhle hi
Use-These two are not equivalent. Even though is used to introduce a condition which currently
is true, while even if introduces a hypothetical condition that is not yet true.
Example~Im going to the park even though its raining. [raining right now]
~Im going to the park even if its raining.[its not yet raining]

9.Despite Vs In spite
Hindi K Bavjood
USe-Despite means even though, notwithstanding, or regardless of. Its the opposite of
because of/due to, and can be used with a noun or gerund.In spite of means exactly the same
thing and is used exactly the same way as despite.
Example-She had difficulty communicating in Hindi despite all her years of study.
She had difficulty communicating in Hindi In spite of all her years of study.

10.Beside Vs Besides
Hindi Beside- Paas ,ki tulna me
Besides-or bhi,k ilawa
Use-Beside-At the side of; next to:
besides means In addition to; apart from
Examples~he sat beside me in the front seat.
~besides being a player, he was my friend
11. Until
Hindi Jab Tak
Use-Up to (the point in time or the event mentioned)
Example~You dont know what you can achieve until you try

12.Unless
Hindi-Jab tak na
Use-Except if (used to introduce the case in which a statement being made is not true or valid)
Example-Youll be sick unless you stop eating.
NOTE: unless has negative meaning,so sentence followed by it will never having not/never
useful in error spotting

Gateway to SBI Mains: English (Noun)


Noun
Words are divided into different kinds or classes according to the work they do in a
sentence. These kinds or classes are known as Parts of Speech. They are eight in
number:
1. Noun
2. Pronoun
3. Verb
4. Adjective
5. Adverb
6. Preposition
7. Conjunction
8. Interjection.
What is noun?
Noun is a word used to name a person, place or thing.
For example:
Rama was an epic king.

Kinds of Noun
1. Common Noun
A common noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same
class or kind. For example;
I write with a pen.
The student asked me a few questions.

2. Proper Noun
A proper noun is the name of a particular person or place.
For example:
Ramu is a wise fellow.
Patna lacks basic civic amenities.

Rule: Proper nouns are always written with a capital letter at the beginning.
Incorrect: Earlier the capital of india was in calcutta.
Correct: Earlier the capital of India was in Calcutta.

Rule: Proper nouns are sometimes used as common nouns.


Incorrect: LK Advani is today regarded as Sardar
Patel of India.
Correct: LK Advani is today regarded as the Sardar Patel of India.

Rule: In this case proper nouns are always preceded by articles.


She is a Lata Mangeshkar.
Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India.

3. Collective Noun
A Collective noun is the name of a group of persons or things. For example army,
committee, crowd, fleet, flock, herd, jury, mob, parliament, team.

Rule: A collective noun usually takes a singular verb and is substituted by a singular
pronoun.
Incorrect: The jury were unanimous in their opinion.
Correct: The jury was unanimous in its opinion.

Rule: A collective noun takes a plural verb and is substituted by a plural pronoun
when the individuals of which it is composed are thought of net behaving as a single
unit
Incorrect: The jury was divided in its opinions.
Correct: The jury were divided in their opinions.

4. Abstract Noun
An abstract noun is usually the name of a quality, action or state considered apart
from the object ( which is usually a common noun and often qualified by an
adjective) to which it belongs. For example:
Innocence is integral to a child.
Love knows no bound.

5. Material Noun
A material noun is the name of a material ( matter from which a thing is made). For
example:
Cotton is the source of natural fibre.
Milk constitutes a nutritious food.

Rule: A material noun does not take an article (a, an, the) before it.
Incorrect: The tobacco is a cash crop.
Correct: Tobacco is a cash crop.

Rule: It takes articles when treated as common nouns.


Incorrect: They offered me glass of water.
Correct: They offered me a glass of water.
Numbers
Numbers are of two kinds-
(1) Singular Number
(2) Plural Number
Generally while changing singular noun to plural we add s, es in the end.
For example
cow-cows
chair-chairs
school-schools
Mango-Mangoes
On the surface some nouns appear to be singular but in meaning they are treated
as plural.
For example,
cattle, clergy, people, children, police, poultry
Incorrect: The peasantry has always stood as rockstars for the development of a
country.
Correct: The peasantry have always stood as rockstars for the development of a
country.
Some nouns look like plural but are always used as singular. For example,
Subjects - Mathematics, economics, physics, ethics, politics, classics.

Rule: When these subjects denote qualities or property, they are used in plural
sense. For example,
Incorrect: His mathematics is weak.
Correct: His mathematics are weak.
Diseases - Rickets, AIDS, diabetes, mumps, measles. Some other nouns - News,
gallows, summons, innings.
Some nouns are plural in form and in meaning, normally they are instruments or
dress articles which have two parts and make a kind of pair. Do not use a/an before
these nouns.
For example,
Spectacles, tongs, scissors, pincers, bellows, trousers, drawers, breaches, pants,
knickers, pantaloons.
Certain other nouns - caves, riches (valuables), alms, funds, proceeds (profit),
annals (record).
Incorrect : I bought a trousers yesterday.
Correct :I bought a pair of trousers yesterday.
Some nouns are always singular and used as singular only. For example Poetry,
information, machinery, dust, furniture, dirt, traffic, money, music. Some nouns
have one meaning in singular form and another in plural.

Quiz based on above concepts :

1. When he returned (a)/ from America, he informed me (b)/ that he had come here
(c)/ to do urgent work. (d)/ No error (e)
2. I do my best (a)/ but I dont understand (b)/ why I do not get expected (c)/
marks in the examination. (d)/ No error (e)
3. The pretty woman (a)/ sitting in the car (b)/ is the daughter of one of (c)/ the
headman of the village. (d)/ No error (e)
4. You will not be (a)/ allowed to go (b)/ anywhere else to (c)/ play outdoor games.
(d)/ No error (e)
5. The beautiful surrounding (a)/ of the palace (b)/ attracted a large number of (c)/
tourists coming from abroad. (d)/ No error (e)
6. He did not know (a)/ that the headquarter (b)/ of the army (c)/ was in Delhi. (d)/
No error (e)
7. Liberalisation of economy (a)/ has given birth to (b)/ many uncommon (c)/
phenomenon in the society.(d)/ No error (e)
8. Thousand of young (a)/ protesters were standing (b)/ at Jantar Mantar and (c)/
supporting Anna Hazare. (d)/ No error (e)
9. It is very difficult (a)/ to chase (b)/ a huge score in the (c)/ fourth inning. (d)/ No
error (e)
10. He gave me (a)/ a five-rupees note (b)/ and asked me to get (c)/ him a few
cigarettes. (d)/ No error (e)

1. e; No error
2. e; No error
3. d; Replace headman with headmen
4. e; No error
5. a; Replace surrounding with surroundings
6. b; Replace headquarter with headquarters
7. d; Replace phenomenon with phenomena
8. a; Replace thousand with thousands
9. d; Replace inning with innings

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noun.html#ixzz4aRavTB8c
Study Notes On English Grammar: PRONOUNS

Hello, Greetings!!

In SSC CGL Tier-II Exam, Paper-II (English Section) consists 200 Qs (200 marks). And more than
50% questions are based on grammar directly or its applications.

We've decided to help you with Grammar. We'll cover all the important
Grammar rules and tricky scenarios in the form of "STUDY NOTES on
GRAMMAR". Today in this post we'll introduce PRONOUN: Introduction,
Types.

IN OUR NEXT POST ON PRONOUN , WE'LL POST ALL THE IMPORTANT


RULES. STAY TUNED FOR MORE.

PRONOUNS

Personal Pronoun

A pronoun is a word used instead of a Noun.

(I, we, you, he, she, it, they) are called personal pronouns because they stand for the three
persons.

(i) The person speaking

(ii) The person spoken to, and

(iii) The person spoken of.


You is both singular and Plural.

Nominative case Objective case Possessive case


(Subjective)
(Accusative) (Genitive)

First Person I me my, mine,

we us our, ours

Second Person you you your, yours

Third person he him his

she her her, hers

it it its

they them their, theirs

Pronouns are used so that our language is not cumbersome with the same nouns being repeated
over and over in a paragraph.

Subject Pronoun: (Subjective case)

(I, we, you, he, she, it, they)

Example: She is at work.

She is main subject of the sentence, hence in the sentence, She is the subjective personal
pronoun.

Objective pronoun (objective case)

Example: He will meet us later.

Us is the objective personal pronoun, as it is the object of the verb meet.


Possessive pronoun (possessive case)

Example: That is our clubhouse.

Our shows the possession of the object clubhouse.

Gender

Example: He went to the market.

He is used for male gender.

Other examples (his, him, he etc.)

Example: She is doing the laundry.

she is used for female gender.

(Her, hers, etc.)

Example: It is important to them.

It is gender neutral as it shows an object,

Them is also gender neutral as Them can consists of both genders.

Others gender neutral pronouns are - (Their, they, its.)

Number

Singular Pronoun where the pronoun is only referring to one specific Noun.

Example: That book belongs to me.


Plural Pronoun where the pronoun is used to refer to a number of nouns.

Example: That is Their book, not yours.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUN

They are object pronouns that we use when the subject and the object are the same Noun.

Example: I told myself not to bet all my money on one horse.

Example: The robber hurt himself chasing me through the alley.

Reflexive pronouns are those which are used to indicate a noun which has been used in an earlier
part of the same sentence.

(myself, themselves, yourself, ourselves, herself, himself, itself.)

Example: She blamed herself for the accident.

He is himself today.

EMPHATIC/INTENSIVE PRONOUN

These pronouns are used to emphasize a Noun or pronoun.

(myself, himself, herself, themselves, itself, yourself, yourselves and ourselves.)

Example: He himself is his worst critic.


These pronouns act as appositives of nouns or pronouns for the sake of emphasis,

Example: You yourself wrote those words.

This request came from the employee themselves.

They themselves know that the Prank was in bad taste.

Avoid reporting things that you yourself havent witnessed.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN

Demonstrative pronouns are used to show or identify one or a number of nouns that may be far
or near in distance or time.

They are only four in number (This, that, these, those)

This, that Singular demonstrative pronoun

These, those Plural demonstrative pronouns.

Example: That is a beautiful house.

They can also be used to show an unspecified quantity in a sentence.

Example: These were made by me.

(These is showing an unspecified quantity of something that was made by a person.)

Example: Everyone remembers those days.


(Those is showing a particular time or period of days in the past, it is being used in place of a noun
that could be school, summer, college etc.)

Example: This is what he is charging.

This is used as pronoun in place of a number.

These pronouns point out someone or something.

They are identical in form to demonstrative adjective/determiners.

The difference is that

A demonstrative pronoun stands alone (because it is a substitute for a noun or noun phrase)

But a demonstrative adjective is accompanied by the noun it modifies.

Example: She gave me this gift.

(This demonstrative adjective)

I like this.

(This demonstrative pronoun)

(More example of demonstrative pronoun)

These are my children.

That is a good idea.

The streets of Delhi are more crowded than those of Mumbai.

INDEFINITE PRONOUN
These pronouns do stand for some person or thing, but we dont know for exactly whom.

When we say, somebody stole my watch.

(We dont know to whom the word somebody refers to. The word somebody is an indefinite
pronoun.

Example: One should speak the truth.

Somebody immediately called the doctor.

Anybody can solve this problem.

Nobody was present.

Many are called, but few are chosen.

Do good to others.

(Few, all, some, none, everything- indefinite pronouns)

DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUN

These Pronouns refer to individual elements in a group or a pair, one individual at a time.

Example: Each of the boys gets a prize.

Either of these roads leads to the railway station.

Either of you can go.

Neither of the accusations is true.

You may bring any of your friends

None of our students failed last year.


Each, either, neither are called distributive pronouns because they refer to persons or things, one
at a time.

Each used to denote every one of a number of persons or things taken singly.

Either means the one or the other of two.

Neither means not the one nor the other of two.

It is negative of either.

Either and Neither should be used only in speaking of two persons or things.

When more than two are spoken of (Any, No one, and none) should be used.

RECIPROCAL PRONOUN

Each and one really belong to the subject, Other and another are objects, but Each other and one
another have become compound pronouns, (and are called reciprocal pronouns) and are rarely
separated even by a preposition)

Example: The brothers quarreled with each other.

They all gave evidence against one another.

Jamie and Jack always sit beside each other in break.

They havent seen one another since last year.

RELATIVE PRONOUN

These pronouns are used to connect a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun.


These are: who, whom, which, whoever, whomever, whose, whichever and that.

Example: The driver who Ran the stop sign was careless.

Which and that are generally used for objects.

Who and whom are used for people and whose is used to show possession.

Example: she will choose the color which looks good on everyone

She is complaining to whoever she comes across nowadays.

There is a car in the parking lot that someone has painted a bright pink.

Is there anyone here whose mobile phone has a signal?

I met Hari who had just returned.

I have found the pen which I lost.

There is the book That you lent me.

INTERROGATIVE

Who, whom, which and what are interrogative pronouns as they are used to ask questions about a
person or object that we do not know about.

Compounds of these words are made by attaching (ever) to the words to strengthen the emphasis
on the word.

Example: which one would you like?


What is your Name?

Who will be managing the bullet?

Whom did you tell about this?

Whoever could have done this?

Whichever one will you choose?

Who is always the subject of the verb.

Whom is never the subject of the verb.

It is object of the verb.

It is used to show the person to or for whom the action is being done.

Example: whom were you meeting with?

Gateway to SBI Mains : English (Verb)

Verb
A Verb is a word that tells or asserts something about a person or thing. It tells
about the person or thing in the state of (a) doing, (b) being or (c) being acted up
on. Thus a verb is a doing or being word.

Kinds of verbs :
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

A Transitive verb is a verb that denotes an action which passes over from the doer
or agent to an object, Transitive means passing over. For example,

India won the World Cup.

An Intransitive verb is a verb that denotes an action which does not pass over to
an object, or that expresses a state of an object, or that expresses a state of being.
Intransitive means not passing over. For example,
The sun shines brightly.

Rule: When an intransitive verb is used in a causative sense, it becomes transitive.


1. He sat in a chair.

2. He sat me on chair.

Rule: Verbs like, fall, lie, rise and sit are made transitive by a slight change in
their spellings. The transitive is the causative of the corresponding intransitive
verb.

Incorrect: The poachers were caught yesterday when they fell trees illegally.

Correct : The poachers were caught yesterday when they felled trees illegally.

Verbs of Incomplete Predication

The intransitive verb which requires something to make the sense complete is
called a verb of incomplete predication.

For example be, become, seem, grow, taste, appear.

That which is required to make the sense (of these verbs) complete is known as the
complement of the verb or the completion of the predicate.

For example,

The family appears.

Rule: When the subjective complement is a noun (or a pronoun), it is in the same
case as the subject, that is, in the nominative case.

For example

The lawyer called the witness a liar.

Rule: When the objective complement is a noun it is in the objective case in


agreement with the object.

Subject-Verb Agreement :
Language has its base in logic and harmony. The subject and the verb are the
essential parts of a sentence. It is imperative that the verb agree with the subject in
number and person.

Rule: Two or more singular subjects connected by and usually take a verb in the
plural.

Incorrect: Computer and telecommunication has metamorphosed information


technology.

Correct: Computer and telecommunication have metamorphosed information


technology.

Rule: If two singular nouns refer to the same person or thing, the verb must be
singular.

Incorrect : The poet and critic have been honoured.

Correct : The poet and critic has been honoured.

Rule: If two subjects together express one idea, the verb is in the singular.

Incorrect: Bread and butter are essential for one's life.

Correct: Bread and butter is essential for one's life.

Rule: If the singular subjects are preceded by each or every, the verb is usually
singular.

Incorrect: Every man and woman in a family are responsible for the upbringing of a
child.

Correct: Every man and woman in a family is responsible for the upbringing of a
child.

Rule : Two or more singular subjects connected by or, nor, either ... or, neither... nor
take a verb in the singular.

Incorrect: Either Manoj or Madhukar have the key to this problem.


Correct: Either Manoj or Madhukar has the key to this problem.

Rule: When the subjects, joined by or or nor are of different numbers, the verb
must be plural, and the plural subject must be placed next to the verb.

Incorrect : Neither Rekha nor her friends was present at the party.

Correct : Neither Rekha nor her friends were present at the party.

Rule: When the subjects, joined by or or nor are of different persons, the verb
agrees in person with the one nearest to it.

Incorrect : Either she or I pays the fees.

Correct : Either she or I pay the fees.

Error of Proximity: The verb is made to agree in number with a noun near it
instead of with its proper subject. This is wrong and should be avoided.

Incorrect : The behaviour of the students were not proper.

Correct: The behaviour of the students was not proper.

Rule: Words joined to a singular subject by with, as well as, etc. are parenthetical.
The verb should therefore be put in the singular.

Incorrect: The guru as well as his disciples are committed to celibacy.

Correct: The guru as well as his disciples is committed to celibacy.

Rule: Either, neither, each, everyone, many a must be followed by a singular verb.

Incorrect: Many a man have resigned in crisis.

Correct: Many a man has resigned in crisis.

Rule: When a plural noun denotes some specific quantity or amount considered as
a whole, the verb is generally singular.
Incorrect: Five hours are too short a time to judge one's character.

Correct: Five hours is too short a time to judge one's character.

The Infinitive

Usually a verb is limited by the number and person of its subject.

For example,

He plays cricket.

They play cricket.

A verb, which is not limited by person and number as a verb that has a subject, is
called the verb infinite or the infinitive. Infinitives are of two kinds.

(1) Simple Infinitive and

(2) Gerundial or Qualifying Infinitive.

(1) Simple Infinitive - when the infinitive is used like a noun.

(i) as the subject of a verb. To name is to give an identity.

(ii) as the object of a verb. I have decided to leave the place.

(iii) as the complement of a verb. Her hobby is to dance.

(iv) as the object of a preposition. He is about to go.

(v) as the complement of the object. She heard her weep.

(2) Gerundial or Qualifying Infinitive-when the infinitive is used for the following
purposes:

(i) to qualify a verb. He slept to refresh himself.

(ii) to qualify an adjective. Tea is easy to prepare.

(iii) to qualify a noun. He has a point to make.

(iv) to qualify a sentence. To be very frank, I hate your smile.


Rule: The infinitive is used without to after verbs like help, watch, bid, dare, hear,
let, make, need and see.

Incorrect : I bid him to quit the organisation.

Correct : I bid him quit the organisation.

Rule: If, however, the structure is do + dare or do + need, the infinitive is used with
to.

Incorrect: You do not need worry about us.

Correct: You do not need to worry about us.

Rule: The following verbs are followed by the infinitive.

Agree, arrange, attempt, care, cease, consent, decide, determine, endeavour, fall,
forget, hesitate, hope,learn, manage, neglect, prepare, promise, propose, refuse,
regret, remember, seem, swear, undertake.

Incorrect: I agree for helping you out in trouble.

Correct: I agree to help you out in trouble.

Rule: Prepositions but and except take the infinitive without to.

Incorrect: There is no alternative but to help him out.

Correct : There is no alternative but help him out.

Rule: Expressions would rather, would sooner, rather than, sooner than, had better
are followed by infinitive without to.

Incorrect : I would rather to go for batting.

Correct : I would rather go for batting.

Participle
(1) Present Participle

(2) Past Participle

(3) Perfect Participle

Rule: Present participle is used when all the parts of a sentence have the same
subject;

Incorrect: Opened the drawer, he took out his gun.

Correct: Opening the drawer, he took out his gun.

Rule: When a sentence has two different subjects, avoid using present participle.
Instead a clause should be used in such instances.

Incorrect: While going to school, a dog jumped at me.

Correct: While I was going to school, a dog jumped at me.

Rule: Some past participles are used only as adjectives and qualify a noun. They
can be used as past participles with changed spellings. For example, shrunken,
drunken, sunken, graven, molten.

Incorrect: He and his brother have drunken wine last night.

Correct: He and his brother have drunk wine last night.

Rule: Perfect participle is used when one activity is completely over. Having worked
hard, he felt tired.

Auxiliary Verb

Auxiliary literally means giving help, So an auxiliary verb is one that helps the main
verb form in tenses, moods, voices etc. The following verbs are auxiliaries: is, are,
am, was, were, be, can, could, dare, do, does, did, have, has, had, may, might,
must, need, ought, shall, should, will, would, used to.
1. May implies permission, doubt or possibility.

Ex. May I come in? (permission)

It may rain tonight. (possibility)

2. Might is the past form of may and it implies more doubt than may.

Ex. If the clouds are salted, the rains might come.

3. Can is used to express ability.

Ex. He can do the work.

4. Could is the past form of can but it does not necessarily represent past time.
Often it implies a more uncertain condition.

Ex. He could refuse, but she never does.

5. Should expresses the idea that something must be done or is important.

Should and ought to have similar meanings, but ought is followed by to


Ought to has a more objective force and is used when we are talking about laws,
duties and regulations.

Ex. We ought to see her tomorrow.

6. Must is used to give strong advice or orders.

Ex. He really must stop drinking.

7. Do is used to make question and negative forms of ordinary verbs.

Ex. Do you know him?

I dont like swimming.

Do is always used in question-tags.


Ex. You know painting, do you?

Quiz based on above concepts:

Directions: In the following questions, some of the sentences have errors


and some have none. Find out which part of the sentence has an error. If
there is no mistake, the answer is No error.

1. Many a student (a)/ are frustrated (b)/ because of unemployment. (c)/ No error
(d)

2. It is true (a)/ that the poor is unable (b)/ to get nourishing food even today. (c)/
No error (d)

3. People have a right to criticise (a)/ but at the same time each of them (b)/ have
to remember his duty also. (c)/ No error (d)

4. The child (a)/ picked up a burned paper (b)/ from the street. (c)/ No error (d)

5. Never did this exhibition of contempt and anger ceased (a)/ so long as British
rule remained (b)/ a live thing in India. (c)/ No error (d)

6. The teacher was angry (a)/ when he found that (b)/ you are not there. (c)/ No
error (d)

7. I would like you to (a)/ complete this assignment (b) before you will leave for
Mumbai. (c)/ No error (d)

8. Ordinarily, when in difficulty (a)/ Ruchi prefers keeping her counsel (b)/ than
running about taking advice. (c)/ No error (d)

9. One of the drawbacks (a)/ of modern education are (b)/ that it does not
encourage original thinking. (c)/ No error (d)

10. I enquired of him (a)/ why he is so negligent (b)/ in his studies. (c)/ No error
(d)
Answers:

1. b; Replace are with is


Many a takes singular subject and singular verb.
2. b; Replace is with are
Here, poor stands for poor people.
3. c; Replace have with has
4. b; Replace burned with burnt
5. a; Replace ceased with cease
6. c; Replace are with were
7. c; Remove will
8. c; Replace than with to
9. b; Replace are with is

10. b; Replace is with was

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Gateway to SBI Mains : English (Adjective)

Adjective:
An adjective is a word used with a noun ( or a pronoun) to add something for its
meaning. The adjective may be used

(i) attributively: when it is used along with the noun as an epithet or attribute; for
example,

There were dark clouds in the sky.

(ii) predicatively : when it forms part of the predicate; for example.

The clouds in the sky were dark.

Rule : The adjective is correctly used with a verb when some quality of the subject
rather than of the action of the verb, is to be expressed.

Incorrect: Flowers were plucked freshly.

Correct: Flowers were plucked fresh.


Rule: Due to and prior to should be used as predicative adjectives. When
prepositional functions are to be performed, use because of in place of due to, and
before in place of prior to.

Incorrect : Wickets fell due to superb bowling.

Correct : Wickets fell because of superb bowling.

Kinds of Adjective

1. Adjective of Quality : Also known as Descriptive Adjective, it shows the kind


of quality of a person or a thing. For example,

He loves her soft skin.

2. Adjective of Quantity : It is an adjective which shows how much of a thing is


meant. For example, There is little sense in it.

3. Adjective of Number : Also known as Numeral Adjective, it shows how many


persons or things are meant, or in what order a person or a thing stands. For
example,

The face of a clock has sixty divisions.

Numeral Adjectives are of three kinds:

(i) Definite Numeral Adjective: It denotes an exact number. It may be a cardinal


denoting how many; as, one, two, three, etc. It may be an ordinal denoting the
order, as first, second, third etc.

Rule: When a number together with a unit of measurement is to be used as an


adjective, it is a compound word and the unit of measurement is taken in the
singular.

Incorrect : It is a twenty-kilometres walk.

Correct : It is a twenty-kilometre walk.


Rule: Definite Numeral Adjective always takes plural countable noun.

Incorrect: When I was in Punjab, I had twenty money.

Correct: When I was in Mumbai, I had twenty rupees.

Rule: If in a sentence one noun is used for all ordinals and the first ordinal has 'the'
while, other not, the noun will be in the plural.

Incorrect: I have read the literature of the seventeenth and eighteenth century.

Correct: I have read the literature of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

(ii) Indefinite Numeral Adjective : It does not denote an exact number. For
example. There are many petitions lying on the tables.

Rule :Many takes plural noun while "Many a/an singular noun.

Incorrect: He has observed many an uncommon phenomena.

Correct: He has observed many an uncommon phenomenon.

Rule : The few is used before plural countable noun and the little before
uncountable noun. Both follow a clause.

Incorrect: I gave the beggar a little coins I had.

Correct: I gave the beggar the few coins I had.

(iii) Distributive Numeral Adjective : It refers to each one of a number.


Distributive numeral adjectives are the same as distributive pronouns (see
Pronoun). They only differ in function. For example,

Each time he missed the bus.

4. Demonstrative Adjective : It points out which person or thing is meant. For


example,

This table is made of wood.


Rule : The plural forms these and those are often wrongly used with the singular
nouns kind and sort.

Incorrect : These kind of clothes are not acceptable.

Correct : This kind of clothes are not acceptable.

5. Interrogative Adjective: When an interrogative pronoun is used with a noun to


ask a question, it is called an interrogative adjective. For example,

What options are available after graduation?

6. Exclamatory adjective: It is used with a noun in-exclamatory sentence. For


example,

What a show!

Confusing Words

Later, latter, latest, last: Later and latest refer to time. Latter and last refer to
position.

Incorrect: The later part of the novel is not neatly written.

Correct: The latter part of the novel is not neatly written.

Incorrect: What is the last news?

Correct: What is the latest news?

Elder, older, eldest, oldest: Elder and eldest are used of members of the same
family. Besides, both of them are used only attributively (that is, before the noun).
Older and Oldest are used in the general sense.

Incorrect : I have an older brother.

Correct : I have an elder brother.. (Since brother is a member of the same family)

Incorrect : Mohan is the eldest boy in the town.


In a town there may be so many families. We are talking of boys in general sense.
So eldest should be replaced by oldest.

Correct : Mohan is the oldest boy in the town.

Degree of Comparison

Degrees are of three kinds.

1. Positive Degree

2. Comparative Degree

3. Superlative Degree

Rule: When a selection is made out of the two, and two is given in the sentence,
the is used before the adjective denoting comparison.

Incorrect: Shikha is better of the two sisters.

Correct: Shikha is the better of the two sisters.

Rule: Preferable takes to and is not preceded by more.

Incorrect: Coffee is more preferable than tea in Brazil.

Correct: Coffee is preferable to tea in Brazil.

Rule: When two adjectives in different degrees of comparison are used in the same
sentence, each should be complete in itself.

Incorrect: My father is as rich if not richer than your mother.

Correct: My father is as rich as if not richer than your mother.

Rule: If two adjectives are connected by and, they should be in the same degree
throughout.

Incorrect: Raj is more intelligent and most active.

Correct: Raj is more intelligent and more active.


Rule: The comparative in -er is not used when we compare two qualities of the
same person or thing.

Incorrect : Mohan is wiser than strong.

Correct : Mohan is more wise than strong.

Rule: When two objects are compared with each other, the latter term of
comparison must exclude the former.

Incorrect : Satish is cleverer than any student in his class.

Correct : Satish is cleverer than any other student in his class.

Rule: The comparative degree is generally followed by than but the following
comparative adjectives are followed by the preposition to : inferior, superior, prior,
anterior, posterior, senior, junior.

Incorrect: India's fielding is inferior than South Africa's.

Correct: India's fielding is inferior to South Africa's.

Rule: Adjectives expressing qualities that do not admit of different degrees cannot
be compared.

Incorrect: Our field is more square.

Correct: Our field is square.

Rule: Double comparatives and superlatives are to be avoided.

Incorrect: Zarda mangoes are more sweeter than Maldah ones.

Correct: Zarda mangoes are sweeter than Maldah ones.

Exercise:
Directions: In the following questions, some of the sentences have errors
and some have none. Find out which part of the sentence has an error. The
letter corresponding to that part is your answer. If there is no mistake, the
answer is No error.

1. Firstly you should a)/ think over the meaning of the words b)/ and then use
them. c)/ No error d)

2. The driver tried his best a)/ to avert the accident by b)/ bringing the car to a
suddenly stop. c)/ No error d)

3. The Sunrise Hotel was a)/ fully equipped to offer b)/ leisure stay c)/ to its clients.
d)/ No error e)

4. The technician reminded a)/ them to have a thoroughly cleaning of the b)/
machine after each use. c)/ No error d)

5. I am much glad a)/ that you have b)/ won the prize. c)/ No error d)

6. My observation is that a)/ between Vivek and Shashi, b)/ Vivek is the most
intelligent. c)/ No error d)

7. It very often a)/ happens that b)/ a man who talks most does little. c)/ No error
d)

8. From all accounts a)/ I learn that b)/ he is the best and honest member of the
new Cabinet. c)/ No error d)

9. He is a)/ too intelligent b)/ to make a mistake. c)/ No error d)

10. The flood situation this year a)/ is worst than b)/ that prevailed in the last year,
c)/ No error d)

Answers :

1. a; Replace Firstly with First


2. c; Replace suddenly with sudden
3. c; Replace leisure with leisurely
4. b; Replace thoroughly with thorough
5. a; Replace much with very
6. c; Replace the most with more
7. c; Replace most by much
8. c; The correct form is he is the best and most honest member....
9. d; No error
10. b; Replace worst with worse

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adjective.html#ixzz4aRcOK41D

Gateway to SBI Mains : English (Adverb)

Adverb:

An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective or an


adverb. For example

Rama runs quickly.

Govinda reads quite clearly.

Kinds of Adverb

(a) According to meaning

1) Adverbs of Time : They are the adverbs which tell us when an action takes place.
For example,

I shall meet you tomorrow.

Rule : Time adverbs cannot be used in the present perfect, instead the past
indefinite is used for them.

Incorrect : I have seen a 3D movie last night.

Correct : I saw a 3D movie last night.

2) Adverbs of Place : They are the adverbs which tell us where an action takes
place. For example,

He left his bag there.


3) Adverbs of Manner : They are the adverbs which tell us how an action takes
place or in what manner. For example, Gautam Buddha left his family stealthily.

4) Adverbs of Frequency : They are the adverbs which tell us how often an action
takes place. For example, The Delhi Police is always with you .

5) Adverbs of Degree or Quantity : They are the adverbs which tell us how
much or in what degree or to what extent. For example,

I have pleaded enough and now I give up.

Rule : The adverb so as an adverb of degree must not be used absolutely.

Incorrect : He is so rich.

Correct : He is very rich.

Rule : That should not be used instead of so as an adverb.

Incorrect : He went only that far.

Correct : He went only so far.

Rule : The adverb too should not be used instead of very or much and vice
versa.

Incorrect : She is too intelligent.

Correct : she is very intelligent.

Rule : Much is used with past participles used as adjectives not with present
participles.

Incorrect : The match became much interesting.

Correct : The match became very interesting.


Rule : Adverb of degree comes just before the adjective it qualifies.

Incorrect : He too is weak to run.

Correct : He is too weak to run.

They are so honest that they cannot tell a lie.

6) Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation : They are the adverbs which tell us
whether an action is done or not. For example,

He has not left the place.

7) Adverbs of Reason : They are the adverbs which tell us why an action takes
place. For example,

She therefore decided to be a rich woman.

(b) According to use

1) Simple Adverb : It only modifies some words (verb, adjective or an adverb). All
the above examples belong to this category.

2) Interrogative Adverb : It not only modifies some words but also introduces a
question. For example, How did you come here?

3) Relative Adverb : It not only modifies some words but also refers back to some
antecedent. For example,

How can I forget the day when happiness was

showered on me from all sides?

Forms of adverb :
Rule : Adjective should not be used for adverb.

Incorrect: The moon shone bright in the sky.

Correct: The moon shone brightly in the sky.

Rule : Some adverbs have two forms, the form ending in-ly and the form which is
the same as adjective. For example, loud, quick, high, hard, near, late, pretty.

Incorrect: He fought hardly for the No. 1 spot.

Correct: He fought hard for the No. 1 spot.

Similarly, Incorrect: It would hard rain today.

Correct : It would hardly rain today.

Comparison of adverbs :

Rule : If the adverb is of one syllable, the comparative is formed by adding-er and
the superlative by addingest to the positive.

Incorrect : The hare ran more fast than the dog.

Correct : The hare ran faster than the dog.

Rule : Adverbs ending in -ly form the comparative by adding more and the
superlative by adding most.

Incorrect : The petrol price hike issue has been debated hotlier than the urea scam.

Correct : The petrol price hike issue has been debated more hotly than the urea
scam.

Position of adverbs :
Rule : Adverbs of manner, place and time are generally placed after the verb or
after the object if there is one.

Incorrect: He wrote last year a book.

Correct: He wrote a book last year.

Rule : When there are two or more adverbs after a verb (and its object), the normal
order is; adverb of manner, adverb of place, adverb of time.

Incorrect: I read the proof yesterday meticulously at home.

Correct: I read the proof meticulously at home yesterday.

Rule : Adverbs of frequency and most of the adverbs of quantity are

i) normally put between the subject and the verb if the verb consists of only one
word;

ii) put after the first word if there is more than one word in the verb;

iii) put after the verb if the verb is am/are/is/was/were;

Some more rules :

Rule : Two negatives should not be used in the same sentence unless we wish to
make an affirmation.

Incorrect: she did not despise none of her lovers.

Correct: She did not despise any of her lovers.

Rule : Ever should not be used for never.

Incorrect: She seldom or ever has sweet talks with her son.

Correct: She seldom or never has sweet talks with her son.

Rule : Else should be followed by but.


Incorrect: It is nothing else than fatigue.

Correct: It is nothing else but fatigue.

Rule : Never should not be used for not.

Incorrect: She met her friend after a long time and her friend never recognised her.

Correct: She met her friend after a long time and her friend did not recognise her.

Exercise :

Directions: Find out the error in each of the following sentences, if any. If
there is no error, the answer is d.

1. She behaved in a cowardly manner (a)/ before the headmaster (b)/ and
hesitated to do the work. (c)/ No error (d)

2. The girl refused (a)/ not to (b)/ return the articles. (c)/ No error (d)

3. The real important thing (a)/ of our life is our livelihood (b)/ which discriminates
us from animals. (c)/ No error (d)

4. She is too much beautiful (a)/ so most of the boys (b)/ run after her and want to
influence her. (c)/ No error (d)

5. The taxi driver who had come (a)/ to receive us at (b)/ the airport was speaking
fluently French. (c)/ No error (d)

6. The observers feel that (a)/ the stronger team has to face defeat (b)/ because
the players dont play whole hearted. (c)/ No error (d)

7. Although he is usually (a)/ rude with everyone, (b)/ he behaved nice with all of
us today. (c)/ No error (d)

8. He ran so fastly (a)/ that he reached first and (b)/ realised that he had (c)/ not
earned anything substantial. (d)/ No error (e)

9. In spite of toiling (a)/ very hardly he (b)/ realised that he had not earned
anything substantial. (c)/ No error (d)
10. We were very much (a)/ carefully in our approach (b)/ and hence we would
complete the complicated task. (c) No error (d)

Answers..

1. d; No error
2. b; Omit the word not
3. a; Replace real with really
4. a; Replace too much with very
5. c; Replace fluently French with French fluently
6. c; Replace whole-hearted with whole-heartedly
7. c; Replace nice with nicely
8. a; Replace fastly with fast
9. b; Replace hardly with hard

10. b; Replace carefully with careful

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adverb.html#ixzz4aRcZHwQv

Mission IBPS Exam :Rules of Paragraph Jumbles (Sentence Re-


arrangement)
Dear Readers,

Many of our readers were demanding rules for Sentence Arrangement, considering
this here, we are providing rules of Sentence Arrangements. We are providing you
quiz of English which is one of the most important sections of banking exams, in
which you can score maximum with ease if you are practicing on very regular basis,
It is crucial for all the upcoming banking exams, IBPS/RRB etc.

Parajumbles are in important part of most competitive exams. In various


management entrance exams we have seen 3 basic types of parajumbles:

4 sentence type

5 sentence type
6 sentence type : Usually when there are 6 sentences given, the 1st sentence and
the 6th sentence are given in the correct position and he 4 sentences between
these are jumbled up.

Parajumbles are not necessarily a test of your language skills. The good thing about
parajumbles is that even if you are otherwise weak in English, that is if you find RC,
vocabulary or grammar a challenge, you can still score extremely will in
parajumbles. This is because you need to be as mechanical as possible in your
approach.

The ideal approach for solving parajumbles is a mechanical one. Most people lose
focus by reading the statements given over and over again. Sometimes, it is next to
impossible to make out which sentence follows which one and all the options look
equally correct. The greatest mistake is to try and read the parajumble in the
sequence given in each option. Solving all options completely will only confuse you
and waste a lot of time.

The best way to solve a parajumble is to try and identify mandatory pairs. A
mandatory pair is a sequence that you know cannot exist in any other order. There
are many types of mandatory pairs. But there is only one basic tool to identify
mandatory pairs read mechanically and look only for keywords that will help you
form a sequence or connection.

Types of Mandatory Pairs:

1. Names, proper nouns and pronouns:

Sometimes we can identify mandatory pairs or a longer sequence by the help of the
names, proper nouns and pronouns used.

For instance:

A. Both were very angry.

B. Singh accused Jogi of corruption.

C. Raman Singh ordered enquiry against his predecessor Ajit Jogi.


It is clear from the above example that statement C, which has the full names of
both persons, should precede the other two statements. Statement B uses only the
second names of the concerned people. And statement A substitutes the names
with the pronoun both. Thus, A should follow B, and B should follow C. Therefore,
the correct order is CBA.

2. Cause-effect:

There are instances where a clear cause- effect relationship may exist in the form of
a mandatory pair or may run through the entire parajumble.

For example:

A. While Sachin is a great batsman, Kamblis name is often associated with


scams.

B. Sachin Tendulkar and Vinod Kambli are good friends.

C. As a result, their relationship has become strained.

Here it is easy to see that the use of as a result in statement C, stablishes a cause
and effect relationship. The correct sequence therefore, is BAC.

3. Chronology:

At times you can see logical chain of events in the parajumble. It could also be in
the form of a set of instructions to be followed in a certain order. If you look for
keywords associated with the sequence, you can easily figure out the right order.

For instance:

A. In order to take full advantage of the ongoing city sale you must possess a good
credit card.

B. It would also be nice to have friends to accompany you.

C. Secondly, you should have a vehicle of your own.


As you can see in the above example, statement C follow statement A. A gives the
first and C gives the second condition. The use of also in B tells you that it should
follow C. Therefore, ACB is the correct order.

4. Time reference:

Some question have a statement that refers to a point in time. The reference maybe
in the past, present or future. Accordingly, you can decide its place in the sequence.

For example:

A. In the future perhaps, we may live on Mars.

B. During the Stone Age, man lived in caves.

C. Presently, man lives in concrete jungles.

The use of Stone Age in statement B, presently in C and future in A make it


easy for us to identify the sequence. The past will always come first, followed by the
present and then the future. The correct sequence then is, BCA.

5. Obvious openers:

You may sometimes come across statements that are obvious openers, i.e. it is
obvious that the parajumble will begin with those statements. These statements can
be definitions, universal truths or philosophical statements.

For instance:

A. The stratosphere is one of the layers of the atmosphere.

B. It is the upper portion of the atmosphere, a nearly isothermal layer (layer of


constant temperature) that is located above the troposphere.

C. It extends from its lower boundary of about 6 to 17 km (4 to 11miles) altitude to


its upper boundary (the stratopause) at about 50 km (30 miles).
It is clear to see that it in B and C refers to the stratosphere in statement. A.
Statement A is thus an obvious opener and the correct order is ABC.

6. Obvious conclusions:

Sometimes, you can easily figure out the conclusion in the parajumble. The
conclusion helps to eliminate choices or to identify a mandatory pair.

For example:

A. On the mantelpiece were two clocks, some dogs, brass candlesticks and a tinted
photograph of Annie.

B. You looked at the weed-grown vegetable garden through a stuffed foxs legs,
over a partridges head, along the red-paint-stained breast of a stiff wild duck.

C. The best room smelt of moth-balls and fur and damp and dead plants and
stale, sour air. Two glass cases on wooden coffin-boxes lined the window wall.

D. It was obvious that the room was rarely used.

You can see that C introduces the room, A and B further describe it and D concludes
the paragraph.

7. Keywords:

Words like so, therefore, however, hence, thus, moreover, but, because,
nevertheless, yet, etc. also help identify mandatory pairs.

For instance:

A. Yet, the cable guys control two-thirds of the market.

B. Telephone firms are now cutting down their prices to complete and grab
their share of the internet market.

C. Cable net connections are expensive.

D. This is because there is a growing demand for high speed internet access.
It is clear from the above example that CA is a mandatory pair. C puts across a point
that cable net connections are expensive. The use of yet in A, shows that despite
being expensive, they hold a major share in the market. The use of because in D
gives a reason for this phenomenon. Thus, C, A and D are connected to each other
in that order. Statement B gives the effect of the phenomenon on the telephone
firms. Hence, CADB is the correct sequence.

8. General to specific:

Sometimes one gets confused about whether to move from general to specific or
from specific to general.

For instance:

A. He made an interesting comment about our stores price policy.

B. He said that we could offer discounts and incentives to encourage people to buy
in fewer quantities but to buy more frequently.

C. Discounts could vary from 10 to 15 per cent on every purchase.

D. The lesser the quantity, the more frequently customers will have to visit the
store. The more frequent the visits, the more incentives they can earn.

In this case the confusion could be between BCD and BDC. Here, we will move from
general to specific. C is a specific example for D and not vice versa. Therefore, the
correct sequence is ABDC.

In order to master parajumbles it is important to understand their structure. Lets


slowly build up on the concept of parajumbles. Go through the following solved
examples and follow the instructions given.

1. Questions can become easy to solve if you pay more attention to only the first
few words of every statement.

For instance:
A. Although, like the Talapadas, the Pardeshis also claim to be Rajputs and
Kshatriyas, most of them have not yet adopted traditional Rajput names for their
lineages.

B. Only recently a few lineages have begum to patronize the Vahivancha Barots,
who have recorded their remembered shallow genealogies and grafted them on to
mythical genealogies.

C. Each Pardeshi lingeage is known after its village of origin.

D. The latter provide them with Rajput clan names, but they rarely use them
in normal life.

In the above case, by reading only the highlighted words, you can clearly see a
relationship between CB. C talks about Pardeshi lineages and B continues as it starts
with only recently a few lineages Thus only by reading the first few words
of every statement you can establish at least one mandatory pair and usually
eliminate at least 2 choices.

2. Lets now learn to associate keywords, ideas and form sequences. Look at the
following examples:

A. Many Western observers, and under their influence many Indian scholars
and social critics also, have written that India was almost completely a stagnant
country, without true history, till she came into life-giving contact with Western
civilisation in the eighteenth century.

B. The so-called joint family is one such notable institution.

C. There is a well-established viewpoint which alleges that Hindu social


institutions have had a blighting effect on Indias social and economic
development.

D. They contend That the economy and society in this country, and indeed the
India mind, had remained frozen for about two thousand years till the British
conquest of India introduced a vital element of dynamism into the native society.

In the above example it can be seen clearly that CB are mandatory pairs. C talks of
the blighting effect Hindu social institutions have had on the Indian economy and
society; and B continues by saying that the joint family is one such institution. The
they in D, refers to the observers, scholars and critics in A. Therefore AD is also a
mandatory pair. Thus the correct sequence is CBAD.
3. Now lets learn to build up from small sequences to bigger ones.

I. A. Such is the difficulty a carp faces in becoming a dragon.

B. Some are swept away by the by the strong currents, some fall prey to
eagles, hawks, kites, and owls, and others are netted, scooped up or even shot
with arrows by fishermen who line both banks of the falls.

In the above case, B describes the different difficulties and A obviously sums up the
explanation as it starts with such is the difficulty. BA is then the mandatory
sequence.

II. A. Minamoto and Taira were like two faithful watchdogs at the gates of the
imperial palace.

B. They marvelled at the elegant parties of the court nobles and their ladies, just as
monkeys in the trees are enraptured by the sight of the moon and the stars
glittering in the sky.

C. They were eager to guard the emperor s humble mountain folk are to admire
the full moon on the fifteenth night of the eighth month as it rises from behind the
mountains.

Here, the they in C clearly refers to the two faithful watchdogs in A. Therefore AC
is a mandatory pair. The correct sequence then is ACB.

III. A. The most important ones are the family and the school.

B. Much of the anger that is publicly expressed against the hierarchy of caste-in
the newspapers, on television, in conferences-is purposeless if not insincere.

C. Those who are serious about carrying the advance of equality further,
particularly in the domain that I have discussed, must direct their attention to the
institutions that are the real obstacles in the path of that advance.

D. Equality at least at the higher levels of society, can no longer be significantly


advanced by attacking caste.
D introduces the fact that equality can no longer be established by attacking caste.
B continues the point about anger against hierarchy if caste. The mandatory pair is
DB and not BD because D is more general than B. C then goes on to identify the real
obstacles and A names the most important ones. CA is therefore another mandatory
sequence. The correct sequence then is DBCA.

IV. (i) The mighty warrior General Li Kuang, whose mother had been devoured by
a tiger, shot an arrow at the stone he believed was the tiger.

A. Later he came to be known as General Stone Tiger.

B. But once he realized it was only a stone, he was unable to pierce it again.

C. The arrow penetrated the stone all the way up to its feathers.

D. This story applies to you. Though enemies lurk in the wait for you, your
resolute faith has forestalled great dangers before they could begin.

(ii) Realizing this, you must strengthen your faith more than ever.

I clearly introduces a story and A sums up that story. C and B figure in between. D
talks about the relevance of the story and finds continuation in II. The correct
sequence then is I-CBAD-II.

V. A. She had cherished hope-filed visions of America as a land of freedom


and democracy.

B. Also, being a foreigner, she could not make herself understood well in English,
and they treated her coldly. At the same time, her husband had become physically
abusive, and a rift had grown between them.

C. Sadly, however, this womans dream had been shattered. Life with her in-
laws was by no means easy financially.

D. She was not alone; many people in those days turned their eyes admiringly to
America, imagining it as some sort of dream land.
E. Her sense of regret grew with each passing day. As her feelings of isolation
and despair deepened, she would often stand crying on the beach, watching the
crimson sun set into the sea beyond the horizon.

F. The tears that streamed down her cheeks flooded her already wounded
heart with an aching, empty coldness, thus intensifying her sorrow.

A is an obvious opener. It talks about her hopes and dreams about America. D
continues the point and talks further about other women who had dreamt of
America. C then mentions that her dream were sadly shattered. B adds more points
about how her dreams were shattered. E talks about her sense of regret and F starts
by talking of her consequent tears and sorrow. The correct sequence therefore is
ADCBEF.

Now that you know the real tricks needed to crack parajumbles, attempt the
following exercises on your own.

Exercise Based On This:

Direction (Q. 1-6): Rearrange the following six sentences (A), (B), (C), (D),
(E) and (F) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph; then
answer the questions given below them.

(A) We at Infoquicktech thus make sure that our clients receive the best
and the quickest services in the eld of IT.
(B) Information Technology has transformed a lot in this decade and this
metamorphosis is exceedingly quick.
(C) The user can now get the desired information in a fraction of a
second.
(D)Our newer packages now perform in a far better way than our clients
used to get in the past.
(E) Our search engines have been astoundingly powerful to process and
fetch the required information to the user.
(F) These improvements perform a real magic, in the true sense of the
term, to facilitate quicker access.

1. Which of the following will be the FIFTH sentence after rearrangement?


1) A
2) B
3) C
4) D
5) E

2. Which of the following will be the SIXTH (LAST) sentence after


rearrangement?
1) A
2) B
3) C
4) D
5) E

3. Which of the following will be the FIRST sentence after rearrangement?


1) A
2) B
3) C
4) D
5) E

4. Which of the following will be the-SECOND sentence after


rearrangement?
1) A
2) B
3) C
4) D
5) E

5. Which of the following will be the FOURTH sentence after


rearrangement?
l) A
2) B
3) C
4) D
5) F

6. Which of the following will be the THIRD sentence after rearrangement?


l) A
2) B
3) C
4) D
5) E
Answers..
BDEFCA (Correct Sequence)

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paragraph_27.html#ixzz4aRcoH4pd

Mission IBPS Exam :Rules of Subject Verb Agreement


Dear Readers,

Many of our readers were demanding rules for Grammar, considering this here, we
are providing rules of Subject Verb Agreement, which is crux of entire Grammar. We
are providing you quiz of English which is one of the most important sections of
banking exams, in which you can score maximum with ease if you are practicing on
very regular basis, It is crucial for all the upcoming banking exams, IBPS/RRB etc.

Subject Verb Agreement relates to number agreement (singular or


plural) between the subject and the verb that follows it

e.g. The girl plays all day. (singular subject)

The girls play all day. (plural subject)

There are two important exceptions to subject verb agreement. Firstly,


agreement only applies when the verb is in the present tense. In the past
tense, there is no overt agreement between the subject and the verb.

e.g. The girl played all day.

The girls played all day.

And secondly, agreement applies only to third person subjects. There is no


distinction between a first person singular subject and a first person plural
subject.

e.g. I play all day.

We play all day.


The main principle is : Singular subjects need singular verbs : plural
subjects need ; plural subjects need plural verbs. Some basic rules:

1. When subject of a sentence is composed of two or more nouns or pronouns


connected by and, we use a plural verb.

He and his friends are at the fair.

This rule is not follow when two nouns refer to the same object.

The wicket keeper and Captain was given the man of the match award.

2. When two or more singular nouns or pronouns are connected by or or nor, we use
a singular verb.

e.g. The paper or the pencil is in the desk.

3. When a compound subject contains both a singular and a plural noun or pronoun
joined by or or nor, the verb should agree with the part of the subject that is nearer
to the verb.

e.g. Shivin or his friends run every day.

His friends or Shivin runs every day.

4. Doesnt is contraction of does not and should be used only with a singular
subject. Dont is a contraction of do not and should be used only with a plural
subject. The exception to this rule appears in the case of the first person and
second person pronouns I and you. With these pronouns the contraction dont
should be used.

e.g. She doesnt like it.

They dont like it.

5. A phrase between the subject and the verb should not be misleading, the verb
agrees with the subject, not with a noun or pronoun in the phrase.

e.g. The captain, as well as his players, is anxious.


The book, in parts, is boring.

The building, with all its contents, is insured.

6. Each, each one, either, neither, everyone, everybody, anybody, nobody,


somebody, some one and no one are singular and require a singular verb.

e.g. Each of these books is good.

Everybody knows him.

Either is correct.

7. Nouns such as civics, mathematics, rupees and news require singular verbs.

e.g. The news is on at eight.

When talking about an amount of money, it requires a singular verb, but when
referring to the rupees themselves, a plural verb is required.

e.g. Five hundred rupees is a lot of money.

Rupees are often used instead or Rupiahs in Nepal.

8. Nouns such as scissors, trousers, shears and shorts require plural verbs.

e.g. These shears are dull.

These shorts are made of cotton.

9. In sentences beginning with there is, there are, the subject follows the verb.
Since there is not the subject, the verb agrees with what follows.

e.g. There are many questions

There is a question.

10. Collective nouns are words that imply more than one person but are considered
singular and take a singular verb, such as : group, team, committee, class and
family.

e.g. The family has a long history of writers.


The committee has prepared the agenda.

11. With, together with, including, accompanied by, in addition to, or as well do not
change the number of the subject. If the subject is singular, the verb is too.

e.g. The Chairman, including his team, is travelling to China.

The boys, together with their friends, are going for a picnic.

12. The relative pronouns (who, whom, which, and that) are either singular or
plural, depending on the words they refer to.

e.g. The sales manager is good researcher who spends a great amount of time
surfing the Web for information.

Subject : The sales manager Verbs: is, spends

13. A few nouns can be either plural or singular, depending on whether they mean
a group or Separate individuals. These words are rarely used as plurals in modern
writing.

e.g. 1. The jury has decided unanimously.

Subject: jury Verb: is

2. The jury are having an argument.

Subject: jury Verb: are having

14. Do not be misled by a phrase that comes between the subject and the verb.
The agrees with the

subject, not with a noun or pronoun in the phrase.

e.g. One of the boxes is open.

The people who listen to music are few.

15. Two singular subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor require a singular


verb as in Rule 1.
e.g. Neither John nor Abraham is available.

Either Bipasha or neelam is helping today with stage decoration.

16. When/is one of the two subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor, put it
second and follow it with the singular verb am.

e.g. Neither she nor I am going to the festival

17. With words that indicate portions-percent, fraction, part, majority, some, all,
none, remainder, and so forth look at the noun in your of phrase (object of the
preposition) to determine whether to use a singular of plural verb. If the object of
the preposition is singular, use a singular verb. If the object of the preposition is
plural, use a plural verb.

e.g. 1. Fifty percent of the pie has disappeared. (Pie is the object of the preposition
of.)

2. Fifty percent of the pies have disappeared.

3. One-third of the city is unemployed.

4. One-third of the people are unemployed.

NOTE: Hyphenate all spelled-out fractions.

5. All of the pie is gone.

6. All of the pies are gone.

7. Some of the pie is missing.

8. Some of the pies are missing.

18. Use a singular verb with sums of money or periods of time.

e.g. Ten dollars is a high price to pay.

Five years is the maximum sentence for that offense.

Identifying the subject


Word groups often come between the subject and the verb. These word groups may
contain a noun that at first appears to be the subject. Identify the word group
between the subject and the verb in order to isolate the noun.

e.g. The girl plays all day. (singular subject)

e.g. The slaughter of pandas for their pelts have caused panda population to
decline Drastically. (Incorrect)

The slaughter of pandas for their pelts has caused the panda population to decline
drastically. (Correct)

Thus, the subject is slaughter and not pandas or pelts.

Phrases beginning with the prepositions as well as, in addition to,


accompanied by, and along with, do not make a singular subject plural.

e.g. The Chief Minister, as well as his principal secretary, was shot.

e.g. If a customer buys a burger, he or she has to pay service tax. (correct)

If a customer buys a burger, they have to buy a parking ticket. (incorrect)

Questions:
Directions: Find out the error, if any in questions given in each practice
set. If there is no error, the answer is (e), i.e No error (ignore the errors of
punctuation, if any.)

1. A few kilometers beyond (a) /that villa was seen two aliens (b )/along
with (c)/ a few Americans and Russian scientists (d)/ No error (e).

2. It is well known fact that (a)/the upper middle class have no soft (b)/
corner for the poor and the oppressed who are the (c)/real victims of this
social system (d)/ No error (e).

3. Sheetal as well as (a)/ some of her friends (b)/have fallen in love with a
hunky fellow, who (c)/ is the eldest son of an I.A.S. officer (d)/ No error (e).

4. More than one successful candidate of this institute (a)/have taken the
interview for one (b)/of the most popular dailies (c)/being published from
Los Angels (d)/ No error (e).
5. More than one book on life style (a)/ and motivation by this writer
(b)/have been published so far and (c)/all are selling like a hot cake (d)/ No
error (e).

6. Many a man along with (a)/a few friends of mine are going (b)/to
DevGhar to offer flowers and (c)/milk to Lord Shiva (d)/ No error (e).

7. Many an employee of this company (a)/ are supposed to be transferred


(b)/ to some other company (c)/ of the same category because of recession
(d)/ No error (e).

8. The political leader as well as (a)/ his retinues are going on a hunger
(b)/ Strike to protest this (c)/ unnecessary price hike (d)/ No error (e).

9. Although this book as well as those (a)/ books of yours are similar (b)/
in many ways, mine has (c)/ an edge over many a book of yours (d)/ No
error (e).

10. The prime minister along with his (a)/ attendants are coming tomorrow
(b)/ to address the sensational (c)/ and controversial issues of terrorism
(d)/ No error (e).

Answers..
1. b
2. b
3. c
4. b
5. c
6. b
7. a
8. b
9. b
10. b

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subject-verb.html#ixzz4aRd78LMR

Gateway to SBI Mains : English (Conjunctions)


Dear Readers,
Today we are posting the concepts on conjunction. You all know that conjunction is a
word that connect two statements. It is very important for you to identify the
errors, sentence improvements, and cloze test.

Conjunction

A conjunction is a word which merely joins together sentences or clauses, and


sometimes words.

1. That is a beautiful place and I have been there.

2. That is the beautiful place where I have been to.

Classes of Conjunctions

Conjunctions are divided into two classes: 1) Co-ordinating and 2) Sub-ordinating.

1. Co-ordinating conjunction :

It joins together clauses of equal ranks. For eg. He is slow, but he is sure.

2. Sub-ordinating conjunction :

It joins together clauses in which one is dependent on the other. For eg. Since you
wish to excel in life, you must learn English.

Some rules
Rule: Scarcely should be followed by when, not by than.

Incorrect: Scarcely had he arrived than he had to leave again.

Correct: Scarcely had he arrived when he had to leave again.

Rule : No sooner is followed by than, not by but.

Incorrect: No sooner had we reached the station but the train left.

correct: No sooner had we reached the station than the train left.

Note : "No sooner A ... than B" is very similar to "Scarcely A... when B" and has
almost the same meaning.

Rule : Do not use seldom or ever in place of seldom or never.

Incorrect: The national network seldom or ever telecasts good programmes.

Correct: The national network seldom or never telecasts good programmes.

Rule : Correlative conjunctions should be followed by the same part of speech.

Incorrect: He neither agreed to my proposal nor to his.

Correct: He agreed neither to my proposal nor to his.

Rule : Neither is followed by nor, not by or.

Incorrect: The phone neither went dead or worked properly.

Correct: The phone neither went dead nor worked properly.

Rule : The conjunction that is not used before

i) a sentence in direct narration.

ii) an interrogative adverb or interrogative pronoun in the indirect narration.

Incorrect: He said that, "it is none of my business".

Correct: He said, "It is none of my business."


Incorrect: He asked me that which was the way to the station.

Correct: He asked me which was the way to the station.

Rule : Although goes with yet or a comma (,) in the other clause.

Incorrect: Although Manohar is hardworking, but he does not get a job.

Correct: Although Manohar is hardworking, yet he does not get a job.

Note : Though/Although is used with contradictory sentences (sentences


expressing opposite views).

Incorrect: Since she was sick, she attended the party.

Correct: Though she was sick, she attended the party.

Rule : Nothing else should be followed by but, not by than.

Incorrect: Mr Bureaucrat! This is nothing else than red-tapism.

Correct: Mr Bureaucrat! This is nothing else but red-tapism.

Rule : The correlative conjunctions indeed... but are used to emphasis the contrast
between the first and the second parts of the statement.

Incorrect: I am indeed happy with my school but it produces famous men.

Correct: I am indeed happy with my school that it produces famous men.

Rule : In a "not only ... but also ... "sentence, the verb should agree with the noun
or pronoun mentioned second, that is, the one after but also because this is the part
being emphasised.

Incorrect: Not only the students but also the teacher were responsible for what
happened in the class.

Correct: Not only the students but also the teacher was responsible for what
happened in the class.

Rule : Not only ... but also always comes before the same part of speech.
Incorrect: They not only gave me standing ovation but also a cash prize of `1000.

Correct: They gave me not only standing ovation but also a cash prize of `1000.

Rule : Such...as is used to denote a category whereas such...that emphasises the


degree of something by mentioning its consequence.

Incorrect: Each member of the alliance agrees to take such action as it deems
necessary.

Correct: Each member of the alliance agrees to take such action that it deems
necessary.

Rule : The conjunction lest is followed by should.

Incorrect: Work hard lest you would fail.

Correct: Work hard lest you should fail.

Note: Lest is a negative word. There should be no use of not, nothing,


never, no with lest.

Incorrect: Word hard lest you should not fail.

Correct: Word hard lest you should fail.

Rule : The conjunction soas is used for comparison in a negative sentence


whereasas is used in a positive or affirmative sentence.

Incorrect: He is not as tall as his brother.

Correct: He is not so tall as his brother.

Rule : The conjunction, both is followed by and and not by as well as or


along with.

Incorrect: Both the boys as well as the girls were asbent.

Correct: Both the boys and the girls were absent.

Rule : The conjunction unless denotes condition whereas until denotes time.
Incorrect: Until you work hard, you will not succeed.

Correct: Unless you work hard, you will not succeed.

Note : Unless and Until are negative words. There should be no use of not
nothing, never with unless and until.

Questions based on above concepts.

Directions: In each of the following questions, find out which part of the
sentence has an error. The error may be grammatical or idiomatic. If there
is no mistake, the answer is No error.

1. The managing director well as (a)/ the Board members was in (b)/ favour of
taking strict action (c)/ against the striking workers. (d)/ No error (e)

2. Unless he does not return (a)/ all the library books (b)/ he will not be relieved
(c)/ from the service.(d)/ No error (e)

3. You must either tell me (a)/ the whole story or (b)/, at least, the (c)/ first half of
it. (d)/ No error (e)

4. The old woman has had the (a)/ best medical facilities available (b)/ but she will
not be cured unless she does not have (c)/ a strong desire to live.(d)/ No error (e)

5. Hardly had I reached (a)/ the airport where (b)/ I learnt about the powerful (c)/
bomb explosion.(d)/ No error (e)

6. The manager of the bank (a)/ was busy; so he asked them (b)/ to come and see
him between two to (c)/ three in the afternoon.(d)/ No error (e)

7. Because he is physically (a)/ strong, therefore he was (b)/ selected for the school
(c)/ boxing team.(d)/ No error (e)
8. Being a strict (a)/ vegetarian he depended (b)/ on milk and fruit and (c)/ had to
cook for himself.(d)/ No error (e)

9. Even though the shirt (a)/ is rather expensive but (b)/ I wish to purchase (c)/ it
with my own money.(d)/ No error (e)

10. Unless Ashish does not (a)/ return all the library books, (b)/ he will not be
awarded (c)/ the pass certificate. (d)/ No error (e)

Answers will be provided soon

1. a; Add as before well


2. a; Replace does not return with returns
3. e; No error
4. c; Replace does not have with has
5. b; Replace where with when
6. c; Replace to with and
7. b; Remove therefore
8. c; Replace and with or
9. b; Remove but

10. a; Replace unless with if

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english_12.html#ixzz4aRdN9pfi

Gateway to SBI Mains : English (Prepositions)


Dear Readers,

Moving forward in our series named "Gateway to SBI Mains", today we


will be posting the concepts on Prepositions. It is one of the easy and crucial factor
in any banking or SSC exams. You can find questions related to prepositions in Error
Detection, Sentence Correction and Cloze Test. Do read it and do remember it.
Prepositions

A preposition is a word placed before a noun (or a pronoun) to show in what relation
the person or thing denoted by it stands to something else.

Kinds of Preposition

1) Simple Prepositions : They are the simple words used as prepositions.

For example, at, by, for, from, in, of, off,on, out, over, through, till, to, under, up,
with.

2) Compound Prepositions : They are generally formed by prefixing a preposition


(usually a = on or be = by) to a

noun, an adjective or an adverb.

For example,about, above, across, along, amidst, among, around, before, behind,
below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, inside, outside, underneath, within,
without.

3) Phrase Prepositions : When a group of words is used with the force of a single
preposition, it is known as a phrase preposition.

For example, He succeeded in spite of obstacles.

4) Participial Prepositions: When the present participle of a verb acts as a


preposition, it is known as a participle preposition.

For example, There have not been too many celebrations in recent times barring
those happened after Diwali.

Rules based on frequent asked questions


Rule : In is used with names of countries and large towns; at is more often used
when speaking of small towns and villages.

Incorrect: He lives at Germany.

Correct: He lives in Germany.

Rule : In and at are used in speaking of things at rest; to and into are used in
speaking of things in motion.

Incorrect : This week the song jumped at the top of the charts.

Correct: This week the song jumped to the top of the charts.

Rule : Till is used of time and to is used of place.

Incorrect: The office will remain open to six in the evening.

Correct: The office will remain open till six in the evening.

Rule : With often denotes the instrument used by the agent.

Incorrect: The ball was hit by the bat.

Correct: The ball was hit with the bat.

Rule : Both since and from are used before a noun denoting some point of time.
However, while since is preceded by a verb in the perfect tense, from is used with
the

non-perfect tense.

Incorrect: India has been playing Test cricket from 1932.

Correct: India has been playing Test cricket since 1932.

Rule : While since or from is used with a point of time, for is used with a period of
time.
Incorrect: The parcel has been lying here since 10 days.

Correct: The parcel has been lying here for 10 days.

Rule : Beside means by the side of while besides means in additions to.

Incorrect: He sat besides the chair.

Correct: He sat beside the chair.

Rule : Between is used for only two things or persons while among is used for more
than two.

Incorrect: You have to choose among tea and coffee.

Correct: You have to choose between tea and coffee.

Rule : Above and below merely denote position while over and under also carry a
sense of covering or movement.

Incorrect: The bird flew above the lake.

Correct: The bird flew over the lake.

Rule : During is used when we are talking about the time within which something
happens. For is used when we are talking about how long something lasts.

Incorrect: There were few incidents of irregularity for the Emergency years.

Correct: There were few incidents of irregularity during the Emergency years.

Rule: The preposition off denotes separation, at a distance from or far from
whereas the preposition of denotes cause, origin, quality, possession.

Incorrect: He put of his coat.

Correct: He put off his coat. (Separation)

Incorrect: He died off cancer.

He died of cancer. (Cause)


Rule : The word compare is followed by to when it shows that two things are alike.
It is followed by with when we look at the ways in which two things are like and
unlike each other.

Incorrect: Sanath Jayasuriya's batting may be compared with the sales of a useful
book: they score fast right from the beginning.

Correct: Sanath Jayasuriya's batting may be compared to the sales of a useful book:
they score fast right from the beginning.

Rule : When we simply speak of a thing having got better, we talk of an


improvement in it. When we compare two things, the second of which is better than
the first, we talk of an improvement on the first thing.

Incorrect: There has been an improvement on the weather.

Correct: There has been an improvement in the weather.

Rule : In means at the end of, while within means before the end of, the said time
duration.

Incorrect: We left at 5 o'clock expecting to come back in an hour and watch the 6
o'clock movie.

Incorrect: We left at 5 o'clock expecting to come back within an hour and watch the
6 o'clock movie.

Some important points about prepositions

1. The words superior, inferior, senior, junior etc. take the


preposition to with them.

Incorrect: Ram is senior than Mohan.

Correct: Ram is senior to Mohan.

2. The words prefer, preferrable, preferred also take the


preposition to with them.

Incorrect: I prefer tea than coffee.


Correct: I prefer tea to coffee.

3. The words inspite of and despite share the same meaning. The only
difference is that inspite takes the preposition of whereas despite does
not take any preposition.

Incorrect: Despite of bad weather, he went to school.

Correct: Despite bad weather, he went to school.

In the same way, the word consist takes the preposition of whereas comprise
does not take any preposition.

Incorrect: The classroom comprises of twenty students.

Correct: The classroom comprises twenty students.

Following questions are based on the above concepts

Directions: Choose the most appropriate preposition in each of the


following sentences.

1. The peasant refused to grovel _______ the feet of his master.

a) on

b) about

c) upon

d) at

e) None of these

2. He was killed _______ a highway man ______ a dagger.

a) by; for

b) by; with

c) in; for

d) with; for
e) None of these

3. Give an example pertinent ________ the case.

a) with

b) for

c) on

d) to

e) None of these

4. Are not these slums a disgrace ______ the civic authorities.

a) for

b) to

c) towards

d) on

e) None of these

5. Take this medicine and you will get rid _______ the bad cold.

a) from

b) over

c) at

d) of

e) None of these]

6. President Saddam Hussain has lived _______ the gun all his life.

a) with

b) for
c) by

d) on

e) None of these

7. He had to repent _______ what he had done.

a) at

b) of

c) over

d) for

e) None of these

8. The commentator seems to be enamoured _______ it.

a) with

b) over

c) for

d) on

e) None of these

9. The man died _______ fever last week.

a) with

b) from

c) of

d) by

e) None of these

10. He has not been cured _______ his disease.


a) of

b) from

c) by

d) through

e) None of these

Directions (Q.11-20). Read each sentence to find out whether there is any
grammatical error or idiomatic error in it. The error, if any, will he in one
part of the sentence. The number of that part is the answer. If there is 'No
error', the answer is 'e'.

11. I have been teaching a)/ in this school since b)/ several years but have c)/
never met such a hopless class as this. d)/ No error e)

12. I have an a)/ appointment on the b)/ 9th of September on c)/ five Oclock.d)/
No error e)

13. Despite of a good a)/ monsoon this year, the b)/ production of food grains in
the country c)/ did not go up.d)/ No error e)

14. Ordinarily, when in a)/ difficulty Renu prefers b)/ keeping her counsel
than c)/ running about taking advice.d)/ No error e)

15. The invitation card a)/ says that Satish b)/ marries with c)/ Sunita next
month.d)/ No error e)

16. She looked very a)/ different from the b)/ photograph I c)/ had of her. d)/ No
error e)

17. The bride said a)/ that she would not b)/ marry the man c)/ over thirty five.d)/
No error e)

18. The reason a)/ of his failure b)/ is due to c)/ his negligence.d)/ No error e)

19. The captain and his a)/ wife were invited b)/ for the cultural c)/ function at my
home.d)/ No error e)

20. Yesterday, while a)/ crossing the b)/ road he was run out c)/ by a truck. d) No
error e)

Answers :
1. d
2. b
3. d
4. b
5. d
6. c
7. d
8. a
9. c
10. a
11. b; Replace since with for.
12. c; Replace on with at.
13. a; Omit of
14. c; Replace than with to
15. c; Replace with with to
16. e; No error.
17. d; Replace over with above
18. b; Replace of with for
19. c; Replace for with at
20. c; Replace run out with run over

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english.html#ixzz4aRdcF1CN

Important Rules of Prepositions


Hello Readers,

As you all know that prepositions is an important part of English


Grammar. So, here we are providing you a list of some prepositions widely
used in English Language for the upcoming exams like SBI PO 2015, NICL
Assistant and IBPS 2015.

The usage of some preposition with some words is fixed. Some of them are
given below. Have a look. Hope you all like the post.

Accustomed of

He was accustomed of working hard in his youth. (used to)


Accused of

The man accused of stealing was sent to jail. (blamed of)

Acquainted with

Please introduce him to me if you are acquainted with him. (know)

Afraid of

Dont get afraid of that dog. It wont bite. (fear from)

Agree to (idea)

The president agreed to the resolution and passed it. (accept)

Agree with (person)

If you agree with me please support me. (have same opinion)

According to

He was acquitted as he was innocent according to the jury. (in the opinion
of)

Adapted to

Man easily gets adapted to new environments. (change)

Along with

The Prime Minister along with his retinue entered the hall. (together with)

Associated with
He had long been associated with the organization before he retired.
(worked with)

Averse to

Initially people are averse to accepting their weakness, but with the
passage of time they start realizing and correcting themselves. (unwilling to)

Believe in (faith)

I believe in God. (have faith in)

Belong to

As this country belongs to us, we belong to this country. (have a right over)

Clever at

She is clever at painting and playing mu sic, but I am at mu sic. (skilled at)

Congratulate on

I congratulated her on her great success. (greeted)

Cure for

As man conquers a disease and find a cure for it, another pops up. (remedy
for)

Depend on

High rate of employment depends on growth of economy. (is related with)

Derived from

Many English words are derived from Greek and Latin. (came/originate
from)
Details of

This new book contains de tails of her extensive journey. (description of)

Different from

Village life is quite different from city life. (not same)

Divide into

The property was divided into two parts and given to the two sons. (break
into)

Dream of

The henpeck husband could never dream of op pos ing his wife. (think of)
Frightened of Those frightened of obstacles never proceed ahead for
success. (having fear of)

Famous for

The city of Benaras is famous for its teeming ghats. (known for)

Good at

He is quite good at convincing people in his favour. (skilled at)

Ignorant of

Being ignorant of the consequences, thenaives easily fall into bad habits.
(not knowing)

Increase in

There has been a tremendous increase in the multi-nationals in our country.


(rise in)
Insist on

The shopkeeper could not deny when she insisted on paying later. (said
forcefully)

Interested in

Work hard if you are interested in your progress. (want to)

Lack of

Lack of money brings poverty and lack of knowledge ignorance. (devoid of,
not having)

Fond of

The mother was very fond of her youngest child. (loved/liked very much)

Aim at

The shooter aimed at the tar get and shot accurately. (fix at the tar get)

Laugh at

Dont laugh at those who are deprived of Gods blessings. (ridicule, make
fun of)

Listen to

Hello! Please listen to me. (lend your ear, heed, pay attention to)

Look at

What are you looking at? (see)


Look after

The nurse looked after the child better than the mother. (to take care of, to
rear)

Look for

Have you lost anything? What are you looking for under the table. (to
search for)

Look into

I have requested the police commissioner to look into the matter of


increasing crime in our locality. (investigate, to probe, examine)

For more notes on Prepositions, Please visit here:

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prepositions.html#ixzz4aRdpKHe4

Gateway to SBI Mains : English (Articles)


Dear Readers,

We were happy that you have all shared your doubts and experience
with us on yesterday's post on BA. Today we are posting the concepts on one of the
important topic of grammer i.e Article. It can be very handy while doing the Error
Detection, Sentence Correction/

Phrase Replacement and Cloze Test.


Article :

The words "A" or "An" and "The" are called Articles. They come before nouns.
There are two Articles - "A (or An)" and "The".

"A" or "An" is called the Indefinite Article, because it usually leaves indefinite the
person or thing spoken of; as, A Ground, A Cow

Indefinite (Not Sure) : If you are talking about some random thing or person, then
you use Indefinite Article. In the above example, 'A Cow' means a random cow.
Similarly 'A Ground' means any random ground and no one can be sure which we
are talking about.

"The" is called the Definite Article, because it normally points out some particular
person or thing.

For example, The Cow, The Ground.

Definite Article (a particular thing or person) : If we say 'The' before any noun, it
means we are talking about a prticular thing or person. In the above example 'The
Cow' means a particular cow. Similarly 'The Ground' means a particular ground.

Use of the indefinite article

Incorrect : There are 365 days in the year.

Every year has 365 days and it is not about the particular year.

Correct : There are 365 days in an year.

Indefinite articles can also be used in a sense of each, every or per.

The doctor said Take the pill twice a day.

Use of the definite article

Incorrect : He has been causing trouble since a day he came.


In the above example, the statement is about a particular day therefore 'the' will be
used

Correct : He has been causing trouble since the day he came.

When a singular noun is meant to represent a whole class.

The Elephant is a huge animal.

So based on above concept, below is the quiz : In the below quiz, try to
find the errors related to Articles.

1. As soon as the teacher (a)/ entered everyone (b)/ in the class fell (c)/ in a silence.
(d)/ No error (e)

2. On my request (a)/ Lalit introduced me (b)/ to his friend who (c)/ is singer and a
scientist.(d)/ No error(e)

3. To perform this (a)/ experiment drop (b)/ little sugar into a glass of water (c)/ and
see the change.(d)/ No error (e)

4. Even now when I (a)/ see the spot (b)/ I am reminded of an unique accident (c)/
that took place several years ago.(d)/ No error (e)

5. With little (a)/ imagination and enterprise the tournament (b)/ could have been
transformed (c)/ into a major attraction.(d)/ No error(e)

6. Page after page (a)/ of Gita were read (b)/ and it gave great (c)/ consolation to his
mind.(d) No error (e)

7. One should (a)/ be true to ones promises (b)/ in order to earn (c)/ name & fame
in the life.(d) No error (e)
8. The robbers were (a)/ caught just as they (b)/ were about to escape (c)/ from the
jail.(d)/ No error(e)

9. The man is mortal (a)/ and ultimately he has to leave (b)/ everything here yet
how irrationally (c)/ he remains attached to his worldly possessions.(d)/ No error(e)

10. In a mountaineering (a)/ expedition higher you (b)/ go from the base (c)/ camp
the colder you feel.(d)/ No error (e)

Answers

1. (d)
Omit 'a' before "silence" as it is uncountable noun.
2. (d)
It should be "A singer and scientist"
3. (c)
Put 'a" before "little".
4. (c)
Replace "an" with "a".
5. (a)
Put "a" before "little"
6. (b)
Put "the" before "Gita" as it is the name of a religious text.
7. (d)
Omit "the" before "Life"
8. (d)
Omit "the" before "jail" as it has been used for primary purpose.
9. (a)
Omit "the" before "man".
10. (b)
Put "the" before "higher" as it is a comparative.

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article.html#ixzz4aRe01wuB
Simple Tips on Sentence Rearrangement
Rearrangement of sentences or paragraph anagrams is the most commonly seen
question in the Banking exams and other competitive exams. Its interesting to
know that this question doesnt examine any previously learnt concepts, neither is it
based on any particular logic. What it tests is common sense and speed. Extensive
practice is the key. However, I have a few strategies for all of you. Study them and
use them in the exercise that follow and youll be comfortable with them.

Paragraph jumbles questions are presented in different forms.


TYPE 1

Four/ five sentences either numbered 1,2,3,4,5 or lettered a, b, c, d, e are


given in a jumbled form. The sentences are followed by choices of four
possible combinations of arrangements of these sentences. You have to
choose the most logical order of arrangement of these sentences to form a
meaningful, coherent paragraph.
For example,
A. The managers are themselves parts of various hierarchies of managerial
influence, coupled to one another by explicit and implicit codes of behaviour and
information network.
B. Management science and MIS have introduced new elements of complexity into
the managers world.
C. Management deals with complex social systems joined by physical and
informational mechanisms to other social systems that are the responsibility of
other managers.
D. If this seems to make the social system appear complex, it is so intended.

(1) DCAB

(2) ADCB

(3) DBAC

(4) CADB

TYPE 2

A set of six sentences is given, in which the first and the sixth sentences
are fixed at their respective positions. The four sentences that falls
between the first and the sixth sentences are presented in a jumbled
form. You are asked to choose the logical order of sentences from the
choices.
1. If the phenomenon of down gradation is understood and accepted, brands have
to continuously seek options that offer better value to consumers.
A. Therefore, given an option, the consumer was willing to be satisfied by greater
value from trusted brands rather than downgrade.
B. Tea in polypacks doubled their volume share between 1989 and 1991 in Bombay.
C. Biscuits in family packs witnessed phenomenal growth of such brands even
during periods of inflation.
D. The onset of the down gradation phenomenon seems to be a good time to
launch new products, or better still, create new sub-categories.
6. For instance, the more expensive gel toothpaste category upped its share in
Bombay by six percent at the expense of popular and economy brands.

(1) BCAD

(2) CDAB

(3) ADBC

(4) DCBA

Strategy 1
Avoid reading the sentences closely; that is not required and is a waste of
time. Inspect the choices; if each of the choices begins with different
letters, identifying the sentence to begin the sequence leads to the
correct answer.
The following example illustrates this.
1.Small companies that compete effectively tend to grow, and growth brings
increasing complexity and specialization in each function.

A.Technologists talk about processes, new materials, and worry about prototype
results and technical problems; as regards language and interests, they have little
in common with marketing.
B.As the company grows it tends increasingly to fragment into separate functional
islands, each trying to solve its own problems, each using its own special language
and having its own priorities.
C.Marketing people, for instance, talk about market segmentation, market growth,
promotions and product image, and worry about changes in share.
D.Production people talk and worry about industrial relations, people arriving on
time, and plant and equipment breakdown and delays.
6.They in their turn have little in common with either marketing or the technologists
who, they consider, live in ivory towers.
1. DACB 2. BCAD 3. ACBD 4. CDAB

In the above question, the choices begin with different letters. The best strategy
then would be to inspect sentence 1 and to identify the sentence that logically
follows 1
Sentence 1 deals with growth of companies and sentence B begins with the
continuity phrase, as the company grows. Consequently, B has to follow 1 and the
answer therefore is choice 2. You require minimum steps in arriving at the answer in
such questions.

Strategy 2
In choices that are closely related, identify a mandatory pair of sentences
(two sentences that should form a sequence).
A.This linking of politics and music is of course ancient and even Aristotle in his
book Politics said, We may compare the best form of government to the most
harmonious piece of music.
B.Mixing metaphors, Mr. Clinton referred to the symphony so central to western
music and said, It is time both nations heard the musical compositions of each
other and understood each other better.
C.The oligarchic and despotic to the more violent tunes; and the democratic to the
soft and gentler airs.
D.The US President was confident that if governments and people of the two
democracies made a determined bid to understand each others perspectives
scripts, they could create new symphonies.
E.Such attempts to secure symphony would be so much better than the individual
bids for virtuoso improvisations and adherence to classical compositions.
1. BACDE 2. DCAEB 3. DECAB 4. BDEAC
In the above question, observe that the choices are closely related. Two choices
begin with D and the other two with B. In such cases avoid working from the first
sentence; instead inspect the sentences quickly and identify a particular pair of
sentences that are mandatory. In the above case EA is a mandatory sequence. Only
choice 4 satisfies this condition, and therefore the most logical sequence.

Strategy 3
Look out for quick clues such as pronouns, conjunctions etc. in the
beginning of sentences to help you establish a sequence.
E.g.1.As a senior economist associated with the reforms programme used to say, a
sure indication that the new economic policy was succeeding would be when foreign
investors start trekking to Delhi in the sweltering heat of May and June.
A.If nothing else, India Power 94 came as a welcome break to the power ministry;
most of the participants had complimentary things to say about government policy.
B.And there were would-be entrants like the Hong Kong-based China Light and
Power Company who had turned up armed with a fax from the power ministry listing
available projects in India.
C.Were that the only yardstick, then judging by the attendance at India Power 94,
at least the reforms in the power sector could be declared a success.
D.There were the familiar names Enron, AES, Cogentrix, and Spectrum
Technologies.
6.This was in striking contrast to the adverse comments the ministry had been
attracting so far.
1. ADBC 2. BDCA 3.CDBA 4. DBCA
In the above question, a smart test taker will quickly identify the phrase were
that the only yardstick in sentence C. This is a thought continuity of the idea in
sentence 1 foreign investors trekking to Delhi. Consequently C has to follow
1; eliminate choices 1, 2, and 4.Choice 3 is the correct answer.

Strategy 4
In six sentences variety, work backward from sentence 6 if there is no
obvious clue to work from sentence 1; many a time we overlook the hints
that may be valuable
Lets take a look at such an example.
1.A recent advertisement of Premier Instruments and Controls Ltd., a leading
manufacturer of dashboard instruments, in a financial daily, summed it all up.
A.The fact is that executives from companies, ranging from Daimler Benz to General
Motors, have been scouring the Indian countryside looking for suppliers of cheap
components for products made in their European and American plants.
B.It obviously does not even have the time to make the investments required to set
up a new plant.
C.Today, most Indian automobile component manufactures cannot produce enough
to meet demand both domestic and international.
D.The company was soliciting spare capacities for the supply of intricate machines
and sheet-metal components.
6.While some of them do find good deals, many have had to go back empty-
handed.
1. ADCB 2. CBAD 3.BACD 4. DBCA
In the question given above, see that them in sentence 6 refers to executives
referred to in sentence A. i.e. A precedes 6; choice 4 is the answer.

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rearrangement.html#ixzz4aRe87LOW

mportant Grammar Tips


Hello Readers,

One of our ardent readers Coraline shared some Grammar Tips with us
which we hope will be helpful to you all for the upcoming Bank Exams i.e.
SBI PO 2015 and IBPS CWE 2015. The tips will be useful or other
competitive Exams as well. Hope you all like the post.....
GRAMMAR TIP 1

Possessive case of a noun (nouns with 's) is used with living things.

Example : Mohan' s cap, Ram's school, sister's right

Incorrect : This room's carpet must be changed.

Correct : The carpet of this room must be changed. (Room is a lifeless thing)

GRAMMAR TIP 2

Sometimes 's is wrongly put in the place of preposition.

Incorrect : This author's book is not good. (Book possessed by this author)

Correct : The book of this author is not good. (Book written by this author)

GRAMMAR TIP 3

Double possessives should not be used.

Incorrect : My mother's brother's daughter came.

Correct : The daughter of the brother of my mother came.

GRAMMAR TIP 4

In the case of 'somebody else', 'everyone else ',' anybody else' etc., 's is put after
else.

Incorrect : This is somebody's else job.

Correct : This is somebody else's job.

GRAMMAR TIP 5

When two nouns are joined by 'and' then 'apostrophe s' ('s) is added to both if we
want to denote the possession of both & to last if we denote joint possession.
Incorrect : Suzy's and Juicy's father was present.

Correct : Suzy and Juicy's father was present.

GRAMMAR TIP 6

When we speak of two things of the same class, the word 'other' should not be left
out.

Incorrect : Neither his brother nor any member of the family helped him.

Correct : Neither his brother nor any other member of the family helped him.

GRAMMAR TIP 7

Present Indefinite

Verb form I [ s, es]

He works hard.

Present Continuous

is/am/are + verb form I + ing

He is working hard.

Present Perfect

has/have + verb form III

He has worked hard.

Present Perfect Continuous

has/have + been + verb form I + ing

He has been working hard.


GRAMMAR TIP 8

Past Indefinite

verb form II [ did + verb form I]

He worked hard.

Past Continuous

was/were + verb form I + ing

He was working hard.

Past Perfect

had + verb form III

He had worked hard.

Past Perfect Continuous

had + been + verb form I + ing

He had been working hard.

GRAMMAR TIP 9

Future Indefinite

will/shall + verb form I

He will work hard.

Future Continuous
will/shall + be + verb form I + ing

He will be working hard.

Future Perfect

will/shall + have + verb form III

He will have worked hard for 20 years before he retires.

Future Perfect Continuous

will/shall + have + been + verb form I + ing

He will have been working hard for more than 8 hours.

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tips.html#ixzz4aReLOwF4

Most Confusing and Common mistakes in English Grammar


Word(s)

Who/Whom

Which/That

Lay/Lie
Nor/Or

Affect/Effect

Since/Because

Fewer/Less

Whether/If

May/Might

That/Who

Than/Then
Its/Its

There/Their

/Theyre

Complement/ Compliment

Loose/Lose

Exercise on above rules

Use who or whom where appropriate

1. Do you know ______ did this?

2. With ______ are you going with to the dance?

3. ______ made dinner?

4. ______ did you end up hiring?


Lay versus lie:

5. Which is the correct form of the sentence?

(a) The cat lay in the mud yesterday.

(b) The cat lied in the mud.

6. Which is the correct form of the sentence?

(a) Steve laid down on the floor.

(b) Steve lay down on the floor.

7. Which is the correct form of the sentence?

(a) Yesterday, I laid the towel out in the sun.

(b) Yesterday, i lied the towel out in the sun.

Nor versus or:

8. Which sentence is incorrect?

(a) I dont want that or that.

(b) Neither Alex nor Leslie came to my party.

(c) I want neither pizza or pasta.

9. Which sentence is incorrect?

(a) I cant feel any side effects from the medicine.

(b) He effects you in a negative way.

(c) The dog makes me happy; he affects my mood in a good way.

10. Which sentence is incorrect?

(a) Since you left, I have found a new roommate.

(b) Since you left, i needed to find a new roommate.


(c) Because I like you, Im going to buy you flowers.

Common usage:

11. Which sentence is correct?

(a) There is less water in the lake this year.

(b) There is fewer water in the lake this year.

(c ) The water is fewer this year.

12. Which sentence is correct?

(a) I will go to the party with you whether I can finish my homework.

(b) I will only go to the party with you if I can finish my homework.

(c) If I go to the party depends on if I finish my homework.

Fill in the blank with the correct word:

13. ______ will be no time to rest before going to the movies.

(a) Theyre (b) There (c) Their

14. The bird flapped ______ wings.

(a) its (b) its

15. I love rap way more ______ I love country music.

(a) than (b) then

16. I think you and Billy are a good couple. You really ______ each other.

(a) complement (b) compliment

17. Jeff is the boy ______ walked me home the other day.

(a) that (b) who


18. That screw is ______. You should hold on to it so you dont ______ it.

(a) loose/lose (b) lose/loose

19. Yes, you ______ see me later. I should be able to get my work done in time.

(a) might (b ) may

20. Make sure to read the second book, ______ is the best one in the series.

(a) which (b) that

ANSWERS :
1. who
2. whom
3. who
4. whom
5. a
6. b
7. a
8. c
9. b
10. b
11. a
12. b
13. b
14. a
15. a
16. a
17. b
18. a
19. b

20. a

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mistakes-in.html#ixzz4aReTFzN7

One Word Substitution Quiz


1. Belief that war and violence are unjustified

(a) Neutralisation
(b) Pessimism

(c) Naturalisation

(d) Pacifism

2. A group of girls

(a) Bevy

(b) Covey

(c) Troupe

(d) Coterie

3. Causing or ending in death

(a) Fatal

(b) Deadly

(c) Serious

(d) Dangerous

4. A Short poem or speech addressed to the spectators after the


conclusion of a drama

(a) Prologue

(b) Dialogue

(c) Epilogue

(d) Monologue

5. One who loves books

(a) Scholar

(b) Bibliographer
(c) Teacher

(d) Bibliophile

6. One who has obstinate and narrow religious views

(a) Theosophist

(b) Bigot

(c) Philosopher

(d) Theologian

7. The sound of the funeral bell

(a) Knell

(b) Spell

(c) Dong

(d) Ding - dong

8. Military waking signal sounded in the morning

(a) Reveille

(b) Lullaby

(c) Anthem

(d) Soprano

9. Study of insects

(a) Ecology

(b) Embryology

(c) Entomology

(d) Biology
10. A person in his seventies

(a) Sexagenarian

(b) Septuagenarian

(c) Centurion

(d) Patriarch

ANSWERS

1 d

2 a

3 a

4 c

5 d

6 b

7 a

8 a

9 c

10 b

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quiz.html#ixzz4aRealWVN

Easy Way to learn English Vocabulary


Dear Readers,
As you know that Vocabulary is the cornerstone of your English skills. Without a
strong vocabulary, you can not implement the rules of English grammar. So we are
providing vocabulary words with Hindi meaning which will help in upcoming
Competitive Exams like SBI PO 2015, IBPS CWE 2015 and Insurance Exams. Hope
you all like the post!

1. Trite
Meaning

{},

Lacking Power To Evoke Interest Through Overuse Or Repetition; Hackneyed

Key

Tight

Use of Key: -

Tight

Synonyms

Common, Hackneyed, Commonplace, Stale

Usage

this point may now seem obvious and trite.

2. Wistful

Meaning

Wistful - Showing Pensive Sadness,

Key
Wish -Full

Use of Key: -

Wish Fullfill .

Synonyms

Melancholy, Wishful, Contemplative, Pensive, Musing

Usage

a wistful smile

3. Musty

Meaning

, , Having A Stale, Moldy, Or Damp Smell

Key

Use of Key: -

Synonyms

Rank, Mold, Dull, Moldy, Heavy

Usage

a dark musty library filled with old books

4. Motley

Meaning

, Various

Key

Use of Key: -
.

Synonyms

Dappled, Dress, Mixture, Party-Colored, Composite

Usage

a motley crew of discontents and zealots

5. Indigenous

Meaning

Native,

Key

India

Use of Key: -

India .

Synonyms

Inherent, Native, Inborn, Aboriginal, Innate

Usage

the indigenous peoples of Siberia

6. Infallible

Meaning

Key

Infall ( Fall )

Use of Key: -

Fall .

Synonyms
Oracular, Inerrable, Indubitable, Unerring

Usage

doctors are not infallible

7. Decrepitude

Meaning

A State Of Deterioration Due To Old Age Or Long Use

Key

Dec (December) Repitude ()

Use of Key: -

My Grandfather Died In December Due To And .

Synonyms

Weakness

Usage

he had passed directly from middle age into decrepitude

8. Gratuitous

Meaning

Given Or Done Free Of Charge,

Key

Great Tute (Tution)

Use of Key: -

Great Free Tution .

Synonyms

Free, Groundless, Baseless, Unnecessary, Unfounded


Usage

gratuitous violence

9. Piety

Meaning

The Quality Of Being Religious Or Reverent,

Key

Use of Key: -

Ayushi .

Synonyms

Religion, Holiness, Duty, Obedience, Godliness

Usage

acts of piety and charity

10. Upbraid

Meaning

To Reprove Sharply; Reproach,

Key

Bread

Use of Key: -

Bread

Synonyms

Reproach, Contumely, Exprobrate, Censure, Chide

Usage

he was upbraided for his slovenly appearance


Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2015/05/easy-way-to-learn-english-
vocabulary_25.html#ixzz4aRfCI2Es

Easy Way to Learn English Vocabulary


Dear Readers,
As you know that Vocabulary is the cornerstone of your English skills. Without a
strong vocabulary, you can not implement the rules of English grammar. So we are
providing vocabulary words with Hindi meaning which will help in upcoming
Competitive Exams like SBI PO 2015, IBPS CWE 2015 and Insurance Exams

1. Woeful

Meaning

Causing Sorrow Or Misery,

Key

Wo - Full

Example

Full .

Synonyms

Unhappy, Afflicted, Depressed, Miserable, Lamentable

Usage

her face was woeful

2. Mandate

Meaning

, Order, Warrant, Commission


Key

Men, Date

Example

Men Date Order Women

Synonyms

Commission, Bidding

Usage

a mandate to seek the release of political prisoners

3. Maudlin

Meaning

, Effusively Or Tearfully Sentimental

Key

Modeling

Example

Modeling

Synonyms

Tearful, Fuddled

Usage

the drink made her maudlin

4. Semblance

Meaning

, A Representation; A Copy

Key

Seen ( ) Balance ()
Example:

Synonyms

Figure, Appearance, Form, Similitude, Likeness

Usage

she tried to force her thoughts back into some semblance of order

5. Yearn

Meaning

, To Have A Strong, Often Melancholy Desire

Key

(Friend)

Example

Synonyms

Vex, Pain, Mourn, Lon

Usage

they yearned to go home

6. Affliction

Meaning

, , A Condition Of Pain, Suffering, Or Distress

Key

Election

Example:

Election
Synonyms

Sorrow, Visitation, Hardship, Calamity, Pain

Usage

a crippling affliction of the nervous system

7. Paragon

Meaning

Key

Paragon

Example:

Paragon

Synonyms

Parallel, Model, Queen, Rival, Compare

Usage

it would have taken a paragon of virtue not to feel viciously jealous

8. Exodus

Meaning

Key

110 ( )

Example

110 .

Synonyms

Emigration
9. Unkempt

Meaning

, Not Properly Maintained

Key

Un () Camp ()

Example

Synonyms

Shaggy, Unpolished, Fig, Disheveled

Usage

they were unwashed and unkempt

10. Utopia

Meaning

-, An Imagined Place Or State Of Things In Which Everything Is Perfect

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vocabulary_19.html#ixzz4aRfd3bHv

Easy way to learn English Vocab


Hello Readers,

As you know that Vocabulary is the cornerstone of your English skills.


Without a strong vocabulary, you can not implement the rules of English
grammar. Memorizing vocabulary may not be your favorite activity, but
we have tried to create plenty of ways to make it more fun. It will be
helpful for upcoming exams like SBI PO 2015. Hope you would like the
post!!!
1) Assimilate :

Key : sammilit ()

Example : we have to assimilate the new pattern to crack sbi po this time.

2) Clemency :

Key :

Example : SBI walo k samapt ho chuki hai

3) Clique : ,

Key : click

Example : this time BA ka SBI PO zarur click karega

4) Benevolent :

Key : ( vole - nt

Example : ( vole - nt ) ji bahot hai BA walo ko zarur SBI PO bana


denge.

5) Extol :

Key : extra lol

Example : Hum sb k SBI PO banne k bad Shruti mam v BA pe EXTRA LOL post
karegi...

6) Inundate :

Key : on date

Example : aj kal k date pe ( on date ) cut off ki aam baat hai.


7) Propensity :

Key : pen city

Example : sab ki yehi hai aj kal k jis city me hum SBI PO ka exam
denge usi jaga se PEN lenge.

8) Replenish :

Key : replan

Example : maine SBI PO 2015 ka form ka replan kia

9) Steadfast : ,

Key : speed-fast

Example : maine jaldi se ( fast ) isi bar sbi po banne ka decision kr lia

10) Unwitting :

Key : a-new-thing

Example : SBI PO K new thing ( exam pattern) se av v kuch log hai

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2015/05/easy-way-to-learn-english-


vocab_17.html#ixzz4aRfrra4s

Easy Way to Learn English Vocabulary


Dear Readers,

As you know that Vocabulary is the cornerstone of your English skills.


Without a strong vocabulary, you can not implement the rules of English
grammar. So we are providing vocabulary words with Hindi meaning which
will help in upcoming Competitve Exams like SBI PO 2015, IBPS CWE 2015
and Insurance Exams.

(1) (i) Braise


Meaning: cook with oil and water
Example: I like braised cabbage.
(ii) Brays (, )
Meaning: loud, harsh cry of donkey
Example: A donkey is braying.

(2) Canter ( , )
Meaning: a moderate gallop
Example: When a horse canters, it moves at a speed that is slower than a gallop
but faster than a trot.
(ii) Cantor ()
Meaning: singer
Example: an official who sings liturgical music and leads prayer in a synagogue.

(3) (i) Eyelet ()


Meaning: small hole for laces
Example: My shoes have eight eyelets.

(4) Farther ( )
Meaning: more distant
Example: Delhi is farther from Alwar in a comparison to Jaipur.
(ii) Further ( )
Meaning: next
Example: Please settle the case without any further delay.

(5) (i) Fain ()


Meaning: gladly
Example: She would fain on seeing me.
(ii) Feign ( )
Meaning: pretend
Example: When his boss scolded him, he feigned as a deaf.

(6) (i) Gaff ()


Meaning: a barbed spear
Example: A gaff is a pole with a point or hook at one end, which is used for
catching large fish.
(ii) Gaffe ( , )
Meaning: a stupid mistake
Example: He made an embarrassing gaffe at the convention last weekend.

(7) (i) Hammock ()


Meaning: rope bed
Example: A hammock is a piece of strong cloth or netting which is hung between
two supports and used as a bed.
(ii) Hummock ( )
Meaning: low rounded hill
Example: A hummock is a small raised area of ground, like a very small hill.

(8) (i) Hew ()


Meaning: to chop
Example: He fell, peeled and hewed his own timber.
(ii) Hue ( )
Meaning: a colour
Example: The same hue will look different indifferent light.

(9) (i) Hoard ( )


Meaning: store
Example: They have begun to hoard food and sugar.
(ii) Horde ()
Meaning: a great many people
Example: This attracted hordes of tourists to Las Vegas.

(10) (i) Indite ()


Meaning: to compose
Example: Though he indited the letter carefully, yet it was not liked by the
chairman.
(ii) Indict ( )
Meaning: to accuse
Example: He was indicted for theft and murder

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2015/05/easy-way-to-learn-english-


vocabulary.html#ixzz4aRg1BdRX

Easy Way To Learn English Vocab


Hello Readers,

As you know that Vocabulary is the cornerstone of your English skills.


Without a strong vocabulary, you can not implement the rules of English
grammar. Memorizing vocabulary may not be your favorite activity, but we
have tried to create plenty of ways to make it more fun. It will be helpful
for upcoming exams like SBI PO 2015, NICL Assistant 2015 and IBPS 2015.
Hope you would like the post.

1.WORD: CIRCUMSPECT( , , )
Synonyms: Cautions
Meaning: If you are circumspect, you are cautious in what you do and say and do
not take risks.
Example: The banks should have been more circumspect in their dealings.

2.WORD: CONTIGUOUS ( )
Synonyms: Adjoining
Meaning: Things that are next to each other or touch each other.
Example: Its vineyards are virtually contiguous with those of Ausone.

3.WORD: PREPOSTEROUS ( , )
Synonyms: Absurd
Meaning: If you describe something as preposterous, you mean that is extremely
unreasonable and foolish.
Example: The whole idea was preposterous.

4.WORD: DELECTATION ( )
Synonyms: Entertainment
Meaning: If you do something for someones delectation, you do it to give them
enjoyment or pleasure.
Example: She makes scones and cakes for the delectation of visitors.

5.WORD: PROTAGONIST ( )

Meaning: Someone who is a protagonist of an idea or movement is a supporter of it.
Example: The main protagonists of their countries integration into the world
market.

6.WORD: DISCREET ()
Synonyms:Judicious
Meaning: If you are discreet, you are polite and careful n what you do or say,
because you want to avoid embarrassing or offending someone.
Example: They were gossipy and not always discreet.

7. WORD: DILAPIDATED ( , )
Synonyms: dilapidated
Meaning: A building that is dilapidated is old and in a generally bad condition.

8.WORD: INFERNAL ()
Synonyms: Devilish
Meaning: Infernal is used to emphasize that something is very annoying or
unpleasant.
Example: The post office is shut, which is an infernal bore.

9. WORD: REPRISAL ()
Synonyms: Retaliation
Meaning: If you do something to a person a reprisal, you hurt or punish them
because they have done something violent or unpleasant.
Example:Witnesses are unwilling to testify through fear of reprisals.

10. WORD: WAN ( , )


Synonyms: Tired
Meaning: If you describe someone as wan, you mean that they look pale and tired.
Example: He looked wan and tired.

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2015/05/easy-way-to-learn-english-


vocab.html#ixzz4aRgFKy9F

Easy Way To Learn English Vocab


Hello Readers,

As you know that Vocabulary is the cornerstone of your English skills.


Without a strong vocabulary, you can not implement the rules of English
grammar. Memorizing vocabulary may not be your favorite activity, but we
have tried to create plenty of ways to make it more fun. It will be helpful
for upcoming exams like SBI PO 2015, NICL Assistant 2015 and IBPS 2015.
Hope you would like the post.

1) Avert : to turn away or aside


Key : a hurt
Example : a hurt candidate always try to keep him aside from others after failing in
competitive exams.

2) Alienation : withdrawn in affection


Key : alien nation
Example : an alien from other nation withdrew his name in affection of general
candidates not getting chance in bank exams :D

3) Cynicism : a distrustful attitude


Key : sign
Example : the broker seemed to be distrustful that's why I asked him to sign the
agreement first.

4) Draconian : very severe, cruel, harsh


Key : dracula
Example : bas naam (key) hi kafi hai...hai na dosto :D

5) Frayed : To unravel, , combat


Key : pray
Example : pray to god to combat your fear of failure.

6) Malpractice : improper or ethical conduct by a official person


Key : mal( ) practice
Example : key unlock by urself :p... sab kaam mai hi karu.

7) Recompense : Compensate for something bad


Key : ( little money)
Example :

8) Resurrection : the act of arising from the dead and becoming alive again
Key : sur-reaction ( )
Example : with melodious notes one can even turn the dead into alive

9) Riddle : Problem of an intellectual nature


Key : idli... haan haan idli...dosa wala idli...bilkul thik samjhe tum log..
Example : i was very puzzeled at first how to make an awesome idli.

10) Palpable : noticeable, obvious


Key : payable
Example : u notice (buy) only those things that are under payable limit.

Thank You Prinak Ghosh :)

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vocab_29.html#ixzz4aRgL89az

Easy way to improve Your Vocabulary

1. Ravenous(adj): extremely hungry ()

Key : Ravan

Usage: A ravenous appetite

2. Recalcitrant (n): stubborn ()

Key: CALCI (CALCULATOR)

Usage: a recalcitrant child.

3. Redolent(adj): smelling strongly of something ()


Key: RED- LAWN

Usage: The office was having redolent of furniture polish.

4. Refrain (v): resist; to stop oneself doing something

Key: RAIN

Usage: He refrained himself from cigarettes.

5. Rife(adj): full or widespread ( )

Key: RIFLE(GUN)

Usage: An area where crime is rife.

6. Ruminate(v): to think deeply; to meditate ( )

Key: ROOM, ATE

Usage: Ruminating on a serious issue.

7. Rankle(v): to irritate; to cause angry feeling

Key: RANK- UNCLE

Usage: This incident happened twenty years ago, but it still rankles in my mind.

8. Reticent(adj): not showing his thoughts readily ( )

Key: RAT-SCENT

Usage: The manager was reticent about his plans.

9. Reverie(n): day dream; lost in pleasant thoughts

Key: RIVER

Usage: He was in deep reverie when I knocked the door.


10. Rabid(adj): violent & extreme (of feeling)

Key: RABBIT

Usage: Rabid hate against Pakistan.

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vocabulary_10.html#ixzz4aRgPF6Iw

English Vocabulary with Meaning and Examples

(1) (i) Allusions ( )

Meaning: Indirect reference

Example : The poem is full of allusions.

(ii) Illusion ( , )

Meaning: a deceptive show

Example: Indian mythology regards the material world as an illusion.

(2) (i) Ail ( )

Meaning: to be ill

Example: What ails the Industry is to be sorted out?

(ii) Ale ()

Meaning: a drink

Example: He has gone to the ale house.

(3) (i) Braise

Meaning: cook with oil and water

Example: I like braised cabbage.

(ii) Brays (, )
Meaning: loud, harsh cry of donkey

Example: A donkey is braying.

(4) Canter ( , )

Meaning: a moderate gallop

Example: When a horse canters, it moves at a speed that is slower than a gallop but faster than
a trot.

(ii) Cantor ()

Meaning: singer

Example: an official who sings liturgical music and leads prayer in a synagogue.

(5) (i) Eyelet ()

Meaning: small hole for laces

Example: My shoes have eight eyelets.

(6) Farther ()

Meaning: more distant

Example: Delhi is farther from Alwar in a comparison to Jaipur.

(ii) Further ( )

Meaning: next

Example: Please settle the case without any further delay.

(7) (i) Fain ()

Meaning: gladly

Example: She would fain on seeing me.

(ii) Feign ( )

Meaning: pretend
Example: When his boss scolded him, he feigned as a deaf.

(8) (i) Gaff ()

Meaning: a barbed spear

Example: A gaff is a pole with a point or hook at one end, which is used for catching large fish.

(ii) Gaffe ( , )

Meaning: a stupid mistake

Example: He made an embarrassing gaffe at the convention last weekend.

(9) (i) Hammock ()

Meaning: rope bed

Example: A hammock is a piece of strong cloth or netting which is hung between two supports
and used as a bed.

(ii) Hummock ( )

Meaning: low rounded hill

Example: A hummock is a small raised area of ground, like a very small hill.

(10) (i) Hew ()

Meaning: to chop

Example: He fell, peeled and hewed his own timber.

(ii) Hue ()

Meaning: a colour

Example: The same hue will look different indifferent light.


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meaning-and.html#ixzz4aRgbUNv5

Easy way to improve Your Vocabulary with Examples


1. Pellucid : ( , )

Meaning: A sentence that teaches a new vocabulary word should always


be pellucid, that is, its style and meaning should be easily understandable so that
you can derive the definition from the sentence.

2. Exegesis: ( , )

Meaning: If your teacher gives an explanation of a difficult text you are reading,
she is giving you an exegesis on it. An exegesis is a critical look at a text.

3. WRATH ()
Meaning: Wrath means the same as anger.
Example: He incurred the wrath of the authorities in speaking out against
government injustices.

4. TYRANNY
Meaning: A tyranny is a cruel, harsh, and unfair government in which a person or small group
of people have power over everyone else.
Example: Self expression and individuality are the greatest weapons against tyranny.

5. IMPETUOUS (, )
Meaning: If you describe someone as impetuous, you mean that they are likely to act quickly
and suddenly without Thinking or being careful.
Example: He was young and impetuous.

6. Malaise: ( , , )

Meaning: If you are experiencing malaise, chances are you are feeling blue or
looking green. Malaise is a slump; you're not feeling your best either mentally or
physically.

7. Fructify: ( , )

Meaning: A newly planted apple tree can take years to fructify, but when it does
there will be plenty of apples to go around. To fructify is to produce fruit, or
become fruitful.
8. Saturnine: (, , )

Meaning: Medieval alchemists ascribed to the planet Saturn a gloomy and slow
character. When people are called saturnine, it means they are like the planet
gloomy, mean, scowling. Not exactly life of the party.

9. INGENIOUS (, )

Meaning: Something that is ingenious is very clever and involves new ideas,
methods, or equipment.

Example: a truly ingenious invention.

10. PERPETUAL ()

Meaning: A perpetual feeling, state, or quality is one that never ends or changes.

Example: the creation of a perpetual union.

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2015/04/easy-way-to-improve-your-


vocabulary_6.html#ixzz4aRgpgX4N

Easy way to improve Your Vocabulary

1. Word: Knack
Meaning
,
Key
Neck
Description
Neck .
Synonyms
Knickknack, Facility, Skill, Toy, Crack
Usage
she got the knack of it in the end
2. Word: Lachrymose
Meaning

Key

Description

Synonyms
Tearful
Usage
she was pink-eyed and lachrymose

3. Word: Majestic
Meaning
,
Key
Magic + Stick
Description
Magician Magic Stick .
Synonyms
Pompous, Imperial, Sublime, Magnificent, Dignified
Usage
watching majestic eagles soar along the Mississippi

4. Word: Nasty
Meaning
Highly Unpleasant,
Key
Nestle-Tea
Description
Nestle Tea .
Synonyms
Gross, Spiteful, Drizzling, Dangerous, Unpropitious
Usage
plastic bags burn with a nasty, acrid smell

5. Word: Nubile
Meaning
, (Of A Girl Or Young Woman) Sexually Mature; Suitable For Marriage
Key
Mobile
Description
.
Synonyms
Marriageable
Usage
he employed a procession of nubile young secretaries

6. Word: Obese
Meaning
Grossly Fat Or Overweight
Key

Description
.
Synonyms
Fleshy, Fad, Fat

7. Word: Painstaking
Meaning
, Studious, Assiduous
Key
Pain Taking
Description
Pain Take
Synonyms
Meticulous, Elaboration, Attentive, Industrious, Careful
Usage
painstaking attention to detail

8. Word: Quandary
Meaning
, , A State Of Uncertainty Or Perplexity
Key
Dairy
Description
Dairy
.
Synonyms
Doubt, Perplexity, Predicament, Uncertainty
Usage
Kate is in a quandary

9. Word: Ramification
Meaning

Key

Description

Usage
any change is bound to have legal ramifications

10. Word: Platitude


Meaning
,
Key

Plate
Description
Plate .
Synonyms
Saying, Truism, Triteness, Commonplace
Usage
she began uttering liberal platitudes

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2015/04/easy-way-to-improve-your-


vocabulary.html#ixzz4aRh6thqz

Easy way to improve Your Vocabulary

1. Word: Abortive

Meaning
, Failing To Produce The Intended Result
Key
--TV
Description
Paper .
Synonyms
Fruitless, Rudimentary, Miscarrying, Sterile, Abortion
Usage
an abortive attempt to overthrow the government

2. Word: Abrogate
Meaning
To Officially End A Law, Cancel,
Key
Ro () Gate ()
Description
Supreme Court Supreme Court Law
.
Synonyms
Suspend, Waive, Terminate, Repeal, Obliterate
Usage
a proposal to abrogate temporarily the right to strike

3. Word: Bequest
Meaning
, The Act Of Giving Or Leaving Personal Property By A Will
Key
Request
Description
Request
.
Synonyms
Gift, Devise, Fideicommissum, Donation, Willing
Usage
her $135,000 was the largest bequest the library ever has received

4. Word: Belligerent
Meaning
, Inclined Or Eager To Fight; Hostile Or Aggressive
Key
Rent
Description
Rent
.
Synonyms
Contentious, Pugnacious, Bellicose, Warlike, Antagonistic
Usage
a bull-necked, belligerent old man

5. Word: Cantankerous
Meaning
, Bad-Tempered, Argumentative, And Uncooperative
Key
Cantt Tank
Description
Army Cantt Tanks
Synonyms
Ugly, Contentious, Malicious, Ill-Tempered, Perverse
Usage
a crusty, cantankerous old man

6. Word: Capitulate
Meaning
,
Key
Capital
Description
Capital .
Synonyms
Surrender, Agree
Usage
the patriots had to capitulate to the enemy forces.
7. Word: Daunt
Meaning
, To Abate The Courage Of; Discourage
Key
Don't
Description
Don't Do This .
Synonyms
Appall, Dismay, Dishearten, Conquer, Overcome
Usage
some people are daunted by technology
8. Word: Debacle
Meaning
, A Sudden, Disastrous Collapse, Downfall, Or Defeat; A Rout
Key

Description
.
Synonyms
Fiasco
Usage
the economic debacle that became known as the Great Depression

9. Word: Elucidate
Meaning
, , Make (Something) Clear; Explain
Key
Lucy - Date
Description
Lucy Date .
Synonyms
Illuminate, Explicate, Demonstrate, Clarify, Interpret
Usage
work such as theirs will help to elucidate this matter

10. Word: Emancipate


Meaning
, Set Free
Key

Description
.
Synonyms
Manumit, Free, Liberate
Usage
the citizen must be emancipated from the obsessive secrecy of government.

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2015/03/easy-way-to-improve-your-


vocabulary_31.html#ixzz4aRhHKA6W

Easy way to improve Your Vocabulary


1. Word: Abate

Meaning :
, Cause to become smaller or less intense.
Key
eight ()
Description
weight
Synonyms : Depress , fall though , Cut short , intermit, lower.
Usage : the storm suddenly abate.

2. Word: Babble
Meaning :

Description
Bubblegum
Synonyms
Twaddle, Prating, Blather, Cackle, Deblateration
Usage
he would babble on in his gringo Spanish

3. Word: Cabal
Meaning
, A Cabal Is A Group Of People United In Some Close Design Together
Key
Electricity Cable
Description
Cable .
Synonyms
Message, Conspiracy, Junto, Rope, Conductor
Usage:- a cabal of dissidents

4. Word: Dainty
Meaning
, Delicately Small And Pretty
Key

Description
.
Synonyms
Estimation, Nice, Pretty, Delicacy, Sweetmeat
Usage:- a dainty lace handkerchief

5. Word: Eclectic
Meaning
{ }, Selecting Or Employing Individual Elements From A
Variety Of Sources
Key
Elastic
Description
Elastic Bag Bags .
Synonyms
Choosing, Selecting, Heterogeneous
Usage:- her musical tastes are eclectic

6. Word: Facetious
Meaning
, Lacking Serious Intent; Concerned With Something Nonessential, Amusing
Key
Face
Description
Face .
Synonyms
Merry, Witty, Funny, Jocular, Humorous

7. Word: Gaiety
Meaning
,
Key
GATE
Description
GATE Percentile .
Usage:- the sudden gaiety of childrens laughter

8. Word: Halcyon
Meaning
Happy, Joyful, Carefree,
Key
Hello
Description
2 Hello Hello .

9. Idyllic
Meaning
Extremely Happy, Peaceful
Key
Idle
Description
Idle .
Synonyms
Poetic
Usage:- an attractive hotel in an idyllic setting

10. Jaunty
Meaning
, Cheerful, Lively
Key
Joint Family
Description
Joint Family ,
Synonyms
Showy, Gay, Airy, Finical

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2015/03/easy-way-to-improve-your-


vocabulary_30.html#ixzz4aRhYBopz

Easy way to improve Your Vocabulary Part - III

1. Word: Abhor

Meaning
, To Regard With Horror Or Loathing; Detest
Key
Ab Horror
Description
Horror Movies
, Movies .

Synonyms
Abominate, Hate, Nauseated, Dislike, Despise
Usage
professional tax preparers abhor a flat tax because it would dry up their business

2. Word: Badinage
Meaning
Humorous Conversation,
Key
-
Description
Raju Shrivastav .
Synonyms
Pleasantry, Banter
Usage
cultured badinage about art and life

3. Word: Calamity
Meaning
, Disaster
Key
Mity ()
Description
.
Synonyms
Extremity, Infelicity, Adversity, Catastrophe, Unhappiness
Usage
the journey had led to calamity and ruin

4. Word: Dearth
Meaning
, , Scarcity, Shortage, Lack
Key
De () Earth
Description
Earth .
Synonyms
Shortage, Famine, Deficiency, Paucity, Scarcity
Usage
there is a dearth of evidence

5. Word: Ecstasy
Meaning
, , An Overwhelming Feeling Of Great Happiness Or Joyful
Excitement
Key

Description
.
6. Word: Facile
Meaning
Having A Superficial Or Simplistic Knowledge Or Approach,
Key
Face
Description
Face .
Synonyms
Pliant, Expert, Yielding, Skillful, Fluent
Usage
a man of facile and shallow intellect

7. Word: Gainsay
Meaning
, Deny
Key
Gain Se ()
Description
Illigal Gain Deny .
Synonyms
Dispute, Deny, Contradict, Controvert, Forbid
Usage
the impact of the railroads cannot be gainsaid

8. Word: Hampered
Meaning
, Hinder Or Impede The Movement Or Progress Of
Key

Description
- .
Usage
their work is hampered by lack of funds

9. Word: Ignominy
Meaning
Public Shame Or Disgrace,
Key
Ignou
Description
Ignou . .
Synonyms
Discredit, Reproach, Opprobrium, Dishonor, Infamy
Usage
the ignominy of being imprisoned

10. Word: Jocular


Meaning

Key
Joke In Cooler
Description
Cooler .
Synonyms
Jocose, Silly, See, Merry, Unemotional
Usage
she sounded in a jocular mood.

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vocabulary.html#ixzz4aRhzz5dZ

English Vocabulary
1.Word: Pallid

Meaning -

Key -

Description - .

Synonyms - Ghastly, Wan, Ashen, Pal, Pale

Usage - an utterly pallid and charmless character

2.Word: Palpable
Meaning- , Touch

Key - Pulp

Description - Pulp Touch .

Synonyms - Obvious, Evident, Noticeable, Tangible, Gross

Usage - the palpable bump at the bridge of the nose.

3. Word: Quixotic

Meaning - , Unrealistic And Impractical

Key - Quick So Thick ( )

Description - Quick Unrealistic .

Synonyms - Visionary, Unachievable

Usage - a vast and perhaps quixotic project.

4.Word: Quorum

Meaning - , The Minimum Number Of Members Of An Assembly That


Must Be Present To Make A Meeting Valid.

Key - Rum()

Description - Election Rum Support


Rum .

5.Word: Rankle

Meaning - , Continue To Be Painful

Key - Ankle ()
Description - Ankle

Synonyms - Embitter, Inflame, Pain, Fester, Irritate

Usage - the casual manner of his dismissal still rankles

6.Word: Rapt

Meaning - , , Completely Fascinated By What One Is Seeing Or Hearing

Key -

Description -

Synonyms - Abducted, Ecstasy, Ecstatic, Absorbed, Enraptured

Usage - Andrew looked at her, rapt

7.Word: Sage

Meaning - , A Profoundly Wise Man

Key -

Description- .

Synonymsn - Wiseacre, Solemn, Sagacious, Ramona, Wise

8.Word: Salubrious

Meaning - ,

Key - Salu Brush

Description - Salu Brush .

Synonyms - Wholesome, Healthful, Salutary, Healthy


Usage - salubrious weather

9.Word: Tabooed

Meaning -

Key - (Film Actress)

Description - .

Usage - Traditional societies taboo female handling of food during this period

10. Word: Taciturn

Meaning -

Key - Turn

Description - Turn .

Synonyms - Silent, Reticent, Reserved

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2015/03/english-


vocabulary.html#ixzz4aRiLcwvr

Banking Pathway: Idioms & Phrases


Hello Readers,

Let's take a look at some of the important Idioms & Phrases asked in the English
section.

Be a chicken

Meaning: Be a coward.

Example: Don't be a chicken. Talk to her about your love for her
A little bird told me

Meaning: Said when you don't want reveal the source of your information.

Example: A little bird told me about your birthday.

As gentle as a lamb

Meaning: Said about kind , innocent, mild-mannered people.

Example: She is as gentle as a lamb. That's why everybody likes her.

Back the wrong horse

Meaning: to support someone or something that later cannot be successful.

Example: Don't back the wrong horse! You know he cannot win the elections.

Be a cold fish

Meaning: be a person who is distant and unfeeling

Example: He rarely talks to his colleagues. He's a cold fish.

Be like a fish out of water

Meaning: to feel uncomfortable in a situation

Example: After her divorce, she was like a fish out of water

Beat a dead horse

Meaning: (Also flog a dead horse.) To persist or continue far beyond any
purpose, interest or reason.

Example: If you continue talking about something that cannot be changed,


you are beating a dead horse.

Call off the dogs


Meaning: said when you want someone to stop criticizing you

Example: Please, call off the dogs. I apologize for what I have done.

Big fish in a small pond

Meaning: One who has achieved a high rank or is highly esteemed, but only
in a small, relatively unimportant, or little known location or organization.

Example: Dr. Jones could get a professorship at an Ivy League university, but
he enjoys being a big fish in a small pond too much to ever leave Hannover
College.

Cash cow

Meaning: someone or something which is a dependable source of


appreciable amounts of money; a moneymaker.

Example: The type writers production which had been their cash cow for so
many years witnessed a collapse of sales.

A mares nest

Meaning: a false invention

Example: the involvement of teachers in the scheme proved to be a mares


nest.

At odds

Meaning: in dispute

Example: The members of the group were at odds over the selection
procedure.

No love lost

Meaning: intense dislike

Example: There is no love lost between the two neighbours.


Rub one the wrong way

Meaning: annoy

Example: If you rub him the wrong way, he is bound to react.

Turn the corner

Meaning: pass the crisis

Example: The doctor says that the patient has turned the corner.

Sow wild oats

Meaning: irresponsible pleasure seeking

Example: After sowing his wild oats Ram has decided to stick to the straight
and narrow path in future.

With a high hand

Meaning: oppressively

Example: He was a king who ruled his subjects with a high hand.

A good turn

Meaning: an act of kindness

Example: He did me a good turn by recommending me for the post of Vice


president.

A moot point

Meaning: undecided

Example: The question of abolition of property is still a moot point.

Hole and corner


Meaning: secret

Example: I don't want any more hole-in-the-corner deals, from now all our
business will be done in the open.

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2015/11/banking-pathway-idioms-


phrases.html#ixzz4aRiSG9HL

Descriptive for SBI and UIIC: Letter writing Pattern and tips
Dear BA'ians,

As you are all aware that with the exam season here, you now need to take your preparations
to another level. Leaving no stone unturned. Covering each and every aspect of the exam.
Now the upcoming exams i.e. the UICL Ao and SBI PO both will be testing your descriptive
writing skills. The pattern being same for both. There will be 2 questions in all:

1) Essay ( 20 marks)- On any topic be it economic, social, political, etc

2) Letter ( 10 marks)- Business letter or informal letter

Q. What is the aim of having this section in exams?


Well the banks want to know how well versed you are with English language and how well can
you put across your thoughts on a topic in writing. Well it even tests your typing speed and
your comfort level with computers.

Q. How to improve our English?


Well English is like any other language, the more you expose yourself to it, the better you will
get at it. So make sure you read a lot on a daily basis. Along with this just add one more
exercise to this, i.e. to copy down one editorial section in a notebook on a daily basis, while
copying down give special attention to the language, the way grammar is used, the way words
come together to form sentences. This exercise will not only help improve your English but
will also improve your writing skills.

Q. How to improve our writing skills and skills to express on a given topic?
Well for that make a list of topics that you feel that can come in exam, and then on read
about them. Once you have an idea about the topic, try writing it down in your own words.
Slowly and steadily you will be able to express yourself in any given topic.
I) We present to you a few writing tips and format of Business Letter Writing

A business letter, as the name suggests, is a letter which has a formal tone and is used for
business purposes. Apart from this, business letters are also written for conveying messages to
people who we do not know personally. This makes the business letter different from the
usual casual or informal letter.

While writing a business letter, a person has to follow certain rules. One of the most
important rules is that it should be short and concise. Businessmen do not have the time to
read long letters and hence, the letter should not be more than a page i.e., with maximum 2-
3 paragraphs. Apart from this, you have to follow a unique format for business letters, which
differs to a large extent from informal letters.

Business Letter Writing Tips:

It will be a good idea to gather some crucial information on the things that you have to keep
in mind while writing a business letter. Here, you will find some important tips for the same.

Sender's address and date:

According to the rules, it is important to begin the letter with the address and other contact
details of the sender. Followed by this, one has to mention the date on which the letter is
written.

Recipient's name and address:

After you have written the date, you have to mention the recipient's name and full address.
This should come 4-6 lines after the date.

Salutation:
Once you are done with the address of the recipient, you have to begin the letter with a
salutation. The salutation should have a greeting word or phrase followed by a personal title -
Mr./Ms. - and the full name of the person. Some of the letter salutations that you can use for
business letters include Dear (full name), Dear Sir/Madam, etc. If you do not know the name
of the recipient, it would be best to begin with To Whomsoever It May Concern.

Subject: After the salutation comes the subject line where you have to mention the
purpose of the letter in short. Make sure that the subject line is in upper-case characters
and is aligned either to the left or to the center.

Body:

The body of the letter can have 2-3 paragraphs. In the introduction, talk about the reason for
writing the letter and in the following paragraphs, you can give the necessary details. It is
important to maintain double-line spaces between paragraphs when you are writing a business
letter.

Complimentary closing:

Once you finish writing the letter, you have to end it with a complimentary closing. Some of
the closings include Respectfully Yours, Sincerely, etc. Leave four blank spaces after the
complimentary closing and then, write your full name. The blank space should be used to sign
your name.

Enclosure:

If you have enclosed some document with your letter, it is important for you to mention it
just below your name. Leave two spaces and write 'Enclosure' or 'Enclosures' below it. If you
have attached more than one enclosure, do not forget to mention the correct number in
brackets.

BUSINESS LETTER FORMAT:

Address
Telephone Number

Email Address

Date

Recipient's Name

Address

Dear Mr./Ms. (Recipient's Full Name),

Subject: (PURPOSE OF THE LETTER)

In the first paragraph, you can introduce yourself, if the recipient does not know you. After
this, mention the purpose of the letter. (Use Double Paragraph Spacing)

In the second paragraph, give out the details i.e., the facts that support the statement you
made in the first paragraph. You can end the letter with this paragraph or you can have
another one, if the information you want to convey does not fit in this paragraph. Complete
the letter by thanking the recipient for taking out time to read the letter.
Respectfully Yours,

(Your Signature)

(Your Name)

Enclosure(s) (mention the number)

Q. Write a Letter to the Manager of a Bank requesting for granting loan for further
studies.

Ans.

XYZ

E-block Nirman Vihar

Laxmi Nagar

New Delhi 110090

Date 6/March/2013

To

The Manager

Bank of India

New Delhi

Subject Application for the loan for studies

Sir,
I have come to know that your bank provides loans to deserving students to pursue higher
studies. I should like to be considered for grant of loan under this scheme.

I would like to bring to your kind notice that I have qualified the entrance test for
Engineering. I am keen to join this course. But I belong to a poor family. Hence, my father
cannot afford the expenses of my higher studies.

Therefore, I request you to kindly grant necessary loan for my higher studies. I promise you
that I shall abide by all the terms and conditions of the loan. I will be happy to produce
certificates and documents which you may require in this connection.

Looking forward to receiving an earlier and favourable reply.

Yours faithfully

XYZ

A few examples of Business Letter:(15 marks)

1. Writing a job offer acceptance letter for the post of Assistant Manager

2. Complaint to CEO regarding the extra work in office

3. Letter to bank manager requesting to extend the joining period as you have received
the offer letter for the bank job.

4. Write a letter to the Editor, the Hindu, expressing your deep concern on the impact of
adult graded cinemas on young minds.

5. Write a letter to your manager asking permission for a leave to attend a family
function.

6. Write a letter to a student preparing for his Board Examination giving tips healthy
study habits.

7. Write a letter to the Editor of a newspaper commending it on an article published in it


regarding Environmental awareness and adding your own views on the duty of every
citizen to protect the environment.

8. Write a letter To the bank manager for closing of your savings account Write a letter To
you bank for a loan to have higher studies in USA.

9. Write a letter to the company for accepting the job offer of an assistant manager in
the company
10. Write a letter on behalf of your department to the CEO of your company for working in
late hours and not appreciated by management members.

II) INFORMAL LETTER FORMAT:

Date and Address: The writer should mention their own address in the letter they are writing.
It should be written on the right hand corner of the page. Writing this address is optional,
because one may feel that the recipient knows you well so what's the need? However, it's not
necessary that the recipient will remember your address always. So it's better that you write
the address. After the address, leave a line and write the date. The date shows when the
letter was written, obviously.

Greetings or Salutation: The most common way to start off an informal letter is with a 'dear'.
Since this letter is meant for your friends or family, there is no need to greet them as 'Sir' or
'Madam'. Put the name after that and then put a comma. e.g Dear Mike.

Text or Body: While writing the main content of the letter, keep in mind the following:

1. Paragraphs: They should be indented.

2. Informal language usage: While writing the letter be as friendly as possible. But don't go
overboard. Do keep in mind to whom you are writing the letter. Don't write to your father,
'Hey dude! What's up?', but at the same time don't make the letter boring.

3. Punctuations, spellings and grammar: While writing a letter, nothing can be worse than
spelling, grammar and punctuation errors. Wrong use of punctuations can change the entire
meaning of what you are trying to convey. Things such as 'how are you hope you enjoyed your
holidays. Suman going to New Delhi yesterday' makes so sense. It will only confuse the reader.
So be careful while writing your letter.

4. Use active voice: Active voice makes your letter sound more conversational and makes it
more interesting to read. It's as if the person is conversing with you face to face.
5. Put in questions: Questions in your letter act as a good base on which you can write your
letter on. Also, it motivates the reader to reply.

Close with a Compliment: After writing the letter, sign off in a friendly manner such as 'Love,'
or 'Missing you loads', 'Love you forever,', etc. Don't forget to put a comma after the
compliment. Add your name after that.

Post script (PS): Sometimes, while in a hurry, we often forget to include something in the
letter. You can put that in the post script, at the bottom of the letter as P.S. I ranked first in
class last week.

There, now if you follow all this, you know how to write an informal letter. So here's a sample
which you can refer to while writing the letter in the SBI PO Exam.

Sample Letter : Letter to a friend inviting him for your birthday party.

12 XYZ Lane,

PO Box: 1234,

New Delhi

13th February 2014

Dear Aditya,

How are you my friend? It has been some time since we met. How was your trip to Kerala?
Hope you enjoyed. I received all the postcards which you had sent me from there. Thanks a
bunch! I loved each of them.

Hey! Guess what? My Aunt has organized an early birthday party for me, and she has asked me
to invite all my friends. You know very well that no party of mine is complete without you. So
please be at my place this Sunday. The party doesn't start till 4, but do come early so then we
can play with my new play station. Bring Anjali along with you too. Don't be late.

Hope you parents are all right? Give them my regards. And wish you all the best for your
basketball match today. Miss you loads pal. See you this Sunday.

Take care,

Deepesh

P.S.- Don't forget to bring me my novel which I borrowed you last time.

Stay tuned for Essay writing tips...

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/05/descriptive-for-sbi-and-uiic-


letter.html#ixzz4aRiZxmsl

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We will start with some common
mistakes which we do while speaking, writing and communicating in English.
Furthermore, we will proceed to higher levels.
So, lets start now!!

1) Wrong: It is more hot now.


Right: Its hotter now.

2) Wrong: I came America to study English.


Right: I came to America to study English.

3) Wrong: My husband is doctor.


Right: My husband is a doctor.

4) Wrong: You can give me an information?


Right: Can you give me some information?

5) Wrong: They cooked the breakfast themself.


Right: They cooked the breakfast themselves.

6) Wrong: Me and Rimmi live here.


Right: Rimmi and I live here.

7) Wrong: I closed very quietly the door.


Right: I closed the door very quietly.

8) Wrong: You like dance with me?


Right: Would you like to dance with me?

9) Wrong: I go always to school by subway.


Right: I always go to school by subway.

10)Wrong: If I will be in London, I will contact to you.


Right: If I am in London, I will contact you.

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/06/english-


vinglish.html#ixzz4aRifTbgz

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,
English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We will start with some common
mistakes which we do while speaking, writing and communicating in
English. Furthermore, we will proceed to higher levels.
This is the second post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

1) Wrong: We drive usually to home.


Right: We usually drive home.

2) Wrong: She said me that she liked you.


Right: She told me that she liked you.

3) Wrong: You are very nice, as your mother.


Right: You are very nice, like your mother.

4) Wrong: The life is hard!


Right: Life is hard.

5) Wrong: My mother wanted that I be Engineer.


Right: My mother wanted me to be an Engineer.

6) Wrong: You cannot buy all what you like!


Right: You cannot buy all that you like!

7) Wrong: How many childrens you have?


Right: How many children do you have?

8) Wrong: I have a good news for you.


Right: I have good news for you

9) Wrong: The boys leave the school at four o'clock.


Right: The boys leave school at four o'clock.

10)Wrong:He sent a word that he would come soon.


Right: He sent word that he would come soon.

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/06/english-


vinglish_29.html#ixzz4aRis7Us5

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We will start with some common
mistakes which we do while speaking, writing and communicating in
English. Furthermore, we will proceed to higher levels.
This is the second post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

1) Wrong: We drive usually to home.


Right: We usually drive home.

2) Wrong: She said me that she liked you.


Right: She told me that she liked you.

3) Wrong: You are very nice, as your mother.


Right: You are very nice, like your mother.
4) Wrong: The life is hard!
Right: Life is hard.

5) Wrong: My mother wanted that I be Engineer.


Right: My mother wanted me to be an Engineer.

6) Wrong: You cannot buy all what you like!


Right: You cannot buy all that you like!

7) Wrong: How many childrens you have?


Right: How many children do you have?

8) Wrong: I have a good news for you.


Right: I have good news for you

9) Wrong: The boys leave the school at four o'clock.


Right: The boys leave school at four o'clock.

10)Wrong:He sent a word that he would come soon.


Right: He sent word that he would come soon.

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/06/english-


vinglish_29.html#ixzz4aRn3KngG

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We will start with some common
mistakes which we do while speaking, writing and communicating in
English. Furthermore, we will proceed to higher levels.
This is the third post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

1) Wrong: I have read the Shakespeare's Macbeth.


Right: I have read Shakespeare's Macbeth

2) Wrong: You cannot set a foot in this house.


Right: You cannot set foot in this house.

3) Wrong: The envy is an evil passion.


Right: Envy is an evil passion.

4) Wrong: He has not yet gone to the bed.


Right: He has not yet gone to bed.

5) Wrong: He made very wise decision.


Right: He made a very wise decision.

6) Wrong: Fire broke out in our village.


Right: A fire broke out in our village.

7) Wrong: Andamans are a group of islands.


Right: The Andamans are a group of islands.

8) Wrong: The clock has struck five hours.


Right: The clock has struck five.

9) Wrong: Little thing has been done.


Right: Little has been done.

10)Wrong: We have an urgent business.


Right: We have an urgent piece of business.

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/06/english-


vinglish_30.html#ixzz4aRnB6yfX

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,
English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We will start with some common
mistakes which we do while speaking, writing and communicating in
English. Furthermore, we will proceed to higher levels.
This is the fourth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

1) Wrong: He absented from the school yesterday.


Right: He absented himself from the school yesterday.

2) Wrong: He availed of the opportunity.


Right: He availed himself of the opportunity.

3) Wrong: Don't pride on your victory.


Right: Don't pride yourself on your victory.

4) Wrong: The climate of India is hotter than England.


Right: The climate of India is hotter than that of England.

5) Wrong: Everybody will get their share.


Right: Everybody will get his share.

6) Wrong: He is sick.
Right: He is ill.

7) Wrong: I have strong headache.


Right: I have a severe headache.

8) Wrong: This is more preferable than that.


Right: This is preferable to that.

9) Wrong: No less than fifty students were present.


Right: No fewer than fifty students were present.

10)Wrong: Ram only is guilty.


Right: Ram alone is guilty.

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-


vinglish.html#ixzz4aRnPgKON

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have done enough for some
common mistakes which we do while speaking, writing and communicating in
English. Now we will discuss about the use of some basic words in English.
This is the fth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

1) Misplaced Apostrophes
Apostrophes arent difficult to use once you know how, but putting them in the
wrong place is one of the most common grammar mistakes in the English
language. Many people use an apostrophe to form the plural of a word, particularly
if the word in question ends in a vowel, which might make the word look strange
with an S added to make it plural.

Rules:

Apostrophes indicate possession something belonging to something or


someone else.

(i) To indicate something belonging to one person, the apostrophe goes before
the s. For instance, The girls horse.

(ii)To indicate something belonging to more than one person, put the
apostrophe after the s. For example, The girls horse.

(iii)Apostrophes are also used to indicate a contracted word. For example,


dont uses an apostrophe to indicate that the word is missing the o from
do not.

(iv)Apostrophes are never used to make a word plural, even when a word
is in number form, as in a date.

How not to do it:


1. The horses are in the field

2. Pens for sale

3. In the 1980s

4. Janes horse is over there

5. The girls dresses are ready for them to collect

How to do it properly:
1. The horses are in the field
2. Pens for sale

3. In the 1980s

4. We didnt want to do it

5. Janes horse is over there

6. The girls dresses are ready for them to collect

2) Your/ youre

Rules:

Your indicates possession something belonging to you.

Youre is short for you are.

How not to do it:


1. Your beautiful

2. Do you know when your coming over?

3. Can I have one of youre biscuits?

How to do it properly:
1. Youre beautiful

2. Do you know when youre coming over?

3. Can I have one of your biscuits?

3) Its/its
We said earlier that apostrophes should be used to indicate possession, but there
is one exception to this rule, and that is the word it. Unsurprisingly, this
exception gets lots of people confused.

Rules:
1. Its is only ever used when short for it is.

2. Its indicates something belonging to something that isnt masculine or


feminine (like his and hers, but used when youre not talking about a
person).

3. If it helps, remember that inanimate objects cant really possess something in


the way a human can.

How not to do it:


1. Its snowing outside

2. The sofa looks great with its new cover

How to do it properly:
1. Its snowing outside

2. The sofa looks great with its new cover

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-


vinglish_5.html#ixzz4aRnVG62Q

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,
English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have done enough for
some common mistakes which we do while speaking, writing and communicating
in English. Now we will discuss about the use of some basic words in
English.
This is the sixth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

1. Could/would/should of
This common mistake arises because the contracted form of could have
couldve sounds a bit like could of" when you say it out loud. This mistake is
made frequently across all three of these words.

Rules:

When people write should of, what they really mean is should have.
Written down, the shortened version of should have is shouldve.

Shouldve and Should have are both correct; the latter is more
formal.

How not to do it:


1. We could of gone there today

2. I would of done it sooner

3. You should of said


How to do it properly:
1. We couldve gone there today

2. I would have done it sooner

3. You shouldve said

2. There/their/theyre
Weve met this one before, too; its another example of those pesky homophones
words that sound the same but have different meanings.

Rules:

Use there to refer to a place that isnt here over there.


We also use there to state something There are no cakes left.

Their indicates possession something belonging to them.

Theyre is short for they are.

How not to do it:


1. Their going to be here soon

2. We should contact theyre agent

3. Can we use there boat?

4. Their is an argument that says

How to do it properly:
1. Theyre going to be here soon

2. We should contact their agent


3. Can we use their boat?

4. There is an argument that says

3. Fewer/less
The fact that many people dont know the difference between fewer and less
is reflected in the number of supermarket checkout aisles designated for 10 items
or less. The mistake most people make is using less when they actually mean
fewer, rather than the other way round.

Rules:

Fewer refers to items you can count individually.

Less refers to a commodity, such as sand or water, that you cant count
individually.

How not to do it:


1. There are less cakes now

2. Ten items or less

How to do it properly:

1. There are fewer cakes now

2. Ten items or fewer

3. Less sand

4. Fewer grains of sand


Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-
vinglish6.html#ixzz4aRncV5dr

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have done enough for
some common mistakes which we do while speaking, writing and communicating
in English. Now we will discuss about the use of some basic words in
English.
This is the seventh post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

1. Amount/number
These two work in the same way as less and fewer, referring respectively to
commodities and individual items.

The rules:

1) Amount refers to a commodity, which cant be counted (for instance


water).
2) Number refers to individual things that can be counted (for example
birds).

How not to do it:

1) A greater amount of people are eating more healthily

How to do it properly:

1) A greater number of people are eating more healthily

2) The rain dumped a larger amount of water on the country than is average for the
month

2. To/two/too
Its time to revisit another common grammar mistake that we also covered in our
homophones post, as no article on grammar gripes would be complete without it.
Its easy to see why people get this one wrong, but theres no reason why you
should.

The rules:

1) To is used in the infinitive form of a verb to talk.

2) To is also used to mean towards.

3) Too means also or as well.

4) Two refers to the number 2.


How not to do it:

1) Im to hot

2) Its time two go

3) Im going too town

4) He bought to cakes

How to do it properly:

1) Im too hot

2) Its time to go

3) Im going to town

4) He bought two cakes

3. Then/than
Confusion between then and than probably arises because the two look and
sound similar.

The rules:

1) Than is used in comparisons.

2) Then is used to indicate something following something else in time, as


in step-by-step instructions, or planning a schedule (well go there then
there).

How not to do it:


1) She was better at it then him

2) It was more then enough

How to do it properly:

1) She was better at it than him

2) It was more than enough

3) Well go to the baker first, then the coffee shop

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-


vinglish_7.html#ixzz4aRo5L88u

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have done enough for
some common mistakes which we do while speaking, writing and communicating
in English. Now we will discuss about the use of some basic words in
English.

This is the eighth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.
So, lets start now!!

1. Me/myself/I
The matter of how to refer to oneself causes all manner of conundrums, particularly
when referring to another person in the same sentence. Heres how to remember
whether to use me, myself or I.

The rules:

1. When referring to yourself and someone else, put their name first in the
sentence.

2. Choose me or I by removing their name and seeing which sounds right.

For example, with the sentence John and I are off to the circus, you
wouldnt say me is off to the circus if it was just you; youd say I am off to the
circus. Therefore when talking about going with someone else, you say John and
I.

3. You only use myself if youve already used I, making you the subject of the
sentence.

How not to do it:

1. Me and John are off to the circus

2. Myself and John are going into town

3. Give it to John and I to look after

How to do it properly:
1. John and I are off to the circus

2. John and I are going into town

3. Give it to John and me to look after

4. Ill deal with it myself

5. I thought to myself

2. Invite/invitation
This mistake is now so common that its almost accepted as an alternative, but if
you really want to speak English properly, you should avoid it.

The rules:

1. Invite is a verb to invite. It refers to asking someone if theyd like to


do something or go somewhere.

2. Invitation is a noun an invitation. It refers to the actual message


asking someone if theyd like to do something or go somewhere.

How not to do it:

1. I havent responded to her invite yet.

2. She sent me an invite.

How to do it properly:

1. I havent responded to her invitation yet.


2. She sent me an invitation.

3. Im going to invite her to join us.

3. Who/whom
Another conundrum arising from confusion over how to refer to people. There are
lots in the English language!

The rules:

1. Who refers to the subject of a sentence; whom refers to the object.

2. Who and whom work in the same way as he or him. You can work
out which you should use by asking yourself the following:

3. Who did this? He did so who is correct. Whom should I invite? Invite him
so whom is correct.

4. That is often used incorrectly in place of who or whom. When referring


to a person, you should not use the word that.

How not to do it:

1. Who shall I invite?

2. Whom is responsible?

3. He was the only person that wanted to come

How to do it properly:

1. Whom shall I invite?


2. Who is responsible?

3. He was the only person who wanted to come

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-


vinglish_11.html#ixzz4aRoDvilI

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have done enough for
some common mistakes which we do while speaking, writing and communicating
in English. Now we will discuss about the use of some basic words in
English.

This is the ninth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

1. Affect/effect
Its an easy enough mistake to make given how similar these two words look and
sound, but theres a simple explanation to help you remember the difference.
The rules:
1. Affect is a verb to affect meaning to influence or have an impact on
something.
2. Effect is the noun a positive effect referring to the result of being
affected by something.
3. There is also a verb to effect, meaning to bring something about to
effect a change. However, this is not very commonly used, so weve left it out of
the examples below to avoid confusion.

How not to do it:


1. He waited for the medicine to have an affect.
2. They were directly effected by the flooding.

How to do it properly:
1. He waited for the medicine to have an effect.
2. They were directly affected by the flooding.

2. i.e. and e.g.


These two abbreviations are commonly confused, and many people use them
interchangeably. However, their uses are very different.

The rules:
1. i.e. means that is or in other words. It comes from the Latin words id
est.
2. e.g. means for example. It comes from the Latin words exempli gratia.
3. Only use i.e. and e.g. when writing informally. In formal documents,
such as essays, it is better to write out the meanings (for example or
that is).

How not to do it:


1. He liked many different cheeses, i.e. cheddar, camembert and brie.
2. He objects to the changes e.g. he wont be accepting them.

How to do it properly:
1. He liked many different cheeses, e.g. cheddar, camembert and brie.
2. He objects to the changes i.e. he wont be accepting them.

FROM TOMORROW ONWARD WE WILL


DISCUSS "TENSES".

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-


vinglish12.html#ixzz4aRoMUecb

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have done enough for
some common mistakes which we do while speaking, writing and communicating
in English.We have discussed till now some basic sentence errors and use of some
basic words in English. Now we will learn about TENSES.

This is the tenth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.
So, lets start now!!

TENSES are that part of grammar which drastically changes the meaning of a
sentences. Tenses play a vital role in Communication otherwise you can do blunders
like describing an event which happened in past as an event of future.

Widely, there are of three types tenses:

1) Past Tense ------ was, were, had

2) Present Tense -- is, am, have

3) Future Tense --- will, shall, will be, shall be

1) Past Tense - Past Tense is used to describe the event which has
already occurred.

Furthermore, Past tense is categorized in four types. They are:

(a) Past Indefinite tense (Also called as Simple Past Tense)

(b) Past Continuous Tense

(c) Past Perfect Tense

(d) Past Perfect Continuous Tense

1 Past Indefinite Tense I walked.


.
2 Past Continuous I was walking.
Tense
.
3 Past Perfect Tense I had walked. .
4 Past Perfect I
Continuous Tense had been walki
.
ng.

2) Present Tense - Present Tense is used to describe an event which


is currently occurring i.e. is taking place at present. In more simple sentence, the
event which has started but is yet to be finished.

Furthermore, Present Tense is categorized in four types. They are:

(a) Present Indefinite tense (Also called as Simple Present Tense)

(b) Present Continuous Tense

(c) Present Perfect Tense

(d) Present Perfect Continuous Tense

1 Present Indefinite I walk.


Tense
.
2 Present Continuous I am walking.
Tense
.
3 Present Perfect I have walked. .
Tense

4 Present Perfect I
Continuous Tense have been walkin
.
g.

3)Future Tense - Future Tense is used to describe an event which has


not occurred i.e. event which is yet to take place. In more simple sentence, the
event which has not started yet.
Furthermore, Future Tense is categorized in four types. They are:

(a) Future Indefinite tense (Also called as Simple Future Tense)

(b) Future Continuous Tense

(c) Future Perfect Tense

(d) Future Perfect Continuous Tense

1 Future Indefinite I shall walk. .


Tense

2 Future Continuous I shall be


Tense walking.
.
3 Future Perfect Tense I shall have
walked.
.
4 Future Perfect I shall
Continuous Tense have been walkin
g.
.

Tomorrow we will discuss "Past


Indefinite Tense" in Detail.
Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-
vinglish_13.html#ixzz4aRoU1Kum

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,
English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we learnt about the

basiccategorization of Tenses. Now, we will proceed with detailed


explanation of every type of tense - one in a day.

This is the Eleventh post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

TENSES are that part of grammar which drastically changes the meaning of a
sentences. Tenses play a vital role in Communication otherwise you can do blunders
like describing an event which happened in past as an event of future.

Today we will discuss about Past Indefinite


Tense i.e. Simple Present Tense.

Past Indefinite tense


Past Indefinite Tense is also known as "Simple Past Tense".
already occurred
If an event or series of events or a habit that has

and has been completed in the


past, irrespective of the time frame, it is Simple Past
Tense.

Identification - Action has been completed/ sentence

denotes a habit/ time of occurrence of an event is asked

Identification from Hindi Sentences:


, , , , , , , , , , ,

1. .

2. .

3. .

4. .

5. .

6. .

Use of Verb:
1. 2nd form of Verb is used in Positive sentences e.g. He understood.

2. 1st form of Verb is used when "did" is used in the sentence i.e. Sentence is
Either Negative of Interrogative e.g. He did not understand, Did he
understand?

3. "Did" is the only auxiliary verb which is used with the all subjects in Past
Indefinite Tense. Also, 'did' is used only in case of either Negative, or,
Interrogative sentence. 'Did' is not used in Positive sentences.

In every form of Tense, there are four types


of sentences:
1. Positive/ Affirmative Sentence (simple statement is used)
2. Negative Sentence (no, not is used)
3. Interrogative Sentence (Question is asked)
4. Interrogative - Negative Sentence (Question is asked with no, or not)

Positive/ Affirmative Negative Sentences


Sentences

{Sub+Verb(2nd form) {Sub+did not+Verb(1st)


+Object}
+Object}

I studied. I did not study.

We studied. We did not study.

You studied. You did not study.

He studied. He did not study.

They studied. They did not study.

Raman studied. Raman did not study.

Boys studied. Boys did not study.


Interrogative Sentences Negative Interrogative
Sentences

{Did+Sub+verb(1st) +
Object } Did+Sub+not+verb(1st) +
Object

Or,
Or,

{Question word like what,


Question word+ Did+ Sub+
when etc + Did+Sub+verb(1st)
+ Object} not+ verb(1st) + Object

Did I study? Did I not study?

Did we study? Did we not study?

Did you study? Did you not study?

When did you study? When did you not study?

Did he study? Did he not study?

Did they study? Did they not study?

Did Raman study? Did Raman not study?

Did boys study? Did boys not study?

NOTE:

1. If sentence is about 'habit' of something then "used to" is used.


e.g. - They used to go for walk.

2. If sentence is about 'ability to do something' then "could" is used.


e.g. - I could go to school yesterday.

3. If something has not happened ever i.e. something has not taken place then,
Never is used not 'did not'.

e.g. - He never went to school.


Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-
vinglish_14.html#ixzz4aRokErE1

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we learnt about the

basiccategorization of Tenses. Now, we will proceed with detailed


explanation of every type of tense - one in a day.

This is the Twelfth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

TENSES are that part of grammar which drastically changes the meaning of a
sentences. Tenses play a vital role in Communication otherwise you can do blunders
like describing an event which happened in past as an event of future.

Today we will discuss about Past Continuous


Tense.
Past Continuous tense

When we want to talk about an action that was happening over a period of time in
the past, we use the past continuous tense. The past continuous is very often used
with the past simple to say that something happened in the middle of something
else.

In the Past Continuous tense, the action was ongoing till a certain time in the past.
This tense is used to talk about an action at a particular time in the past.

Identification -

There are several cases when Past Continuous tense is used viz:

1. To describe the background in a story written in the past tense, e.g."The sun
was shining and the birds were singing as the elephant came out of the jungle. The
other animals were relaxing in the shade of the trees, but the elephant moved very
quickly. She was looking for her baby, and she didn't notice the hunter who was
watching her through his binoculars. When the shot rang out, she was running
towards the river..."

2. Past actions which have been interrupted. You do not need to mention the
specific time, only the fact that the action was stopped for something else.

Ex - She was eating when the doorbell rang.

3. To express a change of mind.


Ex - "I was going to spend the day at the movie theater but I've decided to get my
homework done instead."

4. Past actions interrupted by a specific time. This doesnt mean that the action
stopped happening, simply that it was ongoing when a certain time came.

Ex - At 10 am we were leaving the house.

He was driving when the rain started at 2 pm.

5. Actions which were happening at the same time as each other. For this
use, you must list at least 2 actions which were ongoing simultaneously.

Ex - Was he watching a movie while we were making dinner?

6. Repetition and Irritation with "Always"

The Past Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the
idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the past. The
concept is very similar to the expression "used to" but with negative emotion.
Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and
"verb+ing."

Ex - She was always coming to the office.

He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone.

I didn't like them because they were always complaining.

She was always taking all the candies.

7. With 'wonder', to make a very polite request.


Ex - "I was wondering if you could baby-sit for me tonight."

8. When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same
sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the
same time. The actions are parallel.

Ex - I was studying while he was dancing.

While Meena was reading, Ritesh was watching television.

What were you doing while you were waiting?

9. In English, we often use a series of parallel actions to describe the


atmosphere at a particular time in the past. It is very much similar to narrating
a story (as discussed in the 1st point).

Ex - When I walked into the home, my daughter was weeping, my son was making
fun of her and my husband was watching television.

Difference between Simple Past


Tense and Past Continuous Tense

1. In the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action began
or finished.

In the Past Continuous, a specific time only interrupts the action.

Ex -
Last night at 8 PM, I ate dinner. --------- Simple Past

I started eating at 6 PM. --------- Past Continuous

Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner. --------- Past Continuous (means I started
earlier; and at 6 PM, I was in the process of eating dinner.)

2. While vs. When

Clauses are groups of words which have some meaning, but are often not complete
sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when she called"
or "when it bit me." Other clauses begin with "while" such as "while she was
sleeping" and "while he was surfing." When you talk about things in the past,
"when" is most often followed by the verb tense Simple Past, whereas
"while" is usually followed by Past Continuous. "While" expresses the idea
of "during that time."

Following examples have similar meanings, but they emphasize different parts of
the sentence.

Examples:

I was studying when she called.

While I was studying, she called.

Identification from Hindi Sentences:

' ' ,' ' , ' '

Ex -

I was reading my book.

You were going.

She was not playing with her doll.

The cow was not grazing grass.

Use of Verb:

1. Auxiliary verb was or were is used in sentence.

2. 1st form of verb or base verb + ing (present participle) is used as main verb
in sentence.

In every form of Tense, there are four types


of sentences:

1. Positive/ Affirmative Sentence (simple statement is used)

2. Negative Sentence (no, not is used)

3. Interrogative Sentence (Question is asked)


4. Interrogative - Negative Sentence (Question is asked with no, or not)

Positive/ Affirmative Negative Sentences


Sentences

{Sub+was/were + Verb(1st {Sub+was/were +


not + Verb(1st form or
form or base verb) + base verb) + ing +Object}
ing +Object}

I was studying. I was not studying.

We were studying. We were not studying.

You were studying. You were not studying.

He was studying. He was not studying.

They were studying. They were not studying.

Raman was reading Raman was not reading


newspaper. newspaper.

Boys were studying. Boys were not studying.

Interrogative Sentences Negative Interrogative


Sentences

{Was/were+Sub+verb(1st
or base verb) + ing + Was/were + not + Sub +
Object } verb(1st or base verb) +
ing + Object

Was I studying? Was not I studying?

Were we studying? Were we not studying?

Were you studying? Were you not studying?


Was he studying? Was he not studying?

Were they studying? Were they not studying?

Was Raman studying Was Raman not studying?


newspaper?

Were the boys studying? Were the boys not studying?

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-


vinglish15.html#ixzz4aRoq2zXr

SBI PO Mains - Descriptive Test Preparation


Dear Readers,

Most of the students have been demanding an article on "How To Write An


Essay". Well, to answer all your doubts, we would like to share some information
that will help you build different parts of an essay. And we will try to keep it as
simple as we can so that the Hindi/other language medium students can also feel
comfortable writing the essay. This is no rocket science but one can easily compile
their thoughts to write an Essay.

Well, let us start with the parts of an essay. An Essay can be divided into in
three parts:

1) Introduction

2) Body and

3) Conclusion

It is very important to stick to the motive of the Essay and you need to consider

all the important aspects. Students, Please make a note that an Essay is
not an opinion but a description of what you know about the
topic. And to write an essay you need to have the view point having both
negative and positive. Now let us have an idea for how to approach for writing an
essay.

Step 1: Identify the Topic

Friends, it is very important for you all to understand what is asked. Without proper
understanding, you may get diverted from the topic unintentionally. So, to start it in
a better way, you need to ask questions to yourself like "Why, What and How".
And whatever response you can think of, just write it down on the rough sheet.
Once everything gets covered, you need to put all the bits and pieces into its place.

Step 2: Choose Keywords

You need to choose keywords quite wisely. You will get the hint of the keywords
from the question itself. Suppose you are asked to write the Essay on "Brexit and
it's Impact on Indian Economy", then you know what kind of keywords you need
to use. The keywords emphasizes on the particular topic and build a better
understanding.

Step 3: Introduction

Now comes the most important part of the Essay. The "Introduction" is the
part which will leave an impact on the reader. This doesn't mean that you start
writing catchy phrases or anything else. You just need to make sure that you don't
make spelling mistake and any grammatical mistake in the sentences.

You have to keep watch of present, past and future tenses while writing the essay.
As the word itself suggests 'introduction' means 'to introduce' or 'to make aware
about something'. It means you need to introduce the given topic to the
reader i.e. what does the topic means.
After Introducing the subject to the reader you need to frame the body of the essay.

Step 4: Body

Body of an essay contains the aspects of the topic. You need to explain the
factual concept that why did the event take place or what actually happened.
Furthermore, you need to provide the positive aspects of the topic provided.

After explaining about the positive aspects you can explain about the negative
aspects of the topic, if any.

Again, its not about your opinion. Indeed it is a factual description of the topic.

Step 5: Conclusion

You need to be very careful while writing the conclusion. You do not need to tilt
towards any political, religious or any other side. You need to provide a
conclusion that what can be done for furthermore advancement/correction etc
and what may be the consequences regarding the topic.

A conclusion should always be in the positive direction. There should not be a


negative conclusion.

Moreover, try to use simple words and simple sentences and avoid
grammatical and spelling mistakes.

Some Important Topics For Essay Practice:


Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojna (PMJDY)

Women Empowerment

Global Warming
Dowry System

Privatization of Public Sector

Non-Performing Assets (NPA)

Women Safety

Clean India Campaign

FDI

Non- Banking Finance Companies (NBFC)

Small Banks and Payment Banks

India: An Emerging Market

Role of technology in banking

Population Explosion

Banking in India

Agriculture: The Backbone of Indian economy

Indias relations with her neighbours

Terrorism

Role of the media

Knowledge is power

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/sbi-po-mains-descriptive-


test.html#ixzz4aRoznFKc

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,
English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we learnt about the

basiccategorization of Tenses. Now, we will proceed with detailed


explanation of every type of tense - one in a day.

This is the Thirteenth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

TENSES are that part of grammar which drastically changes the


meaning of a sentences. Tenses play a vital role in Communication
otherwise you can do blunders like describing an event which happened in
past as an event of future.

Today we will discuss about Past Perfect


Tense.
Past Perfect Tense

It is used to express an action which has happened or completed in past (usually a

long time ago). If time is


In this tense, time should not come.

mentioned in the tense, then it will become


past indefinite tense. So, it can be said that it
is the difference between Simple Past Tense
and Past Perfect Tense.

But we can use a clause with since, for, till, by then, before, by
today/yesterday/evening etc. to show when something started in the Past
Perfect Tense.

The patient had died. Past Perfect Tense.

The patient died at 3 pm - Past Indefinite (Because time has come in the
sentence)

Some more examples of Past Perfect Tense are as below:

They had been staying with us since the previous week.

I was sorry when the factory closed. I had worked there since I left school.

we use the past perfect to talk


In brief we can say that

about the past in conditions, hypotheses and


wishes.
I would have helped him if he had asked. --- Condition

It was very dangerous. What if you had got lost? --- Hypotheses

I wish I hadnt spent so much money in the last ten days. --- Wish

I couldnt get into the house. I had lost my keys. --- Condition

My twentieth birthday was the worst day I had ever had. --- Condition

I was sorry when the school closed. I had studied there since childhood. --- Condition

He had written four books and he was working on another one. --- Condition

Everything was wet. It had been raining for hours. --- Condition

I had finished the work. --- Condition

Identification -

The past perfect refers to a time earlier than before now. We use the verb had and
the past participle for the past perfect:

Identification from Hindi Sentences:

' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

- She had sat down - Past Perfect Tense.

- She sat down - Past Indefinite

- I had given you two apples. - Past Perfect Tense.


- I gave you two apples. - Past Indefinite

Use of Verb:

We use the verb "had" and the past participle for the past perfect.

In every form of Tense, there are four types


of sentences:

1. Positive/ Affirmative Sentence (simple statement is used)

2. Negative Sentence (no, not is used)

3. Interrogative Sentence (Question is asked)

4. Interrogative - Negative Sentence (Question is asked with no, or not)

Positive/ Affirmative Negative Sentences


Sentences

{Sub+had + Verb(3rd form) {Sub+had + not + Verb(3rd


form) + Object}
+ Object}

I was studying. I was not studying.

We were studying. We were not studying.

You were studying. You were not studying.

He was studying. He was not studying.

They were studying. They were not studying.


Raman was reading Raman was not reading
newspaper. newspaper.

Boys were studying. Boys were not studying.

Interrogative Sentences Negative Interrogative


Sentences

{Had+Sub+Verb(3rd form)
+ Object } Had + Sub + not + verb(3rd
form) + Object

Was I studying? Was not I studying?

Were we studying? Were we not studying?

Were you studying? Were you not studying?

Was he studying? Was he not studying?

Were they studying? Were they not studying?

Was Raman studying Was Raman not studying?


newspaper?

Were the boys studying? Were the boys not studying?

Note:

(I) 'Just' is used with the past perfect to refer to an event that was only a
short time earlier than before now, e.g.

The train had just left when I arrived at the station.

She had just left the room when the police arrived.

I had just put the washing out when it started to rain.


(II) If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past
can be used instead of the Past Perfect when "before" or "after" is used in
the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell you what
happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both
sentences below are correct.

Ex -

She had visited her American relatives once in 2004 before she moved in with
them in 2010.

She visited her American relatives once in 2004 before she moved in with them
in 2010.

(III) If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past
Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is
referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time.
For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.

Ex -

She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct

She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct
Tomorrow we will discuss "Past
Perfect Continuous Tense" in
Detail.
Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-
vinglish18.html#ixzz4aRp8vk8i

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we learnt about the

basiccategorization of Tenses. Now, we will proceed with detailed


explanation of every type of tense - one in a day.

This is the Fourteenth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!


TENSES are that part of grammar which drastically changes the
meaning of a sentences. Tenses play a vital role in Communication
otherwise you can do blunders like describing an event which happened in
past as an event of future.

Today we will discuss about Past Perfect


Continuous Tense.

Past Perfect Continuous Tense


It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past and
continued until sometime in past. There is always a time reference, such as since
1990, for two hours etc from which the action had started.

Identification:

1. If duration of a past is mentioned.

Ex -

He was my badminton partner. We had been playing together for eight years.

It is midnight and you have been watching television for four hours.

2. If some action with it's cause is shown.


Ex -
Sandy was very confident because she had been rehearsing hard for the play.
The road was wet because it had been raining.

3. An action to be taken if and only if some condition is satisfied.

Ex -
If it hadn't been so humid, we would have gone to the park.
If you had been working hard, you would have qualified the exam.

Identification from Hindi Sentences:


' ', ' ', ' ' ,
' ',
' ', ' ' ,

/ / ( )

Ex-

Difference From Past Continuous Tense:

If no time reference or sense of time reference, or time of action i.e. when did the
event started in past and till when was that continued is given, then it is not Past
Perfect Continuous Tense . If it seems just an ongoing action in past then
it resembles past Continuous tense. So the reference of time differentiates
between Past perfect continuous tense and past continuous tense.

Use of Verb:
Auxiliary verb had been is used in sentence. 1st form of verb (base verb)
+ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence. Since or for is
used before the time reference in sentence. If the time reference is exactly
known such as 2004, 12 Oclock then since is used before the time in
sentence. If the time reference is not exactly known such as three hours,
six years, four days, then for is used before the time in sentence.
In every form of Tense, there are four types
of sentences:

1. Positive/ Affirmative Sentence (simple statement is used)

2. Negative Sentence (no, not is used)

3. Interrogative Sentence (Question is asked)

4. Interrogative - Negative Sentence (Question is asked with no, or not)

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-


vinglish_19.html#ixzz4aRpDqzTL

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we learnt about the
basic categorization of Tenses. Now, we will proceed with detailed
explanation of every type of tense - one in a day.

This is the Fifteenth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

TENSES are that part of grammar which drastically changes the


meaning of a sentences. Tenses play a vital role in Communication
otherwise you can do blunders like describing an event which happened in
past as an event of future.

Today we will discuss about Simple Present


Tense.

Simple Present Tense

The simple present tense is the one which we use when an action is happening right
now, or when it happens regularly.

Identification:
When some habit, general truths, repeated actions or unchanging situations,
emotions and wishes are expressed.

Ex -
He never forgets to do his homework.
Do you ever eat in the cafeteria?

When some instructions or direction is given.

Ex -
You walk for two hundred meters, then you turn left.

When fixed arrangements, present or future, or universal truth is expressed.

Ex -
The sun sets in the West.

Delhi is in India

The adult human body contains 206 bones..

When future time, after some conjunctions: after, when, before, as soon as,
until is expressed.

Ex -
He'll give it to you when you come next Monday.

Identification from Hindi Sentences:

Simple Present Tense '


',' ',' ',' '

Ex-

1. / - I speak.

2. / / / - you speak.
3. - I learn my lesson.
4. - He goes to school.
5. ? - Do you stay in Chennai?

Verb Main Form Base Form 1st Form Plural singular


's' 'es'
Note: ' ' verb never do does .

Use of Verb:
We form the simple present tense using the base form of the infinitive.

In general, in the third person we add 's' or 'es' in the third person. Auxiliary
verb 'do' and 'does' is used.

Subject Verb
I / you / we / speak, learn,
they do
he / she / it speaks,
learns, does

In every form of Tense, there are four types


of sentences:

1. Positive/ Affirmative Sentence (simple statement is used)

2. Negative Sentence (no, not is used)

3. Interrogative Sentence (Question is asked)

4. Interrogative - Negative Sentence (Question is asked with no, or not)

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-


vinglish_20.html#ixzz4aRpQ3ygB

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,
English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we learnt about the

basiccategorization of Tenses. Now, we will proceed with detailed


explanation of every type of tense - one in a day.

This is the Sixteenth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

TENSES are that part of grammar which drastically changes the


meaning of a sentences. Tenses play a vital role in Communication
otherwise you can do blunders like describing an event which happened in
past as an event of future.

Today we will discuss about Present


Continuous Tense.
Present Continuous
Tense
Use the Present Continuous with first form of Verb to express the idea that
something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to
show that something is not happening now. It is also used to denote something
which is happening before and after a given time.

Identification:
Such actions which are happening at time of speaking are expressed by present
continuous tense.

Identification from Hindi Sentences:

present , , ,
, , etc.

- He is teachingg us the book.

- You are not speaking Hindi

/ - I am going

/ - we are going

Use of Verb:
Auxiliary verb am or is or are is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or base
verb+ ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence.

Note that we use

am with I

is with He and She

are with You, We and They

The verb form remains the same for all subjects.

For making interrogative sentences, the sentence is started with auxiliary verb
rather than putting auxiliary verb inside the sentence. If the subject is I the
sentence starts with auxiliary verb am. If the subject is He, She, It, singular or
proper name the sentence starts with auxiliary verb is. If subject is You, They or
plural the sentence starts with auxiliary verb are.

In every form of Tense, there are four types


of sentences:

1. Positive/ Affirmative Sentence (simple statement is used)

2. Negative Sentence (no, not is used)

3. Interrogative Sentence (Question is asked)

4. Interrogative - Negative Sentence (Question is asked with no, or not)

Positive/ Affirmative Negative Sentences


Sentences

{Sub+am/is/are {Sub+am/is/are+not+
+ Verb(1st form + ing) Verb(1st form+ing) +
Object}
+ Object}

I am studying. I am not studying.


We are studying. We are not studying.
You are studying. You are not studying.

He is studying. He is not studying.

They are studying. They are not studying.


Raman is studying. Raman is not studying.
Boys are studying. Boys are not studying.

Interrogative Sentences Negative Interrogative


Sentences

{Am/is/are+Sub+Verb(1st
form+ing) + Object {Am/is/are+Sub+not+Verb(
1st form+ing) + Object}

Am I studying? Am I not studying?

Are we studying? Are we not studying?

Are you studying? Are you not studying?

Is he studying? Is he not studying?

Are they studying? Are they not studying?

Is Raman studying? Is Raman not studying?

Are the boys studying? Are the boys not studying?

Note: The Present Continuous with words such as "always" or


"constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or
shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is like Simple
Present, but with negative emotion. Remember to put the
words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-


vinglish_21.html#ixzz4aRpZlYMq

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we learnt about the

basiccategorization of Tenses. Now, we will proceed with detailed


explanation of every type of tense - one in a day.

This is the Seventeenth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!


TENSES are that part of grammar which drastically changes the
meaning of a sentences. Tenses play a vital role in Communication
otherwise you can do blunders like describing an event which happened in
past as an event of future.

Today we will discuss about Present


Perfect Tense.

Present Perfect Tense


- Most Important
Tense To Learn!
This tense indicates either that an action was completed (finished or "perfected") at
some point in the past or that the action extends to the present.

Identification:

We use the present perfect for actions which started in the past and are still
happening now OR for finished actions which have a connection to the present.

Identification from Hindi Sentences:

,
, , , , , , , ,

Ex-

- I have arrived home

- Ram has gone to school.

- He has killed a snake.

- They have learnt all their lessons.

Use of Verb: {has/have + past participle}

The present perfect is formed from the present tense of the verb 'have or has' and
the past participle of a verb.

When should you use Present


Perfect and where Simple Past
Tense?
When an action is finished and the result is known: use Present Perfect
Tense. Ex - I've lost my keys! (The result is that I can't get those keys
now).

When an action is finished and result is not known: use Simple Present
Tense. Ex - I lost my keys yesterday. It was terrible! (Now there is no
result. We do not know that whether I got the keys again or not.).

With an unfinished time word (this week, this month, today): use Present
Perfect Tense. Ex - I have seen Neeta this week.

With a finished time word (last week, last month, yesterday): use Simple
Present Tense. Ex - I saw Neeta last week.
A finished action in someone's life (when the person is still alive, life
experience): use Present Perfect Tense. Ex - My brother has visited
Australia three times.

A finished action in someone's life (when the person is dead): use Simple
Present Tense. Ex - Mahatma Gandhi visited Africa several times in
his life.

Unfinished actions that started in the past and continue to the


present: use Present Perfect Tense. Ex - I've known Amit for ten years
(and I still know him).

Finished actions: I knew Amit for ten years (but then he moved away
and we lost touch).

In every form of Tense, there are four types


of sentences:1
1. Positive/ Affirmative Sentence (simple statement is used)
2. Negative Sentence (no, not is used)

3. Interrogative Sentence (Question is asked)

4. Interrogative - Negative Sentence (Question is asked with no, or not)

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-


vinglish_22.html#ixzz4aRppo0r0

SBI PO Mains 2016: Descriptive Test Preparation (Letter Writing)


Dear Students,

Most of the high profile examinations are taking descriptive tests nowadays. But
have you ever thought that WHY ARE THEY TAKING DESCRIPTIVE TESTS? There
are several reasons for which any organisation takes descriptive test of the
candidate. Some of the reasons are:

1) To check the grammatical Knowledge over the English Language of the


candidate.
2) To check whether the candidate is familiar with the basic formats of Letters,
Reports, Essays etc.

3) To check that whether the candidate will be able to submit the reports and
documents in proper way.

4) To check the typing speed of the candidate i.e. how much is the candidate
familiar with the computers.

We have have already discussed the Essay Writing concepts in the last post. In
this post we will discuss about 'How to write a letter?'

Basically, there are 2 types of letters:

(I) Formal Letters

(II) Informal Letters

We will discuss about the FORMAL LETTERS today.

(I) Formal Letters: These letters are written to some organization's authority for
some specific purpose or work e.g. letter to the bank manager, school principle,
municipality or any other organisation. The Addressee in the formal letter is not
your relative or friend.

On a broader sight, formal letters which can be asked in the exam are of following
types:

(a) Letter to the bank manager, credit officer or any other Financial Institution
regarding some problem related to bank account, credit/debit cards, request for
loan, registering complaints etc.
(b) Business or official letters to some organisation (for making enquiries,
registering complaints, asking for or giving information, placing orders and sending
replies).

(c) Letters to the editor (giving suggestions on an issue).

There are many formats to write a formal letter, but, here we will take a single
standard format which can be used for any formal letter, so that you may not get
confused in the examination that which format to use and which not.

Format:

1) Keep all the text aligned to the left margin of the page.

2) Start with your own address.

3) Mention the date after your address.

4) Now, Mention the address of the person to whom you are writing the
letter.

5) Then mention the subject.

6) After mentioning the subject, start with the salutation 'Dear Sir/ Dear
Ma'am'

7) Now start the body of the letter. Remember not to be personal like
asking the well being of the addressee or elaborating about your identity.
You need to be specific to the topic regarding which you are writing the
letter.

8) After elaborating about the purpose of your writing to the authority,


request the authority to resolve your problem in the second paragraph.

9) Conclude the letter in a small third paragraph by thanking the


authority.

10) End the letter with a valediction like 'Yours faithfully', 'Yours sincerely'
etc. and mention your name below.
Note: Do not make spelling mistakes, keep in mind the grammar while forming the
sentences. Do not try to use heavy words about which you are yourself not sure.

Some important topics for practice:


1. You have received a letter from your bank, asking you to acknowledge receipt of
a new bank card. However, the card was missing from the envelope. Write a letter
to the bank's head office.

2. You have lost your credit card while travelling from Mumbai to Delhi. Write a
letter to the bank requesting for a new credit card.

3. You have lost your car loan documents while travelling from Bhubaneshwar to
Madhurai and your due date for paying the EMI is just after 10 days. Write a letter to
the bank manager to provide you the loan account number so that you can pay the
EMI on time.

4. Write a letter to the bank manager for getting an education loan for your higher
studies.

5. You normally go shopping in the area where you live. However, you think some of
the facilities for shoppers could be improved. Write a letter to your local newspaper.

6. Write a letter to the MLA complaining about the bad conditon of water supply in
your locality.

7. You eat at your college cafeteria every lunchtime. However, you think it needs
some improvements. Write a letter to the college magazine.

8. Last Tuesday you flew from New York to Paris. When you arrived home, you
discovered that you had left your cabin bag on the plane. Write a letter to the
airline.

All the best!

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/sbi-po-mains-2016-descriptive-


test.html#ixzz4aRpzvH77

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,
English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we learnt about the

basiccategorization of Tenses. Now, we will proceed with detailed


explanation of every type of tense - one in a day.

This is the Eighteenth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

TENSES are that part of grammar which drastically changes the


meaning of a sentences. Tenses play a vital role in Communication
otherwise you can do blunders like describing an event which happened in
past as an event of future.

Today we will discuss about Present Perfect


Continuous Tense.
Present Perfect
Continuous Tense -
Most Important Tense
To Learn!
This tense is also known as Present Perfect Progressive Tense. It is used to express a
continued or ongoing action that started in past and is continued until now.

Identification:

This tense will surely have some time reference. Whenever you see 'since' or
'for' the sentence there is possibility that the sentence is in Present Perfect
Continuous.

This tense is basically used for two purposes:

1. To say how long for unfinished actions which started in the past and continue
to the present. We often use this with for and since.

Ex -

I've been living in Delhi for two years.

She's been working here since 1986.

2. Actions which have just stopped (though the whole action can be unfinished)
and have a result, which we can often see, hear, or feel, in the present.
Ex -

I'm so tired, I've been working.

It's been raining, the pavement is wet.

I have been reading this book, it is very interesting.

Identification from Hindi Sentences:

, ,
- ' ', ' ', ' '

Ex -

- I have been studying the book since 3 O'Clock in the


morning.

2 - Ram is playing for 2 hours.

Use of Verb: {has/have + been + Verb (1st form + ing) +


since or for}

The present perfect continuous is made up of two elements:

(i) the present perfect of the verb 'to be' (have/has been),

(ii) the present participle of the main verb (base+ing)


Difference between Present
Perfect Continuous Tense and
Present Continuous Tense

If there is no time reference or sense of time reference in the sentence then it is


not Present perfect continuous tense because there is no hint about the time of
action when it started in past and it seems just an ongoing action at present time
which resembles present Continuous tense. So the reference of time
differentiates between Present perfect continuous tense and Present
continuous tense.

Use of 'For' and 'Since'

1. For: "For" is used before uncertain time e.g. two hours, an hour, few days, five
days, seven days, two months, ten months, One year, ten years, for a long time.

2. Since: "Since" is used before certain time e.g. 2 O'clock, 11 O'clock, 6 PM, 2
AM, Monday, Saturday, Sunday, April, June, October, 1986, 2011, 2002, Since long.,
Yesterday, tomorrow, day after tomorrow, Morning, Evening, Night, Noon, Afternoon,
Birth, beginning, then, when.

In every form of Tense, there are four types


of sentences:

1. Positive/ Affirmative Sentence (simple statement is used)

2. Negative Sentence (no, not is used)

3. Interrogative Sentence (Question is asked)


4. Interrogative - Negative Sentence (Question is asked with no, or not)

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-


vinglish_24.html#ixzz4aRq65xkV

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we learnt about the

basiccategorization of Tenses. Now, we will proceed with detailed


explanation of every type of tense - one in a day.

This is the Nineteenth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

TENSES are that part of grammar which drastically changes the


meaning of a sentences. Tenses play a vital role in Communication
otherwise you can do blunders like describing an event which happened in
past as an event of future.

Today we will discuss about Simple Future


Tense.

Present Simple Future


Tense
This tense is also known as Future Indefinite Tense. The simple future refers to a
time later than now, and expresses facts or certainty. In this case there is no
'attitude'.

Identification:
When a future event is predicted e.g. It will rain tomorrow.

With I or We, to express a spontaneous decision e.g. I'll pay for the
shopping by plastic money.

When willingness is expressed e.g. I'll do the entire work, He'll book the
ticket for you.

In the negative form, to express unwillingness e.g. I will not read this book. I
won't leave until I've seen the manager!

With I in the interrogative form using "shall", to make an offer e.g. Shall I
open the window?

With 'We' in the interrogative form using "shall", to make a suggestion e.g.
Shall we go to the cinema tonight?

With 'I' in the interrogative form using "shall", to ask for advice or
instructions e.g. What shall I tell the boss about this matter?

With 'you', to give orders e.g. You will do exactly as I say.


With 'you' in the interrogative form, to give an invitation e.g. Will you come
for shopping with me? Will you marry me?

Identification from Hindi Sentences:

: / /
:
- Ram will go.
- They will play.
- Sita will go to study.

Use of Verb:
Auxiliary verb will is used in sentence. 1st form of verb(i.e. base verb) is
used as main verb in sentence.

In every form of Tense, there are four types


of sentences:

1. Positive/ Affirmative Sentence (simple statement is used)

2. Negative Sentence (no, not is used)

3. Interrogative Sentence (Question is asked)

4. Interrogative - Negative Sentence (Question is asked with no, or not)

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-


vinglish_25.html#ixzz4aRqIxirz

SBI PO Mains 2016: Descriptive Test Preparation (Letter Writing) Part 2


Dear Students,
Most of the high profile examinations are taking descriptive tests nowadays. But
have you ever thought that WHY ARE THEY TAKING DESCRIPTIVE TESTS? There
are several reasons for which any organisation takes descriptive test of the
candidate. Some of the reasons are:

1) To check the grammatical Knowledge over the English Language of the


candidate.

2) To check whether the candidate is familiar with the basic formats of Letters,
Reports, Essays etc.

3) To check that whether the candidate will be able to submit the reports and
documents in proper way.

4) To check the typing speed of the candidate i.e. how much is the
candidate familiar with the computers.

We have already discussed 'how to write formal letters' in the previous part of

descriptive preparation. Today we will discuss 'How to write an informal


letter?' after revising in short the types of letters.

Basically, there are 2 types of letters:

(I) Formal Letters

(II) Informal Letters

We will discuss about the INFORMAL LETTERS today.

(I) Informal Letters: Informal Letter means write a letter using all easy words,
sentences and normal language. No need to be very much formal. Informal
letters usually using for personal correspondence with very close person. These
letters are written to some relatives, friends, your old teachers etc. for some
personal cause or reason e.g. letter to your high school thanking him for his
teachings because of which you attained great success, Inviting your friend in your
brother's marriage, Suggesting the benefits of bank account to your younger
brother, suggesting the advantages of using internet banking and mobile banking to
your friend etc.. The Addressee in the formal letter is personally known to you.

On a broader sight, informal letters which can be asked in the exam can
be of following types:

(a) Letter to thank any known person for something.

(b) Letter to invite someone on some occasion.

(c) Letters to show concern regarding something.


(d) To suggest someone for the advantages using of something.
(e) To motivate/ inspire someone.
(f) To advice something to someone.
(g) Miscellaneous.

Tips to write informal letters:

You can even use Idioms for close expressions.

You can use Imperatives sentence in the Informal letter. Imperatives are
sentences that start with a verb. Ex - Do your home work, Help your mother
more, Send it soon!

You can use exclamation symbol. Ex - WOW! YES!

Avoid the strong words in the Informal letter

We are providing you two formats to write an informal letter which can be used for
any informal letter, so that you may not get confused in the examination
that which format to use and which not.

Format 1:

1) Keep all the text aligned to the left margin of the page.
2) Start with your own address.

3) Mention the date after your address.


4) Now give a salutation or greeting 'Dear Name'

5) Now start the body of the letter. Remember not to be very formal and
avoid using heavy words.

6) You can also ask about the well being of the person in the 1st
paragraph.
7) In the 2nd paragraph elaborate your topic provide.
8) Conclude with a small 3rd paragraph.

9) End the letter with a valediction like 'Yours Relation' and mention your
name below.

Format 2:
Written as per the format below:

Note: Do not make spelling mistakes, keep in mind the grammar while
forming the sentences. Do not try to use heavy words about which you are
yourself not sure.

Some important topics for practice:

1. Write a letter to your cousin explaining him how to prepare for bank PO
exam.
2. Write a letter to your friend arranging for a get together with his
accepting reply.
3. Write Letter to your father in about 300 words telling her of your
achievements in college.
4. Write a letter to your old teacher to thank him/her for making you a
good human being.
5. A letter to your friend for encouraging and wishing him for SBI PO Exam
which he is writing for the third time.
6. A letter to friend to aware him about the importance and benefit of PPF
(Public Provident Fund) account.
7. Letter to your friend to avoid junk food and inform her/him about its
bad consequences.
8. Write a letter to your friend explaining him benefits of life insurance.
9. Write a letter to your friend sharing experience of selection in SBI PO
Exam.
10.Write a letter to your friend telling him about the benefits of fixed
deposits in bank.

All the best!

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/sbi-po-mains-2016-descriptive-


test25.html#ixzz4aRqTneWS

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.
So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we learnt about the

basiccategorization of Tenses. Now, we will proceed with detailed


explanation of every type of tense - one in a day.

This is the Twentieth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

TENSES are that part of grammar which drastically changes the


meaning of a sentences. Tenses play a vital role in Communication
otherwise you can do blunders like describing an event which happened in
past as an event of future.

Today we will discuss about Future


Continuous Tense.

Future Continuous
Tense
We use the future continuous to talk about something that will be in progress at or
around a time in the future. Future Continuous has two different forms: "will be
doing " and "be going to be doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Continuous
forms are usually interchangeable.

Future Continuous with "Will" [will be + present participle]


Ex-
You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.

Future Continuous with "Be Going To " [am/is/are + going to be + present


participle]
Ex-
You are going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight..

NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future
Continuous with little difference in meaning.

Identification:
These sentences are not about the future but we can use the future continuous to
talk about what we assume is happening at the moment.

Identification from Hindi Sentences:

' ', ' ', ' '


,

- She will be eating.

? - Will you be coming to the party?

2004 - Rohit will be writing letter to Ruby in 2004.

Use of Verb:
Auxiliary verb will be is used in sentence. 1st form of verb + ing (present
participle) is used as main verb in sentence.
Difference from Future Perfect
Tense
The future continuous (will be + ing form) and the future perfect (will have + past
participle) tenses are used to talk about events in the future.

Future Perfect Continuous Tense:


2004 - Rohit will be writing letter to Ruby since
2004.

Future Continuous Tense:

2004 - Rohit will be writing letter to Ruby in 2004.

In every form of Tense, there are four types


of sentences:

1. Positive/ Affirmative Sentence (simple statement is used)

2. Negative Sentence (no, not is used)


3. Interrogative Sentence (Question is asked)

4. Interrogative - Negative Sentence (Question is asked with no, or not)

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-


vinglish_26.html#ixzz4aRqq32Cb

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,
English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we learnt about the

basiccategorization of Tenses. Now, we will proceed with detailed


explanation of every type of tense - one in a day.

This is the 21st post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

TENSES are that part of grammar which drastically changes the meaning of a
sentences. Tenses play a vital role in Communication otherwise you can do blunders
like describing an event which happened in past as an event of future.

Today we will discuss about Future Perfect


Tense.

Future Perfect Tense


Future Perfect Tense indicates that an action will have been completed (finished
or "perfected") at some point in the future. This tense is formed with "will" plus
"have" plus the past participle i.e. 3rd form of the verb (which can be either
regular or irregular in form). When we use this tense we are projecting ourselves
forward into the future and looking back at an action that will be completed some
time later than now. It is most often used with a time expression.
Ex-
I shall have studied.
They shall have their dinner by nine.
By six pm tonight I will have finished this book

Identification:
The future perfect is made with the future simple of 'have' (will have) and the
past participle. For regular past participles add 'ed' to the verb.

Identification from Hindi Sentences:

' ', ', .



. .

Ex-

- They will have gone to play.

- Sita shall have gone to study.

- I shall have walked for 3 hours.

Use of Verb:
The future perfect is composed of two elements:
the simple future of the verb "to have" (will have) + the past participle of the
main verb
In every form of Tense, there are four types
of sentences:

1. Positive/ Affirmative Sentence (simple statement is used)

2. Negative Sentence (no, not is used)

3. Interrogative Sentence (Question is asked)

4. Interrogative - Negative Sentence (Question is asked with no, or not)

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/07/english-


vinglish_29.html#ixzz4aRqz4bf9

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we learnt about the

basiccategorization of Tenses. Now, we will proceed with detailed


explanation of every type of tense - one in a day.
This is the 22nd post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

TENSES are that part of grammar which drastically changes the meaning of a
sentences. Tenses play a vital role in Communication otherwise you can do blunders
like describing an event which happened in past as an event of future.

Today we will discuss about Future Perfect


Continuous Tense.

Future Perfect
Continuous Tense
The Future Perfect Continuous tense is like the Future Perfect tense, but it
expresses longer actions or states extending up to some specific event or
time in the future.

Ex-

1. When I finish this course, I will have been learning English for twenty years.
2. Next year I will have been working here for four years.
3. She will have been playing football since 2015.

Identification:
Future Perfect Continuous has two different forms: "will have been doing " and
"be going to have been doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect
Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.
Identification from Hindi Sentences:


' ', ' ',
' '

Ex -

1. I will have been walking for three hours.

2. 2004 - Rohit will have been writing letter to


Ruby since 2004.

3. - Madhu will have been going to


electricity office for three weeks.

Use of Verb:
An auxiliary verb will have been is used in sentence. 1st form of verb (base
verb) +ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence. Since or for
is used before the time reference in sentence.

In every form of Tense, there are four types


of sentences:

1. Positive/ Affirmative Sentence (simple statement is used)

2. Negative Sentence (no, not is used)

3. Interrogative Sentence (Question is asked)

4. Interrogative - Negative Sentence (Question is asked with no, or not)


Subject + will have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/08/english-


vinglish.html#ixzz4aRrLDGku

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we are done with
Tenses. now we will learn the basics of VERB.

This is the 23rd post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!


Selecting the correct verb tense and conjugating verbs correctly is tricky in English.
A verb is a word that is used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and it
forms the main part of a sentence.

Verbs are a necessary component of all sentences. Verbs have two important
functions: Some verbs put stalled subjects into motion while other verbs
help to clarify the subjects in meaningful ways. Verbs carry the idea of
being or action in the sentence.
The important thing to remember is that every subject in a sentence must have
a verb. Otherwise, you will have written a fragment, a major writing error.

Often, prefixes and suffixes (affixes) will signify that a word is a verb. For
example, the suffixes -ify, -ize, -ate, or -en usually signify that a word is a
verb, as in typify, characterize, irrigate,and sweeten. Prefixes such as be-,
de-, or en- may signify that a word is a verb, as in bestow, dethrone, and
encourage.

Many words in English have more than one function. Sometimes a word is
a noun, sometimes a verb, sometimes a modifier. As a result, you must
often analyze the job a word is doing in the sentence.

Verbs in English have four basic parts:

Base form -ing form Past tense Past


participle

work working worked Worked

play playing played Played


listen listening listened listened

Most verbs have past tense and past participle in ed (worked, played, listened). But
many of the most frequent verbs are irregular.

Irregular Verbs:

Most verbs have past tense and past participle in ed ( worked, played, listened).
But many of the most frequent verbs are irregular. Some of the examples are as
below:

Base form Past Past


tense participle

be was/were been

begin began begun

break broke broken

bring brought brought

buy bought bought

build built built

choose chose chosen

come came come

cost cost cost

cut cut cut

do did done

draw drew drawn

drive drove driven

eat ate eaten


feel felt felt

find found found

get got got

give gave given

go went gone

have had had

hear heard heard

hold held held

keep kept kept

know knew known

leave left left

lead led led

let let let

lie lay lain

lose lost lost

make made made

mean meant meant

meet met met

pay paid paid

put put put

run ran run

say said said

see saw seen

sell sold sold

send sent sent


set
set set
sit
sat sat
speak
spoke spoken
spend
spent spent
stand
stood stood
take
took taken
teach
taught taught
tell
told told
think
thought thought
understan
understood understood
d
wore worn
wear
won won
win
wrote written
write

Tomorrow we will discuss more


about "Verbs"
Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/08/english-
vinglish_2.html#ixzz4aRrXH0NF

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,
English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we are done
with Tenses. now we will learn the basics of VERB.

This is the 24th post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!


It becomes difficult to remember the forms of verb if you are a beginner. Although
the perfection comes with practicing a lot for a long time. But still, we are providing
you some frequently used verb in categorized way so that you may remember fast
and hence learn fast. The categorizations will be as below:

(I) Verbs in which all three forms are identical

(II) Verbs in which two forms are identical

(III) Verbs with -ed, -en forms

(III) Irregular Verbs

Today we will learn some verbs in which all three forms are identical:

Base Form Past Form Past Participle ing form


Form

Bet Bet Bet Betting

Bid Bid Bid Bidding

Burst Burst Burst Bursting

Bust Bust Bust Busting

Cast Cast Cast Casting

Cut Cut Cut Cutting

Hit Hit Hit Hitting

Hurt Hurt Hurt Hurting

Let Let Let Letting

Put Put Put Putting

Quit Quit Quit Quitting

Read Read Read Reading

Set Set Set Setting

Shed Shed Shed Shedding

Shut Shut Shut Shutting

Slit Slit Slit Slitting

Sublet Sublet Sublet Subletting

Thrust Thrust Thrust Thrusting

Upset Upset Upset Upsetting

Tomorrow we will learn some more 'Verbs'


Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/08/english-
vinglish_3.html#ixzz4aRrfHVEm

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we are done
with Tenses. now we will learn the basics of VERB.

This is the 25th post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

It becomes difficult to remember the forms of verb if you are a beginner. Although
the perfection comes with practicing a lot for a long time. But still, we are providing
you some frequently used verb in categorized way so that you may remember fast
and hence learn fast. The categorizations will be as below:

(I) Verbs in which all three forms are identical


(II) Verbs in which two forms are identical

(III) Verbs with -ed, -en forms

(III) Irregular Verbs

Today we will learn some verbs in which two forms are identical:

Base Form Past Form Past Participle Form ing form

Alight Alit/Alighted Alit/Alighted Alighting

Become Became Become Becoming

Behold Beheld Beheld Beholding

Bend Bent Bent Bending

Bleed Bled Bled Bleeding

Bind Bound Bound Binding

Bring Brought Brought Bringing

Breed Bred Bred Breeding

Broadcast Broadcast/Broadcasted Broadcast/Broadcasted Broadcasting

Build Built Built Building

Burn Burnt/Burned Burnt/Burned Burning

Buy Bought Bought Buying

Catch Caught Caught Catching

Clap Clapped/Clapt Clapped/Clapt Clapping

Clothe Clad/Clothed Clad/Clothed Clothing

Come Came Come Coming

Cost Cost Cost Costing


Creep Crept Crept Creeping

Dare Dared Dared Daring

Deal Dealt Dealt Dealing

Dig Dug Dug Digging

Dream Dreamt/Dreamed Dreamt/Dreamed Dreaming

Dwell Dwelt Dwelt Dwelling

Feed Fed Fed Feeding

Feel Felt Felt Feeling

Fight Fought Fought Fighting

Find Found Found Finding

Fit Fit/Fitted Fit/Fitted Fitting

Flee Fled Fled Fleeing

Fling Flung Flung Flinging

Foretell Foretold Foretold Foretelling

Forecast Forecast/Forecasted Forecast/Forecasted Forecasting

Get Got Got/Gotten Getting

Grind Ground Ground Grinding

Hang Hung/Hanged Hung/Hanged Hanging

Have Had Had Having

Hear Heard Heard Hearing

Hold Held Held Holding

Inlay Inlaid Inlaid Inlaying

Input Input/Inputted Input/Inputted Inputting


Interlay Interlaid Interlaid Interlaying

Keep Kept Kept Keeping

Kneel Knelt/Kneeled Knelt/Kneeled Kneeling

Knit Knit/Knitted Knit/Knitted Knitting

Lay Laid Laid laying

Lead Led Led Leading

Lean Leant/Leaned Leant/Leaned Leaning

Leap Leapt/Leaped Leapt/Leaped Leaping

Learn Learnt/Learned Learnt/Learned Learning

Lend Lent Lent Lending

Leave Left Left Leaving

Lie Lied Lied lying

Light Lit Lit Lighting

Lose Lost Lost Losing

Make Made Made Making

Mean Meant Meant Meaning

Meet Met Met Meeting

Melt Melted Molten/Melted Melting

Mislead Misled Misled Misleading

Misunderstand Misunderstood Misunderstood Misunderstanding

Miswed Miswed/Miswedded Miswed/Miswedded Miswedding

Overhear Overheard Overheard Overhearing

Pay Paid Paid Paying


Preset Preset Preset Presetting

Prove Proved Proven/Proved Proving

Rid Rid/Ridded Rid/Ridded Ridding

Run Ran Run Running

Say Said Said Saying

Seek Sought Sought Seeking

Sell Sold Sold Selling

Send Sent Sent Sending

Shear Shore/Sheared Shorn/Sheared Shearing

Shine Shone Shone Shining

Shoe Shod Shod Shoeing

Shoot Shot Shot Shooting

Sit Sat Sat Sitting

Sleep Slept Slept Sleeping

Sling Slung Slung Slinging

Slink Slunk Slunk Slinking

Smell Smelt/Smelled Smelt/Smelled Smelling

Sneak Sneaked/Snuck Sneaked/Snuck Sneaking

Soothsay Soothsaid Soothsaid Soothsaying

Speed Sped/Speeded Sped/Speeded Speeding

Spell Spelt/Spelled Spelt/Spelled Spelling

Spend Spent Spent Spending

Spill Spilt/Spilled Spilt/Spilled Spilling


String Strung Strung Stringing

Strip Stript/Stripped Stript/Stripped Stripping

Stick Stuck Stuck Sticking

Sting Stung Stung Stinging

Stink Stank Stunk Stinking

Sweat Sweat/Sweated Sweat/Sweated Sweating

Sweep Swept/Sweeped Swept/Sweeped Sweeping

Sunburn Sunburned/Sunburnt Sunburned/Sunburnt Sunburning

Swing Swung Swung Swinging

Teach Taught Taught Teaching

Tell Told Told Telling

Think Thought Thought Thinking

Tear Tore Torn Tearing

Understand Understood Understood Understanding

Vex Vext/Vexed Vext/Vexed Vexing

Wed Wed/Wedded Wed/Wedded Wedding

Weep Wept Wept Weeping

Wend Wended/Went Wended/Went Wending

Wet Wet/Wetted Wet/Wetted Wetting

Win Won Won Winning

Wind Wound Wound Winding

Withstand Withstood Withstood Withstanding

Wring Wrung Wrung Wringing


Withhold Withheld Withheld Withholding

Zinc Zinced/Zincked Zinced/Zincked Zincking

Tomorrow we will learn some


more "Verbs"

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/08/english-


vinglish4.html#ixzz4aRrowODX

riday, 5 August 2016


ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we are done
with Tenses. now we will learn the basics of VERB.

This is the 26th post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.
So, lets start now!!

It becomes difficult to remember the forms of verb if you are a beginner. Although
the perfection comes with practicing a lot for a long time. But still, we are providing
you some frequently used verb in categorized way so that you may remember fast
and hence learn fast. Till now we studied different verbs of different categories viz:

(I) Verbs in which all three forms are identical

(II) Verbs in which all two forms are identical

(III) Verbs with -ed, -en forms

(III) Irregular Verbs

Now we will learn 1000 words which have -ed, -en in their past forms :

PART I:

Past Form Past Participle


S.No. Base Form s / es/ ies ing form
Form (V3 )
(V2 )

1 abash abashed abashed abashes abashing

2 abate abated abated abates abating

3 abide abode abode abides abiding

4 absorb absorbed absorbed absorbs absorbing

5 accept accepted accepted accepts accepting

6 accompany accompanied accompanied accompanies accompanying

7 ache ached ached aches aching

8 achieve achieved achieved achieves achieving

9 acquire acquired acquired acquires acquiring


10 act acted acted acts acting

11 add added added adds adding

12 address addressed addressed addresses addressing

13 adjust adjusted adjusted adjusts adjusting

14 admire admired admired admires admiring

15 admit admitted admitted admits admitting

16 advise advised advised advises advising

17 afford afforded afforded affords affording

18 agree agreed agreed agrees agreeing

19 alight alit alit alights alighting

20 allow allowed allowed allows allowing

21 animate animated animated animates animating

22 announce announced announced announces announcing

23 answer answered answered answers answering

24 apologize apologized apologized apologizes apologizing

25 appear appeared appeared appears appearing

26 applaud applauded applauded applauds applauding

27 apply applied applied applies applying

28 approach approached approached approaches approaching

29 approve approved approved approves approving

30 argue argued argued argues arguing

31 arise arose arisen arises arising


32 arrange arranged arranged arranges arranging

33 arrest arrested arrested arrests arresting

34 ask asked asked asks asking

35 assert asserted asserted asserts asserting

36 assort assorted assorted assorts assorting

37 astonish astonished astonished astonishes astonishing

38 attack attacked attacked attacks attacking

39 attend attended attended attends attending

40 attract attracted attracted attracts attracting

41 audit audited audited audits auditing

42 avoid avoided avoided avoids avoiding

43 awake awoke awoken awakes awaking

44 bang banged banged bangs banging

45 banish banished banished banishes banishing

46 bash bashed bashed bashes bashing

47 bat batted batted bats batting

48 be (am,are) was / were been is being

49 bear bore born bears bearing

50 bear bore borne bears bearing

51 beat beat beaten beats beating

52 beautify beautified beautified beautifies beautifying


53 become became become becomes becoming

54 befall befell befallen befalls befalling

55 beg begged begged begs begging

56 begin began begun begins beginning

57 behave behaved behaved behaves behaving

58 behold beheld beheld beholds beholding

59 believe believed believed believes believing

60 belong belonged belonged belongs belonging

61 bend bent bent bends bending

62 bereave bereft bereft bereaves bereaving

63 beseech besought besought beseeches beseeching

64 bet bet bet bets betting

65 betray betrayed betrayed betrays betraying

66 bid bade bidden bids bidding

67 bid bid bid bids bidding

68 bind bound bound binds binding

69 bite bit bitten bites biting

70 bleed bled bled bleeds bleeding

71 bless blessed blessed blesses blessing

72 blossom blossomed blossomed blossoms blossoming

73 blow blew blown blows blowing


74 blur blurred blurred blurs blurring

75 blush blushed blushed blushes blushing

76 board boarded boarded boards boarding

77 boast boasted boasted boasts boasting

78 boil boiled boiled boils boiling

79 bow bowed bowed bows bowing

80 box boxed boxed boxes boxing

81 bray brayed brayed brays braying

82 break broke broken breaks breaking

83 breathe breathed breathed breathes breathing

84 breed bred bred breeds breeding

85 bring brought brought brings bringing

86 broadcast broadcast broadcast broadcasts broadcasting

87 brush brushed brushed brushes brushing

88 build built built builds building

89 burn burnt burnt burns burning

90 burst burst burst bursts bursting

91 bury buried buried buries burying

92 bust bust bust busts busting

93 buy bought bought buys buying

94 buzz buzzed buzzed buzzes buzzing


95 calculate calculated calculated calculates calculating

96 call called called calls calling

97 canvass canvassed canvassed canvasses canvassing

98 capture captured captured captures capturing

99 caress caressed caressed caresses caressing

100 carry carried carried carries carrying

101 carve carved carved carves carving

102 cash cashed cashed cashes cashing

103 cast cast cast casts casting

104 catch caught caught catches catching

105 cause caused caused causes causing

106 cease ceased ceased ceases ceasing

107 celebrate celebrated celebrated celebrates celebrating

108 challenge challenged challenged challenges challenging

109 change changed changed changes changing

110 charge charged charged charges charging

111 chase chased chased chases chasing

112 chat chatted chatted chats chatting

113 check checked checked checks checking

114 cheer cheered cheered cheers cheering

115 chew chewed chewed chews chewing


116 chide chid chid/chidden chides chiding

117 chip chipped chipped chips chipping

118 choke choked choked chokes choking

119 choose chose chosen chooses choosing

120 classify classified classified classifies classifying

121 clean cleaned cleaned cleans cleaning

122 cleave clove/cleft cloven/cleft cleaves cleaving

123 click clicked clicked clicks clicking

124 climb climbed climbed climbs climbing

125 cling clung clung clings clinging

126 close closed closed closes closing

127 clothe clad clad clothes clothing

128 clutch clutched clutched clutches clutching

129 collapse collapsed collapsed collapses collapsing

130 collect collected collected collects collecting

131 colour coloured coloured colours colouring

132 come came come comes coming

133 comment commented commented comments commenting

134 compare compared compared compares comparing

135 compel compelled compelled compels compelling

136 compete competed competed competes competing


137 complain complained complained complains complaining

138 complete completed completed completes completing

139 conclude concluded concluded concludes concluding

140 conduct conducted conducted conducts conducting

141 confess confessed confessed confesses confessing

142 confine confined confined confines confining

143 confiscate confiscated confiscated confiscates confiscating

144 confuse confused confused confuses confusing

145 congratulate congratulated congratulated congratulates congratulating

146 connect connected connected connects connecting

147 connote connoted connoted connotes connoting

148 conquer conquered conquered conquers conquering

149 consecrate consecrated consecrated consecrates consecrating

150 consent consented consented consents consenting

151 conserve conserved conserved conserves conserving

152 consider considered considered considers considering

153 consign consigned consigned consigns consigning

154 consist consisted consisted consists consisting

155 console consoled consoled consoles consoling

156 consort consorted consorted consorts consorting

157 conspire conspired conspired conspires conspiring


158 constitute constituted constituted constitutes constituting

159 constrain constrained constrained constrains constraining

160 construct constructed constructed constructs constructing

161 construe construed construed construes construing

162 consult consulted consulted consults consulting

163 contain contained contained contains containing

164 contemn contemned contemned contemns contemning

165 contend contended contended contends contending

166 contest contested contested contests contesting

167 continue continued continued continues continuing

168 contract contracted contracted contracts contracting

169 contradict contradicted contradicted contradicts contradicting

170 contrast contrasted contrasted contrasts contrasting

171 contribute contributed contributed contributes contributing

172 contrive contrived contrived contrives contriving

173 control controlled controlled controls controlling

174 convene convened convened convenes convening

175 converge converged converged converges converging

176 converse conversed conversed converses conversing

177 convert converted converted converts converting

178 convey conveyed conveyed conveys conveying


179 convict convicted convicted convicts convicting

180 convince convinced convinced convinces convincing

181 coo cooed cooed coos cooing

182 cook cooked cooked cooks cooking

183 cool cooled cooled cools cooling

184 co-operate co-operated co-operated co-operates co-operating

185 cope coped cope copes coping

186 copy copied copied copies copying

187 correct corrected corrected corrects correcting

188 correspond corresponded corresponded corresponds corresponding

189 corrode corroded corroded corrodes corroding

190 corrupt corrupted corrupted corrupts corrupting

191 cost cost cost costs costing

192 cough coughed coughed coughs coughing

193 counsel counselled counselled counsels counselling

194 count counted counted counts counting

195 course coursed coursed courses coursing

196 cover covered covered covers covering

197 cower cowered cowered cowers cowering

198 crack cracked cracked cracks cracking

199 crackle crackled crackled crackles crackling


200 crash crashed crashed crashes crashing

201 crave craved craved craves craving

202 create created created creates creating

203 creep crept crept creeps creeping

204 crib cribbed cribbed cribs cribbing

205 cross crossed crossed crosses crossing

206 crowd crowded crowded crowds crowding

207 crush crushed crushed crushes crushing

208 cry cried cried cries crying

209 curb curbed curbed curbs curbing

210 cure cured cured cures curing

211 curve curved curved curves curving

212 cut cut cut cuts cutting

213 cycle cycled cycled cycles cycling

214 damage damaged damaged damages damaging

215 damp damped damped damps damping

216 dance danced danced dances dancing

217 dare dared dared dares daring

218 dash dashed dashed dashes dashing

219 dazzle dazzled dazzled dazzles dazzling

220 deal dealt dealt deals dealing


221 decay decayed decayed decays decaying

222 decide decided decided decides deciding

223 declare declared declared declares declaring

224 decorate decorated decorated decorates decorating

225 decrease decreased decreased decreases decreasing

226 dedicate dedicated dedicated dedicates dedicating

227 delay delayed delayed delays delaying

228 delete deleted deleted deletes deleting

229 deny denied denied denies denying

230 depend depended depended depends depending

231 deprive deprived deprived deprives depriving

232 derive derived derived derives deriving

233 describe described described describes describing

234 desire desired desired desires desiring

235 destroy destroyed destroyed destroys destroying

236 detach detached detached detaches detaching

237 detect detected detected detects detecting

238 determine determined determined determines determining

239 develop developed developed develops developing

240 die died died dies dying

241 differ differed differed differs differing


242 dig dug dug digs digging

243 digest digested digested digests digesting

244 dim dimmed dimmed dims dimming

245 diminish diminished diminished diminishes diminishing

246 dine dined dined dines dining

247 dip dipped dipped dips dipping

248 direct directed directed directs directing

249 disappear disappeared disappeared disappears disappearing

250 discover discovered discovered discovers discovering

251 discuss discussed discussed discusses discussing

252 disobey disobeyed disobeyed disobeys disobeying

253 display displayed displayed displays displaying

254 dispose disposed disposed disposes disposing

255 distribute distributed distributed distributes distributing

256 disturb disturbed disturbed disturbs disturbing

257 disuse disused disused disuses disusing

258 dive dived dived dives diving

259 divide divided divided divides dividing

260 do did done does doing

261 donate donated donated donates donating

262 download downloaded downloaded downloads downloading


263 drag dragged dragged drags dragging

264 draw drew drawn draws drawing

265 dream dreamt dreamt dreams dreaming

266 dress dressed dressed dresses dressing

267 drill drilled drilled drills drilling

268 drink drank drunk drinks drinking

269 drive drove driven drives driving

270 drop dropped dropped drops dropping

271 dry dried dried dries drying

272 dump dumped dumped dumps dumping

273 dwell dwelt dwelt dwells dwelling

274 dye dyed dyed dyes dyeing

275 earn earned earned earns earning

276 eat ate eaten eats eating

277 educate educated educated educates educating

278 empower empowered empowered empowers empowering

279 empty emptied emptied empties emptying

280 encircle encircled encircled encircles encircling

281 encourage encouraged encouraged encourages encouraging

282 encroach encroached encroached encroaches encroaching

283 endanger endangered endangered endangers entangling


284 endorse endorsed endorsed endorses endorsing

285 endure endured endured endures enduring

286 engrave engraved engraved engraves engraving

287 enjoy enjoyed enjoyed enjoys enjoying

288 enlarge enlarged enlarged enlarges enlarging

289 enlighten enlightened enlightened enlightens enlightening

290 enter entered entered enters entering

291 envy envied envied envies envying

292 erase erased erased erases erasing

293 escape escaped escaped escapes escaping

294 evaporate evaporated evaporated evaporates evaporating

295 exchange exchanged exchanged exchanges exchanging

296 exclaim exclaimed exclaimed exclaims exclaiming

297 exclude excluded excluded excludes excluding

298 exist existed existed exists existing

299 expand expanded expanded expands expanding

300 expect expected expected expects expecting

301 explain explained explained explains explaining

302 explore explored explored explores exploring

303 express expressed expressed expresses expressing

304 extend extended extended extends extending


305 eye eyed eyed eyes eyeing

306 face faced faced faces facing

307 fail failed failed fails failing

308 faint fainted fainted faints fainting

309 fall fell fallen falls falling

310 fan fanned fanned fans fanning

311 fancy fancied fancied fancies fancying

312 favour favoured favoured favours favouring

313 fax faxed faxed faxes faxing

314 feed fed fed feeds feeding

315 feel felt felt feels feeling

316 ferry ferried ferried ferries ferrying

317 fetch fetched fetched fetches fetching

318 fight fought fought fights fighting

319 fill filled filled fills filling

320 find found found finds finding

321 finish finished finished finishes finishing

322 fish fished fished fishes fishing

323 fit fit/fitted fit/fitted fits fitting

324 fix fixed fixed fixes fixing

325 fizz fizzed fizzed fizzes fizzing


326 flap flapped flapped flaps flapping

327 flash flashed flashed flashes flashing

328 flee fled fled flees fleeing

329 fling flung flung flings flinging

330 float floated floated floats floating

331 flop flopped flopped flops flopping

332 fly flew flown flies flying

333 fold folded folded folds folding

334 follow followed followed follows following

335 forbid forbade forbidden forbids forbidding

336 force forced forced forces forcing

337 forecast forecast forecast forecasts forecasting

338 foretell foretold foretold foretells foretelling

339 forget forgot forgotten forgets forgetting

340 forgive forgave forgiven forgives forgiving

341 forlese forlore forlorn forlese forlesing

342 form formed formed forms forming

343 forsake forsook forsaken forsakes forsaking

344 found founded founded founds founding

345 frame framed framed frames framing

346 free freed freed frees freeing


347 freeze froze frozen freezes freezing

348 frighten frightened frightened frightens frightening

349 fry fried fried fries frying

350 fulfil fulfilled fulfilled fulfils fulfilling

351 gag gagged gagged gags gagging

352 gain gained gained gains gaining

353 gainsay gainsaid gainsaid gainsays gainsaying

354 gash gashed gashed gashes gashing

355 gaze gazed gazed gazes gazing

356 get got got gets getting

357 give gave given gives giving

358 glance glanced glanced glances glancing

359 glitter glittered glittered glitters glittering

360 glow glowed glowed glows glowing

361 go went gone goes going

362 google googled googled googles googling

363 govern governed governed governs governing

364 grab grabbed grabbed grabs grabbing

365 grade graded graded grades grading

366 grant granted granted grants granting

367 greet greeted greeted greets greeting


368 grind ground ground grinds grinding

369 grip gripped gripped grips gripping

370 grow grew grown grows growing

371 guard guarded guarded guards guarding

372 guess guessed guessed guesses guessing

373 guide guided guided guides guiding

374 handle handled handled handles handling

375 hang hung hung hangs hanging

376 happen happened happened happens happening

377 harm harmed harmed harms harming

378 hatch hatched hatched hatches hatching

379 hate hated hated hates hating

380 have had had has having

381 heal healed healed heals healing

382 hear heard heard hears hearing

383 heave hove hove heaves heaving

384 help helped helped helps helping

385 hew hewed hewn hews hewing

386 hide hid hidden hides hiding

387 hinder hindered hindered hinders hindering

388 hiss hissed hissed hisses hissing


389 hit hit hit hits hitting

390 hoax hoaxed hoaxed hoaxes hoaxing

391 hold held held holds holding

392 hop hopped hopped hops hopping

393 hope hoped hoped hopes hoping

394 horrify horrified horrified horrifies horrifying

395 hug hugged hugged hugs hugging

396 hum hummed hummed hums humming

397 humiliate humiliated humiliated humiliates humiliating

398 hunt hunted hunted hunts hunting

399 hurl hurled hurled hurls hurling

400 hurry hurried hurried hurries hurrying

Tomorrow we will learn some more verbs


ending with "ed, es"
Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/08/english-
vinglish_5.html#ixzz4aRs0zR14

Saturday, 6 August 2016


ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,
English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we are done
with Tenses. now we will learn the basics of VERB.

This is the 27th post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

It becomes difficult to remember the forms of verb if you are a beginner. Although
the perfection comes with practicing a lot for a long time. But still, we are providing
you some frequently used verb in categorized way so that you may remember fast
and hence learn fast. Till now we studied different verbs of different categories viz:

(I) Verbs in which all three forms are identical

(II) Verbs in which all two forms are identical

(III) Verbs with -ed, -en forms

(III) Irregular Verbs

Now we will learn 1000 words which have -ed, -en in their past forms :

PART II:
Past Form Past Participle
S.No. Base Form s / es/ ies ing form
Form (V3 )
(V2 )

401 hurt hurt hurt hurts hurting

402 hush hushed hushed hushes hushing

403 hustle hustled hustled hustles hustling

404 hypnotize hypnotized hypnotized hypnotizes hypnotizing

405 idealize idealized idealized idealizes idealizing

406 identify identified identified identifies identifying

407 idolize idolized idolized idolizes idolizing

408 ignite ignited ignited ignites igniting

409 ignore ignored ignored ignores ignoring

410 ill-treat ill-treated ill-treated ill-treats ill-treating

411 illuminate illuminated illuminated illuminates illuminating

412 illumine illumined illumined illumines illumining

413 illustrate illustrated illustrated illustrates illustrating

414 imagine imagined imagined imagines imagining

415 imbibe imbibed imbibed imbibes imbibing

416 imitate imitated imitated imitates imitating

417 immerse immersed immersed immerses immersing

418 immolate immolated immolated immolates immolating

419 immure immured immured immures immuring


420 impair impaired impaired impairs impairing

421 impart imparted imparted imparts imparting

422 impeach impeached impeached impeaches impeaching

423 impede impeded impeded impedes impeding

424 impel impelled impelled impels impelling

425 impend impended impended impends impending

426 imperil imperilled imperilled imperils imperilling

427 impinge impinged impinged impinges impinging

428 implant implanted implanted implants implanting

429 implicate implicated implicated implicates implicating

430 implode imploded imploded implodes imploding

431 implore implored implored implores imploring

432 imply implied implied implies implying

433 import imported imported imports importing

434 impose imposed imposed imposes imposing

435 impress impressed impressed impresses impressing

436 imprint imprinted imprinted imprints imprinting

437 imprison imprisoned imprisoned imprisons imprisoning

438 improve improved improved improves improving

439 inaugurate inaugurated inaugurated inaugurates inaugurating

440 incise incised incised incises incising

441 include included included includes including


442 increase increased increased increases increasing

443 inculcate inculcated inculcated inculcates inculcating

444 indent indented indented indents indenting

445 indicate indicated indicated indicates indicating

446 induce induced induced induces inducing

447 indulge indulged indulged indulges indulging

448 infect infected infected infects infecting

449 infest infested infested infests infesting

450 inflame inflamed inflamed inflames inflaming

451 inflate inflated inflated inflates inflating

452 inflect inflected inflected inflects inflecting

453 inform informed informed informs informing

454 infringe infringed infringed infringes infringing

455 infuse infused infused infuses infusing

456 ingest ingested ingested ingests ingesting

457 inhabit inhabited inhabited inhabits inhabiting

458 inhale inhaled inhaled inhales inhaling

459 inherit inherited inherited inherits inheriting

460 initiate initiated initiated initiates initiating

461 inject injected injected injects injecting

462 injure injured injured injures injuring


463 inlay inlaid inlaid inlays inlaying

464 innovate innovated innovated innovates innovating

465 input input input inputs inputting

466 inquire inquired inquired inquires inquiring

467 inscribe inscribed inscribed inscribes inscribing

468 insert inserted inserted inserts inserting

469 inspect inspected inspected inspects inspecting

470 inspire inspired inspired inspires inspiring

471 install installed installed installs installing

472 insult insulted insulted insults insulting

473 insure insured insured insures insuring

474 integrate integrated integrated integrates integrating

475 introduce introduced introduced introduces introducing

476 invent invented invented invents inventing

477 invite invited invited invites inviting

478 join joined joined joins joining

479 jump jumped jumped jumps jumping

480 justify justified justified justifies justifying

481 keep kept kept keeps keeping

482 kick kicked kicked kicks kicking

483 kid kidded kidded kids kidding


484 kill killed killed kills killing

485 kiss kissed kissed kisses kissing

486 kneel knelt knelt kneels kneeling

487 knit knit knit knits knitting

488 knock knocked knocked knocks knocking

489 know knew known knows knowing

490 lade laded laden lades lading

491 land landed landed lands landing

492 last lasted lasted lasts lasting

493 latch latched latched latches latching

494 laugh laughed laughed laughs laughing

495 lay laid laid lays laying

496 lead led led leads leading

497 leak leaked leaked leaks leaking

498 lean leant leant leans leaning

499 leap leapt leapt leaps leaping

500 learn learnt learnt learns learning

501 leave left left leaves leaving

502 leer leered leered leers leering

503 lend lent lent lends lending

504 let let let lets letting


505 lick licked licked licks licking

506 lie lay lain lies lying

507 lie lied lied lies lying

508 lift lifted lifted lifts lifting

509 light lit lit lights lighting

510 like liked liked likes liking

511 limp limped limped limps limping

512 listen listened listened listens listening

513 live lived lived lives living

514 look looked looked looks looking

515 lose lost lost loses losing

516 love loved loved loves loving

517 magnify magnified magnified magnifies magnifying

518 maintain maintained maintained maintains maintaining

519 make made made makes making

520 manage managed managed manages managing

521 march marched marched marches marching

522 mark marked marked marks marking

523 marry married married marries marrying

524 mash mashed mashed mashes mashing

525 match matched matched matches matching


526 matter mattered mattered matters mattering

527 mean meant meant means meaning

528 measure measured measured measures measuring

529 meet met met meets meeting

530 melt melted melted melts melting

531 merge merged merged merges merging

532 mew mewed mewed mews mewing

533 migrate migrated migrated migrates migrating

534 milk milked milked milks milking

535 mind minded minded minds minding

536 mislead misled misled misleads misleading

537 miss missed missed misses missing

538 mistake mistook mistaken mistakes mistaking

539 misuse misused misused misuses misusing

540 mix mixed mixed mixes mixing

541 moan moaned moaned moans moaning

542 modify modified modified modifies modifying

543 moo mooed mooed moos mooing

544 motivate motivated motivated motivates motivating

545 mould moulded moulded moulds moulding

546 moult moulted moulted moults moulting


547 move moved moved moves moving

548 mow mowed mown mows mowing

549 multiply multiplied multiplied multiplies multiplying

550 murmur murmured murmured murmurs murmuring

551 nail nailed nailed nails nailing

552 nap napped napped naps napping

553 need needed needed needs needing

554 neglect neglected neglected neglects neglecting

555 nip nipped nipped nips nipping

556 nod nodded nodded nods nodding

557 note noted noted notes noting

558 notice noticed noticed notices noticing

559 notify notified notified notifies notifying

560 nourish nourished nourished nourishes nourishing

561 nurse nursed nursed nurses nursing

562 obey obeyed obeyed obeys obeying

563 oblige obliged obliged obliges obliging

564 observe observed observed observes observing

565 obstruct obstructed obstructed obstructs obstructing

566 obtain obtained obtained obtains obtaining

567 occupy occupied occupied occupies occupying


568 occur occurred occurred occurs occurring

569 offer offered offered offers offering

570 offset offset offset offsets offsetting

571 omit omitted omitted omits omitting

572 ooze oozed oozed oozes oozing

573 open opened opened opens opening

574 operate operated operated operates operating

575 opine opined opined opines opining

576 oppress oppressed oppressed oppresses oppressing

577 opt opted opted opts opting

578 optimize optimized optimized optimizes optimizing

579 order ordered ordered orders ordering

580 organize organized organized organizes organizing

581 originate originated originated originates originating

582 output output output outputs outputting

583 overflow overflowed overflowed overflows overflowing

584 overtake overtook overtaken overtakes overtaking

585 owe owed owed owes owing

586 own owned owned owns owning

587 pacify pacified pacified pacifies pacifying

588 paint painted painted paints painting


589 pardon pardoned pardoned pardons pardoning

590 part parted parted parts parting

591 partake partook partaken partakes partaking

592 participate participated participated participates participating

593 pass passed passed passes passing

594 paste pasted pasted pastes pasting

595 pat patted patted pats patting

596 patch patched patched patches patching

597 pause paused paused pauses pausing

598 pay paid paid pays paying

599 peep peeped peeped peeps peeping

600 perish perished perished perishes perishing

601 permit permitted permitted permits permitting

602 persuade persuaded persuaded persuades persuading

603 phone phoned phoned phones phoning

604 place placed placed places placing

605 plan planned planned plans planning

606 play played played plays playing

607 plead pled pled pleads pleading

608 please pleased pleased pleases pleasing

609 plod plodded plodded plods plodding


610 plot plotted plotted plots plotting

611 pluck plucked plucked plucks plucking

612 ply plied plied plies plying

613 point pointed pointed points pointing

614 polish polished polished polishes polishing

615 pollute polluted polluted pollutes polluting

616 ponder pondered pondered ponders pondering

617 pour poured poured pours pouring

618 pout pouted pouted pouts pouting

619 practise practised practised practises practising

620 praise praised praised praises praising

621 pray prayed prayed prays praying

622 preach preached preached preaches preaching

623 prefer preferred preferred prefers preferring

624 prepare prepared prepared prepares preparing

625 prescribe prescribed prescribed prescribes prescribing

626 present presented presented presents presenting

627 preserve preserved preserved preserves preserving

628 preset preset preset presets presetting

629 preside presided presided presides presiding

630 press pressed pressed presses pressing


631 pretend pretended pretended pretends pretending

632 prevent prevented prevented prevents preventing

633 print printed printed prints printing

634 proceed proceeded proceeded proceeds proceeding

635 produce produced produced produces producing

636 progress progressed progressed progresses progressing

637 prohibit prohibited prohibited prohibits prohibiting

638 promise promised promised promises promising

639 propose proposed proposed proposes proposing

640 prosecute prosecuted prosecuted prosecutes prosecuting

641 protect protected protected protects protecting

642 prove proved proved proves proving

643 provide provided provided provides providing

644 pull pulled pulled pulls pulling

645 punish punished punished punishes punishing

646 purify purified purified purifies purifying

647 push pushed pushed pushes pushing

648 put put put puts putting

649 qualify qualified qualified qualifies qualifying

650 quarrel quarrelled quarrelled quarrels quarrelling

651 question questioned questioned questions questioning


652 quit quit quit quits quitting

653 race raced raced races racing

654 rain rained rained rains raining

655 rattle rattled rattled rattles rattling

656 reach reached reached reaches reaching

657 read read read reads reading

658 realize realized realized realizes realizing

659 rebuild rebuilt rebuilt rebuilds rebuilding

660 recall recalled recalled recalls recalling

661 recast recast recast recasts recasting

662 receive received received receives receiving

663 recite recited recited recites reciting

664 recognize recognized recognized recognizes recognizing

665 recollect recollected recollected recollects recollecting

666 recur recurred recurred recurs recurring

667 redo redid redone redoes redoing

668 reduce reduced reduced reduces reducing

669 refer referred referred refers referring

670 reflect reflected reflected reflects reflecting

671 refuse refused refused refuses refusing

672 regard regarded regarded regards regarding


673 regret regretted regretted regrets regretting

674 relate related related relates relating

675 relax relaxed relaxed relaxes relaxing

676 rely relied relied relies relying

677 remain remained remained remains remaining

678 remake remade remade remakes remaking

679 remove removed removed removes removing

680 rend rent rent rends rending

681 renew renewed renewed renews renewing

682 renounce renounced renounced renounces renouncing

683 repair repaired repaired repairs repairing

684 repeat repeated repeated repeats repeating

685 replace replaced replaced replaces replacing

686 reply replied replied replies replying

687 report reported reported reports reporting

688 request requested requested requests requesting

689 resell resold resold resells reselling

690 resemble resembled resembled resembles resembling

691 reset reset reset resets resetting

692 resist resisted resisted resists resisting

693 resolve resolved resolved resolves resolving


694 respect respected respected respects respecting

695 rest rested rested rests resting

696 restrain restrained restrained restrains restraining

697 retain retained retained retains retaining

698 retch retched retched retches retching

699 retire retired retired retires retiring

700 return returned returned returns returning

701 reuse reused reused reuses reusing

702 review reviewed reviewed reviews reviewing

703 rewind rewound rewound rewinds rewinding

704 rid rid rid rids ridding

705 ride rode ridden rides riding

706 ring rang rung rings ringing

707 rise rose risen rises rising

708 roar roared roared roars roaring

709 rob robbed robbed robs robbing

710 roll rolled rolled rolls rolling

711 rot rotted rotted rots rotting

712 rub rubbed rubbed rubs rubbing

713 rule ruled ruled rules ruling

714 run ran run runs running


715 rush rushed rushed rushes rushing

716 sabotage sabotaged sabotaged sabotages sabotaging

717 sack sacked sacked sacks sacking

718 sacrifice sacrificed sacrificed sacrifices sacrificing

719 sadden saddened saddened saddens saddening

720 saddle saddled saddled saddles saddling

721 sag sagged sagged sags sagging

722 sail sailed sailed sails sailing

723 sally sallied sallied sallies sallying

724 salute saluted saluted salutes saluting

725 salvage salvaged salvaged salvages salvaging

726 salve salved salved salves salving

727 sample sampled sampled samples sampling

728 sanctify sanctified sanctified sanctifies sanctifying

729 sanction sanctioned sanctioned sanctions sanctioning

730 sap sapped sapped saps sapping

731 saponify saponified saponified saponifies saponifying

732 sash sashed sashed sashes sashing

733 sashay sashayed sashayed sashays sashaying

734 sass sassed sassed sasses sassing

735 sate sated sated sates sating


736 satiate satiated satiated satiates satiating

737 satirise satirised satirised satirises satirising

738 satisfy satisfied satisfied satisfies satisfying

739 saturate saturated saturated saturates saturating

740 saunter sauntered sauntered saunters sauntering

741 save saved saved saves saving

742 savor savored savored savors savoring

743 savvy savvied savvied savvies savvying

744 saw sawed sawn saws sawing

745 say said said says saying

746 scab scabbed scabbed scabs scabbing

747 scabble scabbled scabbled scabbles scabbling

748 scald scalded scalded scalds scalding

749 scale scaled scaled scales scaling

750 scam scammed scammed scams scamming

751 scan scanned scanned scans scanning

752 scant scanted scanted scants scanting

753 scar scarred scarred scars scarring

754 scare scared scared scares scaring

755 scarify scarified scarified scarifies scarifying

756 scarp scarped scarped scarps scarping


757 scat scatted scatted scats scatting

758 scatter scattered scattered scatters scattering

759 scold scolded scolded scolds scolding

760 scorch scorched scorched scorches scorching

761 scowl scowled scowled scowls scowling

762 scrawl scrawled scrawled scrawls scrawling

763 scream screamed screamed screams screaming

764 screw screwed screwed screws screwing

765 scrub scrubbed scrubbed scrubs scrubbing

766 search searched searched searches searching

767 seat seated seated seats seating

768 secure secured secured secures securing

769 see saw seen sees seeing

770 seek sought sought seeks seeking

771 seem seemed seemed seems seeming

772 seize seized seized seizes seizing

773 select selected selected selects selecting

774 sell sold sold sells selling

775 send sent sent sends sending

776 sentence sentenced sentenced sentences sentencing

777 separate separated separated separates separating


778 set set set sets setting

779 sever severed severed severs severing

780 sew sewed sewn sews sewing

781 shake shook shaken shakes shaking

782 shape shaped shaped shapes shaping

783 share shared shared shares sharing

784 shatter shattered shattered shatters shattering

785 shave shove shaven shaves shaving

786 shear shore shorn shears shearing

787 shed shed shed sheds shedding

788 shine shone shone shines shining

789 shirk shirked shirked shirks shirking

790 shit shit shit shits shitting

791 shiver shivered shivered shivers shivering

792 shock shocked shocked shocks shocking

793 shoe shod shod shoes shoeing

794 shoot shot shot shoots shooting

795 shorten shortened shortened shortens shortening

796 shout shouted shouted shouts shouting

797 show showed shown shows showing

798 shrink shrank shrunk shrinks shrinking


799 shun shunned shunned shuns shunning

800 shut shut shut shuts shutting

Tomorrow we will learn some more verbs


ending with "ed, es"

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/08/english-


vinglish_6.html#ixzz4aRsMFJ9A

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we are done
with Tenses. now we will learn the basics of VERB.

This is the 28th post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.
So, lets start now!!

It becomes difficult to remember the forms of verb if you are a beginner. Although
the perfection comes with practicing a lot for a long time. But still, we are providing
you some frequently used verb in categorized way so that you may remember fast
and hence learn fast. Till now we studied different verbs of different categories viz:
(I) Verbs in which all three forms are identical

(II) Verbs in which all two forms are identical

(III) Verbs with -ed, -en forms

(III) Irregular Verbs

Now we will learn 1000 words which have -ed, -en in their past forms :

PART III:

Past Form
S.No Past Participle
Base Form s / es/ ies ing form
. Form (V3 )
(V2 )

801 sight sighted sighted sights sighting

802 signal signalled signalled signals signalling

803 signify signified signified signifies signifying

804 sing sang sung sings singing

805 sink sank sunk sinks sinking

806 sip sipped sipped sips sipping

807 sit sat sat sits sitting

808 ski skied skied skis skiing

809 skid skidded skidded skids skidding

810 slam slammed slammed slams slamming


811 slay slew slain slays slaying

812 sleep slept slept sleeps sleeping

813 slide slid slid/slide slides sliding

814 slim slimmed slimmed slims slimming

815 sling slung slung slings slinging

816 slink slunk slunk slinks slinking

817 slip slipped slipped slips slipping

818 slit slit slit slits slitting

819 smash smashed smashed smashes smashing

820 smell smelt smelt smells smelling

821 smile smiled smiled smiles smiling

822 smite smote smitten smites smiting

823 smooth smoothed smoothed smoothes smoothing

824 smother smothered smothered smothers smothering

825 snap snapped snapped snaps snapping

826 snatch snatched snatched snatches snatching

827 sneak snuck snuck sneaks sneaking

828 sneeze sneezed sneezed sneezes sneezing

829 sniff sniffed sniffed sniffs sniffing

830 soar soared soared soars soaring

831 sob sobbed sobbed sobs sobbing

832 solicit solicited solicited solicits soliciting


833 solve solved solved solves solving

834 soothe soothed soothed soothes soothing

835 sort sorted sorted sorts sorting

836 sow sowed sowed sows sowing

837 sparkle sparkled sparkled sparkles sparkling

838 speak spoke spoken speaks speaking

839 speed sped sped speeds speeding

840 spell spelt spelt spells spelling

841 spend spent spent spends spending

842 spill spilt spilt spills spilling

843 spin span/spun spun spins spinning

844 spit spat/spit spat/spit spits spitting

845 split split split splits splitting

846 spoil spoilt spoilt spoils spoiling

847 spray sprayed sprayed sprays spraying

848 spread spread spread spreads spreading

849 spring sprang sprung springs springing

850 sprout sprouted sprouted sprouts sprouting

851 squeeze squeezed squeezed squeezes squeezing

852 stand stood stood stands standing

853 stare stared stared stares staring


854 start started started starts starting

855 state stated stated states stating

856

857 stay stayed stayed stays staying

858 steal stole stolen steals stealing

859 steep steeped steeped steeps steeping

860 stem stemmed stemmed stems stemming

861 step stepped stepped steps stepping

862 sterilize sterilized sterilized sterilizes sterilizing

863 stick stuck stuck sticks sticking

864 stimulate stimulated stimulated stimulates stimulating

865 sting stung stung stings stinging

866 stink stank stunk stinks stinking

867 stir stirred stirred stirs stirring

868 stitch stitched stitched stitches stitching

869 stoop stooped stooped stoops stooping

870 stop stopped stopped stops stopping

871 store stored stored stores storing

872 strain strained strained strains straining

873 stray strayed strayed strays straying

874 stress stressed stressed stresses stressing


875 stretch stretched stretched stretches stretching

876 strew strewed strewn strews strewing

877 stride strode stridden strides striding

878 strike struck struck/stricken strikes striking

879 string strung strung strings stringing

880 strive strove striven strives striving

881 study studied studied studies studying

882 submit submitted submitted submits submitting

883 subscribe subscribed subscribed subscribes subscribing

884 subtract subtracted subtracted subtracts subtracting

885 succeed succeeded succeeded succeeds succeeding

886 suck sucked sucked sucks sucking

887 suffer suffered suffered suffers suffering

888 suggest suggested suggested suggests suggesting

889 summon summoned summoned summons summoning

890 supply supplied supplied supplies supplying

891 support supported supported supports supporting

892 suppose supposed supposed supposes supposing

893 surge surged surged surges surging

894 surmise surmised surmised surmises surmising

895 surpass surpassed surpassed surpasses surpassing


896 surround surrounded surrounded surrounds surrounding

897 survey surveyed surveyed surveys surveying

898 survive survived survived survives surviving

899 swallow swallowed swallowed swallows swallowing

900 sway swayed swayed sways swaying

901 swear swore sworn swears swearing

902 sweat sweat sweat sweats sweating

903 sweep swept swept sweeps sweeping

904 swell swelled swollen swells swelling

905 swim swam swum swims swimming

906 swing swung swung swings swinging

907 swot swotted swotted swots swotting

908 take took taken takes taking

909 talk talked talked talks talking

910 tap tapped tapped taps tapping

911 taste tasted tasted tastes tasting

912 tax taxed taxed taxes taxing

913 teach taught taught teaches teaching

914 tear tore torn tears tearing

915 tee teed teed tees teeing

916 tell told told tells telling


917 tempt tempted tempted tempts tempting

918 tend tended tended tends tending

919 terminate terminated terminated terminates terminating

920 terrify terrified terrified terrifies terrifying

921 test tested tested tests testing

922 thank thanked thanked thanks thanking

923 think thought thought thinks thinking

924 thrive throve thriven thrives thriving

925 throw threw thrown throws throwing

926 thrust thrust thrust thrusts thrusting

927 thump thumped thumped thumps thumping

928 tie tied tied ties tying

929 tire tired tired tires tiring

930 toss tossed tossed tosses tossing

931 touch touched touched touches touching

932 train trained trained trains training

933 trample trampled trampled tramples trampling

934 transfer transferred transferred transfers transferring

935 transform transformed transformed transforms transforming

936 translate translated translated translates translating

937 trap trapped trapped traps trapping


938 travel travelled travelled travels travelling

939 tread trod trodden treads treading

940 treasure treasured treasured treasures treasuring

941 treat treated treated treats treating

942 tree treed treed trees treeing

943 tremble trembled trembled trembles trembling

944 triumph triumphed triumphed triumphs triumphing

945 trust trusted trusted trusts trusting

946 try tried tried tries trying

947 turn turned turned turns turning

948 type typed typed types typing

949 typeset typeset typeset typesets typesetting

950 understand understood understood understands understanding

951 undo undid undone undoes undoing

952 uproot uprooted uprooted uproots uprooting

953 upset upset upset upsets upsetting

954 urge urged urged urges urging

955 use used used uses using

956 utter uttered uttered utters uttering

957 value valued valued values valuing

958 vanish vanished vanished vanishes vanishing


959 vary varied varied varies varying

960 verify verified verified verifies verifying

961 vex vexed vexed vexes vexing

962 vie vied vied vies vying

963 view viewed viewed views viewing

964 violate violated violated violates violating

965 vomit vomited vomited vomits vomiting

966 wake woke woken wakes waking

967 walk walked walked walks walking

968 wander wandered wandered wanders wandering

969 want wanted wanted wants wanting

970 warn warned warned warns warning

971 waste wasted wasted wastes wasting

972 watch watched watched watches watching

973 water watered watered waters watering

974 wave waved waved waves waving

975 wax waxed waxed waxes waxing

976 waylay waylaid waylaid waylays waylaying

977 wear wore worn wears wearing

978 weave wove woven weaves weaving

979 wed wed wed weds wedding


980 weep wept wept weeps weeping

981 weigh weighed weighed weighs weighing

982 welcome welcomed welcomed welcomes welcoming

983 wend went went wends wending

984 wet wet wet wets wetting

985 whip whipped whipped whips whipping

986 whisper whispered whispered whispers whispering

987 win won won wins winning

988 wind wound wound winds winding

989 wish wished wished wishes wishing

990 withdraw withdrew withdrawn withdraws withdrawing

991 work worked worked works working

992 worry worried worried worries worrying

993 worship worshipped worshipped worships worshipping

994 wring wrung wrung wrings wringing

995 write wrote written writes writing

996 yawn yawned yawned yawns yawning

997 yell yelled yelled yells yelling

998 yield yielded yielded yields yielding

999 zinc zincked zincked zincs zincking

1000 zoom zoomed zoomed zooms zooming


Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/08/english-
vinglish_8.html#ixzz4aRsbBjNV

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we are done
with Tenses. now we will learn the basics of VERB.

This is the 29th post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!


It becomes difficult to remember the forms of verb if you are a beginner. Although
the perfection comes with practicing a lot for a long time. But still, we are providing
you some frequently used verb in categorized way so that you may remember fast
and hence learn fast. Till now we studied different verbs of different categories viz:
(I) Verbs in which all three forms are identical
(II) Verbs in which all two forms are identical

(III) Verbs with -ed, -en forms

(III) Irregular Verbs

Now, this is the special post on verb in which we will discuss about some
verbs which possess some special property.

1. In some verbs, the past form in British English ends in - t, but the same
verbs end in - ed
in American English e.g.:

Burn - Past: Burnt/Burned

Clap - Past: Clapped/Clapt

Dream - Past: Dreamt/Dreamed

Kneel - Past: Knelt/Kneeled

Lean - Past: Leant/Leaned

Leap - Past: Leapt/Leaped

Smell - Past: Smelt/Smelled

Spell - Past: Spelt/Spelled

Spill - Past: Spilt/Spilled

Spoil - Past: Spoilt/Spoiled

Strip - Past: Stript/Stripped

Sunburn - Past: Sunburned/Sunburnt

Sweep - Past: Swept/Sweeped

Vex - Past: Vext/Vexed

learn - Past: learned, learnt

2. Some verbs have two different past forms e.g.:


forbid - Past: forbade, forbad
knit - Past: knitted, knit
light - Past: lighted, lit
speed - Past: sped, speeded
bid - Past: bid, bade
dive - Past: dived, dove

3. The verb hang has two meanings and a different past form for each
meaning:
hang - suspend - Past: hung
hang - kill by hanging, with a noose - Past: hanged

4. The verb drop has two meanings:

drop - to let something fall down. - Past: Dropped. Ex - You will fall if you stand
beside the edge.
drop - to leave. - Past: Dropped. Ex- Drop the topic now.

5. The past form of read has the same spelling as the base form, but a
different pronunciation:
read ( Pronunciation - ryd ) - Past: read ( Pronunciation - red )

Tomorrow we will learn about


"Subject Verb Agreement"
Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/08/english-
vinglish_9.html#ixzz4aRsi3zOB

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we are done
with Tenses and have completed the basics of VERB as well. Now we will learn
about "Subject Verb Agreement"

This is the 30th post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

One of the most common grammatical problems is failure to make the subject and
verb agree with each other in a sentence. Verb should always agree with the
subject. So, there are some set of rules which must be followed in order to frame a
correct sentence.

The basic fundamental behind every sentence is same i.e. Single subjects take
singular verbs. Plural subjects take plural verbs.

Single subjects take singular verbs. Plural subjects take plural verbs.

Singular words means there is only one person or thing.

Example:

The bell rings. Amitabh plays.

Plural words mean to be more than one person or thing.


Example:

The bells ring. Amitabh and his brother play.

But there are some special cases as well. So, we are providing here some
rules which will help you to place correct verb with the different subjects.
We will be learning here 5 rules everyday in order to master the topics and
so that they do not get messed up.

SPECIAL CASES

1. Multiple subjects that are joined by "or," "either - or," "neither - nor,"
"not - but"

The verb agrees in number with the nearest subject i.e.

(a) If the subject nearest to the verb is singular, the verb will be singular,

(b) If the subject nearest to the verb is plural, the verb will be plural too.

Example:

Neither the President nor the Cabinet Ministers are responsible.

Neither the Cabinet Ministers nor the President is responsible.

Neither of the two traffic lights is working.

2. Subjects that look plural but really they aren't

There are some phrases like "with", "like", "as well as", "together with", "in
addition to", "along with", "including" which one may think to be plural. But
THEY ARE NOT PLURAL!
These phrases are not part of the subject of the sentence. If you observe carefully,
they do not affect the verb.

Example:

Singular: My English teacher, as well as my counselor, has advised me to be calm.

Plural: All of my courses, including Maths, are easier this semester.

3. Indefinite Pronoun words that end in "one," "thing," or "body" like


"everybody", "anybody", "somebody", "nobody", "everything", "anything",
"something", "nothing", "everyone", "anyone", "someone", "no one" --------
these are always singular and hence will use singular form of verb.

Example:

Everyone who went to IITs is an engineer now.

4. Some indefinite pronouns like all, some, none are singular or plural
depending on what they're referring to. One has to be careful choosing a verb to
accompany such pronouns.

Example:

Some of the diamonds are missing.

Some of the water is gone.

None of you claims responsibility for this mistake?

None of you claim responsibility for this mistake?

None of the students have done their homework.


5. The words "each," "either (of)," "neither (of)" - When these words are used
as a subject then singular verb is used for them.

Example:

Neither of the offices is open after six o'clock.

We will learn some more rules of


'Subject Verb Agreement'
tomorrow!

Till then, study well!

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/08/english-


vinglish_10.html#ixzz4aRstbI1Q

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.
So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we are done
with Tenses and have completed the basics of VERB as well. Now we will learn
about "Subject Verb Agreement"

This is the 31st post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

One of the most common grammatical problems is failure to make the subject and
verb agree with each other in a sentence. Verb should always agree with the
subject. So, there are some set of rules which must be followed in order to frame a
correct sentence.

The basic fundamental behind every sentence is same i.e. Single subjects take
singular verbs. Plural subjects take plural verbs.

Single subjects take singular verbs. Plural subjects take plural verbs.

Singular words means there is only one person or thing.

Example:

The bell rings. Amitabh plays.

Plural words mean to be more than one person or thing.

Example:

The bells ring. Amitabh and his brother play.


But there are some special cases as well. So, we are providing here some
rules which will help you to place correct verb with the different
subjects. We will be learning here 5 rules everyday in order to master the
topics and so that they do not get messed up.

SPECIAL CASES

1. Collective Nouns

A collective noun is a word naming a group acting as a unit. Some examples are
bunch, group, family, class, company, committee and team.

Rules:

(i) If you are referring to the group acting as a unit, use a singular verb.

(ii) If you are referring to the members of the group acting individually, use a
plural verb.

Example:

The Indian team is sure to win the Olympics 2016. (Here "team" refers to the group
acting as a whole.)

The Indian team are getting into their uniforms now. (The separate members of the
team are acting individually.)

2. Sometimes nouns take weird forms and can fool us into thinking they're
plural while they're actually singular and vice-versa. Words such as glasses,
pants, pliers, and scissors are regarded as plural unless they're preceded
the phrase pair of (in that case the word 'pair' becomes the subject).
Example:

My glasses were on the bed.

My pants were torn.

A pair of plaid trousers is in the closet.

A pair of scissors is lying on the bed.

3. Units of Quantity like - money, time, mass, length and distance - These
require singular verbs.

Example:

Five Rupees is too much to pay for a Samosa.

Six hours is a long time to wait.

Seventy kilograms is the mass of an average man.

4. The conjunction or does not conjoin (as and does):

When nor, or, or is used, the subject closer to the verb determines the
number of the verb. Whether the subject comes before or after the verb doesn't
matter; the proximity determines the number.

Example:

Either my father or my brothers are going to sell the house.

Neither my brothers nor my father is going to sell the house.

Are either my brothers or my father responsible?

Is either my father or my brothers responsible?


NOTE: Because a sentence like "Neither my brothers nor my father is going to sell
the house" sounds peculiar, it is probably a good idea to put the plural subject
closer to the verb whenever that is possible.

5. The words "there" and "here" are never subjects -

Example:

There are two reasons (plural subject) for this.

There is no reason (singular subject) for this.

Here are two apples (plural subject).

In these type of sentences (called expletive sentences), the subject follows the verb
but still determines the number of the verb.

We will learn some more rules of


'Subject Verb Agreement'
tomorrow!

Till then, study well!

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/08/english-


vinglish_11.html#ixzz4aRszapYt

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,
English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we are done
with Tenses and have completed the basics of VERB as well. Now we will learn
about "Subject Verb Agreement"

This is the 32nd post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

One of the most common grammatical problems is failure to make the subject and
verb agree with each other in a sentence. Verb should always agree with the
subject. So, there are some set of rules which must be followed in order to frame a
correct sentence.

The basic fundamental behind every sentence is same i.e. Single subjects take
singular verbs. Plural subjects take plural verbs.
Single subjects take singular verbs. Plural subjects take plural verbs.

Singular words means there is only one person or thing.


Example:
The bell rings. Amitabh plays.

Plural words mean to be more than one person or thing.


Example:
The bells ring. Amitabh and his brother play.

But there are some special cases as well. So, we are providing here some
rules which will help you to place correct verb with the different
subjects. We will be learning here 5 rules everyday in order to master the
topics and so that they do not get messed up.

SPECIAL CASES

1. If two subjects are joined by "and", they typically require a plural verb
form.

Example:

The cow and the pig are jumping over the carpet.

2. The verb is singular if the two subjects separated by "and" refer to the
same person or thing.

Example:

Red beans and rice is my mom's favorite dish.


3. If two infinitives are separated by and they take the plural form of the
verb.

Example:

To walk and to chew gum require great skill.

4. When gerunds are used as the subject of a sentence, they take the
singular verb form of the verb. But, when they are linked by "and", they
take the plural form.

Example:

Standing in the water was a bad idea.

Swimming in the ocean and playing drums are my hobbies.

5. If one of the words each, every, or no comes before the subject, the
verb is singular.

Example:

No smoking or drinking is allowed.

Every man and woman is required to check in.

Example:

No smoking or drinking is allowed.

Every man and woman is required to check in.


We will learn some more rules of
'Subject Verb Agreement'
tomorrow!

Till then, study well!

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/08/english-


vinglish_12.html#ixzz4aRt4Fxla

ENglish - VinglisH!
Dear Students,

English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but
others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good
marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser
attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the
examination even if they know the rules.

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things
remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have
launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic
sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we are done
with Tenses and have completed the basics of VERB as well. Now we will learn
about "Subject Verb Agreement"
This is the 33rd post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

One of the most common grammatical problems is failure to make the subject and
verb agree with each other in a sentence. Verb should always agree with the
subject. So, there are some set of rules which must be followed in order to frame a
correct sentence.

The basic fundamental behind every sentence is same i.e. Single subjects take
singular verbs. Plural subjects take plural verbs.

Single subjects take singular verbs. Plural subjects take plural verbs.

Singular words means there is only one person or thing.

Example:

The bell rings. Amitabh plays.

Plural words mean to be more than one person or thing.

Example:

The bells ring. Amitabh and his brother play.

But there are some special cases as well. So, we are providing here some
rules which will help you to place correct verb with the different
subjects. We will be learning here 5 rules everyday in order to master the
topics and so that they do not get messed up.
SPECIAL CASES

16. Verbs in the present tense for third-person, singular


subjects (he, she, it and anything those words can stand for)
have s-endings. Other verbs do not add s-endings.

Example:

He reads.

She reads.

They read.

17. Some words end in -s and appear to be plural but are


really singular and require singular verbs.

Example:The news from the front is bad.


Measles is a dangerous disease.

On the other hand, some words ending in -s refer to a single


thing but are nonetheless plural and require a plural verb.

Example:

Company assets are to be counted at the end of every financial


year.
The average worker's earnings have gone up dramatically.
Our thanks go to the workers who supported the union.

NOTE: The names of sports teams that do not end in "s" will take a
plural verb.

Example:

The Royal Challengers Bangalore have been looking forward to win


the match.

18. Sometimes modifiers will get between a subject and its


verb, but these modifiers must not confuse the agreement
between the subject and its verb.

Example:

The Politician, who has been convicted along with his four brothers
on four counts of various crimes but who also seems, like a cat, to
have several political lives, is finally going to jail.

19. Fractional expressions such as a lot of, half of, a part of,
a percentage of, a majority of are sometimes singular and
sometimes plural, depending on the meaning. Sums and products of
mathematical processes are expressed as singular and require
singular verbs.

Example:

Forty percent of the students are in favor of changing the policy.


Forty percent of the student body is in favor of changing the policy.
Two and two is four.
Four times four divided by two is eight.

**The expression "more than one" takes a singular verb.

Example: More than one student has tried this.

20. If your sentence compounds a positive and a negative


subject and one is plural, the other singular, the verb should
agree with the positive subject.

Example:
The department members but not the chair have decided not to
teach on Janmashtamai.
It is not the faculty members but the principal who decides this
issue.

21. Titles of books, movies, novels, etc. are treated as


singular and take a singular verb.

Example:
The Sultan is a movie starring Salman Khan.

22. The word were replaces was in sentences that express a


wish or are contrary to fact.

Example:
If Amit were here, you'd be sorry.
I wish it were Saturday.
We will learn some more rules of
'Subject Verb Agreement'
tomorrow!

Till then, study well!

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/08/english-


vinglish14.html#ixzz4aRtCL3uE

Important TRICKS: Jumbled Paragraph(Solved Examples)

Hello, Greetings!!

You all are preparing for govt. competitive exams (SSC, BANKING etc.) and We've realized that
most of the students are not comfortable in English Section, especially when it comes to
Jumbled Paragraph. All of you dread this section but worry No more.

Today, we present to you "One-stop Solution to all your confusions". Today in this post we'll
introduce and demystify JUMBLED PARAGRAPHS. We suggest you to read and note down all the
points. Whenever You solve such Questions apply the following tricks. we've compiled all the
tricks and rules in the best possible way so that you can master Sentence Arrangements
(jumbled paragraph) with little effort.

Learn, Memorize and Practice.

What are Para jumbles?

Para jumbles are jumbled paragraphs. Basically, you are given a paragraph - but the sentences
are not in the right order. It's up to you to untie this knot and rearrange the sentences so that
they logically make sense.

The approaches for Jumbled Paragraph: -

(1). Establish Link Between Two Sentences and Then Examine the Options Suppose you
establish the link 'BA'. The given options are:

(a) DABC

(b) ACDB

(c) CBAD

(d) DBAC.

Now you are left with option (c) and (d) to examine.

(2). Transition Words

Transition words make the shift from one idea to another very smooth. They organize and
connect the sentences logically.

List of transition words- again, as well as, besides,

furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly, consequently, hence, otherwise,


subsequently, therefore, thus, as a rule, generally, for instance, for example, for one thing,
above all, aside from, barring, besides, in other words, in short, instead, likewise, on one
hand, on the other hand, rather, similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, first of all,
to begin with, at the same time, for now, for the time being, in time, later on, meanwhile,
next, then, soon, the meantime, later, while, earlier, simultaneously, afterward, in
conclusion, with this in mind, after all,

(3). Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns are (he, she, it, him, her, they, you, your etc.)

Remember that personal pronouns always refer to a person, place or thing etc.

Therefore, if a sentence contains a personal pronoun without mentioning the person, place or
object it is referring to, the person, place or object must have come in the previous
sentence.

(4). Demonstrative Pronouns

The demonstrative pronouns are "this," "that," "these," and "those." "This" and "that" are used
to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and "these" and "those" are used to refer to plural
nouns and noun phrases.

Whenever a sentence contains a demonstrative pronoun without mentioning the noun or the
noun phrase, it means that the previous sentence must be mentioning that noun or noun
phrase.

Finding that noun or noun phrase helps us connect two sentences.

(5). Acronym Approach

Full form vs. short form:

In PJ we encounter full and short names sometimes acronyms of some term or institution.

Example-World Trade Organization - WTO

Dr. Manmohan Singh - Dr. Singh

Karl Marx - Marx


President George W. Bush - President bush or the president

The rule is that if both full form, as well as short form, is present in different sentences, then
the sentence containing full form will come before the sentence containing the short form.

(6). Articles Approach

Articles can be divided into two categories -

1. Definite (the) and

2. Indefinite (a and an).

When the author uses 'a / an' - he wants to make a general statement - wants to introduce
the noun followed by a/an for the first time but when he uses 'the' he wants to refer back to
some previously discussed noun. It means having 'the' is very unlikely in the opening sentence.

If 'a/an' and 'the' both are used for the same noun, then the sentence containing 'the' will
come after the sentence containing a/an.

(7) Signal/Indicating Word List

Writers use transitions to link their ideas logically.

These transitions or signal words are clues that can help you figure out what the sentence
actually means and its sequence.

(a) Cause and Effect Signals

Look for words or phrases explicitly indicating that one thing causes another or logically
determines another.

Accordingly, in order to, because, so...that, consequently, therefore, given, thus

hence. when...then, if...then

(b) Support Signal Words


Look for the words or phrases supporting a given sentence.

These words containing sentences will not be the opening sentence. These sentences will
follow immediately the sentence supported.

Furthermore, Additionally, Also, And, Too, as well, besides, indeed, likewise, moreover

(c) Contrast Signals

Look for function words or phrases (conjunctions, sentence adverbs, etc.) that explicitly
indicate a contrast between one idea and another.

Albeit, Nevertheless, Although, Nonetheless, But, Notwithstanding, Despite, on the contrary

even though, on the other hand, however, rather than, In contrast, Still, In spite of, While,
Instead of, yet

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/09/jumbled-paragraphsentence-


rearrangement.html#ixzz4aRtI31dp

Important TRICKS Fill in the Blanks : BANK/SSC EXAM

Hello, Greetings!!

As promised, Today we are providing to you "Fill in the Blanks" Strategy for SSC/BANKING
exams.

Most of the students complain about the English Section of the competitive exams, even after
practicing many times, they still can't figure it out. Today in this post we've compiled all the
important TRICKS and APPROACH to solve such Questions.

We suggest you go through this article and note down all important points.

Sentence completion questions test your vocabulary skills as well as reading abilities.

This question type tests the student's ability to understand the main idea of the sentence
and the logical structure of the sentence . Your knowledge of roots, prefixes, suffixes, will
come handy.
Sentence completion questions are one of two types on the English section of the Competitive
exams. Questions will sometimes ask you to fill in one blank, sometimes two. The following
tips will help you score well when you have to answer these questions on test day:

(1) Make sure you read the sentence very carefully. Look for important words that indicate
where the sentence is going. Is it going along the same train of thought? Or, is there a shift
in direction. Remember the following words and what they indicate and youll do better on
the sentence completion portion of the BANK/SSC EXAM :

a. Words that indicate the correct word to fill in the blank will go along the same train of
thought include: and, also, consequently, therefore, accordingly, as a result, thus, hence, so,
for this reason

b. Words that indicate the correct word to fill in the blank is a shift in direction include: but,
yet, although, however, on the other hand, in contrast, differently, nevertheless, still,
though, nonetheless, conversely, on the contrary

(2) Before you look at the answer choices, try to come up with a word you would use to
complete the sentence. When youre doing this, you can try to use a big word, but its much
preferable to use the first simple word that comes to your mind. Once you think of a word
that would complete the sentence, you can then check the answer choices to see if theres
either that exact word or one with a similar meaning. (If you have a dual-blank sentence
completion question, try to come up with words for both blanks. If you cannot, coming up
with a word for one of the blanks will help you then use process of elimination.)

(3) If you cant figure out a word to put in the blank, determine if the correct word has a
positive or negative connotation. Look at the example below to see how this would work:

Rohan used to be so obsequious to anyone he felt threatened by, but now that he stands up
for himself people think hes ____________.

If you knew the definition of obsequious, youd known it means excessively eager to please
or obey. Its a negative word, and the word but in the sentence means theres a shift in
direction in the sentence. Even if you didnt know the definition of obsequious, you should
be able to figure out that its a negative word by the context in which its used.

(4) Never choose an answer in a dual-blank question just because one of the word choices
fits. The test-makers deliberately put in an answer choice where one of the word choices fits
perfectly while the other one is incorrect. Make sure both words fit and dont fall into this
trap.

(5) Make sure you check all of the answer choices before you choose an answer. Sometimes
the test-makers provide an answer choice that could be correct, that is, if there were no
better choices. Most of the time, though, there will be a choice thats perfect, not just OK.

If you follow these tips, youll do quite well on the sentence completion portion of the
BANK/SSC Exam.

Here are Some Example Questions for practice and to understand these TRICKS in

better/effective way.

Q. Although the warring parties had settled a number of disputes, past experience made
them .......... to express optimism that the talks would be a success.

A. rash

B. ambivalent

C. scornful

D. overjoyed

E. reticent

Explanation: Although" sets up a contrast between what has occurred--success on some


issues--and what can be expected to occur--success for the whole talks. Hence, the parties
are reluctant to express optimism. The common word "reluctant" is not offered as an answer
choice, but a synonym--reticent--is. The answer is (E)
Q. Davis is an opprobrious and .......... speaker, equally caustic toward friend or foe--a
true curmudgeon.

A. lofty

B. vituperative

C. unstinting

D. retiring

E. laudatory

Explanation: And" in the sentence indicates that the missing adjective is similar in meaning
to "opprobrious," which is very negative. Now, vituperative--the only negative word--means
"abusive." Hence, the answer is (B).

Q. Because the House has the votes to override a presidential veto, the President has no
choice but to ..........

A. object

B. abdicate

C. abstain

D. capitulate

E. compromise

Explanation: Since the House has the votes to pass the bill or motion, the President would be
wise to compromise and make the best of the situation. The answer is (E).

Q. His novels are .......... ; he uses a long circumlocution when a direct coupling of a
simple subject and verb would be best.

A. prolix

B. pedestrian

C. succinct

D. vapid
E. risque

Explanation: The sentence has no linking words (such as because, although, etc.). Hence, the
phrase following the semicolon is in apposition to the missing word--it defines or further
clarifies the missing word. Now, writing filled with circumlocutions is aptly described as
prolix. The answer is (A).

Q. Because he did not want to appear_______, the junior executive refused to dispute
the board's decision, in spite of his belief that the decision would impair employee
morale.

A. contentious

B. indecisive

C. solicitous

D. overzealous

E. steadfast

Explanation : (C) and (E) are gone because they're positive words. .(B)doesn't work because
the clue is "refused to dispute." That doesn't work with indecisive. For the same reason,(D)
doesn't work either. So the best answer is option A.

Q.The subtle shades of meaning, and still subtler echoes of association, make
language an instrument which scarcely anything short of genius can wield with ____ and
____ .

A.confidence - aloofness

B.definiteness certainty

C.sincerity - hope

D.conservatism alacrity

Option(B) is correct
Explanation :The sentence suggests that language is something very difficult to handle; it
almost requires a genius to handle it with skill. Therefore we choose two words that indicate
skill in an effective use of language. Also, the use of the word subtle indicates that
language is not obvious, and it is, therefore, hard to be precise - hence definiteness and
certainty.

(aloofness = keeping apart, arrogant; alacrity= speed and eagerness; eloquence = ability to
speak well)

Q. In keeping with his own ____ in international diplomacy, Churchill proposed a personal
meeting of heads of government, but the effort was doomed to failure, as the temper of
the times was ____ .

A.ideas - pluralistic

B.predilections - inimical

C.aversions - hostile

D.impulses - amicable

Explanation: Option(B) is correct

Read the sentence and see whether you can suggest a word of your own for one of the blanks.
It sounds as though the meeting was doomed because the temper of the times was unsuitable.
This would suggest that either hostile or inimical would be best for the second blank. Then it
is unlikely that he would arrange a meeting in keeping with his own aversions; he would do so
in keeping with his own inclinations

(predilections).

(pluralistic = including many aspects or cultures; predilections = tendencies, inclinations;


inimical = hostile; amicable = friendly; maxims = short expressions of guiding principles;
salacious = scandalous)

Q. Great saints believe that realisation of God will liberate man from ______ bondage and
this state of release confers the privilege of serving the Lord in his ______ abode.
A.materialistic, permanent

B.earthly, transcendental

C.primitive, unique

D.spiritual, ethereal

Explanation: Option(B) is correct

The man has to be liberated from 'earthly' or 'materialistic' bondage and he should be united
with 'spiritual' bondage, and hence 'spiritual' in option d would distort the sentence.

When man's life is materialistic , God's abode should be the opposite of 'materialistic'. But
'permanent' does not suggest that. Whereas 'earthly' and 'transcendental' are antonyms and
are the most appropriate word in the given context.

Q. The cricket match seemed ____ to our guests; they were used to watching sports in
which the action is over in a couple of hours at the most.

A.unintelligible

B.inconsequential

C.interminable

D.implausible

Explanation : Option(C) is correct

The part after the semicolon gives the clue. It states that they were used to watching things
that get over fast, and therefore the cricket match seemed interminable (never ending).
None of the other words is about the time factor except evanescent which means short-lived
and would not fit the sense.

(inconsequential = unimportant; implausible = cannot be believed)


Q. Wilson ____ that human beings inherit a tendency to feel an affinity and awe for other
living things, in the same way that we are ____ to be inquisitive or to protect our young
at all costs.

A.argues - encouraged

B.maintains - trained

C.contends - predisposed

D.fears - taught

Explanation: Option(C) is correct

The words in the same way shows that we are looking for parallel ideas.

Hence, if we inherit a certain tendency, then, in the same way, we will inherit another
tendency. Either predisposed or genetically programmed would fit. But since the latter is
paired with demurs which means hesitates or refuses, this is inappropriate. Contents, which
means argues is a better choice.

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/09/important-tricks-fill-in-blanks-


bankssc.html#ixzz4aRtU0nXO

Study Notes On English Grammar: NOUNS

Hello, Greetings!!

In SSC CGL Tier-II Exam, Paper-II (English Section) consists 200 Qs (200 marks). And more than
50% questions are based on grammar directly or its applications. These Grammar rules will
help you in BANK exams as well.
We've decided to help you with Grammar. We'll cover all the important Grammar rules and
tricky scenarios in the form of "STUDY NOTES on GRAMMAR". Today in this post we'll
introduce NOUN: Introduction, Types, and Rules.

NOUN
Kinds of Noun:

1. Proper Noun: a proper noun is the name of some particular person or place.

Ex- Ram , Shyam, Delhi.

2. Common Noun: A Common noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the
same kind or class.

Ex- boy, girl, teacher etc.

3. Collective noun: A collective noun is the name of a group of persons or things.

Ex- army, committee, crowd etc.

4.Abstract Noun: a noun denoting an idea, quality, or state rather than a concrete object.

Ex- strength, innocence, fear, judgment. Etc.

5. Material Noun: Material noun is the name given to the material, substance or things made
up of The alloy.

Ex- cotton, gold, silver etc.

NOUN: Gender

1. Masculine Gender

A noun that denotes male animal is said to be of the Masculine Gender.

Ex- Man, boy, Tiger, Sun etc.


2. Feminine Gender: A noun that denotes a female animal is said to be of the Feminine
Gender.

Ex- woman, girl, nature, lioness etc.

3. Common Gender: A noun that denotes either a male or a female is said to be of the
common gender.

Ex- Parent, child, student, cousin etc.

4.Neuter Gender: A noun that denotes a thing without life , neither male nor female , is said
to be of the Neuter gender.

Ex- Book, Pen, room etc.

NOUN: NUMBER

1. Singular Noun:

A noun that denotes one person or thing , is said to be in the Singular Number.

Ex- pen, cow, boy etc.

2. Plural Noun: A noun that denotes more than one person or thing , is said to be in the plural
Number.

Ex- Pens, Boys, Cows etc

NOUN: countable / uncountable

Countable nouns are the names of objects, people etc that we can count.

Ex- book, apple, doctor, horse etc.

Uncountable nouns are the names of things which we cant count.

They mainly denote substance and abstract things.

Ex- milk, oil, sugar, gold, honesty etc.


NOUN: CASES

The case of a noun tells us about the position of that noun or pronoun in a sentence.

In English, there are five cases.

Nominative case: a noun is said to be in the nominative case if it is the subject of a verb.

Ex- Ram is an intelligent boy.

Objective case: Nouns or Pronouns are said to be in objective case if they are the direct
object of verbs or the objects of the preposition.

Dative case: A noun is said to be in Dative case if it is the indirect object of the verb.

Rohan brought me a flower. (Me is in dative case)

Possessive case: A noun is said to be in the possessive case if it denotes possession or


ownership.

Ex- This is your pencil. (your is in possessive case)

Vocative case : A noun or pronoun is said to be in vocative case if it is used to call ( or to get
attention of a person or persons)

Ex- Mr. Mallya , people are waiting for you in the hall. (Mr. Mallya is in vocative case)

NOUN in Apposition

when one noun follows another to describe it, the noun which follows is said to be in
apposition to the noun which comes before it.

Ex- Ram , our captain, made fifty runs.

Kabir , the great reformer, was a weaver.


RULES AND EXAMPLES

1. Some nouns always take a singular verb.


Scenery, advice, information, machinery, stationery, furniture, abuse, fuel, rice, gram, issue,
bedding, repair, news, mischief, poetry, business, economics, physics, mathematics, classic,
ethics, athletics, innings, gallows.

(A) The scenery of Kashmir are enchanting. (Correct use- is)

(A) He has given advices. (Correct use- advice)

2. Some nouns are singular in meaning, but they are used as plural nouns and always
take a plural verb.

Cattle, gentry, vermin, peasantry, artillery, people, clergy, company, police.

(A) The cattle is grazing in the ground. (correct use- are)

(B) Police has controlled the situation. ( correct use- have)

3. Some nouns are always used in a plural form and always take a plural verb.
Trousers, scissors, spectacles, stockings, shorts, measles, goods, alms, premises, thanks,
tidings, annals, chattels, etc.

(A) Where is my trousers? (correct use- are)

(B) Where are my trousers? Correct

(A) Spectacles is a costly item. ( correct use- are)

4. There are some nouns that indicate length, measure, money, weight or number.
When they are preceded by a numeral, they remain unchanged in form.

Foot, meter, pair, score, dozen, head, year, hundred, thousand, million.

(A) It is a five years degree course. (correct use- year)

(A) I have seven dozens of shoes. (correct use- dozen)

5. Collective nouns such as jury, public, team, committee, government, audience,


orchestra, company, etc. are used both as singular and Plural. It depends on the usage.
(A) The jury was divided in their opinion. (correct use- were)

(A) The team have not arrived yet. (correct use- has)

6. Some nouns have one meaning in the singular and another in the plural:
a.Advice = counsel,

advices = information

b.Air = atmosphere,

airs = proud

c. Authority = command,

authorities = persons in power

d. Good = wise ,

goods = property

e. Iron = metal,

irons = fetters, chains

f. Force = strength

forces = army

g. Content = satisfaction,

contents = things contained

h. Respect = regards,

respects = compliments

i. Work = job

works = compositions, factories,.

7. People are often confused or they commit mistakes in the use of certain nouns.
(A) Lecturership is wrong: lectureship is correct.

(B) Freeship is wrong; free studentship is correct.

(C) Boarding is wrong; boarding house is correct.


(D) Family members is wrong; members of the family is correct.

(E) English teacher is wrong; the teacher of English is correct.

(F) Cousin brother or sister is wrong; only cousin is correct.

(G) Wages means punishments when used in the singular.

Ex- The wages of sin is death.

(H) It also means charges for the labour when used in the plural sense.

Ex- The wages of daily workers have been raised.

8. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number and gender.
Ex- Every student must bring his luggage.

All students must do their home work.

Each of the boys must carry his own bag.

9. While using everybody everyone, anybody, and each the pronoun of the
masculine or the feminine gender is used according to the context.

I shall be happy to help each of the boys in this practice.

But when the sex is not mentioned, we use the pronoun of the masculine gender.

Anyone can qualify this exam if he tries.

Each of the six boys in the class has finished their tasks. (Incorrect)

Each of the six boys in the class has finished his task. (Correct)

10. The pronoun one must be followed by ones.


One must finish his homework in time. (Incorrect)

One must finish ones homework in time. (Correct)

11. Enjoy, apply, resign, acquit, drive, exert, avail, pride, absent, etc., when used as
transitive verbs, always take a reflexive pronoun after them. When self is added to my,
your, him, her, and it, and selves to our and them they are known as reflexive
pronouns.

He absented from the meeting.

He absented himself from the meeting.

12. Who denotes the subject and whom is used for the object?
who : Its the subject of a verbe.g., Who gave you that book?

Its a predicate nominative (a noun in the predicate that renames or refers to the sentences
subject)e.g.,This is who I am.

Whom is an objective pronoun, which is a pronoun that receives the action of a verb. It
also has two main uses:

It is the object of a verbe.g., Whom should I call?

It is the object of a prepositione.g., From whom did you get this information?

13. When two or more singular nouns are connected by either or; neither nor, ;
and or, the pronoun used is singular.

Either Rohan or Sohan will give their bike. (Incorrect)

Either Rohan or sohan will give his book. (Correct)

14. When a singular and a plural noun are joined by or, nor, the pronoun must be
plural.

Either the student or his teachers failed in his duty. (Incorrect)

Either the student or his teachers failed in their duty. (Correct)

15. Whose is used for living persons and which for lifeless objects.
Which novel did you select?

Whose photograph is lying there?

16. Each other is used when there are two subjects or objects and one another
when there are more than two.
Ram and Sita loved each other.

Those five students, who are sitting there, love one another.

17. When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it must be in the singular number
and in the neuter gender if the collective noun is viewed as a whole.but if it gives an
idea of different entities , plural pronoun is used.

The jury gave its verdict.

Here the jury gives the idea of one whole.

If the collective noun conveys the idea of separate individuals comprising the whole, the
pronoun standing for it must be plural.

The jury were divided in their opinions.

in this sentence , the jury gives the idea of several individuals.

18. If pronouns of different persons are to be used together in a sentence, the serial
order of persons should be as follows;

second person(2) + third (3)+ first person(1) in normal sentences. But when mistake or fault
is expressed in the sentence, the order should be; first person(1) + second person(2) + third
person(3). RULE-231

You, he and I have finished the work. (Normal idea)

I, you and he are to blame. ( here Confession of guilt is expressed , its a negative idea, hence
order is 123)

19. Some is used in affirmative sentences to express quantity or degree. Any is


uses in negative or interrogative sentences.

I shall buy some apples.

I shall not buy any apples.

Have you bought any apples?

But some may be correctly used in interrogative sentences which are, in fact, requests.

Will you please give me some water?


20. The use of few, a few and the few should be used with care. They denote
number.

Few means not many, almost nothing. A few is positive and means some at least.
The few means whatever there is.

A few men are free from fault. (Incorrect)

Few men are free from fault. (Correct)

(Here the sense is negative and thus a few is wrong.)

Few teams will qualify for the world cup. (Incorrect)

A few boys will pass in the examination. (Correct)

Here the sense is positive and thus few is incorrect.

I have already read a few books that are in the library. (Incorrect)

I have already read the few books that are in the library. (Correct)

Here the sense is whatever there is. everything that is in the library

21. Use of less and fewer


Less denote quantity and fewer denote number.

No less than fifty students were selected. (Incorrect)

No fewer than fifty students were selected. (Correct)

There are no fewer than five liters of water in the bottle. (Incorrect)

There are no less than five liters of water in the bottle. (Correct)

22. Use of little, a little, the little


Little means hardly any

There is little hope of his recovery. (Incorrect)


There is a little hope of his recovery. (correct)

A little means some, though not much.

Little knowledge is a dangerous thing. (Incorrect)

A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. (Correct)

The little means not much but all there is.

Little water that is in the bottle may be used for the child. (Incorrect)

The little water that is in the bottle may be used for the patient. (Correct)

23. Use of elder, older.


Elder is used for persons of same family.

Older refers to persons as well as things and is followed by than.

Rohan is elder than all other boys of this area. (Incorrect)

Rohan is older than all other boys of this area. (Correct)

Sabu is my older brother. (Incorrect)

Sabu is my elder brother. (Correct)

24. Normally than is used in the comparative degree, but with words like superior,
inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior and prefer to is used.

Sara is junior than Neeta.( Incorrect)

Sara is junior to Neeta. (Correct)

I prefer reading than walking. (Incorrect)

I prefer reading to walking. (Correct)

25. when a comparison is made by using a comparative followed by than, the word
other must exclude the thing compared form the class of things with which it is
compared.
He is better than any man. (Incorrect)

He is better than any other man. (Correct)

Any man includes the man himself and thus the sentences will be awkward.

26. In some cases, the comparison is subtle and must be given proper attention.
Ex- The climate of Delhi is better than Mumbai. (Incorrect)

Here the comparison should be between the climate of Delhi and the climate of Mumbai.

The climate of Delhi is better than the climate of Mumbai. (Correct)

Or

The climate of Ranchi is better than that of Gaya. (Correct)

(Here, That of means the climate of)

If the traits are in plural, it will be those of.

The products of Reliance are better than those of Suzuki.

The scenery of Kashmir is better than Shimla. (Incorrect)

The scenery of Kashmir is better than that of shimla. (Correct)

27. many a is always followed by the singular verb.


Many a student were drowned in the river. (Incorrect)

Many a student was drowned in the river. (Correct)

28. If the subject is the number of the singular verb is used. And when the
expression (a +number+of) is used , plural verb is used.

The number of students are very small. Incorrect

The number of students is very small. Correct

A number of girls has passed in the examination. (Incorrect)

A number of girls have passed in the examination.( correct)


29. When as well as, along with, together with, no less than, in addition to
and not and with join two subjects, the verb will be used according to the first subject.

Ram, as well as his five friends, are going.( Incorrect)

Ram, as well as his five friends, is going. (Correct)

The teacher, along with the students, were dancing.( Incorrect)

The teacher, along with the students, was going. Correct

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/09/study-notes-on-english-grammar-


nouns.html#ixzz4aRteeWov

SSC/BANKING: Sentence Correction-Tricks and Practice Questions

Hello, Greetings!!

As you all know, SSC Mains/IBPS/RRBs exams are Coming up and English Section plays a very
important role in your overall selection. So, we've decided to help you with all the tricky and
advance scenarios in English Grammar. We'll keep you informed about such Complex Sentence
Structures.

There are six basic kinds of errors in the grammar of a sentence.

Error type-1 Subject -verb agreement


Error type -2. Errors of modifiers

Modifiers are words / group of words / phrases in one part of sentence , which modify
another part of the sentence.

In correct written English ,the modifier has to be kept as close as possible to the word or
clause it modifies.

Ex- bruised and battered, Ravi gave his Car to the mechanic.

Bruised and battered , the car was given to the mechanic by Ravi.
Errors type -3 errors in the usage of Pronouns .

The pronouns used in a sentence should agree with their antecedents.

Error type - 4 error in the tense of the verbs.


Error type - 5 errors of parallelism
Error type -6 error in the use of singular words/ idioms and phrases.
Proper use of adverbs , prepositions. Conjunctions. Adjectives.

Q.1 With the advent of YouTube, Facebook, and Flickr, many savvy political consultants
undertook revolutionary micro-targeting and get-out-the-vote techniques that enabled
political candidates with cash-strapped budgets to be able to reach numerous likely voters
and succeed in raising large numbers of money from enthusiastic and committed
supporters in a short period of time.

A.cash-strapped budgets to be able to reach numerous likely voters and succeed in raising
large numbers of money

B.cash-strapped budgets to reach numerous likely voters and be successful in raising large
amounts of money

C.cash-strapped budgets to reach numerous likely voters, succeeding in raising large amounts
of money

D.cash-strapped budgets to reach numerous likely voters and succeed in raising large amounts
of money

E.cash-strapped budgets to be able to reach numerous likely voters and succeed in raising
large amounts of money
Explanation: Option(D) is correct

The sentence must be constructed such that corresponding consequences of an action


are parallel. Specifically, the sentence should read enabled political candidates with cash-
strapped budgets to x and y where x and y are parallel.

The phrase to be able to z is redundant and should be replaced by to z


The phrase numbers of money should be amounts of money since number is only used
when the object in question can be counted and money cannot be counted (i.e., you do not
say 1 money, 2 money, 3 money). Note: By comparison, dollars can be counted (i.e., you
would say 1 dollar, 2 dollars, 3 dollars) and as a result, we would say: the number of dollars.

a.the phrase to be able to reach is redundant and can be shortened as follows: to reach; large
numbers of money is not grammatically correct since money itself cannot be counted and, as
a result, amount should be used instead

b.the phrase to reach...and be successful is not parallel

c.this sentence is set up such that succeeding modifies reaching voters instead of being a
separate action on its own

d.the phrase is parallel (i.e., to reach...[to] succeed); to be able to reach is replaced by the
shorter to reach

e.the phrase to be able to reach is redundant and should be replaced by to reach

Q.2 With his sub-four minute mile Bannister broke a psychological barrier, inspiring
thousands of others to attempt overcoming seemingly insurmountable hurdles.
A.inspiring thousands of others to attempt overcoming

B.inspiring thousands of others to attempt to overcome

C.inspiring thousands of others to overcome

D.and inspired thousands of others to attempt to overcome

E.and inspired thousands of others to attempt overcoming

Explanation: Option(D) is correct

In (A) the word inspiring seems incorrectly to refer to the word barrier; also the expression
attempt overcoming is unidiomatic.

In D, the correct answer, inspired is correctly parallel to broke, and attempt to overcome
is idiomatic.

Q.3 An analysis of sixteenth century probate inventories in the major English towns show
that even some artisans and yeomen owned silver spoons, cups or salt cellars.

A.show that even some artisans and yeomen owned silver spoons, cups or

B.show that some artisans and yeomen even owned silver spoons, cups or

C.show that even some artisans and yeomen owned silver spoons, cups and
D.shows that some artisans and yeomen owned even silver spoons, cups and

E.shows that even some artisans and yeomen owned silver spoons, cups or

Explanation - Option(E) is correct

The subject of the sentence is analysis and therefore the verb should be the singular
shows. Hence either D or E must be correct.

The word even should be in front of the word which it qualifies. The intention is to express
surprise that some artisans owned silver, as indicated in E by putting even in front of
artisans, and not surprise at the spoons as implied in D.

In E, the correct answer, the word or seems preferable because the artisan or yeoman might
own any of the items and not necessarily all the items as would be implied by the use of
and.

Q.4 In archaeological terms the university was a latecomer to the town, which was
already centuries old by the time we first hear of the establishment of a community of
scholars and teachers in the late 12th Century.

A.which was already centuries old by the time we first hear of the establishment of

B.already centuries old by the time we first hear of its establishment of

C.which was centuries old already when we first hear of the establishment of

D.that was already centuries old by the time we first are hearing of the establishing of
E.that was already centuries old by the time we first hear that they had established

Explanation -Option(A) is correct

There is nothing wrong with the use of which in choice A, since the description correctly
refers to the work in front of the comma. It is better not t spend time worrying over the
choice between that and which look for other clear-cut problems.

We can eliminate E because the pronoun they does not have an antecedent. We can
eliminate D because it is too wordy and uses establishing when establishment would have
been better.

We can eliminate C because already is in the wrong place. And finally we can eliminate B
because the use of its makes the sentence less clear than what we have in A

Q5.The United Nations Human Development Index takes into account life expectancy,
education, as well as income per person

A.into account life expectancy, education, as well as income per person

B.life expectancy, education, as well as income per person into account

C.into account life expectancy and education, as well as income per person

D.into account life expectancy, and education, and income per person

E.life expectancy, education, and income per person in its account

Explanation : Option(C) is correct


The problem with the original sentence is the list: we need to have an and at the right
point. We can have a list such as a, b, and c when we intend the items to have equal
weight.

Or we can have a list such as a and b, as well as c if the first two items are to be taken
together.

But we cannot have a list like this: a, b, as well as c. Nor can we have a and b and c. Using
this information we can eliminate A, B and D.

Of the remaining choices, C is best as E is awkward and brings in an unnecessary its.

Q.6 Ricks has written extensively on not only major figures in English poetry like Milton
and Housman, but also on the lyrics of Bob Dylan.

A.on not only major figures in English poetry like Milton, but also on

B.not only on the poetry of such major figures as Milton and Housman, but also on

C.not only on major figures in English poetry like Milton and Housman, but also on

D.on major figures in English poetry like Milton and Housman, as well as

E.on major figures in English poetry such as Milton and Housman, but also on

Explanation: Option(B) is correct


In A the paired conjunctions not only... but also are not used with correct parallel phrases: if
not only is followed by a prepositional phrase, but also should also be followed by a
preposition. The parallelism is not correct in D either.

The expression such as is better than like when we are giving examples, and so we can
focus on B and E. B is better as the poetry of major figures (not the figures themselves) is
contrasted to the lyrics of Dylan. In answer E the but also is not correct without a not
earlier in the sentence.

Q.7 Because chickens lack teeth, they need another way to break apart the food they eat
before reaching the stomach, and for this reason, chickens have a gizzard in which stones
they swallow are used to grind their food.

A.before reaching the stomach, and for this reason, chickens have a gizzard in which stones
they swallow are used to grind their food.

B.before it reaches the stomach, and for this reason, chickens have a gizzard in which stones
they have swallowed is used to grind their food.

C.before it reaches the stomach, and for this reason, chickens have a gizzard in which stones
they swallow are used to grind their food.

D.before reaching the stomach, and for this reason, chickens have a gizzard in which stones
they have swallowed is used to grind their food.

E.before it reaches the stomach, and for this reason, chickens have a gizzard in which stones
they have swallowed are used to grind their food.

Explanation : Option(E) is correct


This question focuses on verb tense and agreement, as well as general rhetorical
construction. In this sentence all of the verbs agree with their subjects. However, the phrase
before reaching the stomach does not have a clear subject. It appears to modify they, the
chickens, instead of food. The present tense verb swallow should be replaced with the
present perfect verb have swallowed in order to indicate that the swallowing occurred before
the use of the stones.

Q.8 The publishers, unwilling to shoulder the entire risk, insisted that the author should
pay half the cost of the initial print run of his controversial new book.

A.The publishers, unwilling to shoulder the entire risk, insisted that the author should pay
half the cost of the initial print run of his controversial new book.

B.The publishers, unwilling to shoulder the entire risk, insisted that the author should be
paying half the cost of the initial print run of the authors controversial new book.

C.The publishers, unwilling to shoulder the entire risk, insisted that the author pay half the
cost of the initial print run of his controversial new book.

D.Unwilling to shoulder the entire risk, the publishers insisted the author should pay half the
cost of the initial print run of his controversial new book.

E.Unwilling to shoulder the entire risk, the author was required by the publisher to pay half
the cost of the initial print run of his controversial new book.

Explanation : Option(C) is correct

The subjunctive expression insisted that the author pay is correct in C. A, B and D are wrong
because they incorrectly insert should.
E is incorrect because the unwilling to shoulder the entire risk is incorrectly attributed to
the author (dangling modifier problem).

Q.9 A course of cognitive behavior therapy can be as effective, if not more so, than drug
therapy and without the side effects, in helping the elderly to overcome insomnia.

A.as effective, if not more so, than drug therapy and without the side effects, in helping the
elderly to overcome insomnia

B.more effective than drug therapy and without the side effects, in helping the elderly to
overcome insomnia

C.at least as effective in helping the elderly overcome insomnia as drug therapy, and is
without the side effects of drug treatment

D.at least as effective as drug therapy in helping the elderly to overcome insomnia without
side effects

E.equally effective as drug therapy in helping the elderly to overcome insomnia without side
effects

Explanation : Option(C) is correct

The original version is incorrect because as... as, is correct, not as... than. Options B and
E change the meaning we need to convey that CBT is at least as effective, and so we
should consider only C and D.

Although D is shorter, it is not correct because it seems to suggest that insomnia is without
side effects. And so the answer is C.
Q.10 Studies show that teachers unconsciously assume that students who regularly
perform poorly on assessments have below-average abilities, and in neglecting to provide
the academic challenges that would catalyze their intellectual potential, the students
often accept this damaging diagnosis and the life limits it implies.

(A) in neglecting to provide the academic challenges that would catalyze their intellectual
potential

(B) when they neglect providing the academic challenges that would be catalyzing their
intellectual potential

(C) when teachers neglect to provide the academic challenges that would catalyze their
students intellectual potential

(D) in neglecting in providing the academic challenges that would catalyze their students
intellectual potential

(E) in being neglectful with respect to providing the academic challenges that would be
catalyzing their intellectual potential

Explanation: 3) Split #1: modifier problem. The sentence begins with an independent clause,
then a comma and the word and, introducing a second independent clause, the main clause
of which follows the underlined part. If the underlined part begins with participial phrase,
this must modify the students, the subject of the second independent clause. This is
problematic, because the students dont neglect to provide the academic challenges
thats a teachers job, not a students job! Choices (A) & (D) & (E) all have a participial
phrase that illogically modifies the students, so these are incorrect.

Split #2: choice (B) makes the classic repeated pronouns mistake. when they[the
teachers] neglect providing the academic challenges that would be catalyzing their [the
students] intellectual potential The pronoun they/their refers to two different
antecedents in the same sentence! Thats 100% illegal on the GMAT. (B) is incorrect.
This leaves (C) as the only possible answer.

Q11. Simon Bolivar (1783 1830) is remembered in that he led the independence
revolutions in several South American counties, like Venezuela and Bolivia, and for
instilling the ideals of democracy across the continent.

(A) in that he led the independence revolutions in several South American counties, like
Venezuela and Bolivia, and for instilling

(B) to have led the independence revolutions in several South American counties, such as
Venezuela and Bolivia, and that he instilled

(C) to have led the independence revolutions in several South American counties, including
Venezuela and Bolivia, and having instilled

(D) for leading the independence revolutions in several South American counties, like
Venezuela and Bolivia, and to have instilled

(E) for leading the independence revolutions in several South American counties, such as
Venezuela and Bolivia, and for instilling

Explanation :

#1: the idiom P is remembered for doing X is elegant way to refer to someones famous
achievement. The constructions P is remembered in that he did X and P is remembered to
have done X are far more awkward and less smooth. This is a problem with (A) & (B) & (C) &
(D) all have problems with these.

Split #2: parallelism. The overall structure is Bolivar is remembered ___ and ___ those
two blanks must have matching grammatical forms. Lets look at whats in those slots:

(A) in that he led and for instilling = NOT parallel


(B) to have led and that he instilled = NOT parallel

(C) to have led and having instilled = NOT parallel

(D) for leading and to have instilled = NOT parallel

(E) for leading and for instilling = CORRECT!

From either of these splits, we see that (E) is the only possible answer.

Read more: http://www.bankersadda.com/2016/09/sscbanking-sentence-correction-


tricks.html#ixzz4aRtqYMzp

Study Notes On English Grammar: (SUBJECT AND VERB AGREEMENT)

Hello, Greetings!!

In SSC CGL Tier-II Exam, Paper-II (English Section) consists 200 Qs (200 marks). And more than
50% questions are based on grammar directly or its applications.

We've decided to help you with Grammar. We'll cover all the important Grammar rules and
tricky scenarios in the form of "STUDY NOTES on GRAMMAR". Today in this post we'll
introduce SUBJECT AND VERB AGREEMENT: ALL TRICKY SCENARIOS.

VERB (RULES)
(SUBJECT AND VERB AGREEMENT)

General Rule

The verb must agree with its subject in number and person

Rule-1 When two subjects are joined by AND the verb is plural
Ex.-My friend and his father are in India

Rule-2 When two singular nouns joined by AND refer to the same person or thing, the
verb is singular.

Ex.-The secretary and treasurer has been arrested.

The district magistrate and collector is on leave today

Rule-3 Article THE is used only once when the two nouns refer to the same person
or thing. If the two nouns refer to different persons or things, article THE is used before
each noun. In such cases, the verb will be in the plural form.

Ex.-The secretary and the president have been given warm welcome.

Rule-4 If two different singular nouns express one idea, the verb should be in the
singular form.

Ex.-Bread and milk is good for Breakfast.

Rice and curry is my favorite dish

This is the long and the short of the matter.

Rule-5 When two singular subjects are practically synonymous the verb should be in
the singular form.

Ex.-The law and order situation in the state is under control

His power and influence is on the decline.

Power and position has no charm for my friend.

Peace and Prosperity is the need to the day.


Rule-6 If two singular subjects combined by AND are preceded by each or every, the
verb should be in the singular.

Ex.-Every boy and girl was present in the class Yesterday.

Every man and every woman has the right to express his or her view.

Rule-7 When the subjects joined by (Either-or), (Neither-nor) are of different


persons, the verb will agree in person and number with the noun nearest to it.

Also, the plural subject must be placed nearest to the verb.

Ex.-Either Radha or Rani has done this mischief.

Neither Mohini nor Ragini is beautiful

Either the CM or the Cabinet Ministers are responsible for this problem.

Neither you nor he is to take up this task.

Either you or I am responsible for this mistake.

Rule-8 If connectives like with, together with, as well as accompanied by etc. are
used to combine two subjects the verb agrees with the subject mentioned first.

Ex.-The president of India together with his personal secretaries is invited to this function.

The actress, along with her manager and some friend, is attending the function.

Mr. Michael, accompanied by his wife and children is arriving tonight by train.

Rule-9 When (Not only-but also) is used to combine two subjects, the verb agrees
with the subject close to it

Ex.-Not only Hari, but also his brothers were arrested.

Rule-10 Use of None/No.


None can take either a singular or a plural verb depending on the noun which follows it.

Structure [None + of the + (non-count noun) + singular verb]

Ex.-None of the counterfeit money has been found

Structure [None + of the + (plural count. noun) + plural verb]

Ex.-None of the students have finished the exam yet.


No can take either a singular or plural verb depending on the noun which follows it.
Structure : [No + Singular Noun + Singular Verb ]
ex- No employee has received the salary.
Structure : [No + plural Noun + plural Verb ]
Ex.- No examples are relevant to this case.

Rule-11 Many words indicating a number of people or animals are singular.


The following nouns are usually singular.

(If the individual members are acting separately, they are plural and take plural verb.)

[Congress, Family, Group, Committee, Class, Organisation, Team, Army, Club, Crowd,
Government, Jury, Minority, Public]

Ex.-The family was happy at the news

The family were fighting over inheritance.

Our team is certain to win the match.

The committee have arrived by different trains.

The crowd was wild with excitement.

Rule-12 Majority can be singular or plural. If it is alone it is usually singular, if it is


followed by a plural noun, it is usually plural.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Majority by itself is singular but when majority refers to a set of people it
is plural.

e.g. A majority is always right.

e.g. A majority of students are right.

Rule-13 The number/A number


The number is singular: The number of acres destroyed by wildfires has increased
dramatically over the past several years.

A number is plural: A number of students are standing outside the office.

Rule-14 Collective nouns indicating time, money and measurements used as a whole
are Singular and take a singular verb.
Twenty five rupees is not such a big amount for him

Two miles is too much for this man to run.

Rule-15 when a lot of, a great deal of, plenty of, most of and some of refer to
number, a plural verb is used.

Ex.-A lot of people were present in the party.

Some of the students were absent.

But, if these expressions refers to an amount, the verb is in the singular number.

Ex.-A lot of work has to be completed before we go.

A great deal of work has been finished

Rule-16 When the percentage or a part of something is mentioned with plural


meaning the plural verb is used.

Ex.-30 % of Indian women are literate.

Three-quarters of the food has been eaten.

(Here the reference is to the food as a whole)

Rule-17 Barracks, Headquarters, Whereabouts, Alms etc. take a singular verb, as well
as plural verb.

Ex.-The headquarters of the UNO is/are New York

Rule-18 In sports, while referring to the players, the name of the country is followed
by plural verb.

Ex.-England have won the World Cup.

Rule-19 When the word ENEMY is used in the sense Armed forces of a nation with
which ones country is at war, we have to use the plural verb.

The enemy were forced to Retreat.

Rule-20 Use of Lay and Lie


The verb Lay is transitive and is always followed by an object
The verb Lie is intransitive and cannot have an object.

(Lay Laid Laid)

Ex.-Lay the child on the bed.

I laid the book on the table.

(Lie Lay Lain)

Let me lie here.

He lay under that tree.

Rule 21. When sentences start with there or here, the subject will always be
placed after the verb, so care needs to be taken to identify it correctly.

Examples:

There are four hurdles to jump.

There is a high hurdle to jump.

Here are the keys.

There is a problem with the balance sheet.

Here are the papers you requested.

Rule 22 : Titles of books, movies, novels, etc. are treated as singular and take a
singular verb.

The Burbs is a movie starring Tom Hanks.

Rule 23: When gerunds are used as the subject of a sentence, they take the singular
verb form of the verb; but, when they are linked by and, they take the plural form.

Standing in the water was a bad idea.

Swimming in the ocean and playing drums are my hobbies.

Rule 24 :If two infinitives are separated by and they take the plural form of the verb.
To walk and to chew gum require great skill.

Rule 25: Dont get confused by the words that come between the subject and verb;
they do not affect agreement.
Ex- The dog, who is chewing on my jeans, is usually very good.

Rule 26: Inverted Sentences


Usually in a sentence the subject always precedes the verb, but sometimes they can reverse
this order, so that the verb comes before the subject.

Incorrect: Through the Golden Eagle Bridge passes thousands of vehicles every day.

In the above sentence, the singular verb passes is not referring to the singular Golden Eagle
Bridge but to the plural thousands of vehicles. Hence, the correct verb will be the plural pass.

Correct: Through the Golden Eagle Bridge pass thousands of vehicles every day.

27. Final Rule Remember, only the subject affects the verb!
Study Notes On English Grammar: ADJECTIVE RULES

Hello, Greetings!!

In SSC CGL Tier-II Exam, Paper-II (English Section) consists 200 Qs (200 marks). And more than
50% questions are based on grammar directly or its applications.

We've decided to help you with Grammar. We'll cover all the important Grammar rules and
tricky scenarios in the form of "STUDY NOTES on GRAMMAR". Today in this post we'll
introduce ADJECTIVES: ALL TRICKY SCENARIOS.
ADJECTIVE
Rule-1 Adjective of quantity like much, LITTLE, ENOUGH, SUFFICIENT, WHOLE, etc.
must be used with uncountable nouns only as they express quantity and not number.

Ex.-Many (not much) boys are absent from the class today.

Many (not much) boys failed in the examination.

Rule-2 The use of few, a few and the few should be used with care they denote
number. Few means NOT MANY.

Few has negative meaning

A few means SOME AT LEAST

The few means WHATEVER THERE IS.

Ex. I read few books.

I Read a few books.

I Read the few books I had.

A few men are true from fault. (Incorrect)

Few men are true from fault. (Correct)

Rule-3 Use of little, a little, the little


Little means hardly any in quantity.

Ex.-He had little money

There is little water in the bottle

There is a little hope of his recovery (Incorrect)

There is little hope of his recovery (Correct)

A little means Some in quantity if not much.


Ex.-Little knowledge is a dangerous thing. (Incorrect)

A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.(correct)


He had a little money.

There is a little water in the bottle.

The little means not much in quantity but all that is.
Ex.-I spent the little money I had.
little water that is in the bottle may be used for the patient. (Incorrect)

A little water that is in .. (Correct)

Rule-4 Adjective of number must be used only with the countable nouns and not with
uncountable as they indicate number and not quantity.

Ex-I have taken many milk today. (Incorrect)

I have taken much milk today. (Correct)

Do not drink so many water. (Incorrect)


Do not drink so much water. (Correct)

Rule-5 Some, All, Any, No. Most etc. may be used both as adjectives of number and
Adjectives of quantity as they can express number as well as quantity.

Ex.-There are no boys in the class (Adj. of Number)

There is no milk in the pot. (Adj. of quantity)

All big machines are imported from foreign countries. (Adj. of number)
All the sugar was thrown into the sea. (Adj. of Quantity)

Give me some water. (Adj. of Quantity)


Some of these students are excellent. (Adj. of Number)

Rule-6 the comparative adjectives, ending with like superior, inferior, senior, junior,
prior, anterior, posterior, exterior etc. Take to after them and not than.

Ex.-He is senior than me. (Incorrect)

He is senior to me. (Correct)

Health is preferable than wealth. (Incorrect)


Health is preferable to wealth. (Correct)

Rule-7 Double comparative adjectives or double superlative adjectives must not be


used.
(Incorrect) He is more senior than me.

(Correct) He is senior to me.

Milk is more preferable than tea. (Incorrect)


Milk is preferable to tea. (Correct)

Ashoka was the most strongest of the kings. (Incorrect)


Ashoka was the strongest of the kings. (Correct)

Rule-8 Comparative degree must be used when the comparison is between two
persons of things and superlative degree when the comparison is among more than two
things.

Ex.-Who is the tallest of these two brothers ? (Incorrect)

Who is taller of these two brothers ? (Correct)

He is wise of all students in the class. (Incorrect)


He is the wisest of all students in the class. (Correct)

Rule-9 The comparative ending in er is not used when we compare two qualities in
the same person or thing. In that case we use more before the Adjective.

Ex.- Ram is braver than wise. (Incorrect)

Ram is more brave than wise (Correct)

Rule-10 Use of (Later, Latter; latest, last)


Later and Latest shows time

Latter and last shows position

Ex.-He latter refused to come (Incorrect)


He later refused to come. (Correct)

The later part of the novel is not clearly written (Incorrect)


The latter part of the novel is not clearly written . (Correct)

Rule-11 Use of (farther, further; farthest, furthest)


Farther, Farthest - denote distance

Further, Furthest - next, also (position)


Ex.-After this he made no farther statement. (Incorrect)
After this he made no further statement. (Correct)

Delhi is farther from Haridwar than Roorkee.


Dont make further delay.

Rule-12 Before superlative adjectives articles THE must (always) placed.


Ex.-He is the best boy of the class.

She is the most intelligent girl.

Rule-13 Use of (Nearest, next)


Nearest denotes distance.

Next denotes position.

Ex.-He was sitting next to me.


Patna junction is the nearest to my house.

This is the next post-office to my house. (Incorrect)


This is the nearest post-office to my house. (Correct)

Rule-14 Use of (Elder, older; Eldest, oldest)


Elder and eldest are used of members of the same family.

Older and oldest are used for persons or things.

Elder takes To after it while older takes than


Ex.-I have an older brother (Incorrect)

I have an elder brother (Correct)

Mohan is the eldest boy in the town. (Incorrect)


Mohan is the oldest boy in the town. (Correct)

Rule-15 Use of less and fewer


Less - Quantity

Fewer - Number
Ex.-There is fewer sugar in your tea than in mine. (Incorrect)

There is less sugar in your tea than in mine. (Correct)

He has less money than I.

Rule-16 Some adjectives like (Perfect, Ideal, Full, Chief, Unique, Complete, Infinite,
Extreme, Entire, Universal, Empty, Impossible, Unanimous, square, sound etc. are not
compared as they express meaning which do not admit of any variation of degrees.

Ex.-This achievement was most unique. (Incorrect)

His achievement was unique. (Correct)

Your knowledge is most perfect. (Incorrect)


Your knowledge is perfect (Incorrect)

Rule-17 When a comparison is introduced and has ANY after it, the things compared
must always be excluded from the class of things with which it is compared, by using
OTHER

Ex.-London is larger than any city in England. (Incorrect)

London is larger than any other city in England (Correct)

Ram is cleverer than any student in his class (Incorrect)


Ram is cleverer than any other student in his class. (Correct)

The tiger is as swift as any animal.


The tiger is as swift as any other animal.

Rule-18 Each is used to indicate a limited number and EVERY to denote an


unlimited number in selection or choice.

Ex.-Everyone of the two boys was given a prize. (Incorrect)

Each one of the two boys was given a prize (Correct)

He came to see us Each day. (Incorrect)


He came to see us Every day. (Correct)
Rule-19 "Some" is used in the affirmative sentence "any" is used in negative and
interrogative sentence.

I dont want some chocolates. (Incorrect)

I dont want any chocolates (Correct)

I will have any tea. (Incorrect)


I will have some tea. (Correct)

Did you go somewhere last night ?


Did you go anywhere last night ?

Rule-20 Whats the Correct Order for Multiple Adjectives in a sentence?


When you list several adjectives in a row, theres a specific order they need to be written or
spoken. Native speakers of English tend to put them in the correct order naturally, but if
youre learning English, youll have to memorize the order. It goes like this:

Before the adjectives you will normally have the Determiner.

1.Determiner: The determiner tells us if the noun is singular or plural, definite or indefinite

a, an, the, my, your, four, those, some etc

2.Quantity or number:

3.Quality or opinion: Explains what we think about something. This is usually our opinion,
attitude or observations. These adjectives almost always come before all other adjectives.

beautiful, boring, stupid, delicious, useful, lovely, comfortable

4.Size: Tells us how big or small something is.

big, small, tall, huge, tiny


5.Shape / Weight / Length: Tells about the shape of something or how long or short it is. It
can also refer to the weight of someone or something.

round, square, circular, skinny, fat, heavy, straight, long, short,

6.Condition: Tells us the general condition or state of something

broken, cold, hot, wet, hungry, rich, easy, difficult, dirty

7.Age: Tells us how old someone or something is.

old, young, new, ancient, antique

8. Colour: The colour or approximate colour of something.

green, white, blue, reddish, purple

9.Pattern: The pattern or design of something.

striped, spotted, checked, flowery

10.Origin: Tells us where something is from.

American, British, Italian, eastern, Australian, Chilean

11.Material: What is the thing made of or constructed of?

gold, wooden, silk, paper, synthetic, cotton, woolen

12.Purpose/Qualifier/Use: What is it for? These adjectives often end in ing.

sleeping (bag), gardening (gloves), shopping (bag), wedding (dress)

If you look at the examples above, you can ask what are the gloves used for? (gardening)
What is the bag used for? (shopping)
And after these adjectives we have the

13.Noun: The person or thing that is being described

This is the correct order for adjectives that come directly before a noun, and they are
separated by commas.

Ex- My beautiful, big, circular, antique, brown, English, wooden coffee table was broken
in the move.

If the adjectives come after the verb be as the complement, then the qualifier will stick
with the noun at the beginning of the sentence. The adjectives in the complement are
separated by commas with the final two being separated by and.
For example-
My coffee table is beautiful, big, circular, antique, brown, English and wooden.

Ex- I love that really big old green antique car that always parked at the end of the
street.

Ex- a wonderful old Italian Car.(opinion-age- origin)

A big square blue box. (size -shape- color)

A disgusting pink plastic ornament. (opinion- color- material)

I bought a pair of black leather. (color-material)

HOW TO SOLVE GRAMMAR QUESTIONS SSC CGL/BANKING: CONJUNCTIONS

Hello, Greetings!!

In SSC CGL Tier-II Exam, Paper-II (English Section) consists 200 Qs (200 marks). And more than
50% questions are based on grammar directly or its applications.
We've decided to help you with Grammar. We'll cover all the important Grammar rules and
tricky scenarios in the form of "STUDY NOTES on GRAMMAR". Today in this post we'll
introduce CONJUNCTIONS: ALL TRICKY SCENARIOS.

CONJUNCTIONS
A word that is used to join words or phrases or sentences is called a conjunction.

Ex.-God made the country and man made the town.

Three and three make six.

She must work hard, or she will fail.

[(As soon..As), (Both..and), (Either..or), (Neither .. Nor), (Lest..


should), (Not onlybut also), (Hardly.. before or when), (Though .yet),

(Whether ..or), (Scarcely when or before), (No sooner..than)

Rule-1 when as well as, along with, together with , No less than, In addition to and
Not and with join two subjects, the verb will be according to the first subject.
Ex.-Ram, as well as his ten friends, are going. (Incorrect)

Ram, as well as his ten friends, is going. (Correct)

The teacher, along with the students, were going (Incorrect)

The teacher along with the students, was going (Correct)

Rule-2A great many is always followed by a plural noun and a plural verb.

Ex.-A great many students have been declared successful.

Rule-3 If two subjects are joined by Either-Or, Neither-Nor, the verb agrees with the
subject that is near.

Ex.-Either Ramesh or I are to do this work. (Incorrect)

Either Ramesh or I am to do this work. (Correct)

Neither he nor his friends is reading. (Incorrect)

Neither he nor his friends are reading. (Correct)


Rule-4One of always takes a plural noun after it.

Ex.-It is one of the important day in my life. (Incorrect)

It is one of the important days in my life. (Correct)

Rule-5 Use of (Not only - but also)

Ram is not only handsome but also intelligent.

(Here one person - two qualities)

Not only India but also Pakistan is poor.

(Here two persons - common quality)

When two subjects are joined by (Not only-but also) the verb must agree with the second
subject:

Ex.-Not only the students but also the teacher are playing. (Incorrect)

Not only the students but also the teacher is playing. (Correct)

He ate not only bananas but also apples.

He not only comes for swimming but also for coaching the learners. (Incorrect)

He comes not only for swimming but also for coaching the learners. (Correct)

Rule-6 Scarcely and Hardly are followed by WHEN and not by THAN.

Ex.-I had Scarcely entered the room WHEN the phone rang.

Hardly had he seen his father when he stopped smoking.

Scarcely had he entered the room when the light came.

Hardly had he reached the school when it began to rain.


Rule-7 Though is followed by yet and not by but.

Ex.-Though he is poor but he is honest (Incorrect)

Though he is poor, yet he is honest. (Correct)

Although he is rich yet he is miser.

Though he is lame yet he can walk fast.

Rule-8 No sooner is followed by than.

Ex.-No sooner had I entered the class than the students stood up.

No Sooner did I step out than it started raining.

No Sooner did I see my father than I stop smoking

No Sooner had I reached the station than the train departed.

Rule-9 Lest must be followed by should.

Ex.-Read regularly lest you will fail. (Incorrect)

Read regularly lest you should fail. (Correct)

Run with care lest you should fall.

Rule-10 Such is followed by As.

Ex.-Such a boy as I know is at the party.

He is Such a writer as everybody should read his books.

Rule-11 So is followed by That.

Ex.-He is so weak that he cannot walk.

He is so handsome that every girl will be ready to marry him.


Rule-12 UNLESS expresses a condition, It is always used in the negative sense. Thus
NOT is never used with unless.

Ex.-Unless you do not labor hard, you will not pass (Incorrect)

Unless you labor hard you will not pass (Correct)

Rule-13 Until expresses time. It has a negative sense and thus not should never be
used with it.

Ex.-Wait here until I do not return (Incorrect)

Wait here until I Return.(Correct)

Rule-14 Since indicates a point of time and for stands for the length of time.

Ex.-He had been reading the book for two hours.

It has been raining since Monday last.

Ex.-15 As if is used to convey the sense of pretension.

When 'as if' is used in this sense, WERE is used in all cases, Even with third person singular.

Ex.-He behaves as if he was king. (Incorrect)

He behaves as if he were a king (Correct)

Rule-16 BOTH is followed by AND not (as well as, but)

Ex.-Ram is both tall and handsome.

Rule-17 Use of (Since, Because, For, As)

Ex.-It has been a year since I saw him

Since he is my father, I respect him.

I respect him because he is my father.


As he is my neighbour, I respect him

As he was not feeling well, he did not eat anything

Rule-18 OR is used to introduce an alternative.

Ex.-Do or die.

Your purse OR your life.

OR is used to mean otherwise

We must hasten or night will overtake us.

OR is used to show several Alternatives

He may study physics or chemistry or Biology or he may enter into trade.

Rule-19 WHILE IS USED TO MEAN-

(i)During the time that, as long as

While there is hope there is life.

While he was sleeping, an enemy entered in the house.

(ii)At the same time that

The girl sang while the boys danced

Rule-20 ONLY as a conjunction means-Except that

Ex.-A very pretty woman, only she squints a little .


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SSC CGL 2016


SSC CGL 2016: What could be the Strategy & Pattern for Quantitative aptitude
SSC CGL 2016: What could be the Strategy & Pattern on General Awareness
Education Qualification for SSC CGL 2016!!
SSC to upload the OMR Sheets of the candidates
Scheme of Examination of SSC CGL 2016
Possible Preference List
SSC CGL 2016 : All about notification
Important Notice: SSC CGLE 2016
Seminar on SSC CGL 2016

CTET 2016 ONLINE TEST SERIES

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