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MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.

4 (TRAINING)
CHAPTER 6
ENGINES AND PROPELLERS (ATA 71 AND 61)
General
Two Garrett TPE 331-14 GR/HR engines are installed on the aircraft. Each
gas turbine engine is a single shaft type which operates a McCauley
propeller. The -14GR engine 1s attached to the left wing and the -14HRto
the right wing. When seen from the rear. the left propeller turns
clockwise (CW) and the right propeller counterclockwise (CCW).
Mounted on the single shaft is a 2-stage centrifugal compressor and a
3-stage axial turbine. The combustion chamber is of the reverse flow
annular type and ignition is by 2 high energy spark plugs. Fuel is
introduced to the combustion chamber through 16 Duplex fuel nozzles.
1. Prope 11 ers
A. Type
The propellers are McCauley. 5-blade.constant speed. variable
pitch units with a 114 in. diameter and a pitch range from reverse
to feather. Both left and right propellers are supplied for
installation on the applicable engine.
B. Pitch Control
A change in 011 pressure moves a Single-acting hydrauliC control
piston. this controls the propeller pitch. A spring and
counterweight return mechanism controls the position of the
control-piston.
When oil pressure increases. the control-piston moves forward.
this causes the propeller pitch to decrease (fining off) until the
full reverse position is reached.
When oil pressure decreases. the return spring and counterweight
cause the control-piston to move rearwards. This causes an
increase in the propeller pitch (coarsen) until the feathered
position is reached.
When the propeller turns. the effect is to try and increase the
pitch condition. Thus when a system failure occurs the propeller
will move in the direction of the feathe~ed position.

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Sept 1/92

8A_~

/" :: ~*,fIJIJ
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL. 4 (TRAINING)

PROPELLER GOVERNOR

PROPELLER PITCH
CONTROL

PROPELLER MECHANISM

610010001

Propeller Mechanism

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Sept 1192

MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL. 4 (TRAINING)


C. Start Latch
The pitch control mechanism includes two centrifugal-force
operated latches. At engine-start the start latches hold the
propeller blades in the ground-start pitch position. The engine
must not be started on the ground unless the blades are held in
position with the start latches. The start latch mechanism
operates as follows:
(1) At engine-stari the ofl pressure increases. When the POWER
lever is moved in the direction of the REVERSE position the
oil pressure on the control-piston increases. This causes the
blades to move towards the reverse pitch angle position.
(2) The pressure which holds the control piston against the start
latches is also removed. Centrifugal force disengages the
start latches. This permits the propeller blade angle to be
set to the required position.
(3) At engine shutdown the POWER lever is set to REVERSE as the
rotational speed of the engine decreases. As the oil pressure
decreases the return springs in the propeller coarsen off the
blade angle. The start latches will then engage.
D. Propeller Control
The primary components in the system are:
Propeller Governor

Propeller Pitch Control

Propeller Oil Transfer Tube (Beta Tube)

Mechanical System Connections.

(1) Propeller Governor (PG)


During flight (PG mode) the PG makes sure the engine operates
at a constant rotational speed. The PG is set at a low
position of 95% rpm and a high position of 100.5% rpm.
The PG is the standard type and includes a manual feather
system operated with a CONDITION lever. The PG also includes
synchrophasing coils for use with the synchronizing!
synchrophasing systems. .
In the PG mode. oil pressure is increased to control the
propeller blade-pitch angle. This increase in oil pressure
causes an increase of pressure on the propeller piston.
Metered oil from the PG flows through the propeller pitch
control and beta tube. The metered oil goes into the
propeller dome to the propeller piston.
In the ground (beta) mode. the only function of the PG is to
supply high pressure oil.

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Sept 1!92

LU"JET~EAiiI

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MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL. 4 (TRAINING)
(2) Propeller Pitch Control (PPC)
The PPC lets the pilot control the pitch angle of the
propeller blade. In the beta mode of operation the position
of the POWER lever controls the PPC. The PPC has an oil
metering sleeve set in position with a cam. The cam positions
the metering holes of the sleeve and the beta tube to meter
PG discharge oil.
In the PG mode the PPC allows the movement of oil between the
PG and the propeller. The PPC also operates as a minimum
pitch stop.
During ground taxi operation the PPC also opens the lockout
valve in the Negative Torque Sensing (NTS) system. This
prevents operation of the NTS system and makes sure the PPC
control operates correctly in the beta mode.
(3) Propeller Oil Transfer Tube (Beta Tube)
The beta tube connects the PPC to the propeller dome through
the propeller shaft.
During beta mode of operation the beta tube and the PPC
together control the flow of oil to the dome. This flow of
oil sets the position of the blade pitch angle.
During PG mode of operation the beta tube has no control
function and is used only as an oil passage.
E. NTS System
An engine flame-out during flight causes a negative torque
condition. In this condition the propeller windmills and will try
to turn the engine. This condition will cause a large drag effect.
The hydraulic NTS system lets the propeller move to an increased
blade angle which reduces the drag. .
When the NTS system operates normally, high pressure oil flows
from the PG into the gearbox. If a defect occurs which causes a
power loss, the NTS system operates a dump valve. The dump valve
opens and propeller oil flows from the propeller into the gearbox.
Return springs and counterweights cause the propeller to move in
the direction of a higher blade pitch angle and thus decrease
drag.
Negative torque ceases when the windmilling engine is again
driving the propeller and NTS operation will cease. Unless the
propeller is feathered by the pilot. NTS action will cycle as the
propeller and engine drive each other in turn.
The NTS system will not fully feather the propeller. This action
must be carried out by the pilot if he is unable or does not wish
to relight the engine.

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MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

2. Engine
\e;:"y' A. General
The gas generator supplies power which is transmitted to the
propeller through the gearbox. The gearbox ratio of the left
engine is 22.97 to 1. while that of the right engine is 22.93 to
1. The difference in the gearbox ratios is caused by different
gear configurations in the left and right engines. The different
configurations cause one propeller to turn in ~ ~loc~~ise
direction and the other in a counterclockwise direction.
The gearcase module also supplies power which is used to operate
engine and aircraft accessories. The related accessories are power
management. hydraulics. fuel, oil. air, ignition and electrical
systems. These systems are installed on the accessory gearcase.
The RPM at 100% engine speed is:
~14 GR ~14 HR
ill 35645 35585
Generator
Propeller 1552 CW 1552 CCW

TPE engines are considered to be constant speed engines. In order


to hold engine speed constant, turbine power must equal the load
on the propeller. Power produced at the turbine is relative to the
amount of fuel added to create the thermal energy to drive the
propeller. A propeller governing system is used to regulate set
RPM by changing propeller blade angle to control the load. As fuel
is increased the propeller blade angle will increase and the power
will increase proportionally. The engine speed will remain
constant. If fuel flow is reduced the opposite will happen.
To help find a location in the engine a station number system is
a used:
co
~ 1 ambient air around the engine
~

a 2 inlet to the first~stage compressor


a 3 compressed air as it goes out of the compressor area
a
a 4 first~stage turbine inlet
5 engine exhaust.

II Page 6-2-1
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MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

CONSTANT SPEED ENGINE

o
8
8
~
-'"
<0

/
1 2 3

AIRFLOW STATIONS
72-00-10002

Constant Speed Engine and Airflow Stations

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MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

A decimal pOint is used to identify pOints between stations. An


example is P2.5 which shows the pressure at the pOint where the
air goes into the second-stage compressor.
Letters are also used together with station numbers:
p - pressure
Ps - static pressure
Pt - total pressure
~P - differential pressure
T ... temperature.
An example is P3 which is the point of highest pressure in the
engine and T4 the point of highest temperature.
B. Performance Specifications
The performance specifications for the TPE 331-14 GR/HR engine are
as follows:
Certification (1650 SHP)

Thermodynamic (1760 SHP)

APR 0946 SHP)

Flat (take-off) (1500 SHP)

Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC)(0.510).

C. Lubrication
The engine lubrication system supplies a constant flow of filtered
0; 1 to:
- Engine bearings

- Reduction gears

- Accessory drive trains

- Propeller controls.

A magnetic chip detector is installed in the common scavenge line


in the oil tank. The function of the chip detector is to show if
any metal particles have caused contamination of the oil system.
o This gives a warning that a possible component failure could
C\I
g occur. The warning will show as a CAP (c~~J (amber) caption for
o the left engine and a CAP (cg~~] (amber) caption for the right
o
o engine. \~ ~{(;r ~
o (",\}.1ft).

~6,\w~
... f~ G~
bb ~
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tiS\
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r-u~llt-(f\'Mr<flT': . () (\" () S~~~ GIt_~-~.~
..--

f'l~t?-II r...... . tJ'I.... /-


(j~t.lI"&\
\A \....
,\ tP(\,.,, /L----
fl~ (lAM:fi,,,,,, ~1..

f!a",rrt""'" 'J.

(J.>f<.) OJ T<Z'r-1' em) Li ..... <It..,

( 1 \I 1l<M(.;i!;9)

IlAIIJETSTREAM
1IIId 4flJll
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

TO PROP
CONTROL SYSTEM

TEST PORT (LUBE PUMP


DISCHARGE PRESSURE)

OE-OIL ",UI'''''''U'U".

SCAVENGE

INLET SCREENS

GEARBOX ORAIN
(MAGNETIC PLUG)

SCAVENGE
PICKUPS

OIL ,.::JIII:K:_. OVERBOARD VENT

CYCLONIC OEMISTER
AIR .. OIL RETURN

SUPPLY o
m o
VENT
o
D PRESSURE PRIORITY o
SCAVENGE
o
PRESSURE fs
......

71-00-10002

Engine Lubrication System

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MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

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cn1.. . .'--'-::--.ss
I.:"u-fr ,~ 'z;

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I
r

l--'---":"'-"-4ilj./~_._-.... _~-?'-r-11-U;-il
GEARBOX DEOIL OIL PRESSURE PRESSURE ."._______ :
SCAVENGE SOLENOIDS TAP TURBINE SCAVENGE ~ "1
PUMPS PUMPS ---

OIL FILL DIPSTICK


TURBINE
SCAVENGE OIL

co
(")
Q') OIL
TEMPERATURE
o SWITCH
o
o
o
o

7200- t CC08

Engine Oil System

Page 6-2-5
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MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4
The system includes an internal pressure pump which supplies jet
and mist lubrication. A priority valve is also included in the
system. This valve m~kes sure lubrication is supplied to the
';':'.l
~

:- :-......
~ "--!"
"

I compressor and turbine hydraulic bearing mounts of the engine

before all other areas.

When the oil pressure is below 10psi, the priority valve sends oil
to lubricate the rear turbine and compressor shaft bearings. Above
10psi the lubrication system sends oil to all parts. At 100S RPM
the oil pressure should be between 45-60psi.
There are three internal area scavenge pumps, two for the
reduction gear area and one for the turbine pump. These pumps are
combined in a single housing. The oil filter includes a by-pass
valve with a system mounted visual indication. When pressure in
the system approaches the maximum permitted limit, an overpressure
relief valve in the pressure pump operates.
The system includes an oil-to-fuel heater to prevent ice in the
fue 1 fil ter .
De-oil solenoids are installed to remove the mechanical load from
the oil pressure and scavenge pumps during engine starting and
shutdown. The lubrication system also supplies oil to the NTS
system and propeller control system.
The oil tank is installed on the bottom left side of the engine.
The capacity of the oil tank is approximately 1.35 Imp.gal.(6.15
litre. 1.62 US gal.). Oil from the tank ;s supplied through the
pressure pump to the engine. and returned from the engine by the
scavenge pumps.
The unfeathering pump is supplied with oil directly from the tank.
If the unfeathering pump has been used on the ground, ensure that
the oil in the engine and propeller are scavenged back to the tank
before the contents are checked to avoid incorrect readings and
overfilling. The dip stick for the tank is incorporated with the
filler cap.
Oil pressure and temperature indications are shown on the top
gauge of the engine instrument panel. A CAP [p~~~L I~~) (red) o
caption indicates abnormally low oil pressure (27 psi 3). o
o
o
Normal oil temperature is between 55C and 110C CAl
,f::io.
Maxirnumoil temperature is 127C for 5 minutes CAl
I\)
Minimum oil temperature for take-off is 55C.
A CAP (Ht~pl [HrT':ip] (red) caption indicates abnorma'lly high oil
temperature (131 3C).
The oil cooler flaps are controlled by a switch on the roof panel
and a CAP [ ~~ 1 (green) capt ion i ndi cates that the fl aps have
been actuated.

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Jul 1/93
84. JETSTHEAIII
Series ~"'"
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

~
~ . . . . . u~n ioh
r~

I 1A
1"':::::::::::::::-'1 :.

OIL COOLER FLAPS


r LEFT
OPEN
RIGHT
1

A A
U U
T 1---11----1 T
o 0

SHUT

......
('I)
0>
o

Engine Oil/Fuel Indication

Page 6-2-7
Aug 31192
__ v ......_ ..,. lIT..,,,.,.,.
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MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

O. Engine Fuel System


The fuel control system controls the fuel flow supplied to the ~
engine. The fuel flow supplied will give the necessary conditions
for all ground and flight operations. The aircraft fuel system
supplies fuel to the engine. An electrically operated standby pump
or a motive flow jet pump are used to pressurize the fuel.
A LP valve is installed between the fuel tank and the engine. The
LP valve is usually in the open position and is closed during an
emergency engine-shutdown.
(1) Fuel Pump Assembly
The fuel pump assembly is a combined centrifugal boost pump
and a gear-type HP pump. The main function of the combined
pumps is to supply fuel-flow to the main fuel control unit.
In addition. motive fuel flow is available for aircraft use.
The motive fuel flow is locked out during engine starting.
Unmetered fuel is supplied to the first-stage of a two-stage
fuel pump. The engine gearbox supplies the power to operate
the boost pump. The first-stage pump causes a 40 to 45 psi
increase in the fuel pressure. Fuel flows from this pump
through a fuel filter to the second-stage HP pump.
A temperature-sensitive anti-ice valve ;s installed between
the first-stage pump and the filter. To prevent ice crystals
in the fuel the valve automatically opens when the fuel
temperature ;s less than lace. When the valve ;s open. fuel
is sent to the oil-to-fuel heat exchanger. To make sure
sufficient fuel is available during an engine start the anti
ice valve is closed between 0% and 60% RPM.
If the pressure difference in the fuel filter element is 6 to
8 psid a system mounted by-pass indicator will extend.
Further restriction to the fuel filter element will cause the
filter by-pass check valve to open at 9-12 psid creating a
parallel fuel flow to the pressure pump.
A solenoid lockout valve ;s de-energised at 60% RPM to
provide motive flow. Fuel from the motive flow valve enters o
the anti-ice valve and is directed to the fuel filter if
heating is not required. '
8o
........

~
From the filter, fuel goes to the second-stage (high Q)
I\)
pressure) pump. The pump has a maximum supply rate of 2.000
lb/hr. The pump includes a relief valve which operates at
1.000 psi to send fuel back to the inlet side of the pump.

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Nov 15/92

ISAS .,,6:; I :;, 11r6::.,.,1'I!JY


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MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

(2) Main Fuel Control Unit (FCU)


The main FCU meters the quantity of fuel supplied from the
engine operated pumps. Inputs to the FeU are from:
POWER lever
CONDITION 1ever
Intake air temperature
Intake air pressure.
The FCU contains the underspeed fuel governor. overspeed fuel
governor. main metering valve. fuel shut-off valve. fuel
enrichment torque motor and fuel limiting torque motor.
An Underspeed Fuel Governor (USG) operates at reduced engine
speed. When the engine is in the beta (ground) range the
CONDITION lever controls the USG. The USG controls the engine
between 72% and 97% RPM. When the POWER lever is moved into
the flight range fuel is added to the USG schedule. The
CONDITION lever. through the PG. then controls the engine
speed between 95% and 100% RPM.
An overspeed governor ;s installed in the system to control
the fuel flow. The governor makes sure the engine overspeed
limit is kept to a value less than 105.5% RPM. An overspeed
dump valve is also installed as a safety device. This
mechanism makes sure the engine will not operate at a speed
of more than 108% RPM.
The POWER lever moves the main metering valve to supply fuel
to the engine. When fuel flow is increased to a level where
engine power exceeds the propeller load. the engine
accelerates to the propeller governor speed setting where
propeller load is added to maintain the speed setting.
The fuel shutdown and pump un-loading solenoid is an
electrical HP shut-off valve. The fuel shutdown solenoid
opens at 10% RPM. This supplies fuel to the flow control
valve which sends fuel to the primary atomisers. This fuel is
C")
ex) used for engine start and initial acceleration. As it becomes
"I:t
,... necessary to supply more fuel for acceleration the flow
o control valve opens. The flow of fuel to the secondary
o atomisers increases. For all other conditions during engine
o operation the fuel is supplied by both primary and secondary
o
nozzles. If a power failure occurs. a latch mechanism keeps
the shutdown valve in the position initially set. Fuel flow
will stop when the STOP switch is pushed.

I I
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MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4
Signals from the lEe provide automatic start fuel enrichment

to ensure correct lightoff and acceleration whilst

maintaining temperature limits. The fuel enrichment torque

motor is in parallel with the fuel metering valve and is

enabled between 10% and 60% RPM, During an engine start with

the IEC OFF the enrichment system can be manually operated by

a FUEL ENRICH switch on the roof panel.


A TTL system is included in the fuel control system. When the
TTL system ;s set to ON, protection is given to the engine to
prevent overtorque and overtemperature. A TTL torque motor is

included to give the necessary protection. The torque motor

is attached to the FCU.

The enrichment valve and TTL systems operate the same by-pass
valve in the FCU to control fuel flow. The by-pass valve

sends fuel back to the inlet side of the first stage pump.

(3) Fuel Flow


A fuel flow transmitter is provided to measure the fuel flow
output from the FCU and transmit the data to the fuel flow
gauge on the engine instrument panel.
(4) Flow Control Valve
The flow control valve feeds fuel to the primary and
secondary atomizers. The primary line is supplied during
initial engine start and fuel is fed to the secondary line as
the RPM increases. Both primary and secondary lines are in
use by the time the engine RPM reaches 12%-20%.
(5) Shut-off Valve
In an emergency a manually operated rotary shut-off valve

stops the fuel flow. It is mechanically connected to the

CONDITION lever and closes when the lever is set to the


FEATHER/SHUT-OFF (FEATHER) pOSition.

o
o
o
o
c:.u
t
o

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IA" JETSTREAIfIII
SIInlll.,i""
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

SELECT
INCREASE

METERING
VALVE
1
, PRESSURE
REGULATOR
FILTER

FUel. PUMP
DISCHARGE
...... !ZZ4~7Z2Z~t?z2l
TO FLOW

OVERSPEEO CONTROL

OUMP VALVE VALVE ANO

NOZZLES
TOROUE AND
TEMP LIMmNG
GOVERNOR (TOROIJE MOTOR,
ACTUATEO

PRESSURIZING

AND SHUTOFF

FUEL ENRICHMENT VALVE

(TOROUE MOTOR,

ORIFICE
SHUTDOWN AND PUMP
UNLOADING SOLENOID
nc:......T (2 COIL MAGNETIC
LATCHING,

00
C\I
'
..............................
RETURN
TO PUMP
~ ~
o [>'1 SERVO FUEL PRESSURE
o
o
o ~ UNMETERED FUEL
o
METERED FUEL

FCU OUTPUT TO ENGINE

_BYPASS

73-00-10001

Simplified Fuel Control Unit

Page 6-2-11
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MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

QUANTITY QUANTITY

OAUGE OAUOE

LEFT WINO TANK RIOHT WINO TANK

FUEL STANDBY
PUMP

+ +
CHECK CHECK
VALVE VALVE

PRIMARY
JET PUMP ..- PRIMARY
JET PUMP

t + CROSSFEED VALVE
+ t
NEGATIVE NEOATIVE
'0' TANK '0' TANK

MOTIVE MOTIVE
FLOW FLOW
SHUTOFF SHUTOFF
VALVE VALVE

MOTIVE FLOW LINE ~-"T""'.,..--.../ MOTIVE FLOW LINE

ENOINE ENOINE
SIMPLIFIED AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEM

FUEL INLET

1+1
.,...:
I
FUEL ATOMIZERS
(16 EACH)
I FUEL PUMP

o
o
I FUEL CONTROL I ~ t o
o
SECONDA RY t t PRIMARY + o
.J:=a.
I\)

+ MOTIVE FLOW
l O l L TO FUEL II
<0

I
HEAT EXCHANOER
TO

FLOW CONTROL
VALVE
l .- IL TRANSMITTER
FLOW J= AIRCRAFT

ENOINE FUEL SYSTEM

Simplified Aircraft Fuel System

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MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4
(6) IEC Functions
The signals to operate the electronic functions for start.
acceleration and power limit are supplied from the IEC. When
the pilot pushes the STOP switch in the roof panel an
electrical signal is supplied to give an engine shutdown.
During engine start the Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) is kept
to a limit of 695C between 10% and 60% RPM. The maximum EGT
permitted during engine start is 770C for one second. In all
other operations the EGT limit is shown with a variable red
line (VRL) on the EGT gauge. The IEC supplies the EGT limit.
(7) Air Purge System
An air purge system which uses high pressure air is included
in the fuel system. During engine shutdown the air purge
system prevents damage to the fuel nozzles ("cooking fuel).
W

To fully pressurize the purge accumulator the engine must be


operated at 95% RPM before shutdown. Fuel flow stops when the
STOP switch is pushed. This releases air pressure from the
purge accumulator which stops the fuel flow into the primary
and secondary nozzle valves. The air pressure goes through
the nozzles and removes all remaining fuel. The result of
this procedure is a temporary increase in RPM and EGT.

en
(W)

~
o
o
o
o

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,s"rill' "",,/I,
MANUFACnlRERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

~
FUEl PUMP ':
:,'j.'<>J
\
~~-",-.' !

SHUTDOWN PUMP
UNLOADING SOLENOID

FUEL NOULES (11l

LOCKOUT SOLENOID

n TOFCU

P2T2 SENSOR
FUEL HEATER
LEFT SIDE VIEW

FUEL PUMP

o
8
o
o
COl
.::.;
01,

RIGHT SIDE VIEW


73-00-10006

Fuel System Components

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MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

E. Power Management
Governors installed in the fuel control and propeller control
systems are used in the operation of the power management system.
The best mode of operation for a turboprop engine is when it
operates at a constant speed. In this condition it must be
possible to control the engine thrust (forward for flight. reverse
for braking). Two basic types of control are available:
Propeller Governor (PG) mode
Beta (ground) mode.
In the PG mode. power is changed by the POWER lever which controls
the Manual Fuel Valve (MFV). RPM is changed by the CONOITION lever
through a PG. This gives a faster operation when an increase in
thrust is necessary.
In the beta mode the POWER lever controls the propeller blade
angle. this permits changes in power. The USG controls the engine
speed. This gives easy control of forward and reverse thrust.
A mixture of the two modes with easy change from one to the other
is necessary. POWER lever movement is divided between the two
modes to give the necessary results.
With the power lever forward of FLIGHT IDLE (FI) the engine
operates in the PG mode. When the POWER lever is behind FI
position the engine operates in the beta mode.
In the PG mode the USG is cancelled and the fuel supply is
controlled by the POWER lever which operates the MFV. RPM is
controlled by the CONDITION lever between 95% RPM (PG low) at TAXI
and 100% RPM (PG high) at FLIGHT.
In the beta mode the PG is cancelled. The POWER lever controls the
propeller blade angle by changes in the position of the PPC
sleeve. The PG oil pump supplies oil at high pressure to the PPC.
The pOSition of the holes in the beta tube controls the flow of
the high pressure oil.
The PG pump has a maximum oil pressure output of 500 pSi. When
beta mode is set this output is fed to the PPC. When a pressure of
400 psi is sensed by a beta pressure switch in the left engine a
i
I
CAP [LBETA) (green) caption comes on. When a pressure of 400 psi
L is sensed by a beta pressure switch in the right engine a CAP
IR BETA) (green) capt i on comes on.
During flight the engine must not be operated in the beta mode
(i.e. POWER lever must not be moved behind FLIGHT IDLE in flight).

II Page 6-2-15
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MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUALVOL.4

If the left engine is in the beta mode during flight a CAP [LBETA]
(red) caption comes on.
If the right engine is in the beta mode during flight a CAP
(R BETAI (red) ca pt i on comes on.
When the left engine operates in beta mode on the ground a CAP
ILBETAJ (green) caption comes on.
When the right engine is in the beta mode on the ground a CAP
IR BET3 (green) capt ion comes on.
It is not permitted to move the POWER lever into the REVERSE range
unless both CAP IlBETAJ and [RBET~ (green) captions come on. The
only condition under which assymetric REVERSE power is permitted
is when an engine is shutdown.
If the left engine is shutdown, the CAP IRBET3 (green) caption on
the live engine must be on before REVERSE is set.
If the ri ght engi ne is shutdown. the CAP [l BETAl (green) capt ion
on the live engine must be on before REVERSE is set. It is not
permitted to move the POWER lever into the beta range during
fl i g ht.

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Page 6-2-16
I Aug 1192
8AIIJETSTREAM
&!Nfl/I""""
MANUFACTURERS OPERA"NG MANUAL VOL.4

CONDITION LEVER PROPELLER


SHAFT GOVENOR

POWER
LEVER

CONDITIONl====:~::.;;;;====~~~;::~DI
LEVER

_ ---l~~l:D7~~=~r==m:T==1 PROPELLER

PITCH
POWER LEVER CONTROL
SHAFT

[ ,

FUEL CONTROl UNIT

PROPElLOR GOVERNING MOOE seTA MODE

..
\
MFV
(FUeL)
POWER
LEVER
\
\
\
.
\.,..~-----~---;

PPC
(PROP)

v
(I")
v
o PROPEL LOR GOV
o r - - - _ ... _-
( PROP)

8o CONDITION
LEVER

USG

(FUEL I

78-10-10010

Power Management and Linkage Interconnection

Page 6-2-17
Aug 1/92
JlAIIJETSTHII:ANI
&1tuf't114'11IJ
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

POWER LEVER

SETAMOOE

Fl.eL CONTROl UNIT

PROPELLER
PITCH
CONTFlOL
(PPC)

I

__ J __
MANUAL
FUEL
VALVE
(MfV)

CONTROLS: CONTROI.S:
- SLADE ANGLE (LQt.D) - FUEL (TUASINE POWER)
- DIRECTION OF THRUST

POWER CONTROL

CONDITION LEVER

TAXI FUGI-IT

FUEL CONTROL UNIT



UNOERSPEED
FUEL


c::;r...........................t.................... ~

PROPELLER
GOVERNOR
o
o
o
GCWERNOR
(USFGI
(1"10) o
~
U)
CONTROlS:- CONTROlS:
FUEL (TURSINE POoYER) SLADE AHOlE (I..Qi'Dl 01

BETAMOOE PROP GOVERNING MODE

Power Control and RPM Control

Page 6-2-18
Aug 1/92
IAtlJETSTREAM
StIIdlll4fl1lJ
MANUFACTURERS OPERAl1NG MANUAL VOl.4

F. Torque Measurement and Indication


( '.":
I .
i \~'J.i Torque is a force which turns and it occurs between the gas
I generator and the propeller. When the gas generator turns the
propeller this is a positive torque condition. When the propeller
turns the gas generator this is a negative torque condition. If an
engine failure occurs this causes negative torque. The torque is
measured and ;s shown on a gauge in the engine instrument panel as
a percentage of maximum (100%).
A strain gauge torque measuring system is installed on each
engine. On the GR (left) engine the torque ring is attached to the
engine and engages with the ring gear. On the HR (right) engine
the torque ring engages with the planetary gear assembly. The
planetary gear assembly turns the propeller in the opposite
direction.
r
I
I
The strain gauge is a fine insulated conductor wire bonded to the
fixed torque ring. The strain from the engaged gear assembly is
measured electrically by resistance changes in the wire as it
contracts or expands. Two sets of strain gauges are installed. one
used for normal operation and one as a standby. In the event of a
failure of the normal system switching to the standby ;s an
automatic function of the lEe.
The resistance is changed into percentage torque which is used as
a display. A system is used in which zero volts dc equals 100%
torque. Over torque (negative voltage) operates the TTL motor on
the FeU. The TTL motor by-passes fuel and keeps the engine within
torque limits. The torque gauge is "red-lined" at 100%.
A signal conditioner is installed in the personality module (PM)
on the lEe. The signal conditioner calibrates the strain gauge
torque system. It is possible to adjust the signal between the
strain gauge and the torque indicator gauges. This adjustment
makes allowances for errors and makes sure engines producing the
same horsepower show the same torque.

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Page 6-2-19
Aug 1/92
.BAIIIJETSTREAM
. . , . , ""INJ
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

TORQUE INDICATION

TOROUE'II.

INTEGRATED ELECTRONIC TORQUE AND

CONTROLLER (IEC) TEMPERATURE

TORQUE
TRANSDUCER LIMITING TORooE

MOTOR

PERSONALITY MODULE (PM)

TORQUE INDICATION

TORQUE'll.

(FUEL CONTROL UNIT) IECIPM


ENGINE

TORQUE TORQUE SIGNAL CONNECTOR

FUEL REDUCING
TORQUE MOTOR LIMITING CONDITIONER

TORQUE INDICATING I MEASURING

77-11).10008

Torque Measurement/Indication

Page 6-2-20
Aug 1/92
8AIIJETSTREAM
.s.n.,,,,,,J/J
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOl.4

NOSE CASE

MODULE

STRAIN GAUGE
I I "_,,,-,- (I PAIRS)

ex>
C")
g
8o
o

SPLINES FOR TOROUE

RING TO RING GEAR

ASSEMBLY

TORooE RING
72-00-10003

Gearbox and Torque Ring

Page 6-2-21
Aug 1/92
JlAIIJETSTREAM
".,., "',""
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

NTS TOROUE ARM

TENSION

COMPRESSION

NTS TOROUE ARM

TENSION COMPRESSION

o
o
o
o
~
U>
co

11-10-10002

Torque Stress

Page 6-2-22
Aug 1/92
8AIIJETSTREAM
$tNi'I/I.4IN
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

(. -
~'

TOROUE RING
FIXED MEMBER A POSITIVE TOROUE

NTSVAl

a RING GEAR
MOVABLE MEMBER
~
~
a
a
8
a

TOROUE RING B NEGATIVE TORQUE


FIXED MEMBER
77-1010003

Torque Sensing

Page 6-2-23
Aug 1/92
8AeJETSTREAM
SrtNie. ""011
MANUFACTURERS OPERAnNG MANUAL VOL.4

G. Negative Torque System (NTS)


NTS is an automatic drag reduction system. The NTS function is to
limit the amount of negative torque the engine can take from the
propeller during windmilling. This prevents large drag forces on
the aircraft. If an engine shutdown occurs during flight the NTS
operates automatically. The NTS causes a movement of the propeller
blades in the direction of the feather position. The propeller
will not go to the feather position but will continue to windmill.
The propeller will move into the feather position only when the
CONDITION lever is set to the FEATHER position.
If a NTS condition occurs a NTS valve will close to let pressure
increase on a dump valve. Operation of the dump valve permits oil "
S"
~I
from the propeller control system to flow into the gear case. A :r
spring and counter weight mechanism moves the blade angle in the !'T
GI
direction of the feather position. This movement continues until C
positive torque causes the opposite effect on the NTS valve and ?
the dump valve is closed.
The power reduction causes the NTS to de-activate. allowing PG oil
pressure to flow into the propeller. reducing the propeller blade
angle and again activating the NTS. This action causes cycling of
the propeller blade angle. called NTSing.
H. Auto-Feather Function
The Auto-Feather system is designed to automatically feather a
failed engines propeller in the event the engine cannot be re
ignited. On a dry engine the auto-feather feature is armed when
the APR system is armed and the CONDITION lever is at high RPM.
When an engine fails. normal NTS action will occur. A pressure
transducer connected to the NTS valve signals the IEC that the
engine is NTSing. The auto-ignition circuit will try to re-ignite
the engine. If the engine fails to re-ignite before RPM decreases
I to 45%. the IEC will command the auto-feather solenoid to feather
the propeller. To prevent the opposite engine from being feathered
at the same time or after the failed engine is shutdown. the
signal of the pressure transducer is also sent to the oPPosite
engines IEC. This signal is a holding or latching signal that will
disable the unaffected engines auto-feather logic. The logic will
also be disabled if the following occur:
A failure of the IEC
The CONDITION lever set to a position other than high
I The~APR system is unarmed.

I. Air Start-Torque Load


To permit an air start to be made. torque load assemblies are used
to set the torque ring NTS level. The torque arm engages a slot
and puts a load on the ring gear to one side of the gear splines.
This removes the ring gear bacK-lash.

Page 6-2-24
Dec 15/92
8AeJETSTHEAM
$en,s ",,,,tJ
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4
J. Torque and Temperature Limiter (TTL) Test
'\.::. ~....
"
A TTL test function is provided by two switches on the maintenance
test panel. Labelled TTL Land R they test the signal to the fuel
by-pass motor. The switches are spring loaded to the centre-off
pOSition. When the switches are operated a reduction of indicated
torque, temperature and fuel-flow will be seen to indicate that
the system is by-passing fuel. The TTL is able to by-pass a
maximum of 15% of the total available fuel flow. The reduction is
limited to 5 seconds duration even if the test switch is held in
TEST.
K. Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Measurement
The limiting temperature within the engine is at the turbine inlet
(T4). It is not possible to measure and indicate the temperature
at T4 for technical reasons. It is, however, possible to relate T5
(EGT) to T4 by compensating for the temperature drop across the
turbines which is affected by known or measurable factors.
,
I Engi ne rpm
Aircraft forward velocity
Pressure altitude
Ambient temperature.
Since no two gas turbine engines are the same, it is necessary to
adjust the EGT indications. This adjustment will make sure that
the left and right engines show the same EGT when they operate at
the same power levels. To do this the compensating function of the
lEe supplies a biased EGT. The compensating function adds or
subtracts a temperature signal to correct the raw EGT. The
following data is fed to the lEe:
T2
P2
RPM
EGT(T5)
6P/P(P2 and PS) through a transducer.
C')
~
The EGT limit is calculated in the lEe and shown on the engine
0'> instrument panel as a VRL. It is shown as a VRL on the EGT gauge
o and digitally on a display above the gauge.
During normal operation an automatic temperature limit system
o operates through the fuel by-pass system. If a failure occurs of
the EGT limit signal for one engine then the digital display of
VRL will show FL (failed limit). In this condition the system for
automatic temperature limit is not available for the engine with
the defective signal.
The indication systems automatically references the applicable EGT
to the EGT limit signal for the other engine.
If the lEe is OFF 1t is necessary to consult charts to prevent the
maximum allowable EGT being exceeded.

Page 6-2-25
Aug 31/92
JlAIII JETSTREAIfI
ItNitJII ~'IJ(J
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

! S20 I EGT UMlto c

TOROUE AND
INTEGRATED TEMPERATURE
ELECTRONIC CONTROU LIMITING
PERSONALITY MODULE TOROUE MOTOR

TEMPERATURE SENSING/LIMITING SYSTEM

TEMP LIMIT (RED LINE) VARIES WITH

AMBIENT CONDITIONS WHEN INTEGRATED

ELECTRONIC CONTROL IS ON

COMPENSATED T5 (EGT)

I S 20 I EGT L1MIT C
O

ENGINE

12 P2 Pi
o
o
o
RPM
8.r;:..
INTEGRATED .r;:..
ELECTRONIC CONTROU TRANSDUCER t - - -....
PERSONALITY MODULE (.,,)
EGT T5

TEMPERATURE INDICATING SYSTEM 772010001

Temperature Sensing/Limiting System

Page 6-2-26
Aug 1192
8AeJETSTREANI
$tI';.14100
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

L. Ignition System
The combustion chamber is of the reverse annular construction
type. it has two igniter plugs controlled by an ignitor unit.
The igniter unit is energised between 10% and 60% RPM during the
start sequence. It 1s also energised by the NTS system to relight
a failing engine and can be energised continuously in flight
either in rain, icing or as deemed necessary by the pilot. There
is no time limit for the use of cont1uous ignition in the air.
Ignition switches in the roof panel (one for each engine) are
identified with labels NORMAL and CONTINUOUS.
NORMAL is the position for engine start and normal flight
conditions. The NORMAL switch includes the auto-ignition circuit
to be energised by the NTS auto-ignition switch.
The auto-ignition system attempts to relight an engine which has
"flamed-out." It is controlled by an auto ignition pressure switch
in the NTS system, which is triggered by the rising NTS pressure,
which activates the engine ignition system. The pressure switch
incorporates a latching feature which ensures that the igniters
remain active until after combustion is fully re-established.
The auto-ignition system is armed during the engine start sequence
and is disarmed by operation of either the STOP buttons or
selecting the CONDITION levers to FEATHER.
CONTINUOUS supplies continuous ignition to the two igniters in the
related engine. CONTINUOUS should be selected before entering
icing conditions. If icing conditions are encountered before
CONTINUOUS is selected refer to the procedures given in MOM Vol 2.
A CAP !lIGN) or [R IGN 1 wi 11 come on whenever the appropri ate
engine auto or continuous ignition systems are operating.

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I Page 6-2-27
Nov 15/92
8A.JETSTREAIItI
,.,.,"',IJIJ
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

IGNITION UNIT

28V DC

IGN SWITCH
IGNITION o
UNIT o
o
o
o
.,J!I.
.,J!I.
01
IEC

AUTO

IGNITION

SWITCH
IGNITER PLUGS
IGNITION CIRCUIT 740010001

Ignition System and Ignition Circuit

Page 6-2-28
Aug 1/92
8AIIJETSTREAM
1INf.'4~""
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

TO IGNITION UNIT

FROM NTS
ORIFICE PACK

AUTOIGNITION
SWITCH
l
DUMP
VALVE
28VDC _ _ _ _...L:i,;1..--fl

RING GEAR
MOVABLE MEMBER

to
V
V
o
o TORQUE RING ASSY
o FIXED MEMBER
o
o

7<1-00-10002

AutO-ignition System

Page 6-2-29
Aug 1/92
BA.JETSTREAIII
St.Ide. "''''''
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUALVOL.4

M. Pneumatic (Bleed Air) System


Compressor bleed air is used for airframe and engine systems
during any engine mode of operation from ground idle to maximum
power. The bleed air system is used for:
Air conditioning
Hydraulic reservoir pressurisat10n
De/anti-ice
Fuel manifold purge system
P3 input to the FCU.
Engine anti-ice includes the compressor inlet area. P2 sensor and
engine air inlet.
The compressor inlet and shroud area is supplied with a continuous
flow of high temperature air. The air is bled from a tube which
also sends air to the anti-ice control valve.
High temperature air from the anti-ice control valve supplies heat
to the P2 probe and engine air inlet. The valve is controlled with
a switch in the roof panel (one switch for each engine) identified
with the label ENG/ELEV. A light above the switch shows that the
valve is open. The switch also controls the heater mats for the
elevator horn.

o
0;
0'
o
oco i
~!
01

Page 6-2-30
Aug 31/92
BAli JETSTREAAI

Selies 1/1(1(1

MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4


INLET HEA TIAIRFRAME SUPPl'l'

".0

ANTI-ICE
J.Pi....---!-H;~";t:-- PRESSURE SWITCH

ANTI-ICE SHIELD

ANTI-ICE SUPPt Y

TO P2T2 SENSOR

o
o

o o
co
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o
o

7&-10-10002

Bleed Air System and Engine Anti-Ice System-I

Page 6-2-31
Aug 31/92
8AIIJETSTREAIII
&!Ide, ""00
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

PURGE AIR TO FCV

ACCUUULATEFl
CHECK VALVE

0;
0 '1
0
o
RIGHT SIDE VIEW o
COl
,J:l..i
-...Ji

75-00- , 000 1

Bleed Air System and Engine Anti-Ice System-2

Page 6-2-32
Aug 31192
lA, JETSTREAIW
lllde, "''''''
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL4
N. Augmentation System
A performance augmentation system is available to increase the
engines available horsepower capacity. The -14GR/HR engines use an
Automatic Performance Reserve (APR) system.
If a failure occurs in one of the engines during take-off or
landing the APR system increases engine power on the live engine.
The APR system increases the fuel flow on the live engine through
the fuel enrichment torque motor and raises the VRL on the live
eng1 ne by 40C.
To arm the APR the PWR RES switch on the main instrument panel is
set to ARM and the CONDITION levers on both engines are set above
99% engine speed.
Arming is indicated by ['-:rtf 1 and I ~~R] (whfte) CAP captions. If
I during take-off negative torque is sensed on one engine the IEC of
the other engine enables the APR logic. The IEC causes the
enrichment valve to provide more fuel to the live engine. The
torque of the live engine increases to 113% of the prevailing
torque at the time of failure of the other engine but is limited
to a red line maximum of 100%.
The IEC increases the value set for the VRL by 40C. This prevents
operation" of the temperature limiter and makes sure the increased
fuel flow does not go through the by-pass.
If APR fails to operate automatically the APR caption should be
pressed to override the automatic function.

Operation of APR is indicated by a [::M] (green) caption below the


PWR RES switch.
On approach or landing with the POWER levers near FLIGHT IDLE and
APR ARMed. if a single engine failure occurs APR is enabled by
increasing the POWER lever on the live engine above 65% torque.
ex:>
o0) The APR system will increase the power on the operating engine to
reach the re-datumed EGT limit where it will be held by the
C\I temperature limiting system.
8
o In all cases APR must be terminated after 5 minutes by setting the
o PWR RES switch to OFF. The use of the APR operation results in 300
hours being added to engine use per hour of APR and 12 cycles to
the engine use every time APR is used. The IEC records the use of
APR.

Page 6-2-33
Apr 15/93
BAe JETSTREAIW
SlId """",
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

,-------,
I
IEC

APR ENRICH
LOGIC VALVE
I
"
.........
.....
ARM I
~n~
f

R~S
I
I

OFF I
I

I APR I
I
II APR
II O/RIOE
I
I
PUSH TO
O/RIDE I
I

VRL
INCREASE
I
I

L_______ J I

RESISTOR TO
LIMIT wi INCREASE o
o
o
o
......&.

~
co
o

7350-10010

APR System

Page 6-2-34
Nov 15/92
IIAeJETSTREAM
$ed,s 4'00
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUALVOL.4

THERMOOYNAMIC - -17&0 _. _.. TORSINE TEMp LIMIT


CERTIFIED .-. -16SO . -~ - -.
FLATRAl'E-1S00~

SHP

COlO OR S,L. HOT OR


LOWA!.T HIGHALT

Air Density V Power

Page 6-2-35
Aug 31/92
BAtlJETSTREAM
&ldIlS ",INJ
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

r----------------------------------,

AlC CONFIO * _I

I
APR ARM
FUEL

!
APR
- I ENRICH

I I'
ARMING
I I

OPP ENG APRI


AUTOFEATHER
TRANSDUCER
1 I
AUTOFEATHER
I
AUTOFEAnE:R
I AUTOFEATlHEA
RELAY
TRANDUCER

! !
I I
NI i AUTOMATIC

i
I
SPEED
SWITCHES
"tI
:=.
:=
I
S-
I

START

SEOUENCINO

I FUEL
a.
:r
I ENRICH 5'

I I
I
CD
c
?;
TT2 : I
f>t2 ll.PANDPt2 I I VARIABlE
REDLINE
;"If-
;
TRANSDUCER TEMPERATURE VAL
Ps5

! ! DISPLAY

I VAL
CAL I
I
I

I TORooE AND

I
I

FUEl REDUCING
TOROUE DISABLE
TEMF'RATURE

-+0 TOAooEMOTOA
TEMP DISABLE

ENGINE RPM LEVER


"""
LIMITING

!
EN GINE RPM ADJUST ,
I
'f --+
1IM1~~
I
I

01
: TORQUE

TEST

I TOROUE
02 ! CONDITIONING
GAUGE

I
! I

I I
I

EGT
i EOT
L-+Q I EGT
GAUGE
! COMPENSATION I

EGT CAL
I I
I

I o
RECORD SWITCH I o
i DATA SERIAL
I
CONTROL o
LOGGINO INTERFACE

! UNIT o
Fun FLOW
: -L
,J:::..

I I

I
<.0
I\)

AlC CONFIG*
I BUILT I FAULT
MONITOR INHIBIT
1 IN
TEST
' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .-J
I INDICATOR

* ESTABLISHES AUGMENTED ENGINE CONFIGURATION T7-01)-1 COO3

IEe/PM Functi ons

Page 6-2-36
Nov 15/92
IAeJETSTREAM
61117111 -'filII
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4
O. Integrated Electronic Control (IEC)
The IEC and attached PM is a digital electronic control unit. The
IEC includes engine control, indication and data record functions.
The PM, which operates together with the IEC, supplies memory
storage capacity, system calibration values and historical data
for a specified engine. These include torque and EGT adjustments,
engine record and health monitoring data and fault information.
The PM, although installed on the IEC, is a part of the engine and
stays with the engine.
(1) The IEC includes the following basic functions:
Automatic Start Sequence: (speed switches 0-60% and

10-60%)

Fuel Enri chment: 00-60%)

VRL: (calculates the maximum permitted EGT and shows

it on the EGT gauge as VRL)

Torque Sensor Signal Conditioning: (sends torque

signal to torque gauge and to the torque limiter

motor)

Temperature Compensation: (permits trim and reserve

compensation, the values are kept in the PM)

TTL: (conditioned torque signal and EGT signals sent

to fuel reducing torque motor)

Auto-feather: (The APR switch must be set to ARM and


the CONDITION lever set to FLIGHT. In this condition

I
the auto-feather system operates if the auto-relight
system does not start the defective engine by 45% RPM)
APR Override Circuit.
(2) The following unique functions are contained in the IEC:
PM: (non-volatile memory with torque calibration and
temperature compensation data for unique engine)
Engine Trend Monitor: (PM keeps engine data and is
used in performance calculations. Manual and Automatic
data logging. The manual logging is operated by 2 push
0>
o buttons (one for each engine) on the system test panel
0>
C\I
on the right side console. This data can be used by a
o hand-held tester or a laptop computer link. It can
o also be transmitted in flight to a ground station if
o
o ACARS is installed in the aircraft)
Bui It-In-Test.

I
\
'-..

Page 6-2-37
Apr 15/93
JIU. JETSTREAIII
6INitu "'"",
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4
(3) Inputs to the IEC/PM are:
(a) Power (28V dc) ~
.'~~i
'": ~~ ~.~"I
,
(b) Engi ne Generated Signa 1s:
- engine speed. Tt2,EGT.Ps5
Pt2

torque

- CONDITION lever position

auto-ignition switch

engine fuel flow

- engine discretes. "D


:3,

~I
(c) Aircraft Generated Signals: c.
S'
l
I

- torque limiter disable it


!=,
- temperature limiter disable "',
I
limiter test
data record
- APR enable switch
engine APRIAutofeather transducer(opposite
engine)

- cockpit discretes.

(4) Outputs from the IEC/PM are:

(a) Engine Load Signals:


- enrichment torque motor

- fuel reducing torque motor.

(b) Aircraft Load Signals:


0/60% relay
10/60% relay
system pilot fault indication
VRL/EGT indicator
- torque indicator
system fault maintenance indicator
fuel limiting indicator
- APR ARMed indicator

- APR active indicator

- ignition active.

(5) If the IEC fails or is switched OFF the following actions


will take place:
The back up power supply (within the IEC) will
maintain torque calibration for flight deck indication
The back up power supply will supply compensated EGT
output to the EGT gauge
The TTL function is disabled
The VRL system is disabled.

Page 6-2-38
Aug 31/92
.lfAII"~T5TH~AIIII
SIInes 4~""
MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

3. Engine Controls and Indications


,
\~'i!j; A Centre Console

~
The CONDITION levers on the right side of the centre console
control the engine speed. In flight the CONDITION levers set the
propeller governor to control the engine speed. The operating
range is from 95% (TAXI) to 100% (FLIGHT) rpm.
When the POWER levers are in the beta mode. the CONDITION levers
set the USG RPM between 72% (TAXI) and 97% (FLIGHT). The normal
position for ground operation is with the CONDITION lever in the
TAXI position. This condition decreases engine noise and there is
less risk of propeller damage from foreign objects.
To move the CONDITION lever from TAXI to FEATHER it is first
necessary to push the aSSOCiated LATCH RELEASE button on the
centre console behind the CONDITION lever.
When the CONDITION lever is set to FEATHER:
the propeller governor dumps governor oil output to the
gear case
the manual fuel shut-off valve is closed
microswitches cause the LP and HP fuel valve and the LP
hydraulic valve to close.
The POWER levers, on the left side, control propeller blade angles
in the ground idle to REVERSE range (beta mode). REVERSE is set by
moving the POWER levers fully aft. The first gate forward of
REVERSE is the ground idle detent. This position provides zero
thrust in static operating conditions. The ground operating (beta)
range provides limited thrust for taxi operations. The forward
limit of the beta range is set by the FLIGHT IDLE mechanics. The
POWER levers must not be moved behind the FLIGHT IDLE latch in
flight. From FLIGHT IDLE forward. the POWER levers schedule fuel
flow and do not directly control propeller blade angles. There is
a friction lock knob on each side of the centre console to permit
the POWER and CONDITION levers to be held in place once set.
B. Roof Panel
The ENGINE MANAGEMENT switches are installed in the roof panel:
START LEFT/RIGHT
STOP LEFT/RIGHT
START MASTER
FUEL ENRICH - PRESS ON
MANUAL START
COMPUTERS. IGNITION AND PROP SYNCHRO.

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Engine Controls-Centre Console

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(1) START LEFT/RIGHT


When the START switch is pushed it causes the start sequence
to operate. The start switch is electrically held in position
until the engine goes to 60% RPM. When the START switch is
operated the start circuit of the other engine cannot be
energised.
(2) STOP LEFT/RIGHT
The function of the STOP switch is to stop the engine or stop
the start sequence. The high pressure fuel supply from the
FeU is closed to stop the engine. Electrical power is also
removed from the start circuits. During a normal engine
shutdown the fuel system purge air flows through the fuel
control valve and nozzles as the fuel pressure decreases.
This procedure will only occur if the engine has operated at
more than 95% RPM.
(3) START MASTER
If the START MASTER is set to LEFT GND or RIGHT GND
electrical power is supplied to the applicable starter to
turn the engine. The START MASTER and START switches must be
operated for the same engine. If the START MASTER switch is
at AIR, electrical power is supplied to the applicable engine
unfeathering pump. This condition is used to permit an air
start.
(4) FUEL ENRICH - PRESS ON
During an automatic start sequence the lEC controls the
torque motor included in the fuel enrichment system. When the
lEe causes the torque motor to increase the fuel supplied to
the engine, the FUEL ENRICH light comes on.
If it ;s necessary to carry out a manual engine start, the
pilot should press the FUEL ENRICH button to maintain the EGT
close to 695C until 60% RPM has been reached and the start
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sequence is complete.
..- (5) MANUAL START
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o A rotary switch with four pOSitions is installed. The switch
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o permits a manual start of the engine if the auto start
function of the lEe (or the IEC) is unserviceable or in the
OFF condition. The ENERGISE position arms the circuit which
holds the START switch in pOSition and must be selected
before the START button is pressed.
IGNITE is selected at 10% RPM and opens the fuel shutdown
valve and permits fuel flow to the engine. It also energizes
the igniters and arms the fuel enrichment system.

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MANUFACTURERS OPERATING MANUAL VOL.4

31-10-10053

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Apr 15/93