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Michel Foucault

Michel Foucault (French: [mil fuko]; born Paul- 1 Early life

Michel Foucault, 15 October 1926 25 June 1984) was
a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist,
philologist and literary critic. His theories addressed the 1.1 Youth: 192646
relationship between power and knowledge, and how they
are used as a form of social control through societal in- Paul-Michel Foucault was born on 15 October 1926 in
stitutions. Though often cited as a post-structuralist and the city of Poitiers, west-central France, as the second
postmodernist, Foucault rejected these labels, preferring of three children to a prosperous and socially conser-
to present his thought as a critical history of modernity. vative upper-middle-class family.[4] He had been named
His thought has been highly inuential both for academic after his father, Dr. Paul Foucault, as was the family
and for activist groups, especially those working within tradition, but his mother insisted on the addition of the
contemporary sociology, cultural studies, and critical the- double-barrelled Michel"; referred to as Paul at school,
ory. throughout his life he always expressed a preference for
Born in Poitiers, France, into an upper-middle-class fam-
ily, Foucault was educated at the Lyce Henri-IV, at the His father (18931959) was a successful local surgeon,
cole Normale Suprieure, where he developed an inter- having been born in Fontainebleau before moving to
est in philosophy and came under the inuence of his Poitiers, where he set up his own practice and married
tutors Jean Hyppolite and Louis Althusser, and at the local woman Anne Malapert.[6] She was the daughter of
University of Paris (Sorbonne), where he earned degrees prosperous surgeon Dr. Prosper Malapert, who owned a
in philosophy and psychology. After several years as private practice and taught anatomy at the University of
a cultural diplomat abroad, he returned to France and Poitiers' School of Medicine.[7] Paul Foucault eventually
published his rst major book, The History of Mad- took over his father-in-laws medical practice, while his
ness. After obtaining work between 1960 and 1966 at wife took charge of their large mid-19th-century house,
the University of Clermont-Ferrand, he produced two Le Piroir, in the village of Vendeuvre-du-Poitou.[8] To-
more signicant publications, The Birth of the Clinic gether the couple had three children, a girl named
and The Order of Things, which displayed his increas- Francine and two boys, Paul-Michel and Denys, all of
ing involvement with structuralism, a theoretical move- whom shared the same fair hair and bright blue eyes.[9]
ment in social anthropology from which he later dis- The children were raised to be nominal Roman Catholics,
tanced himself. These rst three histories exemplied attending mass at the Church of Saint-Porchair, and while
a historiographical technique Foucault was developing Michel briey became an altar boy, none of the family
called archaeology. were devout.[10]

From 1966 to 1968, Foucault lectured at the University In later life, Foucault would reveal very little about his
of Tunis, Tunisia, before returning to France, where he childhood.[12] Describing himself as a juvenile delin-
became head of the philosophy department at the new quent, he claimed his father was a bully who would
experimental university of Paris VIII. In 1970 he was ad- sternly punish him.[13] In 1930, Foucault began his
mitted to the Collge de France, membership of which he schooling two years early at the local Lyce Henry-IV.
retained until his death. He also became active in a num- Here he undertook two years of elementary education
ber of left-wing groups involved in anti-racist campaigns, before entering the main lyce, where he stayed until
anti-human rights abuses movements, and the struggle for 1936. He then undertook his rst four years of sec-
penal reform. He went on to publish The Archaeology ondary education at the same establishment, excelling
of Knowledge, Discipline and Punish, and The History in French, Greek, Latin and history but doing poorly
of Sexuality. In these books he developed archaeologi- at arithmetic and mathematics.[14] In 1939, the Second
cal and genealogical methods which emphasized the role World War broke out and France was occupied by Nazi
which power plays in the evolution of discourse in soci- Germany until 1945; his parents opposed the occupation
ety. Foucault died in Paris of neurological problems com- and the Vichy regime, but did not join the Resistance.[15]
pounded by HIV/AIDS; he became the rst public gure In 1940, Foucaults mother enrolled him in the Collge
in France to die from the disease, and his partner Daniel Saint-Stanislas, a strict Roman Catholic institution run by
Defert founded the AIDES charity in his memory. the Jesuits. Lonely, he described his years there as the
ordeal, but excelled academically, particularly in phi-
losophy, history and literature.[16] In 1942, he entered his


nal year, the terminale, where he focused on the study of with a DES (diplme d'tudes suprieures, roughly equiv-
philosophy, earning his baccalaurat in 1943.[17] alent to an MA) in Philosophy in 1949.[1] His DES the-
Returning to the local Lyce Henry-IV, he studied his- sis under the direction of Hyppolite was titled La Con-
tory and philosophy for a year,[18] aided by a personal stitution d'un transcendental dans La Phnomnologie de
tutor, the philosopher Louis Girard.[19] Rejecting his fa- l'esprit de Hegel (The Constitution of a Historical
thers wishes that he become a surgeon, in 1945 Fou- scendental in Hegels Phenomenology of Spirit).
cault traveled to Paris, where he enrolled in one of the In 1948, the philosopher Louis Althusser became a tu-
countrys most prestigious secondary schools, which was tor at the ENS. A Marxist, he proved to be an inuence
also known as the Lyce Henri-IV. Here, he studied un- both on Foucault and a number of other students, encour-
der the philosopher Jean Hyppolite, an existentialist and aging them to join the French Communist Party (Parti
expert on the work of 19th-century German philosopher communiste franais, PCF). Foucault did so in 1950,
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel who had devoted him- but never became particularly active in its activities, and
self to uniting existentialist theories with the dialectical never adopted an orthodox Marxist viewpoint, refuting
theories of Hegel and Karl Marx. These ideas inuenced core Marxist tenets such as class struggle.[28] He soon
Foucault, who adopted Hyppolites conviction that phi- became dissatised with the bigotry that he experienced
losophy must be developed through a study of history.[20] within the partys ranks; he personally faced homophobia
and was appalled by the anti-semitism exhibited during
the Doctors plot in the Soviet Union. He left the Com-
1.2 cole Normale Suprieure: 194651 munist Party in 1953, but remained Althussers friend and
defender for the rest of his life.[29] Although failing at the
Attaining excellent results, in autumn 1946 Foucault was rst attempt in 1950, he passed his agrgation in philoso-
admitted to the elite cole Normale Suprieure (ENS); phy on the second try, in 1951.[30] Excused from national
to gain entry, he undertook exams and an oral interroga- service on medical grounds, he decided to study for a doc-
tion by Georges Canguilhem and Pierre-Maxime Schuhl. torate at the Fondation Thiers, focusing on the philosophy
Of the hundred students entering the ENS, Foucault was of psychology.[31]
ranked fourth based on his entry results, and encountered
the highly competitive nature of the institution. Like
most of his classmates, he was housed in the schools
communal dormitories on the Parisian Rue d'Ulm.[21] He 1.3 Early career: 195155
remained largely unpopular, spending much time alone,
reading voraciously. His fellow students noted his love of
violence and the macabre; he decorated his bedroom with
images of torture and war drawn during the Napoleonic
Wars by Spanish artist Francisco Goya, and on one oc-
casion chased a classmate with a dagger.[22] Prone to
self-harm, in 1948 Foucault allegedly undertook a failed
suicide attempt, for which his father sent him to see
the psychiatrist Jean Delay at the Sainte-Anne Hospi-
tal (Centre hospitalier Sainte-Anne). Obsessed with the
idea of self-mutilation and suicide, Foucault attempted
the latter several times in ensuing years, praising suicide
in later writings.[23] The ENSs doctor examined Fou-
caults state of mind, suggesting that his suicidal tenden-
cies emerged from the distress surrounding his homo-
sexuality, because same-sex sexual activity was socially
taboo in France.[24] At the time, Foucault engaged in ho-
mosexual activity with men whom he encountered in the
underground Parisian gay scene, also indulging in drug
use; according to biographer James Miller, he enjoyed
the thrill and sense of danger that these activities oered
Although studying various subjects, Foucaults particu-
lar interest was soon drawn to philosophy, reading not
only Hegel and Marx but also Immanuel Kant, Edmund
Husserl and most signicantly, Martin Heidegger.[26] He
began reading the publications of philosopher Gaston In the early 1950s, Foucault came under the inuence of German
Bachelard, taking a particular interest in his work explor- philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, who remained a core inuence
ing the history of science.[27] He graduated from the ENS on his work throughout his life.
1.4 Sweden, Poland, and West Germany: 195560 3

Over the following few years, Foucault embarked on a tuted the birth of the world or the heart laid bare, ex-
variety of research and teaching jobs.[32] From 1951 to pressing the minds deepest desires.[47] That same year,
1955, he worked as a psychology instructor at the ENS Foucault published his rst book, Mental Illness and Per-
at Althussers invitation.[33] In Paris, he shared a at with sonality (Maladie mentale et personnalit), in which he ex-
his brother, who was training to become a surgeon, but hibited his inuence from both Marxist and Heideggerian
for three days in the week commuted to the northern thought, covering a wide range of subject matter from the
town of Lille, teaching psychology at the Universit de reex psychology of Pavlov to the classic psychoanaly-
Lille from 1953 to 1954.[34] Many of his students liked sis of Freud. Referencing the work of sociologists and
his lecturing style.[35] Meanwhile, he continued working anthropologists such as mile Durkheim and Margaret
on his thesis, visiting the Bibliothque Nationale every Mead, he presented his theory that illness was cultur-
day to read the work of psychologists like Ivan Pavlov, ally relative.[48] Biographer James Miller noted that while
Jean Piaget and Karl Jaspers.[36] Undertaking research the book exhibited erudition and evident intelligence, it
at the psychiatric institute of the Sainte-Anne Hospi- lacked the kind of re and air which Foucault exhib-
tal, he became an unocial intern, studying the rela- ited in subsequent works.[49] It was largely critically ig-
tionship between doctor and patient and aiding experi- nored, receiving only one review at the time.[50] Foucault
ments in the electroencephalographic laboratory.[37] Fou- grew to despise it, unsuccessfully attempting to prevent
cault adopted many of the theories of the psychoanalyst its republication and translation into English.[51]
Sigmund Freud, undertaking psychoanalytical interpreta-
tion of his dreams and making friends undergo Rorschach
tests.[38] 1.4 Sweden, Poland, and West Germany:
Embracing the Parisian avant-garde, Foucault entered 195560
into a romantic relationship with the serialist composer
Jean Barraqu. Together, they tried to produce their Foucault spent the next ve years abroad, rst in Sweden,
greatest work, heavily used recreational drugs and en- working as cultural diplomat at the University of Upp-
gaged in sado-masochistic sexual activity.[39] In August sala, a job obtained through his acquaintance with histo-
1953, Foucault and Barraqu holidayed in Italy, where rian of religion Georges Dumzil.[52] At Uppsala he was
the philosopher immersed himself in Untimely Medita- appointed a Reader in French language and literature,
tions (187376), a set of four essays by philosopher while simultaneously working as director of the Mai-
Friedrich Nietzsche. Later describing Nietzsches work son de France, thus opening the possibility of a cultural-
as a revelation, he felt that reading the book deeply diplomatic career.[53] Although nding it dicult to ad-
aected him, being a watershed moment in his life.[40] just to the Nordic gloom and long winters, he developed
Foucault subsequently experienced another groundbreak- close friendships with two Frenchmen, biochemist Jean-
ing self-revelation when watching a Parisian performance Franois Miquel and physicist Jacques Papet-Lpine, and
of Samuel Beckett's new play, Waiting for Godot, in entered into romantic and sexual relationships with vari-
1953.[41] ous men. In Uppsala, he became known for his heavy al-
cohol consumption and reckless driving in his new Jaguar
Interested in literature, Foucault was an avid reader of car.[54] In spring 1956, Barraqu broke from his relation-
the philosopher Maurice Blanchot's book reviews pub- ship with Foucault, announcing that he wanted to leave
lished in Nouvelle Revue Franaise. Enamoured of the vertigo of madness.[55] In Uppsala, Foucault spent
Blanchots literary style and critical theories, in later much of his spare time in the universitys Carolina Redi-
works he adopted Blanchots technique of interviewing viva library, making use of their Bibliotheca Walleriana
himself.[42] Foucault also came across Hermann Broch's collection of texts on the history of medicine for his on-
1945 novel The Death of Virgil, a work that obsessed both going research.[56] Finishing his doctoral thesis, Foucault
him and Barraqu. While the latter attempted to convert hoped it would be accepted by Uppsala University, but
the work into an epic opera, Foucault admired Brochs Sten Lindroth, a positivistic historian of science there,
text for its portrayal of death as an armation of life.[43] was unimpressed, asserting that it was full of specula-
The couple took a mutual interest in the work of such au- tive generalisations and was a poor work of history; he
thors as the Marquis de Sade, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Franz refused to allow Foucault to be awarded a doctorate at
Kafka and Jean Genet, all of whose works explored the Uppsala. In part because of this rejection, Foucault left
themes of sex and violence.[44] Sweden.[57] Later, Foucault admitted that the work was a
Interested in the work of Swiss psychologist Ludwig rst draft with certain lack of quality.[58]
Binswanger, Foucault aided family friend Jacqueline Again at Dumzils recognition, in October 1958 Fou-
Verdeaux in translating his works into French. Foucault cault arrived in the Polish city of Warsaw, placed in
was particularly interested in Binswangers studies of charge of the University of Warsaw's Centre Franais.[59]
Ellen West who, like himself, had a deep obsession with Foucault found life in Poland dicult due to the lack
suicide, eventually killing herself.[46] In 1954, Foucault of material goods and services following the destruction
authored an introduction to Binswangers paper Dream of the Second World War. Witnessing the aftermath
and Existence, in which he argued that dreams consti- of the Polish October in which students had protested

against the governing communist Polish United Workers Folie et draison received a mixed reception in France and
Party, he felt that most Poles despised their government in foreign journals focusing on French aairs. Although
as a puppet regime of the Soviet Union, and thought that it was critically acclaimed by Maurice Blanchot, Michel
the system ran badly.[60] Considering the university a Serres, Roland Barthes, Gaston Bachelard, and Fernand
liberal enclave, he traveled the country giving lectures; Braudel, it was largely ignored by the leftist press, much
proving popular, he adopted the position of de facto cul- to Foucaults disappointment.[73] It was notably criticised
tural attach.[61] As in France and Sweden, homosexual for advocating metaphysics by young philosopher Jacques
activity was legal but socially frowned upon in Poland, Derrida in a March 1963 lecture at the University of
and he undertook relationships with a number of men; Paris. Responding with a vicious retort, Foucault crit-
one was a Polish security agent who hoped to trap Fou- icised Derridas interpretation of Ren Descartes. The
cault in an embarrassing situation, which would there- two remained bitter rivals until reconciling in 1981.[74]
fore reect badly on the French embassy. Wracked in In the English-speaking world, the work became a signif-
diplomatic scandal, he was ordered to leave Poland for icant inuence on the anti-psychiatry movement during
a new destination.[62] Various positions were available in the 1960s; Foucault took a mixed approach to this, as-
West Germany, and so Foucault relocated to the Institut sociating with a number of anti-psychiatrists but arguing
franais Hamburg (where he was director in 195860), that most of them misunderstood his work.[75]
teaching the same courses he had given in Uppsala and Foucaults secondary thesis (his thse complmentaire
Warsaw.[63][64] Spending much time in the Reeperbahn written in Hamburg between 1959 and 1960) was a
red light district, he entered into a relationship with a translation and commentary on German philosopher Im-
transvestite.[65] manuel Kants 1798 work Anthropology from a Prag-
matic Point of View (the title of his thesis was Intro-
duction l'Anthropologie", "Introduction to Kants An-
2 Growing career thropology").[64][76] Largely consisting of Foucaults dis-
cussion of textual datingan archaeology of the Kan-
tian texthe rounded o the thesis with an evocation
2.1 Madness and Civilization: 1960 of Nietzsche, his biggest philosophical inuence.[77] This
works rapporteur was his old tutor and then director
In West Germany, Foucault completed in 1960 his pri- of the ENS, Hyppolite, who was well acquainted with
mary thesis (thse principale) for his State doctorate, en- German philosophy.[68] After both theses were cham-
titled Folie et draison: Histoire de la folie l'ge classique pioned and reviewed, he underwent his public defense,
(Madness and Insanity: History of Madness in the Clas- the soutenance de thse, on 20 May 1961.[78] The aca-
sical Age), a philosophical work based upon his studies demics responsible for reviewing his work were con-
into the history of medicine. The book discussed how cerned about the unconventional nature of his major the-
West European society had dealt with madness, arguing sis; reviewer Henri Gouhier noted that it was not a con-
that it was a social construct distinct from mental illness. ventional work of history, making sweeping generali-
Foucault traces the evolution of the concept of madness sations without sucient particular argument, and that
through three phases: the Renaissance, the later 17th and Foucault clearly thinks in allegories.[79] They all agreed
18th centuries, and the modern experience. The work al- however that the overall project was of merit, awarding
ludes to the work of French poet and playwright Antonin Foucault his doctorate despite reservations.[80]
Artaud, who exerted a strong inuence over Foucaults
thought at the time.[67]
Histoire de la folie was an expansive work, consisting 2.2 University of Clermont-Ferrand, The
of 943 pages of text, followed by appendices and a Birth of the Clinic, and The Order of
bibliography.[68] Foucault submitted it at the University Things: 196066
of Paris, although the universitys regulations for award-
ing a State doctorate required the submission of both his In October 1960, Foucault took a tenured post in philos-
main thesis and a shorter complementary thesis.[69] Ob- ophy at the University of Clermont-Ferrand, commuting
taining a doctorate in France at the period was a multi- to the city every week from Paris,[81] where he lived in
step process. The rst step was to obtain a rapporteur, a high-rise block on the rue du Dr Finlay.[82] Responsi-
or sponsor for the work: Foucault chose Georges Can- ble for teaching psychology, which was subsumed within
guilhem.[70] The second was to nd a publisher, and as a the philosophy department, he was considered a fasci-
result Folie et draison would be published in French in nating but rather traditional teacher at Clermont.[83]
May 1961 by the company Plon, whom Foucault chose The department was run by Jules Vuillemin, who soon
over Presses Universitaires de France after being rejected developed a friendship with Foucault.[84] Foucault then
by Gallimard.[71] In 1964, a heavily abridged version was took Vuillemins job when the latter was elected to the
published as a mass market paperback, then translated Collge de France in 1962.[85] In this position, Foucault
into English for publication the following year as Mad- took a dislike to another sta member whom he consid-
ness and Civilization.[72] ered stupid: Roger Garaudy, a senior gure in the Com-
2.3 University of Tunis and Vincennes: 196670 5

munist Party. Foucault made life at the university dicult and student protests.[92]
for Garaudy, leading the latter to transfer to Poitiers.[86] In April 1966, Gallimard published Foucaults Les Mots
Foucault also caused controversy by securing a univer- et les choses (Words and Things), later translated as
sity job for his lover, the philosopher Daniel Defert, with The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human
whom he retained a non-monogamous relationship for the Sciences.[93] Exploring how man came to be an ob-
rest of his life.[87] ject of knowledge, it argued that all periods of history
have possessed certain underlying conditions of truth
that constituted what was acceptable as scientic dis-
course. Foucault argues that these conditions of discourse
have changed over time, from one periods episteme to
another.[94] Although designed for a specialist audience,
the work gained media attention, becoming a surprise
bestseller in France.[95] Appearing at the height of inter-
est in structuralism, Foucault was quickly grouped with
scholars Jacques Lacan, Claude Lvi-Strauss, and Roland
Barthes, as the latest wave of thinkers set to topple the
existentialism popularized by Jean-Paul Sartre. Although
initially accepting this description, Foucault soon vehe-
mently rejected it.[96] Foucault and Sartre regularly crit-
icised one another in the press. Both Sartre and Simone
de Beauvoir attacked Foucaults ideas as "bourgeois",
while Foucault retaliated against their Marxist beliefs by
proclaiming that Marxism exists in nineteenth-century
thought as a sh exists in water; that is, it ceases to breathe
anywhere else.[97]

2.3 University of Tunis and Vincennes:

Foucault adored the work of Raymond Roussel and authored a
literary study of it. In September 1966, Foucault took a position teaching
psychology at the University of Tunis in Tunisia. His
decision to do so was largely because his lover, Defert,
Foucault maintained a keen interest in literature, publish-
ing reviews in amongst others the literary journals Tel had been posted to the country as part of his national ser-
vice. Foucault moved a few kilometres from Tunis, to the
Quel and Nouvelle Revue Franaise, and sitting on the ed-
itorial board of Critique.[88] In May 1963, he published a village of Sidi Bou Sad, where fellow academic Grard
book devoted to poet, novelist, and playwright Raymond Deledalle lived with his wife. Soon after his arrival, Fou-
Roussel. It was written in under two months, published by cault announced that Tunisia was blessed by history,
Gallimard, and would be described by biographer David a nation which deserves to live forever because it was
Macey as a very personal book that resulted from a where Hannibal and St. Augustine lived.[99] His lectures
love aair with Roussels work. It would be published at the university proved very popular, and were well at-
in English in 1983 as Death and the Labyrinth: The World tended. Although many young students were enthusiastic
of Raymond Roussel.[89] Receiving few reviews, it was about his teaching, they were critical of what they be-
largely ignored.[90] That same year he published a se- lieved to be his right-wing political views, viewing him as
quel to Folie et draison, entitled Naissance de la Clin- a representative of Gaullist technocracy, even though
ique, subsequently translated as The Birth of the Clinic: he considered himself a leftist.[100]
An Archaeology of Medical Perception. Shorter than its Foucault was in Tunis during the anti-government and
predecessor, it focused on the changes that the medi- pro-Palestinian riots that rocked the city in June 1967,
cal establishment underwent in the late 18th and early and which continued for a year. Although highly critical
19th centuries.[91] Like his preceding work, Naissance of the violent, ultra-nationalistic and anti-semitic nature
de la Clinique was largely critically ignored, but later of many protesters, he used his status to try to prevent
gained a cult following.[90] Foucault was also selected to some of his militant leftist students from being arrested
be among the Eighteen Man Commission that assem- and tortured for their role in the agitation. He hid their
bled between November 1963 and March 1964 to dis- printing press in his garden, and tried to testify on their
cuss university reforms that were to be implemented by behalf at their trials, but was prevented when the trials
Christian Fouchet, the Gaullist Minister of National Ed- became closed-door events.[101] While in Tunis, Foucault
ucation. Implemented in 1967, they brought sta strikes continued to write. Inspired by a correspondence with the

surrealist artist Ren Magritte, Foucault started to write was obliged to give 12 weekly lectures a yearand did
a book about the impressionist artist Eduard Manet, but so for the rest of his lifecovering the topics that he was
never completed it.[102] researching at the time; these became one of the events
In 1968, Foucault returned to Paris, moving into an apart- of Parisian[114]
intellectual life and were repeatedly packed
ment on the Rue de Vaugirard. [103]
After the May 1968 out events. On Mondays, he also gave seminars to a
student protests, Minister of Education Edgar Faure re- group of students; many of them became a Foulcauldian
sponded by founding new universities with greater au- tribe who worked with him on his research. He enjoyed
tonomy. Most prominent of these was the Centre Ex- this teamwork and collective research, and together they
would publish a number of short books.[115] Working at
primental de Vincennes in Vincennes on the outskirts
of Paris. A group of prominent academics were asked the Collge allowed him to travel widely, giving lectures
in Brazil, Japan, Canada, and the United States over the
to select teachers to run the Centres departments, and [116]
Canguilheim recommended Foucault as head of the Phi- next 14 years. In 1970 and 1972, Foucault served as
[104] a professor in the French Department of the University at
losophy Department. Becoming a tenured professor [117]
of Vincennes, Foucaults desire was to obtain the best Bualo in Bualo, New York.
in French philosophy today for his department, employ- In May 1971, Foucault co-founded the Group
ing Michel Serres, Judith Miller, Alain Badiou, Jacques d'Information sur les Prisons (GIP) along with his-
Rancire, Franois Regnault, Henri Weber, tienne Bal- torian Pierre Vidal-Naquet and journalist Jean-Marie
ibar, and Franois Chtelet; most of them were Marxists Domenach. The GIP aimed to investigate and expose
or ultra-left activists.[105] poor conditions in prisons and give prisoners and
Lectures began at the university in January 1969, and ex-prisoners a voice in French society. It was highly
straight away its students and sta, including Foucault, critical of the penal system, believing that it converted
were involved in occupations and clashes with police, re- petty criminals into hardened delinquents.[118] The GIP
sulting in arrests.[106] In February, Foucault gave a speech gave press conferences and staged protests surrounding
denouncing police provocation to protesters at the Latin the events of the Toul prison riot in December 1971,
Quarter of the Mutualit.[107] Such actions marked Fou- alongside other prison riots that it sparked o; in doing
caults embrace of the ultra-left,[108] undoubtedly inu- so it faced police crack down and repeated arrest.[119]
enced by Defert, who had gained a job at Vincennes so- The group became active across France, with 2,000
ciology department and who had become a Maoist.[109] to 3,000, members, but disbanded before 1974.[120]
Most of the courses at Foucaults philosophy depart- Also campaigning against the death penalty, Foucault
co-authored a short book on the case of the executed
ment were Marxist-Leninist oriented, although Foucault
himself gave courses on Nietzsche, The end of Meta- murderer Pierre Rivire.[121] After his research into the
penal system, Foucault published Surveiller et punir:
physics, and The Discourse of Sexuality, which were
highly popular and over-subscribed.[110] While the right- Naissance de la prison (Discipline and Punish) in 1975,
oering a history of the system in western Europe. In it,
wing press was heavily critical of this new institution, new
Minister of Education Olivier Guichard was angered by Foucault examines the penal evolution away from cor-
poral and capital punishment to the penitentiary system
its ideological bent and the lack of exams, with students
being awarded degrees in a haphazard manner. He re- that began in Europe and the United States around the
fused national accreditation of the departments degrees, end of the 18th century.[122] Biographer Didier Eribon
resulting in a public rebuttal from Foucault.[111] described it as perhaps the nest of Foucaults works,
and it was well received.[123]
Foucault was also active in anti-racist campaigns; in
November 1971, he was a leading gure in protests fol-
3 Later life lowing the perceived racist killing of Arab migrant De-
jellali Ben Ali. In this he worked alongside his old rival
Sartre, the journalist Claude Mauriac, and one of his lit-
3.1 Collge de France and Discipline and
erary heroes, Jean Genet. This campaign was formalised
Punish: 197075 as the Committee for the Defence of the Rights of Immi-
grants, but there was tension at their meetings as Foucault
Foucault desired to leave Vincennes and become a fel- opposed the anti-Israeli sentiment of many Arab work-
low of the prestigious Collge de France. He requested ers and Maoist activists.[124] At a December 1972 protest
to join, taking up a chair in what he called the his- against the police killing of Algerian worker Mohammad
tory of systems of thought, and his request was cham- Diab, both Foucault and Genet were arrested, resulting in
pioned by members Dumzil, Hyppolite, and Vuillemin. widespread publicity.[125] Foucault was also involved in
In November 1969, when an opening became available, founding the Agence de Press-Libration (APL), a group
Foucault was elected to the Collge, though with opposi- of leftist journalists who intended to cover news stories
tion by a large minority.[112] He gave his inaugural lecture neglected by the mainstream press. In 1973, they estab-
in December 1970, which was subsequently published as lished the daily newspaper Libration, and Foucault sug-
L'Ordre du discours (The Discourse of Language).[113] He
3.3 Final years: 198084 7

gested that they establish committees across France to cluding by Iranian liberal dissidents. Foucaults response
collect news and distribute the paper, and advocated a was that Islamism was to become a major political force
column known as the Chronicle of the Workers Mem- in the region, and that the West must treat it with respect
ory to allow workers to express their opinions. Foucault rather than hostility.[138] In April 1978, Foucault traveled
wanted an active journalistic role in the paper, but this to Japan, where he studied Zen Buddhism under Omori
proved untenable, and he soon became disillusioned with Sogen at the Seionji temple in Uenohara.[116]
Libration, believing that it distorted the facts; he would
not publish in it until 1980.[126]
3.3 Final years: 198084

3.2 The History of Sexuality and Iranian Although remaining critical of power relations, Foucault
expressed cautious support for the Socialist Party gov-
Revolution: 197679
ernment of Franois Mitterrand following its electoral
victory in 1981.[139] But his support soon deteriorated
In 1976, Gallimard published Foucaults Histoire de la
when that party refused to condemn the Polish govern-
sexualit: la volont de savoir (The History of Sexual- ments crackdown on the 1982 demonstrations in Poland
ity: The Will to Knowledge), a short book exploring what orchestrated by the Solidarity trade union. He and soci-
Foucault called the repressive hypothesis. It revolved ologist Pierre Bourdieu authored a document condemn-
largely around the concept of power, rejecting Marxist ing Mitterrands inaction that was published in Libration,
theories of power and rejecting psychoanalysis. Foucault and they also took part in large public protests on the
intended it as the rst in a seven-volume exploration of issue.[140] Foucault continued to support Solidarity, and
the subject.[127] Histoire de la sexualit was a best-seller with his friend Simone Signoret traveled to Poland as part
and gained a positive press reception, but lukewarm in- of a Mdecins du Monde expedition, taking time out to
tellectual interest, something that upset Foucault, who visit the Auschwitz concentration camp.[141] He contin-
felt that many misunderstood his hypothesis.[128] He soon ued his academic research, and in June 1984 Gallimard
became dissatised with Gallimard after being oended published the second and third volumes of Histoire de la
by senior sta member Pierre Nora.[129] Along with Paul sexualit. Volume two, L'Usage des plaisirs, dealt with the
Veyne and Franois Wahl, Foucault launched a new series techniques of self prescribed by ancient Greek pagan
of academic books, known as Des travaux (Some Works), morality in relation to sexual ethics, while volume three,
through the company Seuil, which he hoped would im- Le Souci de soi explored the same theme in the Greek and
prove the state of academic research in France.[130] He Latin texts of the rst two centuries CE. A fourth volume,
also produced introductions for the memoirs of Herculine Les Aveux de la chair, examined it in early Christianity,
Barbin and My Secret Life.[131] but it remained unnished at Foucaults death.[142]
Foucault remained active as a political activist, focusing
In October 1980, Foucault became a visiting profes-
on protesting government abuses of human rights across sor at the University of California, Berkeley, giving the
the world. He was a key player in the 1975 protests
Howison Lectures on Truth and Subjectivity, while in
against the Spanish government to execute 11 militants November he lectured at the Humanities Institute at the
sentenced to death without fair trial. It was his idea to New York University. His growing popularity in Amer-
travel to Madrid with 6 others to give their press confer- ican intellectual circles was noted by Time magazine,
ence there; they were subsequently arrested and deported while Foucault went on to lecture at UCLA in 1981, the
back to Paris.[133] In 1977, he protested the extradition University of Vermont in 1982, and Berkeley again in
of Klaus Croissant to West Germany, and his rib was 1983, where his lectures drew huge crowds.[143] When
fractured during clashes with riot police.[134] In July that in California, Foucault spent many evenings in the gay
year, he organised an assembly of Eastern Bloc dissidents scene of the San Francisco Bay Area, frequenting sado-
to mark the visit of Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev to masochistic bathhouses, engaging in sexual intercourse
Paris.[135] In 1979, he campaigned for Vietnamese polit- with other patrons. He would praise sado-masochistic ac-
ical dissidents to be granted asylum in France.[136] tivity in interviews with the gay press, describing it as the
In 1977, Italian newspaper Corriere della sera asked Fou- real creation of new possibilities of pleasure, which peo-
cault to write a column for them. In doing so, in 1978 he ple had no idea about previously.[144] Through this sexual
travelled to Tehran in Iran, days after the Black Friday activity, Foucault contracted HIV, which eventually de-
massacre. Documenting the developing Iranian Revolu- veloped into AIDS. Little was known of the virus at the
tion, he met with opposition leaders such as Mohammad time; the rst cases had only been identied in 1980.[145]
Kazem Shariatmadari and Mehdi Bazargan, and discov- In summer 1983, he developed a persistent dry cough,
ered the popular support for Islamism.[137] Returning to which concerned friends in Paris, but Foucault insisted it
France, he was one of the journalists who visited the was just a pulmonary infection.[146] Only when hospital-
Ayatollah Khomeini, before he visited Tehran again. His ized was Foucault correctly diagnosed; treated with an-
articles expressed awe of Khomeinis Islamist movement, tibiotics, he delivered a nal set of lectures at the Col-
for which he was widely criticised in the French press, in- lge de France.[147] Foucault entered Paris Hpital de la

Salptrirethe same institution that he had studied in Philosopher Philip Stokes of the University of Reading
Madness and Civilisationon 9 June 1984, with neuro- noted that overall, Foucaults work was dark and pes-
logical symptoms complicated by septicemia. He died in simistic, but that it did leave some room for optimism,
the hospital on 25 June.[148] in that it illustrates how the discipline of philosophy can
On 26 June, Libration announced his death, mentioning be used to highlight areas of domination. In doing so,
the rumour that it had been brought on by AIDS. The fol- Stokes claimed, we are able to understand how we are
lowing day, Le Monde issued a medical bulletin cleared by being dominated and strive to build social structures that
his family which made no reference to HIV/AIDS.[149] minimise this risk of domination.[165] In all of this devel-
opment there had to be close attention to detail; it is the
On 29 June, Foucaults la leve du corps ceremony was
held, in which the con was carried from the hospital detail which eventually individualises people.[166]
morgue. Hundreds attended, including activist and aca- Later in his life, Foucault explained that his work was less
demic friends, while Gilles Deleuze gave a speech using about analysing power as a phenomenon than about trying
text from The History of Sexuality.[150] His body was then to characterise the dierent ways in which contemporary
buried at Vendeuvre in a small ceremony.[151] Soon after society has expressed the use of power to objectivise
his death, Foucaults partner Daniel Defert founded the subjects. These have taken three broad forms: one in-
rst national HIV/AIDS organisation in France, AIDES; volving scientic authority to classify and 'order' knowl-
a pun on the French language word for help (aide) and edge about human populations. A second, and related
the English language acronym for the disease.[152] On form, has been to categorise and 'normalise' human sub-
the second anniversary of Foucaults death, Defert pub- jects (by identifying madness, illness, physical features,
licly revealed that Foucaults death was AIDS-related in and so on). The third relates to the manner in which the
California-based gay magazine, The Advocate.[153] impulse to fashion sexual identities and train ones own
body to engage in routines and practices ends up repro-
ducing certain patterns within a given society.[167]
4 Personal life
Foucaults rst biographer, Didier Eribon, described the
5.1 Political
philosopher as a complex, many-sided character, and
that under one mask there is always another.[154] He
also noted that he exhibited an enormous capacity for Politically, Foucault was a leftist through much of his life,
work.[155] At the ENS, Foucaults classmates unani- but his particular stance within the left often changed.
mously summed him up as a gure who was both discon- Towards the end, as he suered from AIDS, he adopted
certing and strange and a passionate worker.[156] As he classical liberalism and had a strong interest in Stoic
aged, his personality changed: Eribon noted that while he philosophy.[168] In the early 1950s he had been a mem-
was a tortured adolescent, post-1960, he had become a ber of the French Communist Party, although he never
radiant man, relaxed and cheerful, even being described adopted an orthodox Marxist viewpoint and left the party
by those who worked with him as a dandy.[157] He noted after three years, disgusted by the prejudice against Jews
that in 1969, Foucault embodied the idea of the militant and homosexuals within its ranks. After spending some
intellectual.[158] time working in Poland, then governed as a socialist state
by the Polish United Workers Party, he became further
Foucault was a fan of classical music, particularly enjoy- disillusioned with communist ideology. As a result, in
ing the work of Johann Sebastian Bach and Wolfgang the early 1960s he was considered to be violently anti-
Amadeus Mozart.[159] Foucault became known for wear- communist by some of his detractors,[169] even though
ing turtleneck jumpers.[160] After his death, Foucaults he was involved in leftist campaigns along with most of
friend Georges Dumzil described him as having pos- his students and colleagues.
sessed a profound kindness and goodness, also exhibit-
ing an intelligence [that] literally knew no bounds.[161]
Foucault was an atheist.[162][163]
5.2 Literature

5 Thought In addition to his philosophical work, Foucault also wrote

on literature. Death and the Labyrinth: The World of
Raymond Roussel was published in 1963, and translated
Further information: Michel Foucault bibliography into English in 1986. It is Foucaults only book-length
work on literature. Foucault described it as by far the
Foucaults colleague Pierre Bourdieu summarised the book I wrote most easily, with the greatest pleasure, and
philosophers thought as a long exploration of transgres- most rapidly.[170] Foucault explores theory, criticism,
sion, of going beyond social limits, always inseparably and psychology with reference to the texts of Raymond
linked to knowledge and power.[164] Roussel, one of the rst notable experimental writers.
6.1 Critiques and engagements 9

6 Inuence mented by helpful hints on how to avoid being

trapped by old historiographical assumptions.
Foucaults discussions on power and discourse have in- These hints consist largely of saying: do not
spired many critical theorists, who believe that Foucaults look for progress or meaning in history; do not
analysis of power structures could aid the struggle against see the history of a given activity, of any seg-
inequality. They claim that through discourse analysis, ment of culture, as the development of ratio-
hierarchies may be uncovered and questioned by way of nality or of freedom; do not use any philosoph-
analyzing the corresponding elds of knowledge through ical vocabulary to characterize the essence of
which they are legitimated. This is one of the ways that such activity or the goal it serves; do not as-
Foucaults work is linked to critical theory.[171] sume that the way this activity is presently con-
ducted gives any clue to the goals it served in
In 2007, Foucault was listed as the most cited scholar in the past.[176]
the humanities by the ISI Web of Science among a large
quantity of French philosophers, the compilations author
commenting that What this says of modern scholarship Foucault has frequently been criticized by historians for
is for the reader to decideand it is imagined that judg- what they consider to be a lack of rigor in his analyses.[177]
ments will vary from admiration to despair, depending on For example, Hans-Ulrich Wehler harshly criticized Fou-
ones view.[172] cault in 1998.[178] Wehler regards Foucault as a bad
philosopher who wrongfully received a good response
by the humanities and by social sciences. According to
6.1 Critiques and engagements Wehler, Foucaults works are not only insucient in their
empiric historical aspects, but also often contradictory
6.1.1 Crypto-normativity and lacking in clarity. For example, Foucaults concept
of power is desperatingly undierentiated, and Fou-
Main article: FoucaultHabermas debate caults thesis of a disciplinary society is, according to
Wehler, only possible because Foucault does not prop-
A prominent critique of Foucaults thought concerns his erly dierentiate between authority, force, power, vio-
refusal to propose positive solutions to the social and lence and legitimacy.[179] In addition, his thesis is based
political issues that he critiques. Since no human re- on a one-sided choice of sources (prisons and psychiatric
lation is devoid of power, freedom becomes elusive institutions) and neglects other types of organizations as
even as an ideal. This stance which critiques norma- e.g. factories. Also, Wehler criticizes Foucaults fran-
tivity as socially constructed and contingent, but which cocentrism because he did not take into consideration
relies on an implicit norm in order to mount the cri- major German-speaking theorists of social sciences like
tique led philosopher Jrgen Habermas to describe Fou- Max Weber and Norbert Elias. In all, Wehler concludes
caults thinking as crypto-normativist, covertly reliant that Foucault is because of the endless series of aws in
on the very Enlightenment principles he attempts to ar- his so-called empirical studies ... an intellectually dishon-
gue against.[173] A similar critique has been advanced by est, empirically absolutely unreliable, crypto-normativist
Diana Taylor, and by Nancy Fraser who argues that Fou- seducer of Postmodernism.[180]
caults critique encompasses traditional moral systems, he
denies himself recourse to concepts such as 'freedom' and
'justice', and therefore lacks the ability to generate pos- 6.1.3 Feminist critiques
itive alternatives.[174] Likewise, scholar Nancy Pearcey
points out Foucaults paradoxical stance: "[when some- Though American feminists have built on Foucaults
one] states that it is impossible to attain objectivity, is critiques of the historical construction of gender roles
that an objective statement? The theory undercuts its own and sexuality, some feminists have accused him of
claims.[175] androcentrism, adopting exclusively male perspectives on
subjectivity and ethics.[181]

6.1.2 Genealogy as historical method

6.1.4 Queer theory
Philosopher Richard Rorty has argued that Foucaults
'archaeology of knowledge' is fundamentally negative, Foucaults approach to sexuality, in which he understands
and thus fails to adequately establish any 'new' theory of sexualities as socially constructed concepts that are as-
knowledge per se. Rather, Foucault simply provides a few cribed onto bodies has become widely inuential for ex-
valuable maxims regarding the reading of history. Says ample through the work of queer theorist Judith Butler
Rorty: and Eve Sedgwick. Nonetheless Foucaults resistance to
identity politics and the rejection of sexual object choice
As far as I can see, all he has to oer as xed foundation for sexual behavior, stands at odds
are brilliant redescriptions of the past, supple- with some formulations of queer or gay identity.[181]

6.1.5 Social constructionism and human nature [5] Eribon 1991, pp. 45; Macey 1993, p. 3; Miller 1993, p.
Foucault is sometimes criticized for his prominent formu-
[6] Eribon 1991, p. 5; Macey 1993, pp. 12.
lation of principles of social constructionism, which some
see as an aront to the concept of truth. In Foucaults [7] Eribon 1991, p. 5; Macey 1993, p. 1.
1971 televised debate with Noam Chomsky, Foucault ar-
gued against the possibility of any xed human nature, as [8] Eribon 1991, p. 5; Macey 1993, p. 2.
posited by Chomskys concept of innate human faculties. [9] Eribon 1991, p. 5; Macey 1993, p. 3.
Chomsky argued that concepts of justice were rooted in
human reason, whereas Foucault rejected the universal [10] Eribon 1991, p. 5; Macey 1993, p. 4.
basis for a concept of justice.[182] Following the debate,
[11] Miller 1993, p. 56.
Chomsky was stricken with Foucaults total rejection of
the possibility of a universal morality, stating He struck [12] Macey 1993, p. 4; Miller 1993, p. 39.
me as completely amoral, Id never met anyone who was
so totally amoral [...] I mean, I liked him personally, its [13] Miller 1993, p. 39.
just that I couldn't make sense of him. Its as if he was [14] Macey 1993, pp. 89.
from a dierent species, or something.[183]
[15] Macey 1993, p. 7.

6.1.6 Education and authority [16] Eribon 1991, pp. 67; Macey 1993, p. 10; Miller 1993,
pp. 3940; Smart 2002, p. 19.
Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa, while acknowledg- [17] Macey 1993, p. 10.
ing that Foucault contributed to give a right of citizenship
in cultural life to certain marginal and eccentric experi- [18] Macey 1993, p. 13.
ences (of sexuality, of cultural repression, of madness),
[19] Eribon 1991, p. 9; Macey 1993, p. 11.
asserts that his radical critique of authority was detri-
mental to education.[184] Foucaults development of the [20] Eribon 1991, pp. 11, 1421; Macey 1993, pp. 1517;
notion of observation[185] and its power to change indi- Miller 1993, pp. 4041.
viduals behavior as a subtle type of authority inuences
[21] Eribon 1991, pp. 2425; Macey 1993, pp. 1722; Miller
many elds in educations.[186]
1993, p. 45.

[22] Eribon 1991, p. 26; Miller 1993, p. 45.

7 See also [23] Eribon 1991, p. 26; Macey 1993, pp. 2728; Miller 1993,
pp. 5455.
[24] Eribon 1991, p. 26; Miller 1993.
Georg Simmel
[25] Macey 1993, p. 30; Miller 1993, pp. 5556.
[26] Macey 1993, p. 34; Miller 1993, p. 46.
[27] Macey 1993, p. 35; Miller 1993, pp. 6061.
[28] Eribon 1991, pp. 3236, 5155; Macey 1993, pp. 2326,
3740; Miller 1993, p. 57.

8 References [29] Eribon 1991, pp. 5657; Macey 1993, pp. 3940; Miller
1993, pp. 5758.

8.1 Citations [30] Eribon 1991, pp. 3638; Macey 1993, pp. 4345; Miller
1993, p. 61.
[1] Alan D. Schrift (2006), Twentieth-Century French Philos-
[31] Eribon 1991, pp. 3940; Macey 1993, pp. 4546, 49.
ophy: Key Themes And Thinkers, Blackwell Publishing, p.
126. [32] Miller 1993, p. 61.
[2] Jacques Derrida points out Foucaults debt to Artaud in his [33] Eribon 1991, p. 50; Macey 1993, p. 49; Miller 1993, p.
essay "La parole soue, in Derrida, Writing and Dier- 62.
ence, trans. Alan Bass (Chicago, 1978), p. 326 n. 26.
[34] Eribon 1991, pp. 6162; Macey 1993, p. 47.
[3] Michel Foucault (1963). "Prface la transgression, Cri-
tique: "Hommage a Georges Bataille", nos 195-6. [35] Macey 1993, p. 56.

[4] Macey 1993, p. 3; Miller 1993, p. 39. [36] Macey 1993, p. 49; Miller 1993, pp. 6162.
8.1 Citations 11

[37] Eribon 1991, pp. 4149; Macey 1993, pp. 5658; Miller [67] Macey 1993, p. 102; Miller 1993, p. 96.
1993, p. 62.
[68] Eribon 1991, p. 101.
[38] Eribon 1991, pp. 30, 43; Miller 1993, pp. 6263.
[69] Eribon 1991, pp. 9092; Macey 1993, pp. 8889.
[39] Eribon 1991, pp. 6568; Macey 1993, p. 5053; Miller
1993, pp. 66, 7982, 8991. [70] Eribon 1991, pp. 10102; Macey 1993, pp. 10306.

[40] Eribon 1991, p. 52; Macey 1993, p. 50; Miller 1993, pp. [71] Eribon 1991, pp. 10507; Macey 1993, pp. 10609;
6467. Miller 1993, pp. 11718.

[41] Macey 1993, p. 41; Miller 1993, pp. 6465. [72] Eribon 1991, p. 122; Miller 1993, pp. 118.

[42] Eribon 1991, p. 58; Macey 1993, p. 55; Miller 1993, pp. [73] Eribon 1991, p. 116; Macey 1993, pp. 11319; Miller
8284. 1993, p. 118.

[43] Eribon 1991, p. 66; Macey 1993, p. 53; Miller 1993, pp. [74] Eribon 1991, pp. 11921; Macey 1993, pp. 14245;
8485. Miller 1993, pp. 11819.

[75] Eribon 1991, pp. 12226.

[44] Eribon 1991, p. 31; Macey 1993, pp. 5152.
[76] Introduction to Kants Anthropology from a pragmatic
[45] Miller 1993, p. 65.
point of view (English translation)
[46] Eribon 1991, pp. 4445; Macey 1993, pp. 5961; Miller
[77] Eribon 1991, p. 110; Macey 1993, p. 89.
1993, pp. 7375.
[78] Eribon 1991, pp. 11113.
[47] Eribon 1991, pp. 4546; Macey 1993, pp. 6769; Miller
1993, pp. 7677. [79] Miller 1993, pp. 10405.
[48] Eribon 1991, pp. 6870; Macey 1993, pp. 6366; Miller [80] Eribon 1991, p. 115.
1993, p. 63.
[81] Eribon 1991, p. 129; Macey 1993, p. 109.
[49] Miller 1993, pp. 63.
[82] Macey 1993, p. 92.
[50] Macey 1993, p. 67.
[83] Eribon 1991, pp. 14041.
[51] Eribon 1991, p. 70.
[84] Eribon 1991, p. 131; Macey 1993, p. 109.
[52] Eribon 1991, pp. 7374; Macey 1993, pp. 7071.
[85] Eribon 1991, p. 137.
[53] Eribon 1991, pp. 7678; Macey 1993, pp. 73, 76.
[86] Eribon 1991, pp. 13638; Macey 1993, pp. 10910.
[54] Eribon 1991, pp. 7477; Macey 1993, pp. 7475.
[87] Eribon 1991, pp. 14142; Macey 1993, pp. 9293, 110;
[55] Eribon 1991, p. 68; Macey 1993, p. 81; Miller 1993, p. Halperin 1997, p. 214.
[88] Eribon 1991, pp. 141, 151; Macey 1993, pp. 12021.
[56] Macey 1993, p. 78.
[89] Eribon 1991, pp. 14548; Macey 1993, pp. 12429.
[57] Eribon 1991, pp. 8386; Macey 1993, p. 7980.
[90] Macey 1993, pp. 14042.
[58] Eribon 1991, p. 190.
[91] Eribon 1991, pp. 15254; Macey 1993, pp. 13037.
[59] Eribon 1991, p. 87; Macey 1993, p. 84; Miller 1993, p.
91. [92] Eribon 1991, pp. 13336.

[60] Eribon 1991, p. 194; Macey 1993, pp. 8485. [93] Eribon 1991, pp. 15556; Macey 1993, p. 159.

[61] Eribon 1991, p. 88; Macey 1993, pp. 8586. [94] Eribon 1991, pp. 15859.

[62] Eribon 1991, p. 89; Macey 1993, pp. 8687. [95] Eribon 1991, pp. 155, 159; Macey 1993, p. 160.

[63] Eribon 1991, pp. 8990; Macey 1993, pp. 8788. [96] Eribon 1991, pp. 1605162, 167.

[64] Sam Binkley, Jorge Capetillo (eds.), A Foucault for the [97] Macey 1993, pp. 17377.
21st Century: Governmentality, Biopolitics and Discipline [98] Eribon 1991, p. 194.
in the New Millennium, Cambridge Scholars Publishing,
2009, p. 81. [99] Eribon 1991, pp. 18788; Macey 1993, pp. 14546.

[65] Macey 1993, p. 88. [100] Eribon 1991, pp. 18889.

[66] Macey 1993, p. 96. [101] Eribon 1991, pp. 19293.


[102] Eribon 1991, p. 190; Macey 1993, p. 173. [137] Eribon 1991, pp. 28185.

[103] Eribon 1991, p. 198. [138] Eribon 1991, pp. 28588.

[104] Eribon 1991, pp. 20102. [139] Eribon 1991, pp. 29697.

[105] Eribon 1991, pp. 20305. [140] Eribon 1991, pp. 298302.

[106] Eribon 1991, p. 205. [141] Eribon 1991, pp. 30303.

[107] Eribon 1991, p. 206. [142] Eribon 1991, pp. 31723.

[108] Eribon 1991, p. 201. [143] Eribon 1991, pp. 31314.

[109] Eribon 1991, p. 209. [144] Eribon 1991, pp. 31416; Miller 1993, pp. 2627.

[110] Eribon 1991, p. 207. [145] Miller 1993, pp. 2122.

[111] Eribon 1991, pp. 20708. [146] Eribon 1991, pp. 32425; Miller 1993, p. 26.

[112] Eribon 1991, pp. 21218. [147] Miller 1993, p. 23.

[113] Eribon 1991, pp. 212, 219. [148] Eribon 1991, p. 357; Miller 1993, pp. 21, 24.

[114] Eribon 1991, pp. 22223. [149] Eribon 1991, p. 327; Miller 1993, p. 21.

[115] Eribon 1991, pp. 25658. [150] Eribon 1991, p. 329; Miller 1993, pp. 3436.

[116] Eribon 1991, p. 310. [151] Eribon 1991, p. 330.

[117] Miller, James, The Passion of Michel Foucault, Harvard [152] Miller 1993, pp. 2324.
University Press, 2000, p. 246.
[153] Miller 1993, pp. 2425.
[118] Eribon 1991, pp. 22429.
[154] Eribon 1991, p. xi.
[119] Eribon 1991, pp. 23132.
[155] Eribon 1991, p. 64.
[120] Eribon 1991, pp. 23334.
[156] Eribon 1991, p. 30.
[121] Eribon 1991, pp. 23435.
[157] Eribon 1991, p. 138.
[122] Druzin, Bryan (2015). The Theatre of Punishment: Case
Studies in the Political Function of Corporal and Capital [158] Eribon 1991, p. 210.
Punishment. Washington University Global Studies Law [159] Eribon 1991, p. 83.
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[160] Eribon 1991, p. 311.
[123] Eribon 1991, pp. 23536.
[161] Eribon 1991, p. 329.
[124] Eribon 1991, pp. 23842.
[162] If I were not a total atheist, I would be a monk...a good
[125] Eribon 1991, pp. 24142. monk. David Macey (2004). Michel Foucault. Reaktion
[126] Eribon 1991, pp. 25054. Books, p. 130.

[127] Eribon 1991, pp. 26974. [163] "(...) the writings of such atheistic post-modernists as Jean
Baudrillard, Jacques Derrida, Julia Kristeva, Michel Fou-
[128] Eribon 1991, pp. 27576. cault, Jacques Lacan, Roland Barthes and Jean-Franois
Lyotard. Michael D. Waggoner (2011). Sacred and Sec-
[129] Eribon 1991, p. 292. ular Tensions in Higher Education: Connecting Parallel
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[130] Eribon 1991, pp. 19395.
[164] Eribon 1991, p. 328.
[131] Eribon 1991, pp. 27778.
[165] Stokes 2004, p. 187.
[132] Eribon 1991, p. 79.
[166] J.D. Marshall (30 June 1996). Michel Foucault: Personal
[133] Eribon 1991, pp. 26366.
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[135] Eribon 1991, p. 278. [167] Foucault, Michel (1982). The Subject and Power. Univer-
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[168] Kuznicki, Jason (2008). Foucault, Michel (1926 8.2 Sources

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ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC (translator). Cambridge, MA:
750831024. Harvard University Press. ISBN
[169] Eribon 1991, p. 136.
Halperin, David M. (1997). Saint
[170] Foucault, Michel (2004). An Interview with Michel Fou- Foucault: Towards a Gay Hagiog-
cault by Charles Ruas. Death and the labyrinth : the raphy. Oxford and New York: Ox-
world of Raymond Roussel. London New York: Contin- ford University Press. ISBN 978-0-
uum. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-8264-9362-0. 19-511127-9.
[171] Van Loon, Borin (2001). Introducing Critical Theory. Macey, David (1993). The Lives
Thriplow: Icon Books Ltd. of Michel Foucault. London:
Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-09-
[172] The most cited authors of books in the humanities. 175344-3. 26 March 2009. Retrieved
Miller, James (1993). The Pas-
16 November 2009.
sion of Michel Foucault. New York
[173] Ashenden, S., & Owen, D. (Eds.). (1999). Foucault con- City: Simon & Schuster. ISBN
tra Habermas: Recasting the dialogue between genealogy 978-0-674-00157-2.
and critical theory. Sage. Smart, Barry (2002). Michel Fou-
cault. London: Routledge. ISBN
[174] Taylor, D. (2010). Michel Foucault: key concepts. Acu-
men. pp. 23
Stokes, Philip (2004). Philosophy:
[175] Pearcey, Nancy (2015). Finding Truth. p. 208. ISBN 100 Essential Thinkers. Kettering:
978-0781413084. Index Books. ISBN 978-0-572-
[176] Richard Rorty. Foucault and Epistemology in Hoy, D
(eds) 'Foucault: A critical reader' Basil Blackwell. Ox-
ford, 1986.
9 Further reading
[177] Mills, S. (2003). Michel Foucault: Routledge Critical
Thinkers. Chicago p. 23 Artires, Philippe; Bert, Jean-Franois; Gros,
[178] Wehler, Hans-Ulrich (1998): Die Herausforderung der
Frdric and Revel, Judith (ed.). Cahier Foucault.
Kulturgeschichte, pp. 4595. ISBN 3-406-42076-1 (L'Herne, 2011).

[179] Wehler, Hans-Ulrich (1998): Die Herausforderung der Braver, Lee. A Thing of This World: a History
Kulturgeschichte, p. 81. ISBN 3-406-42076-1 of Continental Anti-Realism. Northwestern Univer-
sity Press: 2007. This study covers Foucault and
[180] Wehler, Hans-Ulrich (1998): Die Herausforderung der his contribution to the history of Continental Anti-
Kulturgeschichte, p. 91. ISBN 3-406-42076-1 Realism.
[181] Downing, Lisa. The Cambridge Introduction to Michel Carrette, Jeremy R. (ed.). Religion and culture:
Foucault. (2008). Cambridge University Press. pp. Michel Foucault. (Routledge, 1999).
[182] Wilkin, P. (1999). Chomsky and Foucault on human na- Cusset, Francois. (trans. by Je Fort) French The-
ture and politics: an essential dierence?. Social Theory ory: How Foucault, Derrida, Deleuze, & Co. Trans-
and Practice, pp. 177210. formed the Intellectual Life of the United States.
[183] James Miller, Jim Miller. 1993. The Passion of Michel
(Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008)
Foucault. Harvard University Press, pp. 20103
Derrida, Jacques. Cogito and the History of Mad-
[184] Vargas Llosa, Mario (2010). Breve discurso sobre la cul- ness. In Alan Bass (tr.), Writing and Dierence,
tura [Short Discourse on Culture]. Letras libres 139: 48 pp. 3163. (Chicago University Press, 1978).
55, .
Dillon, M. Foucault on Politics, Security and War,
[185] Bentham, Jeremy (1791). Panopticon, . (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).

[186] Kislev, Elyakim (2015). The Use of Participant- Dreyfus, Herbert L. and Paul Rabinow. Michel Fou-
Observers in Group Therapy: A Critical Exploration in cault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics, 2nd
Light of Foucauldian Theory, . edition. (University of Chicago Press, 1983).

Elden, Stuart. Power, Nietzsche and the Greeks: Olssen, M. Toward a Global Thin Community: Ni-
Foucaults Leons sur la volont de savoir, Berfrois, etzsche, Foucault and the cosmopolitan commitment,
July 2011. Paradigm Press, Boulder, Colorado, October 2009

Eribon, Didier. Insult and the Making of the Gay Self Roudinesco, lisabeth, Philosophy in Turbulent
(Duke University Press, 2004). The third part Times: Canguilhem, Sartre, Foucault, Althusser,
about 150 pages of this bookis devoted to Fou- Deleuze, Derrida, Columbia University Press, New
cault and a reinterpretation of his life and work. York, 2008.

Foucault, Michel. "Sexual Morality and the Law" Sim, Stuart, and Van Loon, Borin. Introducing Crit-
(originally published as La loi de la pudeur), is ical Theory. Thriplow: Icon Books Ltd., 2001
the Chapter 16 of Politics, Philosophy, Culture (see
Notes), pp. 27185. Veyne, Paul. Foucault. Sa pense, sa personne.
(Paris: Albin Michel, 2008).
Ghamari-Tabrizi, Behrooz. Foucault in Iran. Is-
lamic Revolution and Enlightenment (University of Vuillemin, Jean-Claude. Rexions sur l'pistm
Minnesota Press, 2016). foucaldienne. Cahiers Philosophiques, 130 (2012):
Deleuze, Gilles and Flix Guattari. Anti-Oedipus.
Wilson, Timothy H. Foucault, Genealogy, His-
(Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press,
tory. Philosophy Today, 39.2 (1995): 15770.
Wolin, Richard. Telos 67, Foucaults Aesthetic Deci-
Deleuze, Gilles. Foucault. (Minneapolis: University
sionism. New York: Telos Press Ltd., Spring 1987.
of Minnesota Press, 1988).
Zamora, Daniel, Behrent Michael, Foucault and Ne-
Gven, Ferit. Madness and Death in Philosophy,
oliberalism, Polity, Cambridge, 2016.
(Albany: SUNY Press, 2005).

Hoy, David (ed.). Foucault. (Oxford, Blackwell,

1986). 10 External links
Hicks, Stephen R. C. Explaining Postmodernism:
Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault General sites (updated regularly):
(Scholargy Publishing, 2004). Repository of texts, news
Isenberg, Bo. Habermas on Foucault. Critical
remarks (Acta Sociologica, Vol. 34 (1991), No. Website and bibliography of Michel Foucaults writ-
4:299308). (SAGE Acta Sociologica) ings

Lawlor Leonard, Nale John (eds.), The Cambridge Michel Foucault Archives by IMEC
Foucault Lexicon, Cambridge University Press,
La Bibliothque Foucaldienne Digital archive of
the philosophers notes for Les Mots et les choses,
MacIntyre, Alasdair (1990). Three Rival Versions with a detailed description
of Moral Enquiry: Encyclopaedia, Genealogy, and
Works by or about Michel Foucault at Internet
Tradition. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre
Dame Press.
Michel Foucault and Noam Chomsky on YouTube
Merquior, J. G. Foucault, University of California
Press, 1987 (A critical view of Foucaults work) Clare O'Farrell. Foucault news blog updates on
Foucault related research activity
Milchman, Alan (ed.). Foucault and Heidegger.
Contradictions Vol. 16 (Minneapolis: University of Progressive Geographies: Foucault Resources bib-
Minnesota Press, 2003). liographies of collaborative projects, list of audio
and video recordings, textual analysis, short trans-
Mills, Sara (2003). Michel Foucault. London: Rout- lations, etc.
ledge. ISBN 978-0-415-24569-2.
Said, Edward W. (Autumn 1972). Michel Foucault
O'Farrell, Clare. Michel Foucault. (London: Sage, as an Intellectual Imagination. boundary 2. Duke
2005). Includes a chronology of Foucaults life and University Press. 1 (1): 136. doi:10.2307/302044.
times and an extensive list of key terms in Fou- JSTOR 302044.
caults work, which includes references to where
these terms appear in his work. Michel Foucault at Find a Grave

Michel Foucault at Goodreads


Michel Foucault. Internet Encyclopedia of Philos-

Michel Foucault. Stanford Encyclopedia of Phi-
Retrospective article, written by Michel Foucault


French and English bibliographies

Lynchs bibliography at the Wayback Machine

(archived 8 August 2007)


Foucault Studies an electronic, refereed, interna-

tional journal

Materiali Foucaultiani an electronic, refereed, in-

ternational journal in English, French and Italian.

11 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

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faller, Raven in Orbit, Frieda, Charles Matthews, Timwi, Rednblu, Pedant17, Tpbradbury, Maximus Rex, Tschild, Hyacinth, RayKiddy,
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meal, David.Monniaux, Banno, Francs2000, Owen, Dimadick, Bearcat, Robbot, Fredrik, Jmabel, Goethean, Voyager640, Cyvh, Sver-
drup, Nateji77, JB82, Sunray, Rebrane, UtherSRG, Ruakh, Widsith, Lzur, SpellBott, Dina, Stirling Newberry, DocWatson42, Jacoplane,
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