TWO MORE (POSSIBLY) CELTIC NAMES FROM ROMAN DACIA

Alexander Falileyev
In my recent study of Celtic (and possibly Celtic) personal names, place-names and ethnic names known from Geto-Dacian territories in antiquity (Falileyev 2007) I deliberately have not considered a personal name BRISAC( ). This stamp on a bronze colander found in a Sarmatian kurgan at Olăneşti on the Dniester (region Ştefan-Vodă, Republic of Moldova) is dated to the second half of the II century AD and is preserved at the National Museum of Archaeology and History of Moldova in Chişinău. The name is discussed in a separate joint publication (Falileyev, Tokhtasy’ev, forthcoming). In this note I continue my study of Celtic personal names found in the area, this time – mostly occurring on the stamps of vessels excavated in the region. 1. Talio Six bronze vessels were discovered in Târgu-Secuiesc (Romania) on the 22 March 1844; one of them, which is now at the K&K Antikensammlung in Vienna (inventory number 1674), preserves a stamp Talio f(ecit). The inscriptions has been edited several times, see references in Petrovszky 1993, 303. The find was considered in a most authoritive corpus of Latin inscriptions in Dacia (IDR III/4 № 331, 265-266), where the editors claimed that the name is of Greek-Oriental origin (viz. Thalio, cf. , , etc., see LGPN IV, 160-161). However, there is no need for this emendation, and the Celtic origin of the anthroponym is in fact quite probable. Identical (or very similar) vessels with the same stamp are found in Clifton (England), Żegocino (Poland), Salerno (Italy) and Burladingen (Germany), and it has been considered that the artefacts with the stamp should be traced to Gaul (see Petrovszky 1993, 167 and 303-304 with bibl.). The linguistic evidence also points to the Gaulish origin of the name – it is derived from Gaulish *talo- ‘front’ as well as Talia, Talanius, Talicius, Talis, etc. (see GPN, 259-261 and Delamarre 2003, 288-289; cf. Delamarre 2007, 176-7 and 233). The reconTyragetia, s.n., vol. II [XVII], nr. 1, 2008, 275-279.

struction Talius quoted by Petrovszky (1993, 167) is not necessary at all: see RIB II/2, 55 for the discussion of the stamp from Clifton, and cf. e.g., Solimario attested alongside Solimarus. The exact matches to the name – according to OPEL IV, 106, which does not consider the stamp - are attested in inscriptions from Brougham (England, AE 1968, 250) and in Noricum (CIL III, 5473); the latter has been long analysed as Celtic (Alföldy 1974, 237). Therefore, this stamp on the vessel contributes to the corpus of Celtic names found in Dacia. 2. Oppius A handle of a bronze vessel, this time stamped with C OPPI HERM[A?, was unearthed in Răcatău (Romania) and is preserved at Muzeul judeţean in Bacău (inventory number 7773); see Petrovszky 1993, 282 who refers to the information of I. Bogdan-Cătăniciu and to the table 56/2 in Sanie 1981. The stamp has been considered identical with that found on the two objects from Italy, and the name is read as Caius Oppius Hermes. The manufacturer, not unlike his colleagues stamping their products as P. Oppius Priscus and simply Oppius, has been located in Campania (Petrovszky 1993, 160-161), probably in ancient Capua which was famous for its bronze production (Frederiksen 1984, 297-298). Another attestation of the name Oppius in Dacia is that on a fragmentary bronze donarium, dated ca. III c. AD, which was excavated at Gornea. The inscription was published in IDR III/1, 29 (p. 56) as Agna[m] / d(ono) d(edit) Opp[ius] / Iul(ianus) m[iles?]1. We know that, for example, W. Schulze (1991, 424) considered the name Oppius Latin, while quite a few authors (see references in GPN, 107) labelled it “Illyrian”. It has been also noted that the overall distribution of the name is very dense in Northern Italy and Liburnia (see Alföldy 1969,
1

For other (slightly different) readings of the inscription see Gudea 1972: 672; Opp[ius], however, is retained.

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105 and cf. OPEL III, 114 for its attestations); cf. also Minkova 2000, 73, where a non-Celtic approach to the attestations of the name in the Latin inscriptions of the (modern) Bulgaria is reasonably maintained. Note also that the inscription on the donarium does not raise immediate Celtic associations. However, the name cannot be safely excluded from the list of Celtic remnants in Dacia. More than forty years ago D. Ellis Evans (GPN, 107) considered in his classic account of Gaulish personal names the form Oppianicnos from an inscription of Auxey-le-Grand in Côte-d’Or. The latter is undeniably a Gaulish patronymic in -cno(for the model cf. Druticnos = ‘Son of Drutos’, see Lambert 2003, 30-1 and Delamarre 2003, 177178), and Evans aptly refers to names in op(p)iwell attested in Gaul (Oppianus, etc.). Although the formation is definitely Celtic, the name itself may be Latin, for this approach see Lejeune 1988, 123 who refers to Kajanto 1965, 152. The latter author treats this attestation from Gaul as a vox hybrida – a Latin name supplied with a Gaulish suffix. The form has been included in the Celtic corpus of Gaul by P.-H. Billy (1993, 116), who notably did not consider the simple names in op(p)-, for which see below. Notwithstanding that, there are still attempts to prove that the names in op(p)i- are Celtic in origin. The starting point for a Celtic approach to the analysis of the personal names is a word recorded on the famous Gaulish lead table found at Chamalières (France) in 1971. This important text (see Lambert 2002, 269-280 and cf. also Lambert 2003, 152-161), which is normally associated with Gaulish magic, contains a lexeme exops which is commonly translated as ‘blind’. The form has been morphologically parsed as 276

*eks-ops, and it has been claimed that the first part of it is a negative prefix. The second component, correspondingly, goes back to Indo-European *h3eku- (LIV, 297-298), which yielded word for ‘eye’ in various Indo-European languages (Latin oculus, Old Church Slavonic око, cf. Romanian ochi); see Lambert 2002, 279 and Delamarre 2003, 170 with further bibliography and cf. McCone 1995, 8-9 for possible traces of an etymologically different word meaning ’to see’ in Insular Celtic onomastics. In its turn, the reconstructed Gaulish *op- has been considered in the analysis of personal names in op(p)- particularly attested in Gaul and in the “Celtic west” by X. Delamarre (2003, 171 and 2007, 145). Although the presence of the word *op- in Gaulish is beyond doubt, there is no certainty that all the names in op(p)- from the “Gaulish-speaking West” are in fact Celtic, to say nothing about the attestations beyond this area. This situation is familiar for linguists: for example, the personal name Attalus is easily analysed as Celtic if it is found in Gaul, but is probably Greek if attested in the east of the Roman Empire (see Falileyev 2007, 47, bibl.). On the other hand, there are quite a few cases where etymologically non-Celtic names become meaningful in Gaulish – the personal name Verecundus (on which see Lefebvre 2001 and cf. Falileyev 2007, 151 for its attestations in Geto-Dacian lands; see further Raepsaet-Charlier 2005) may serve as a perfect example. The following observations should be considered hitherto. The attestation of the name in the donarium from Caunita does not contain additional Celtic symptoms, such as a reference to the provenance of Oppius Iulianus. The name on the stamp manufactured in Campania is not necessarily Celtic at all. It

A. Falileyev, Two more (possibly) celtic names from Roman Dacia

may be noted, however, that Petrovszky’s catalogue does list few stamps stemming from the area with names which may be considered Celtic (in Latin contexts, of course). Among those are Epil(i)us (Romanus) (Petrovszky 1993, 152 and 258-259), also known in the “Celtic West“ and treated as Gaulish (cf. Delamarre 2007, 96), M. Naevius (Cerialis) (Petrovszky 1993, 158 and 273-276, cf. Delamarre 2007, 138 for its attestations in Gaul and its Celtic analysis) and Ti. Robilius (Flaccus) (Petrovszky 1993, 164 and 291), for which compare Ti. Robili in Gaul (AE 1997, 1132b). It should be noted that the first example quoted here is a reconstruction, the second may be well non-Celtic (Kajanto 1965, 246, cf. Minkova 2000, 71, bibl.), and the last, according to X. Delamarre (2007, 154), may stand for Robijus. It is important that Tiberius Robili - is known from several inscriptions across the Roman world (Capua, AE 1980, 224, Trevoux in Gaul AE 1997, 1132b, etc.), and that the name Robil(i)us is undeniably Celtic (cf. GPN, 151 and Delamarre 2003, 261 with further references). The latter example supports a validity of a Celtic approach towards the analysis of the name Oppius on the stamp. On top of that it should be considered that there is also an impressive amount of Celtic names attested in the epigraphy of the region. In Capua itself, for example, M. Frederiksen (1984, 302) notes Baccinis and Dato, cf. Baccinus and Datos attested in the “Celtic west” (Delamarre 2007, 36 and 82). Celtic names are found elsewhere in Campania, e.g., Brinnius in Puteoli (Frederiksen 1984, 308, for the name see Delamarre 2007, 49), but it seems that a bulk of Celtic onomastics of the region is yielded by Pompeii. Consider in this respect Carisius (Castrén 1975, 149, cf. identical Gaulish potter’s name, Delamarre 2007, 58), or a few records of Cissionius and Sornius (Castrén 1975, 154 and 223, cf. Delamarre 2007, 67 and 171 respectively for their attestations in Gaul). It may be noted in parenthesis that some of the names attested in the area will be of interest for Celtic scholars. For example, Loppius, which was considered Celtic already by A. Holder (1904, 286, with a question mark), notwithstanding certain pessimism of P. Castrén (1975, 183), who hints that this explanation is due to non-attestation of the name elsewhere, is probably Celtic. Although X. Delamarre (2007, 119 and 225) does not list

this particular name, his collection includes quite a few forms in Lop(p)- (Lopecenos, Lopilio, Lopiscallus, Lopondius and Loppo), which he considers Celtic, cf. also Billy 1993, 97 for Loposagium. It is of note that I. Kajanto (1965, 328) thought that Lopecenos was a variant of Lupicinus, and Lopolus that of Lupulus and therefore Latin; he was convinced, however, that the names Luppo and Lupo were probably Celtic. Lopecenos most likely contains a very well attested component of Celtic compounded names -cenos- (see GPN, 176; Delamarre 2003, 114), while Lopolus is known only from a Latin inscription from Augusta Treverorum (CIL XIII, 3854) well associated with the Gaulish-speaking population. These names, therefore, may be well Celtic, too. The absence of a commonly accepted etymology (see Delamarre 2007, 225 for a tentative connection with Lat. loquor) does not make the name non-Celtic. Another example from Pompeii is the name Samellius which has been long considered Celtic (see references in Castrén 1975: 216, but note Schulze 1991, 444 who discusses the instance alongside Latin names). This seems to be the unique attestation, although similar (but not identical) names are well found in the “Celtic west”, cf. particularly Samilis, -a, -llus, -la (Delamarre 2007, 159); see further Celtic names in sam(o)- in Billy 1993, 131, Delamarre 2007, 159-60 and GPN, 252-253, cf. also Sameccus and Samognatius attested in the inscriptions from Celtic Dacia (Falileyev 2007, 120-121). The presence of Celtic names in Campania, and also on the stamps of bronze vessels manufactured in the area, is therefore beyond any doubt. The question remains whether Oppius should be considered Gaulish as well. It may of course have a Celtic etymology, but the gentilicum is very well (and noteworthy early) embedded into the Campanian onomastic landscape; see Castrén 1975, 200, cf. Frederiksen 1984, 283. Therefore, it will be reasonable to consider (Caius) Oppius (Hermes) attested on a bronze in Dacia imported from Campania only as potentially Celtic, and it will be safe to exclude the similar looking name found on the donarium from a discussion Alt-celtischer Sprachschatz of the area2.

2

I am grateful to Professor P. Sims-Williams for his comments on the earlier draft of this article.

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Bibliography
AE: L’Année épigraphique. Alföldy 1969: G. Alföldy, Die Personnennamen in der römischen Provinz Dalmatia (Heidelberg 1969). Alföldy 1974: G. Alföldy, Noricum (London 1974). Billy 1993: P.-H. Billy, Thesaurus Linguae Gallicae (Hildesheim 1993, etc.). Castrén 1975: P. Castrén, Ordo populusque Pompeianus. Polity and society in Roman Pompeii (Roma 1975). CIL: Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (Berolini 1863-). Delamarre 2003: X. Delamarre, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise (Paris 2003). Delamarre 2007: X. Delamarre, Noms de personnes celtiques dans l’épigraphie classique (Paris 2007). Falileyev 2007: A. Falileyev, Celtic Dacia. Personal names, place-names and ethnic names of Celtic origin in Dacia and Scythia Minor (Aberystwyth 2007). Falileyev, Tokhtas’ev, forthcoming: A. Falileyev, S. Tokhtas’ev, BRISAC(): a Celtic name from the Dniester area. Frederiksen 1984: M. Frederiksen, Campania (London 1984). GPN: D. Ellis Evans, Gaulish Personal Names (Oxford 1967). Gudea 1972: N. Gudea, Un donarium roman descoperit la Gornea (jud.Caras-Severin), Studii şi cercetări de istorie veche şi arheologie 23, 1972, 671-675. Holder 1904: A. Holder, Alt-celtischer Sprachschatz. Band II (Leipzig 1904). IDR III/1: I.I. Russu, M. Dušanović, N. Gudea, V. Wollmann, Inscripţiile Daciei Romane, vol. III/1 (Bucureşti 1977). IDR III/4: I.I. Russu, Inscripţiile Daciei Romane, vol. III/4 (Bucureşti 1988). Kajanto 1965: I. Kajanto, The Latin Cognomina (Helsinki). Lambert 2002: P.-Y. Lambert, Recueil des inscriptions gauloises. Vol. II. Fascicule 2, Textes gallo-latins sur instrumentum (Paris 2002). Lambert 2003: P.-Y. Lambert, La langue gauloise (Paris 2003). Lejeune 1988: M. Lejeune, Recueil des inscriptions gauloises. Vol. II. Fascicule 1, Textes gallo-étrusques. Textes gallo-latins sur pierre (Paris 1988). Lefebvre 2001: S. Lefebvre, À propos de la répartition du nom Verecundus en Gaul et en Germanie. In: M. Dondin-Payre, M.-T. Raepsaet-Charlier (eds.), Noms, identités culturelles et romanisation sous le haute-empire (Bruxelles 2001), 597-646. LGPN IV: A Lexicon of Greek Personal Names. Volume IV. Macedonia, Thrace, Northern regions of the Black Sea. Ed. by P. M. Fraser and E. Matthews. Assistant editor R. W. V. Catling (Oxford 2005). LIV: H. Rix et al., Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben (Wiesbaden 2001). McCone 1996: K. McCone, OIr senchae, senchaid and preliminaries on agent noun formation in Celtic, Ériu 46, 1996, 1-10. Minkova 2000: M. Minkova, The Personal Names in the Latin Inscriptions in Bulgaria (Frankfurt am Mein 2000, etc.). OPEL: Onomasticon Provinciarum Europae Latinarum (ed. by B. Lőrincz and F. Redő). Volumes I-IV (Budapest and Wien 1994-2002). Petrovszky 1993: R. Petrovszky, Studien zu römischen Bronzegefäßen mit Meisterstempeln (Espelkamp 1993). Raepsaet-Charlier 2005: M.-Th. Raepsaet-Charlier, Réflexions sur les anthroponymes “à double entrée” dans le monde romain, L’Antiquité Classique 74, 2005, 225-231. RIB II/2: The Roman inscriptions of Britain. Volume II, Instrumentum domesticum (Personal belongings and the like), edited by S. S. Frere and R. S. O. Tomlin. Fascicule 2, Weights, gold vessel, silver vessels, bronze vessels, lead vessels, pewter vessels, shale vessels, glass vessels, spoons. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Published for the Administrators of the Haverfield Bequest, University of Oxford, 1991. Sanie 1981: S. Sanie, Civilizaţia romană la est de Carpaţi şi romanitatea pe teritoriul Moldovei (Iaşi 1981). Schulze 1991: W. Schulze, Zur Geschichte lateinischer Eigennamen (1904); mit einer Berichtigungsliste zur Neuausgabe von Olli Salomies (Zürich 1991).

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A. Falileyev, Two more (possibly) celtic names from Roman Dacia

Încă două (posibile) nume celtice din Dacia Romană
Rezumat În articol sunt analizate două nume, păstrate pe piese din bronz, descoperite pe teritoriul Daciei Romane. Ştampila Talio f(ecit) a fost identificată pe un obiect din bronz, confecţionat în Gallia, şi descoperit la Târgu-Secuiesc. Editorii acestui text (IDR III/4, 331) considerau că numele Talio poate fi de provenienţă grecească. Însă, o analiză lingvistică, în coraborare cu mărturiile extralingvistice, pune la dispoziţie destule argumente de al interpreta drept un nume celtic. Mai dificilă este situaţia în legătură cu ştampila de la Răcătău, de pe o piesă care se asociază direct cu teritoriul Campaniei italiene. Deşi în Campania sunt cunoscute zeci de nume celtice (inclusiv şi pe ştampile unor piese din bronz) şi cu atât mai mult cu cât numele Oppius ar putea avea o etimologie celtică, nu ar fi corect, pornind de la multiple date extralingvistice, să-l considerăm cu certitudine drept nume galic. Din aceste considerente, numele de pe ştampila de la Răcătău poate fi considerat doar „potenţial celtic”. Iar numele identic atestat pe inscripţia de la Gornea (IDR III/1, 29), care nu conţine alte asocieri celtice suplimentare, nu este în drept să fie trecut în corpusul numelor celtice de pe teritoriul Daciei.

Еще два (возможных) кельтских имени из Римской Дакии
Резюме В статье рассматриваются два имени, сохранившихся на бронзовых изделиях, которые найдены на территории Римской Дакии. Штемпель Talio f(ecit) обнаружен на изделии, созданном в Галлии и найденном в Тыргу-Секуеск. Хотя издатели этого текста (IDR III/4, 331) полагали, что имя Talio может быть греческим, лингвистический анализ – вкупе с экстралингвистическими свидетельствами – дает достаточно оснований интерпретировать его как галльское. Сложнее обстоит дело с другим штампом, найденном в Рэкэтэу на изделии, которое прямо ассоциируется с римской областью Кампанией. Хотя в Кампании известны десятки кельтских имен (в том числе и на штампах бронзовых изделий), к тому же, имя Oppius может иметь кельтскую этимологию, было бы не совсем корректным безоговорочно соотносить его с галльскими языковыми остатками – опять таки, учитывая многие экстралингвистические данные. Поэтому имя на этом штемпеле рассматривается лишь как «потенциально кельтское». Что же касается идентичного имени в надписи из Горня (IDR III/1, 29), которая не содержит дополнительных кельтских ассоциаций, то его нецелесообразно включать в корпус кельтских имен, известных с территории Дакии.

15.01.2008
Dr. Alexander Falileyev, Department of Welsh, University of Wales, Aberystwyth Ceredigion SY23 2AX United Kingdom, e-mail: axf@aber.ac.uk

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