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Dynamic and Steady State Performance of Print

Synchronous Machines
Title Page
Dr. K.N. Shubhanga
JJ II
Dept. of Electrical Engineering,
J I
NITK, Surathkal

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January 11, 2008


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Outline of Presentation: Print

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Classification of power stability studies.


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Synchronous machine modelling.


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Fundamentals of real and reactive powers. Page 2 of 57

Q-V and P -f control. Go Back

Nature of loads- an example. Full Screen

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Power System Analysis deals with:


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1. Reliability Analysis
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2. Security Analysis
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3. Stability Analysis
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Reliability Analysis: Print

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It involves a probabilistic study. JJ II

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It denotes the ability to supply load adequately with as


few interruptions as possible. Page 4 of 57

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It is a function of time-average performance of the


power system over a long period. Full Screen

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Security Analysis: Print

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It involves the determination of the ability of the power


system to meet the load demand without any violation JJ II

of apparatus operating limits against possible contin-


gencies. J I

Page 5 of 57

For the system to be reliable, it must be secure most of


the time. Go Back

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Security and stability issues are strongly coupled.


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Stability Analysis: Print

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For the system to be secure, the system must be stable. JJ II

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It determines the ability of the system to remain intact.


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Security and stability are time-varying attributes and Go Back

are functions of operating state and a candidate contin-


gency. Full Screen

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Classification of Stability Problems:


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The classification help us


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1. To choose appropriate degree of details of system rep- JJ II


resentation.
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2. To select appropriate analytical tool. Page 7 of 57

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3. To identify key factors that contribute to instability.


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4. To devise method for improving stable operation. Close

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Classification of Power Stability
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Time range Generator driven Load driven JJ II


(Rotor-angle stability)
Short term Small-signal Transient J I
stability stability Voltage
Long term Frequency stability Page 8 of 57

stability
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Source: P. Kundur et. al. Definition and Classification of Full Screen

Power System Stability, IEEE Trans. on Power System,


Vol.19, No.2, pp1374-1389, Aug., 2004. Close

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Power System Components


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Generator systems

Title Page
Excitation HVDC controllers

Systems
JJ II
Vt PL, Q
If L
Transmission Lines J I
Pg
Transformers
Generator Systems Loads
Qg
HVDC Links
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Pm Motors loads
FACTS devises
Heating loads Go Back

Primemover
Transmission Network
Systems
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FACTS controllres
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Modelling of Coupled Circuits:

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2 Print

i2
Title Page
+
v2 Centerline
of flux
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J I
1

Page 10 of 57

i1

+ v1
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The voltage equations are given by: Full Screen

d1
v 1 = i1 R 1 + Close

dt
d2 Quit
v 2 = i2 R 2 +
dt
Contd...
The flux linkage is given by
Home Page

1 = L11()i1 + L12()i2
2 = L21()i1 + L22()i2 Print

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1.5
L11max JJ II
L11() = LsLm cos2
1 J I
N

Page 11 of 57
0.5
L11min

L22() = N sin Go Back

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M 0.5
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L12()= L21() = M sin

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1 2
0 1 /2 2 3 4 5 6 7

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Modelling of Synchronous Genera-


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tor
Title Page

The voltage equations are given by


JJ II
di dL()
v = [R]i + L() + i
dt dt J I

where
  Page 12 of 57

Lss() Lsr ()
L() =
Lrs() Lrr () Go Back

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The differential equation is linear but time-variant!!!


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Modelling of Synchronous Genera-


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tor Contd...
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To transform time-variant differential equations into time-


invariant differential equations we use PARK transforma- JJ II
tion given by
fodq = P fabc J I

where
Page 13 of 57

1 1 1
2 2 2
r Go Back
2 2 2

P = cos cos( 3 ) cos( + 3 )
3
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sin sin( 23 ) sin( + 23 )


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Modelling of Synchronous Genera- Home Page

tor Contd...
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PARK transformation is represented as follows:


daxis Title Page

f aq fa JJ II

qaxis
J I
f
ad

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f
f b
c Full Screen

fd = fad + fbd + fcd Close

fq = faq + fbq + fcq


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Modelling of Synchronous Genera-


tor Contd... Print

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ng
di
in
rw
to
sta

JJ II
is
ax
d

ng
di
in
q
is

J I

rw
ax

ax
d

is

to
sta
h coil

is
ax
q
fcoil Page 15 of 57
kcoil

g coil
v
F Go Back

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Synchronous Generator equations: Print

Title Page
Electrical Systems:
Stator voltage equations: Non-linear differential equa- JJ II
tions.
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Rotor voltage equations: Linear differential equations.
Flux-linkage equations: Algebraic Equations. Page 16 of 57

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Mechanical Systems:
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Swing equations: Non-linear differential equations.
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Operational impedance approach: Print

1. The stator linear algebraic equations: Title Page

00 00
vd = idRa xq iq + Ed
00 00 JJ II
vq = iq Ra + xdid + Eq
J I
2. Rotor electrical circuit linear differential equations:
d -axis coils: Page 17 of 57

dh 1
= 00 [h + d] Go Back
dt Td
 0 
df 1 xdEf d Full Screen
= 0 f + d + 0
dt Td (xd xd)
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q -axis coils: Print

dg 1 Title Page
= 0 [g + q ]
dt Tq
JJ II
dk 1
= 00 [k + q ]
dt Tq J I

3. Swing equation:
Page 18 of 57

d
= B Sm
dt Go Back

dSm
2H = Tm Te DSm Full Screen
dt
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Parameters of Synchronous Ma-
chines Home Page

Parameters Notation
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d-axis synchronous reactance xd
Title Page
q-axis synchronous reactance xq
0 JJ II
d-axis transient reactance xd
J I
0
q-axis transient reactance xq
Page 19 of 57
00
d-axis subtransient reactance xd
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00
q-axis subtransient reactance xq
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0
d-axis transient open circuit time constant Tdo
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0
q-axis transient open circuit time constant Tqo
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Parameters of Synchronous Ma-
chines (Cont...) Home Page

Parameters Notation Print

0
d-axis transient short circuit time constant Td Title Page

0
q-axis transient short circuit time constant Tq JJ II

00
d-axis subtransient open circuit time constant Tdo J I

00
q-axis subtransient open circuit time constant Tqo Page 20 of 57

00
d-axis subtransient short circuit time constant Td Go Back

00 Full Screen
q-axis subtransient short circuit time constant Tq
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Stator resistance per phase Ra
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Stator leakage reactance per phase xl
Parameters of Synchronous Ma-
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chines (Cont...)
Print

0 0 00 00
xd xq > x q xd > x q xd
Title Page
0 0 00 00
Tdo > Td > Tdo > Td
0 0 00 00
Tqo > Tq > Tqo > Tq JJ II

Typical Values: J I

0 00 Page 21 of 57
xd = 1.79, xd = 0.18, xd = 0.14
0 00
xq = 1.71, xq = 0.23, xq = 0.16 Go Back

0 00
Tdo = 6s, Tdo = 0.05s
0 00 Full Screen
Tqo = 0.7s, Tqo = 0.035s
0 00
Td = 0.6s, Td = 0.04s Close

0 00
Tq = 0.2s, Tq = 0.025s Quit
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Some Fundamentals: Title Page

Reactive power (Q), Impedance (Z), phase angle () and


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power factor are sinusoidal steady-state concepts.
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Why sinusoidal wave form?


Page 22 of 57

The most basic wave form observed in the nature. Go Back

Response of circuit elements will be linear.


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Constructional Details to get Sinu-
soidal Voltage Wave Form:
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Constructional Details (Contd...)
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Constructional Details (Contd...)


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Factors Influence the Choice of Op- Print

erating Frequency: Title Page

Size and cost of equipment. JJ II

Voltage regulation of lines. J I

Page 26 of 57
Flicker of lamps.
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Design related to insulation.


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Maintenance requirement.
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Real and Reactive Powers in Single Home Page

Phase Systems: Print

vR vL
Title Page

JJ II

i R L
v J I

The impedance is given by Page 27 of 57

Z = R + jX = |Z| = |Z| cos + |Z| sin


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The expression for voltage v and current i is given by


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v = Vm sin(t)
i = Im sin(t ) Close

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Real and Reactive Powers (Contd...) Print

Phasor Representation: Title Page

Taking voltage v as reference, we have V 0o and the JJ II

current is given by
J I

V
I = = I
Z Page 28 of 57

Real power P = I 2 R Go Back

Reactive power Q = I 2 X Full Screen

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Real and Reactive Powers (Contd...)
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The instantaneous power p = vi can be obtained as:
VmIm VmIm Title Page

p = cos [1 cos 2t] sin sin 2t


2 2
JJ II

= V I cos [1 cos 2t] V I sin sin 2t


J I

R X
= VI [1 cos 2t] V I sin 2t Page 29 of 57
|Z| |Z|
= I 2R [1 cos 2t] I 2X sin 2t Go Back

Full Screen
= P [1 cos 2t] |Q sin
{z2t}
| {z }
p1 p2 Close

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Real and Reactive Powers in Single Home Page

Phase Systems (Contd...)


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1.5

v Title Page
p
1
p1
JJ II
i
0.5 P

Q
J I

0
pu

Page 30 of 57

p2

0.5 Go Back

V0o

1 Full Screen
I V sin
P=VI cos
Q= VI sin V cos
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1.5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Angle (rad)

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Reactive Power Associated with a Home Page

Reactor - A Physical Interpretation


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The energy stored in the magnetic field of a reactor at a


current i is given by Title Page

1
W = Li2 JJ II
2
J I
Substituting for i = Im sin(t ), we have

W = LI 2 sin2(t ) Page 31 of 57

The rate of change of energy is give by Go Back

dW
= LI 22 cos(t ) sin(t ) Full Screen

dt
= I 2X sin 2(t ) Close

= Q sin 2(t )
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Title Page

Reactive Power (Contd...)


JJ II

The reactive power component Q is that power com-


ponent that periodically, and twice per voltage cycle, J I

stores and discharges the coil with its magnetic field


energy. Page 32 of 57

Q mainly influences the size of an equipment. Go Back

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Reactive Power Associated with a
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Capacitor
Print

vR vC
Title Page

i R C
v
JJ II

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v = Vm sin(t)
i = Im sin(t + ) Page 33 of 57

Using the instantaneous quantities of voltage and current, Go Back

the instantaneous power p = vi can be obtained as:


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p = P [1 cos 2t] + Q sin 2t


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In this case, Q is related to the stored electric field energy. Quit


Nature of Reactive Powers
I Home Page
S

I
L
I Print
C
R

V C
Title Page

JJ II
L

J I

I Page 34 of 57
C

V
Go Back
I
S

Full Screen
I
L

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An Inductor is said to consume reactive power.


A Capacitor is said to generate reactive power. Quit
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Complex Power
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Let V = V 1 and I = I2 . The complex power S is


given by Title Page

S = V I JJ II

= V I(1 2)
J I
= V I
= V I cos + jV I sin Page 35 of 57

= P + jQ
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NOTE:
A positive Q represents reactive power load. Full Screen

A negative Q represents reactive power source. Close

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Real and Reactive Powers in 3- Home Page

Phase Systems
Print

Voltages and currents are 3-phase balanced system with lag-


ging load are given by Title Page

va = Vm sin(t) JJ II

ia = Im sin(t )
J I
2
vb = Vm sin(t )
3
2 Page 36 of 57

ib = Im sin(t )
3 Go Back
2
vc = Vm sin(t + )
3 Full Screen
2
ic = Im sin(t + )
3 Close

abc phase sequence is assumed.


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Real and Reactive Powers in 3- Print

Phase Systems (Contd...) Title Page

Expression for instantaneous power for each phase is given


JJ II
by
J I
pa = P1 [1 cos 2t] Q1 sin 2t
Page 37 of 57
 
2 2
pb = P1 1 cos 2(t ) Q1 sin 2(t )
3 3 Go Back
 
2 2
pc = P1 1 cos 2(t + ) Q1 sin 2(t + ) Full Screen
3 3
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Real and Reactive Powers in 3-
Phase Systems (Contd...) Home Page

The total instantaneous power is given Print

p = pa + pb + pc = P3 = 3P1
Title Page

Power in a 3phase balaced system


1.4

P = pa + pb + pc = 1..2990 p.u.
JJ II
1.2
pb pa pc

1
J I
0.8
power (p.u.)

Q = 0.75 p.u.
Page 38 of 57
0.6

0.4
Go Back
0.2

0 Full Screen

0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Angle (rad)

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Reactive power is given by


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Q3 = 3Q1
Real and Reactive Powers in 3- Home Page

Phase Systems (Contd...) Print

Title Page

JJ II

J I

Page 39 of 57

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An Advantage of 3-phase System
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Effect of tripplen harmonics on linetoline voltage


2.5 Print

2
vab 100% fundamental+ Title Page
40% 3rd harmonic+
1.5 10% 9th harmonic
va vb JJ II
1

0.5 J I
p.u.

0
Page 40 of 57

0.5

Go Back
1

1.5 Full Screen

2
Close

2.5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Angle (rad) Quit
Synchronous Machine Connected to
a Large System Home Page

o
V 0
Print
X

E
Title Page
P, Q

JJ II

J I
The power delivered by the machine is given by,
Page 41 of 57
P + jQ = V I
Go Back
where
E V
I= Full Screen
jX
Hence we get, Close

EV (EV cos V 2)
P = sin ; Q= Quit

X X
Synchronous Machine Connected to
a Large System (Contd...) Home Page

Let V = 1.00o , E = 1.210o and X = 1 p.u. Consider Print

the following sensitivities,


Title Page
P P
= 1.1818 pu/rad; = 0.1736 pu/pu
E JJ II

Q Q
= 0.2084 pu/rad; = 0.9848 pu/pu J I
E
Page 42 of 57

The greater coupling between P and , and between Q and


E permits the realization of the following association: Go Back

Real power is closely related to frequency control (P -f Full Screen

loop).
Close

Reactive power is closely related to field excitation con-


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trol (Q-V loop).
Real and Reactive Power Balance: Home Page

Under sinusoidal steady-state Print

-Real power balance is given by Title Page

X X
PG = PLoad + Losses JJ II

-Reactive power balance is given by J I


X X
QG = QLoad + Losses Page 43 of 57

NOTE: Go Back

A deviation in real power balance upsets the system


frequency- causes Global effects. Full Screen

A deviation in reactive power balance upsets the bus Close

voltages- causes Local effects.


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Functions of An Excitation System: Title Page

JJ II
Control of terminal voltage.
J I

Control of reactive power shared by a generator.


Page 44 of 57

It provides means to improve dynamic performance of Go Back


the overall power system.
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Excitation System Block Diagram:


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Limiter and Title Page

Protective Circuits
JJ II

Terminal Voltage
Transducer and J I
Vc Load Compensator

Page 45 of 57

Regulator Exciter Generator


Ref.
To Go Back
Power System

Vs Full Screen
Power System
Stabilizer
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IEEE Std. 421.5-1992 -specified ex- Title Page

citers: JJ II

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1. DC type:
Page 46 of 57
2. AC type:
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3. Static type:
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AC1A- Brushless Excitation System Home Page

Block Schematic: Print

Title Page
Rotor of Pilot exciter

Rotating Structure Main Generator


JJ II
Pilot Exciter AC Exciter Field

N
Armature Armature Armature J I
S
PT
Page 47 of 57

Field of
AC exciter
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Three Phase AC
Full Screen

Regulator
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Static-Excitation System Block


Title Page

Schematic:
JJ II
Exciter Main Generator
Transformer Controlled Rectifier Field
Slip ring
J I
Armature
Three
Phase AC*
PT Page 48 of 57

* Alternatively, from
auxiliary bus Go Back

Regulator

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Control of Reactive Power: Home Page

2 Print

Constant power
locus of Ia E11
1.8
Title Page
jIa1X
1.6
Overexcited case JJ II
E1cos1 > Vt
1.4
1 Vt0

1.2 J I
Qg = 0 when
Ia1
Ecos = Vt
1
Page 49 of 57
Ia cos E22
0.8

jIa2X Go Back
0.6
Underexcited case
E2cos2 < Vt
0.4 Ia2 Full Screen

2
0.2
Vt0 Close

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Quit
Primemover Systems-Functions
Home Page

and Block Schematic:


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Control real power shared by a generator.
Control system frequency. Title Page

The above interwined tasks are jointly referred to as JJ II


Load-Frequency Control (LFC).
J I
Speed Ref.
Changer
Page 50 of 57
(Load Ref.)
Valve Control PGV PM
Governor
Mechanism Turbine
Controlled
using
Gates Gate
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Servomotors
Position

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PM = Mechanical Power

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Speed Speed Deviation
Governor
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Title Page

P and f Control:
JJ II

Primary control: Speed governor control.


J I

Secondary control: Speed changer setting control. Page 51 of 57

Tertiary control: Economic dispatch control. Go Back

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P and f Control - An Example
Home Page

Governor droop characteristics


53 Print

G1 with 1% droop G2 with 2% droop

Title Page
52

JJ II
51 51
G1
50.5 B (50.3) G2
J I

50.1
50
Frequency (Hz)

A (50) C (50)
Page 52 of 57

49 Go Back

Full Screen
48

Close

47
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Power (p.u) Quit
Nature of Loads: Home Page

Loads exhibit random time characteristics Print

Load
Title Page

devices
Node1
JJ II

......
substation
Transformer
Node2 J I
System

......
Feeders
Page 53 of 57
Bus A

......
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Node3

Individual loads are unpredictable. Full Screen

Total system loads show highly predictable time pat- Close

tern.
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Nature of Loads (Cont...) Title Page

Frequency dependency characteristics


JJ II

 
f J I
PL = PLo 1 + kpf
fo
  Page 54 of 57
f
QL = QLo 1 kqf
fo Go Back

kpf = 2; kqf = 1.5


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Frequency-dependent Load Mod- Title Page

elling - An Example: JJ II

J I
Item Nominal 20 % increase 20 % decrease
in PLo171 in PLo171
Page 55 of 57
PLo171 7.636 9.1632 6.1088
PL171 7.63079 9.056010 6.149132
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Frequency (Hz) 50.0003 49.8456 50.1651
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Title Page

JJ II

THANK YOU J I

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Title Page

The programme is available for free download in the web- JJ II

site link:
www.ee.iitb.ac.in/peps/downloads.htm J I

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hosted by inpowerg group.
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