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You are on page 1of 57

Synchronous Machines

Title Page

Dr. K.N. Shubhanga

JJ II

Dept. of Electrical Engineering,

J I

NITK, Surathkal

Page 1 of 57

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JJ II

J I

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JJ II

1. Reliability Analysis

J I

2. Security Analysis

Page 3 of 57

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3. Stability Analysis

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Title Page

J I

few interruptions as possible. Page 4 of 57

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power system over a long period. Full Screen

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Title Page

system to meet the load demand without any violation JJ II

gencies. J I

Page 5 of 57

the time. Go Back

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Title Page

J I

Page 6 of 57

gency. Full Screen

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Title Page

resentation.

J I

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Classification of Power Stability

Print

Title Page

(Rotor-angle stability)

Short term Small-signal Transient J I

stability stability Voltage

Long term Frequency stability Page 8 of 57

stability

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Vol.19, No.2, pp1374-1389, Aug., 2004. Close

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Home Page

Generator systems

Title Page

Excitation HVDC controllers

Systems

JJ II

Vt PL, Q

If L

Transmission Lines J I

Pg

Transformers

Generator Systems Loads

Qg

HVDC Links

Page 9 of 57

Pm Motors loads

FACTS devises

Heating loads Go Back

Primemover

Transmission Network

Systems

Full Screen

FACTS controllres

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Modelling of Coupled Circuits:

Home Page

2 Print

i2

Title Page

+

v2 Centerline

of flux

JJ II

J I

1

Page 10 of 57

i1

+ v1

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d1

v 1 = i1 R 1 + Close

dt

d2 Quit

v 2 = i2 R 2 +

dt

Contd...

The flux linkage is given by

Home Page

1 = L11()i1 + L12()i2

2 = L21()i1 + L22()i2 Print

Title Page

1.5

L11max JJ II

L11() = LsLm cos2

1 J I

N

Page 11 of 57

0.5

L11min

Full Screen

M 0.5

Close

L12()= L21() = M sin

Quit

1 2

0 1 /2 2 3 4 5 6 7

Home Page

tor

Title Page

JJ II

di dL()

v = [R]i + L() + i

dt dt J I

where

Page 12 of 57

Lss() Lsr ()

L() =

Lrs() Lrr () Go Back

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tor Contd...

Title Page

invariant differential equations we use PARK transforma- JJ II

tion given by

fodq = P fabc J I

where

Page 13 of 57

1 1 1

2 2 2

r Go Back

2 2 2

P = cos cos( 3 ) cos( + 3 )

3

Full Screen

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Modelling of Synchronous Genera- Home Page

tor Contd...

Print

daxis Title Page

f aq fa JJ II

qaxis

J I

f

ad

Page 14 of 57

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f

f b

c Full Screen

Quit

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tor Contd... Print

Title Page

ng

di

in

rw

to

sta

JJ II

is

ax

d

ng

di

in

q

is

J I

rw

ax

ax

d

is

to

sta

h coil

is

ax

q

fcoil Page 15 of 57

kcoil

g coil

v

F Go Back

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Home Page

Title Page

Electrical Systems:

Stator voltage equations: Non-linear differential equa- JJ II

tions.

J I

Rotor voltage equations: Linear differential equations.

Flux-linkage equations: Algebraic Equations. Page 16 of 57

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Mechanical Systems:

Full Screen

Swing equations: Non-linear differential equations.

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00 00

vd = idRa xq iq + Ed

00 00 JJ II

vq = iq Ra + xdid + Eq

J I

2. Rotor electrical circuit linear differential equations:

d -axis coils: Page 17 of 57

dh 1

= 00 [h + d] Go Back

dt Td

0

df 1 xdEf d Full Screen

= 0 f + d + 0

dt Td (xd xd)

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Home Page

dg 1 Title Page

= 0 [g + q ]

dt Tq

JJ II

dk 1

= 00 [k + q ]

dt Tq J I

3. Swing equation:

Page 18 of 57

d

= B Sm

dt Go Back

dSm

2H = Tm Te DSm Full Screen

dt

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Parameters of Synchronous Ma-

chines Home Page

Parameters Notation

Print

d-axis synchronous reactance xd

Title Page

q-axis synchronous reactance xq

0 JJ II

d-axis transient reactance xd

J I

0

q-axis transient reactance xq

Page 19 of 57

00

d-axis subtransient reactance xd

Go Back

00

q-axis subtransient reactance xq

Full Screen

0

d-axis transient open circuit time constant Tdo

Close

0

q-axis transient open circuit time constant Tqo

Quit

Parameters of Synchronous Ma-

chines (Cont...) Home Page

0

d-axis transient short circuit time constant Td Title Page

0

q-axis transient short circuit time constant Tq JJ II

00

d-axis subtransient open circuit time constant Tdo J I

00

q-axis subtransient open circuit time constant Tqo Page 20 of 57

00

d-axis subtransient short circuit time constant Td Go Back

00 Full Screen

q-axis subtransient short circuit time constant Tq

Close

Stator resistance per phase Ra

Quit

Stator leakage reactance per phase xl

Parameters of Synchronous Ma-

Home Page

chines (Cont...)

Print

0 0 00 00

xd xq > x q xd > x q xd

Title Page

0 0 00 00

Tdo > Td > Tdo > Td

0 0 00 00

Tqo > Tq > Tqo > Tq JJ II

Typical Values: J I

0 00 Page 21 of 57

xd = 1.79, xd = 0.18, xd = 0.14

0 00

xq = 1.71, xq = 0.23, xq = 0.16 Go Back

0 00

Tdo = 6s, Tdo = 0.05s

0 00 Full Screen

Tqo = 0.7s, Tqo = 0.035s

0 00

Td = 0.6s, Td = 0.04s Close

0 00

Tq = 0.2s, Tq = 0.025s Quit

Home Page

JJ II

power factor are sinusoidal steady-state concepts.

J I

Page 22 of 57

Full Screen

Close

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Constructional Details to get Sinu-

soidal Voltage Wave Form:

Home Page

Title Page

JJ II

J I

Page 23 of 57

Go Back

Full Screen

Close

Quit

Constructional Details (Contd...)

Home Page

Title Page

JJ II

J I

Page 24 of 57

Go Back

Full Screen

Close

Quit

Home Page

Title Page

JJ II

J I

Page 25 of 57

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Full Screen

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Home Page

Page 26 of 57

Flicker of lamps.

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Maintenance requirement.

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Real and Reactive Powers in Single Home Page

vR vL

Title Page

JJ II

i R L

v J I

Go Back

Full Screen

v = Vm sin(t)

i = Im sin(t ) Close

Quit

Home Page

current is given by

J I

V

I = = I

Z Page 28 of 57

Close

Quit

Home Page

Real and Reactive Powers (Contd...)

Print

The instantaneous power p = vi can be obtained as:

VmIm VmIm Title Page

2 2

JJ II

J I

R X

= VI [1 cos 2t] V I sin 2t Page 29 of 57

|Z| |Z|

= I 2R [1 cos 2t] I 2X sin 2t Go Back

Full Screen

= P [1 cos 2t] |Q sin

{z2t}

| {z }

p1 p2 Close

Quit

Real and Reactive Powers in Single Home Page

1.5

v Title Page

p

1

p1

JJ II

i

0.5 P

Q

J I

0

pu

Page 30 of 57

p2

0.5 Go Back

V0o

1 Full Screen

I V sin

P=VI cos

Q= VI sin V cos

Close

1.5

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Angle (rad)

Quit

Reactive Power Associated with a Home Page

current i is given by Title Page

1

W = Li2 JJ II

2

J I

Substituting for i = Im sin(t ), we have

W = LI 2 sin2(t ) Page 31 of 57

dW

= LI 22 cos(t ) sin(t ) Full Screen

dt

= I 2X sin 2(t ) Close

= Q sin 2(t )

Quit

Home Page

Title Page

JJ II

ponent that periodically, and twice per voltage cycle, J I

energy. Page 32 of 57

Full Screen

Close

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Reactive Power Associated with a

Home Page

Capacitor

Print

vR vC

Title Page

i R C

v

JJ II

J I

v = Vm sin(t)

i = Im sin(t + ) Page 33 of 57

Full Screen

Close

Nature of Reactive Powers

I Home Page

S

I

L

I Print

C

R

V C

Title Page

JJ II

L

J I

I Page 34 of 57

C

V

Go Back

I

S

Full Screen

I

L

Close

A Capacitor is said to generate reactive power. Quit

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Complex Power

Print

given by Title Page

S = V I JJ II

= V I(1 2)

J I

= V I

= V I cos + jV I sin Page 35 of 57

= P + jQ

Go Back

NOTE:

A positive Q represents reactive power load. Full Screen

Quit

Real and Reactive Powers in 3- Home Page

Phase Systems

Print

ging load are given by Title Page

va = Vm sin(t) JJ II

ia = Im sin(t )

J I

2

vb = Vm sin(t )

3

2 Page 36 of 57

ib = Im sin(t )

3 Go Back

2

vc = Vm sin(t + )

3 Full Screen

2

ic = Im sin(t + )

3 Close

Quit

Home Page

JJ II

by

J I

pa = P1 [1 cos 2t] Q1 sin 2t

Page 37 of 57

2 2

pb = P1 1 cos 2(t ) Q1 sin 2(t )

3 3 Go Back

2 2

pc = P1 1 cos 2(t + ) Q1 sin 2(t + ) Full Screen

3 3

Close

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Real and Reactive Powers in 3-

Phase Systems (Contd...) Home Page

p = pa + pb + pc = P3 = 3P1

Title Page

1.4

P = pa + pb + pc = 1..2990 p.u.

JJ II

1.2

pb pa pc

1

J I

0.8

power (p.u.)

Q = 0.75 p.u.

Page 38 of 57

0.6

0.4

Go Back

0.2

0 Full Screen

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Angle (rad)

Close

Quit

Q3 = 3Q1

Real and Reactive Powers in 3- Home Page

Title Page

JJ II

J I

Page 39 of 57

Go Back

Full Screen

Close

Quit

An Advantage of 3-phase System

Home Page

2.5 Print

2

vab 100% fundamental+ Title Page

40% 3rd harmonic+

1.5 10% 9th harmonic

va vb JJ II

1

0.5 J I

p.u.

0

Page 40 of 57

0.5

Go Back

1

2

Close

2.5

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Angle (rad) Quit

Synchronous Machine Connected to

a Large System Home Page

o

V 0

Print

X

E

Title Page

P, Q

JJ II

J I

The power delivered by the machine is given by,

Page 41 of 57

P + jQ = V I

Go Back

where

E V

I= Full Screen

jX

Hence we get, Close

EV (EV cos V 2)

P = sin ; Q= Quit

X X

Synchronous Machine Connected to

a Large System (Contd...) Home Page

Title Page

P P

= 1.1818 pu/rad; = 0.1736 pu/pu

E JJ II

Q Q

= 0.2084 pu/rad; = 0.9848 pu/pu J I

E

Page 42 of 57

E permits the realization of the following association: Go Back

loop).

Close

Quit

trol (Q-V loop).

Real and Reactive Power Balance: Home Page

X X

PG = PLoad + Losses JJ II

X X

QG = QLoad + Losses Page 43 of 57

NOTE: Go Back

frequency- causes Global effects. Full Screen

Quit

Home Page

JJ II

Control of terminal voltage.

J I

Page 44 of 57

the overall power system.

Full Screen

Close

Quit

Home Page

Protective Circuits

JJ II

Terminal Voltage

Transducer and J I

Vc Load Compensator

Page 45 of 57

Ref.

To Go Back

Power System

Vs Full Screen

Power System

Stabilizer

Close

Quit

Home Page

citers: JJ II

J I

1. DC type:

Page 46 of 57

2. AC type:

Go Back

3. Static type:

Full Screen

Close

Quit

AC1A- Brushless Excitation System Home Page

Title Page

Rotor of Pilot exciter

JJ II

Pilot Exciter AC Exciter Field

N

Armature Armature Armature J I

S

PT

Page 47 of 57

Field of

AC exciter

Go Back

Three Phase AC

Full Screen

Regulator

Close

Quit

Home Page

Title Page

Schematic:

JJ II

Exciter Main Generator

Transformer Controlled Rectifier Field

Slip ring

J I

Armature

Three

Phase AC*

PT Page 48 of 57

* Alternatively, from

auxiliary bus Go Back

Regulator

Full Screen

Close

Quit

Control of Reactive Power: Home Page

2 Print

Constant power

locus of Ia E11

1.8

Title Page

jIa1X

1.6

Overexcited case JJ II

E1cos1 > Vt

1.4

1 Vt0

1.2 J I

Qg = 0 when

Ia1

Ecos = Vt

1

Page 49 of 57

Ia cos E22

0.8

jIa2X Go Back

0.6

Underexcited case

E2cos2 < Vt

0.4 Ia2 Full Screen

2

0.2

Vt0 Close

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Quit

Primemover Systems-Functions

Home Page

Control real power shared by a generator.

Control system frequency. Title Page

Load-Frequency Control (LFC).

J I

Speed Ref.

Changer

Page 50 of 57

(Load Ref.)

Valve Control PGV PM

Governor

Mechanism Turbine

Controlled

using

Gates Gate

Go Back

Servomotors

Position

Full Screen

PM = Mechanical Power

Close

Speed Speed Deviation

Governor

Quit

Home Page

Title Page

P and f Control:

JJ II

J I

Full Screen

Close

Quit

P and f Control - An Example

Home Page

53 Print

Title Page

52

JJ II

51 51

G1

50.5 B (50.3) G2

J I

50.1

50

Frequency (Hz)

A (50) C (50)

Page 52 of 57

49 Go Back

Full Screen

48

Close

47

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Power (p.u) Quit

Nature of Loads: Home Page

Load

Title Page

devices

Node1

JJ II

......

substation

Transformer

Node2 J I

System

......

Feeders

Page 53 of 57

Bus A

......

Go Back

Node3

tern.

Quit

Home Page

JJ II

f J I

PL = PLo 1 + kpf

fo

Page 54 of 57

f

QL = QLo 1 kqf

fo Go Back

Full Screen

Close

Quit

Home Page

elling - An Example: JJ II

J I

Item Nominal 20 % increase 20 % decrease

in PLo171 in PLo171

Page 55 of 57

PLo171 7.636 9.1632 6.1088

PL171 7.63079 9.056010 6.149132

Go Back

Frequency (Hz) 50.0003 49.8456 50.1651

Full Screen

Close

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Home Page

Title Page

JJ II

THANK YOU J I

Page 56 of 57

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Title Page

site link:

www.ee.iitb.ac.in/peps/downloads.htm J I

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