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Training Manual

Energy Institute High School

Energy Institute High School

Energy Institute High School

1808 Sampson Street, Houston, TX 77003
Phone: (713)-802-4620 Trisha Litong
Website: AP Biology
AP Biology Mein-Johnson
Mein-Johnson Fall 2016
Period 2
Page 2 References
Table of Contents The Parts of the Cell. Retrieved from https://
Carbohydrates 4
Urry, L. A., et al. (2014). Biology in Focus. Glenview, IL: Pearson
Lipids 5 Education, Inc.

Vander, Sherman, & Luciano. (1998). Disease at the Organelle

Proteins 6 Level, Version 7/e. Retrieved from

Hydrolysis & Dehydration Synthesis 7 When Cell Communication Goes Wrong. Retrieved from http://
Intracellular & Extracellular Fluid 8

Hyperglycemia & Hypoglycemia 9

Plasma Membrane 10

Surface Area-to-Volume Ratio 11

Passive & Active Transport 12

Bulk Transport & Homeostasis 13

Cell Signaling 14

Interrupted Signals & Their Effects 15

References Page 3

Bodily Fluids. Retrieved from

Table of Contents
OnlineChapter.pdf. Cellular Organelles 16-
Boundless. (2016, August 8). Fluid Compartments. Retrieved from 18
and-acid-base-balance-26/body-fluids-246/fluid- Organelle Failure 19-
Cohen, B. Treatments and Therapy. Retrieved from http://
Bodily Fluid Transport 21-
Cunha, J. P. (2016, July 26). Edema. Retrieved from http://
page6.htm#why_do_people_with_kidney_disease_have_p 22
Transport failure 23-
Davenport, S. G. (2006). Transport Processes. Retrieved from
Delgado, A. (2016, February 19). Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT).
Retrieved from References 25-

James, N. Interstitial Fluid: Definition, Pressure & Composition. Re- 27

trieved from
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2015, July 7). Cystic fibrosis. Retrieved from

Training Manual
Page 4 Page 25

Carbohydrates References
Function & Structure 10 Symptoms of Kidney Disease. Retrieved from http://
Carbohydrates are sugars,
made out of monosaccha- (2006). Carbohydrates. Retrieved from
rides, also known as sim- player/
ple sugars. Examples of top-
simple sugars include glu- icText;jsessionid=8AFD3022DA97FF551BBD7F988E2906
cose, fructose, and galac- 4A?topic=163.
tose. The structure in-
cludes a carbon skeleton (2015, February 9). What Is Cancer? Retrieved from https://
that creates a ring shape.
Carbohydrates provide the cancer#how-cancer-arises.
body with energy so that it
can do work. (2015, February 13). Symptoms of Tay-Sachs disease. Retrieved
Carbohydrate Polymers from
2 different types of polysaccharides include starch and cellulose. Pages/Symptoms.aspx.
Starch helps store energy in plants, and when animals consume
the plants, they also get energy from starch. The polysaccharide (2015). Passive transport and active transport across a cell mem-
is made up of multiple glucose monomers in a granular struc- brane article. Retrieved from https://
Cellulose strands make up the strong fibers that strengthen
plants' structures. It is also a polysaccharide made up of glu-
cose monomers, however the linkage differs from that of starch.
While starch's glucose monomers point in the same direction,
the glucose monomers in cellulose point in opposing directions. (2016, June 14). Lymph Transport. Retrieved from https://

(2016, August 8). Blood Flow Through the Body. Retrieved from
Page 24 Page 5

Transport Failure cont. Lipids

Kidney Disease
Function & Structure
Kidney disease can lead to edema in the tissue. Edema
can be caused when the water content of blood enters Lipids are made out of long
chains of fatty acids and glyc-
interstitial fluid and swells the surrounding tissue. Wa- erol, and they are hydropho-
ter is allowed into the blood when there is no albumin, a bic. Their function is to store
protein in the blood, in the kidney to prevent it. energy, and they can store
more than polysaccharides.
Symptoms of edema include:
>Heavy-feeling legs
>Shortness of breath Lipid Polymers
>Skin ulcers 3 different types of lipids include fats, steroids, and phospholip-
ids. Fats can be saturated or unsaturated, depending on whether
Solutions to edema include less salt intake and ACE in- or not there is a double bond between carbon atoms in the hy-
hibitors such as benazepril and Lisinopril. ACE inhibi- drocarbon chain of the fatty acid. The main function of fats is to
tors lower blood pressure and make up for the loss of store energy.
albumin in the kidney. Steroids have a carbon skeleton of four fused rings. Cholesterol
is a type of steroid that helps create other steroids like testos-
terone. Steroids help metabolize carbohydrates.
Click the link here to view the different types of kidney Finally, phospholipids make up cell membranes by providing the
disease symptoms: phospholipid bilayer. They regulate what can go in and out of
v=mPl_42Gk_mo the cell. Phospholipids are made up of only two fatty acids and
Page 6 Page 23

Proteins Transport Failure

Function & Structure
Proteins are made up of amino ac- When a clot of blood clogs up an artery, blood flow is pre-
ids that combine and make poly- vented, causing a decrease of oxygen in different parts of the
peptides. There are twenty differ- body. This condition is called thrombosis.
ent kinds of amino acids. Amino
acids are made up of an amino
group and a carboxyl group. Their Symptoms of a specific type of thrombosis, Deep Vein
polymers, polypeptides, are three- Thrombosis (DVT), include:
dimensional and folded into specif- >Swelling of the joints
ic shapes. While all proteins have >Unexpected cramps (Charlie horses)
specific functions, some of their functions include speeding up >Bluish or reddish appearance of the
chemical reactions, transporting molecules, and providing sup- skin
port for the cell.
Protein Polymers Solutions to DVT include blood thinners such as heparin.
Heparin prevents blood from clotting, thus decreasing the
2 different types of proteins include transport proteins and re-
risk of getting DVT. Another solution to DVT is compression
ceptor proteins. Transport proteins enable molecules, like oxy-
gen, to enter or exit a cell's membrane. Receptor proteins re-
stockings which stops swelling of the joints and other re-
spond to chemical stimuli by transmitting signals inside the cell. gions of the body where it attacks.
For example, receptors signal to the pancreas to release insulin
to allow glucose to enter the cells. All proteins' structures con- Kidney Failure
sist of an amino acid sequence that creates a polypeptide chain The kidney is used to filter and eliminate waste in the body
that folds into a distinct 3-D shape. through urine. Kidney failure can be caused by diabetes and
high blood pressure. When this occurs, the organ can no
longer clean the blood.

Symptoms of kidney failure in-

>Change in urination schedule
>Skin rash
>Metallic taste

Solutions to kidney failure include hemodialysis, which re-

stores electrolytes and eliminates urea (blood waste).
Page 22 Page 7

Bodily Fluid Transport cont. Hydrolysis & Dehydration Synthesis

Blood Transport Hydrolysis
Blood is an especially important bodily fluid that provides the Hydrolysis is the chemical breakdown of polymers, as it uses
water molecules to separate them into monomers. For example,
cells with oxygen. Blood is transported through the body in
saliva excretes from the
the circulatory system. Oxygenated blood is pumped away
salivary glands inside the
from the heart, through the aorta, arteries, aterioles, and final- mouth, and is made up of
ly into the capillary beds. From the capillary beds, the blood mostly water. It helps
is dispersed to the body's cells, providing oxygen. Deoxy- break down food so that
genated then flows through the venules, veins, venae cavae, it can be digested and the
and finally back into the heart. nutrients can be used by
the body. This affects the
organs in the digestive
Lymph Transport system. Additionally,
Lymph, located in the interstitial space of tissues, is another hydrolysis can be used to
important bodily fluid. It holds the white blood cells and break up polypeptides
bathes the cells in the into amino acids. This would affect the endocrine system and
body. It is transport- the nervous system because proteins are used to signal from
cell to cell.
ed through the body,
starting from the lym-
Dehydration Synthesis
phatic capillaries to
afferent vessels into Dehydration synthesis is the process of removing water mole-
cules to connect monomers into polymers. Every organ system
lymph nodes. The
is affected by dehy-
lymph is then trans-
dration synthesis,
ported from the
because that is
nodes into efferent how biomolecules
vessels to another are made. For ex-
node or lymph trunk. ample, when glu-
Finally from the cose loses a hydro-
lymph trunk, it makes gen atom and fruc-
it way back into the tose loses a hy-
venae cavae into droxyl group, they
blood circulation. come together to
form the polymer
Click here to learn about the circulatory system (video):
Page 8 Page 21

Intracellular & Extracellular Fluid Bodily Fluid Transport

There are two types of bodily fluid --extracellular fluid and intracellu-
lar fluid. Bodily fluid is transported through the body in either active
or passive processes. What separates the two processes is that
active needs energy to occur while passive does not.

Active transport of fluid include:

Primary active transport us-
es ATP to directly move de-
sired molecules across the
cell's permeable membrane.
Secondary active transport
occurs when molecules are
indirectly moved across the
Intracellular Fluid cell's membrane when another fluid is transported.

Cytosol is the intracellular fluid, and it is made of pro- Passive transport of fluid include:
teins, ions, and organelles dissolved in water. It holds Osmosis
organelles of the cell in suspension. Osmosis occurs when water is diffused across the plasma
membrane. Water travels through aquaporins, water chan-
nels, found within the membrane. It moves from a high water
Extracellular Fluid concentration to a low water concentration.
Extracellular fluid is all of the fluid surrounding the cell, Dialysis
and it is made of blood plasma, interstitial fluid, and Dialysis separates solutes by
the size of their molecules. It
transcellular fluid. Blood plasma holds blood cells in
determines which solutes can
suspension, and it contains proteins and glucose, so enter the selectively permeable
the levels of sugar in the blood needs to be monitored membrane of the cell.
in IV fluids. Interstitial fluid bathes the cells of the body Filtration
and is found in between tissue spaces. It contains dis- In filtration, a driving pressure forces fluid through the filter of a cell.
solved proteins and solutes, such as sugar, electro- The cell can filter what molecules can pass through depending on
lytes, and hormones. Thus, it is important to make sure the size of the pores of its membrane.
the amount of solutes inside and outside the cell are
balanced and achieve homeostasis. Transcellular fluid
is the measure of total body water, which is usually
about 2.5%.
Page 20 Page 9

Organelle Failure Cont. Hyperglycemia & Hypoglycemia

Mitochondrial Disease Hyperglycemia
Mitochondrial disease occurs when the mito- Hyperglycemia, also known as high blood sugar, can affect those
chondria of the cell cease to work. Since the who have diabetes. In hyperglycemia, there is too much sugar in
the blood cells, which can lead to hardening of the blood ves-
mitochondria provide the cell with energy, cell sels. This can make circulation throughout the body become
injury and death can ensue. Treatment of mito- difficult and can lead to heart attacks or kidney disease. The
chondrial disease include continuous flow of concentration of sugar in the intracellular fluid is higher than the
concentration in the extracellular fluid so IV fluids are needed to
glucose into the body. IV fluids such as 5% combat it. Half normal saline can prevent hyperglycemia by ex-
dextrose can provide the body energy it is lack- panding the blood cells and rehydrating them. Symptoms an
employee should watch for include frequent urination, increased
ing. thirst, high sugar content in the urine, and abdominal pain. All of
these are signs of hyperglycemia.
Symptoms of mitochondrial disease include:
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, also affects
>Difficulty swallowing those who have diabetes. There is not enough sugar in the
>Slow or poor physical development blood cells which provides the body with energy. An isotonic
solution of 5% dextrose combats hypoglycemia by providing the
>Seizures cells with the energy they need. Being an isotonic solution, the
>Poor motor control osmotic pressure of the intracellular and extracellular fluids on
the cell is equal. Symptoms an employee should watch for in-
clude shakiness, sweatiness, chills, and lack of coordination.
Page 10 Page 19

Plasma Membrane Organelle Failure

Basic Components
Cystic Fibrosis
The plasma membrane regulates what enters and exits Cystic fibrosis occurs when ion channels of the cellular
the cell with selective permeability. It also provides the membrane do not let water pass through the lung cell.
cell with a basic structure. Its basic components are This disease does not have a cure but half normal saline
lipids in the form of phospholipids and cholesterol, can be used to prevent the dehydration that occurs.
proteins, and carbohydrates. The phospholipids and
proteins create the cells barrier but also allow mole- Symptoms of cystic fibrosis include:
cules to pass through. Phospholipids come in a pair, >Mucus-filled coughs
creating a phospholipid bilayer. The proteins help push >Wheezing
molecules through the bilayer, and the carbohydrates >Breathlessness
attach to proteins on the outside of the membrane to >Stuffy nose
create more lipids.

Tay-Sachs Disease
Tay-Sachs disease occurs when lysosomes swell to
massive proportions due to the build of fat in the nerve
cells. Fat builds up because the cell lacks the enzymes
in the lysosome that would regularly recycle waste.
This disease does not have a cure, but testing for the
Selective Permeability gene carrying the disease is advised before conception.
The phospholipid bilayer allows nonpolar, hydrophobic Symptoms of Tay-Sachs include:
molecules to enter the membrane easily, but it does not >Blindness
allow polar, hydrophilic molecules to pass through. Ad- >Deafness
ditionally, transport proteins across the membrane are
>Difficulty swallowing
specified and determine which molecules are allowed to
enter the cell. All of these components to the mem-
brane result in selective permeability because they reg- >Cherry-red spot visible in eye
ulate what can or cannot enter the cell. (Shown on pg. 9)
Page 18 Page 11

Cellular Organelles cont. Surface Area-to-Volume Ratio

Organelles only found in plant cells:

10. Cell wall

The cell wall is the rigid layer of protection for the
cell, working together with the plasma membrane.

11. Chloroplast Why do cells need a high surface area-to volume ratio?
Chloroplasts aid in photosynthesis which converts Cells require such a high surface area-to-volume ratio
energy from the sun into food. Chloroplasts work because they need to be able to diffuse necessary raw
together with the mitochondria as the food is bro- materials into themselves. The size of the cell deter-
ken down and converted into ATP. mines the size of the plasma membrane, which in turn
determines the importation or exportation of molecules
12. Central vacuole in and out of the cell. The smaller the cell, the surface
area-to-volume ratio raises, and the faster it can diffuse
The central vacuole stores and breaks down waste,
raw materials into itself. On the other hand, if the cell is
and within it, the process of hydrolysis occurs. It bigger, the surface area-to-volume ration lowers, and it
also aids in plant growth when enlarged. takes a longer time for raw materials to provide for it.

Click here to watch a video comparing plant cells

and animal cells: Click the link here to see a visual explanation of the sur-
v=mnWm-RjBKcM face area-to-volume ratio:
Page 12 Page 17

Passive & Active Transport Cellular Organelles cont.

Passive Transport 5. Golgi Apparatus
The Golgi apparatus packages and
Passive transport does not require energy to move molecules
across the cellular membrane. This process moves a mole- distributes proteins that enter it from
cule from a high concentration to a low concentration using the endoplasmic reticulum. It also
facilitated diffusion. This allows small molecules with no helps in removing waste from the cell
charge to slip through the concentration gradient easier. If by packaging it in vesicles to be
there is higher concentration outside of the cell, passive transported outside.
transport will work so that the molecules come into the cell
and vice versa, if there is higher concentration inside of the 6. Ribosomes
cell. For passive transport, selective permeability typically Ribosomes aid in protein synthesis
allows only small molecules that have no charge into the cell. and by reading messenger RNA
Active Transport delivered from the nucleus.
Active transport requires energy to move molecules across
7. Lysosomes
the cellular membrane. This process moves a substance
from a low concentration to a high concentration using a
Lysosomes are vesicles used to recycle or-
chemical energy in the form of ATP. The transport goes ganelles and digest particles located in the
against the concentration gradient instead of going with it like vacuoles.
in passive transport.
There are two types of 8. Mitochondrion
active transport: primary The mitochondrion is the powerhouse of
and secondary. Primary the cell because it is where cellular respi-
active transport uses ration occurs and ATP, a form of energy,
chemical energy while is created.
secondary active
transport uses electro-
chemical gradient to
9. Peroxisome
move molecules. For ac- The peroxisome breaks down fatty acids and converts
tive transport, selective them so that the mitochondria can break it down further
permeability allows ener- into water and hydrogen peroxide.
gy to move molecules
that would not regularly enter the cell into it.
Click the link to watch a video about active and passive
Page 16 Page 13

Cellular Organelles Bulk Transport & Homeostasis

In a cell, there are multiple organelles that interact with each Endocytosis & Exocytosis
Endocytosis and exocytosis are the two types of bulk
1. Nucleus transport. Endocytosis engulfs molecules into the cell
The nucleus is considered the brain of the cell membrane in three different ways: phagocytosis, pino-
as it includes the cells instructions contained cytosis, and receptor-mediated. Exocytosis releases
in DNA. It interacts with the cytoplasm as it substances out of the cell membrane, such as ridding
delivers instructions to it through messenger waste and releasing proteins. The size of the cell and
RNA. The RNA helps produce ribosomes in the size of the protein channels in its membrane deter-
the cytoplasm, which then can be used to cre- mines what molecules or ions can pass through. This is
ate proteins. how the structure of the cell membrane results in selec-
tive permeability.
2. Endoplasmic Reticulum
The ER can be either rough or smooth, and
they help with metabolic processes and mem-
brane synthesis. Ribosomes are found on the
rough ER, and they work together to create
proteins which is later transported to the Golgi
apparatus. The smooth ER contains enzymes,
a type of protein, that aids in hormonal production.

3. Flagellum
The flagellum is what motors the cell, and it is
attached to the cytoplasm of the cell through the
plasma membrane. It works with the cytoskele-
ton during the cell's movement.
4. Cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton provides the cell with structural support
In order to maintain homeostasis, the intracellular and
and works together with the flagellum to give the cell mobili- extracellular conditions are constantly changing.
ty. Transport maintains homeostasis because it allows the
cell to remove waste but also take in nutrients.
Transport plays the role of making sure the cell is in a
stable condition.
Page 14 Page 15

Cell Signaling Interrupted Signals & Their Effects

Cells signal each other so that the body can perform its
many tasks. Paracrine signaling occurs in animal cells During autocrine signaling, other cells usually signal their neigh-
by one cell secreting local regulator molecules into the bors to stop and enter cell death. However, if these signals are
extracellular fluid and onto neighboring cells. Synaptic interrupted or ignored, cancer cells can affect normal cells sur-
signaling uses electrical signals traveling through the rounding it, and a tumor begins to grow. Because cancer cells
nerve cells of the nervous system. The nerve cells emit are not as specialized or mature as regular cells, they can go un-
neurotransmitter molecules across a synapse to alert noticed by the immune system while harming the rest of the
the target cell. Both paracrine signaling and synaptic
signaling occur over a short distance. For long dis-
tance signals, hormones are used through endocrine
signaling. Cells release hormone molecules into the
extracellular fluid and they travel through the body by
aid of the circulatory system.

Overall, there are three steps that take place during cell
signaling. They are reception, transduction, and re-
sponse. During reception, the target cell recognizes a
molecule coming into the cell. During transduction, the
signal changes and becomes more specified for the de- Diabetes
sired cellular response. Finally, during response, the Cells of the pancreas release insulin, a hormone, that allows glu-
cose to be stored for energy in other cells. However, when pan-
signal produced triggers a response that causes activi- creas' cells signals are interrupted, the insulin signal dies out
ty. and sugar begins to build up in the blood. This can cause high
blood sugar and diabetes. Diabetes can lead to heart attack, kid-
ney disease, and also blindness.

Multiple Sclerosis
During synaptic signaling, nerve cells can
be destroyed and cannot emit signals from
nerve to nerve. This can cause multiple
sclerosis because the brain cannot send
signals to the spinal cord. Symptoms of
multiple sclerosis include blurry vision,
numbness, and weakness in the body.