You are on page 1of 10

Instituto Tecnolgico y de Estudios Superiores

Monterrey

Trabajo: Homework 3

Materia: Industrial Networks

Profesor: Federico Guedea

Alumnos: Fernando Morales A01280090


Efrn Domnguez Huerta A0081663
Arturo Rodrguez A01139612

Team #3 NY87

Fecha: February 28, 2017


7.1 What is a Fieldbus?
According to the IEC 61158 A fieldbus is a digital, serial, multidrop data bus for communication for
industrial control and instruments devices such as transducers, actuators and local controllers. But a
real definition is given by the Fieldbus foundation: A filedbus is a digital, two way, multidrop
communication link among intelligent measurement and control devices.
The Field bus works as a LAN for advanced process control, remote input and output and a high
speed factory automation application.
The idea of a Fieldbus is:
Flexibility and modularity
Configurability
Maintainability
Distribution

7.2 Notions of a Fieldbus


Fieldbus system need to be seen as an integrative part of a automation concept and not as stand
alone solutions

7.2.1 The origin of the world


The word has its origin from Germany. The word itself has used in process industry and primary
refers to the process field, designating the area in a plant where there are lots of distributed devices,
mostly sensor and actuators, are in direct contact to be controlled. The logical idea, powered by the
advances of microelectronics in the late 1970s, was to replace this star-like cabling in the field by a
party-line, bus-like installation connecting all devices via a shared medium.
The fieldbus approach was an ambitious concept: a step toward decentralization, including the
preprocessing of data in the field devices, which both increases the quality of process control and
reduces the computing burden for the centralized controllers. This concept demanded increased
communication between the devices. The idea of the fieldbus concept seems promising. However,
with reasonable effort it is not realizable at present.
The principal problem which support the developing of the Fieldbus system was the wiring problem
getting out in the large buildings. Other obvious and appealing advantages of the concept are
modularity and the possibility to have much more intelligent field devices that can communicate not
just for the sake of process data transfer.

7.2.2 Fieldbuses as Part of a Networking Concept


The most important role in the Fieldbus evolution its called automation pyramid. This model was
designed to structure the information flow required for factory and process automation industry. While
the networks for the upper levels already existed by the time the pyramid was defined, the field level
was still governed by point-to-point connections. The automation pyramid has two levels: the field
level and the cell process level.
For this reason, there are two classes:
Sensoractuator buses or device buses have very limited capabilities and serve to connect very
simple devices with, e.g., programmable logic controllers (PLCs). They can be found exclusively on
the field level.
Fieldbuses connect control equipment like PLCs and PCs as well as more intelligent devices. They
are found on the cell level and are closer to computer networks.
Depending on the point of view, there may even be a third sublevel. There are only few fieldbus
systems that can immediately be allocated to one of the groups; most of them are used in both levels.

From top to down, the first floor starts with the Global Area Network (GANs) which cover
intercontinental distances and now, satellite links. The second level is the Wide Area Networ (WANs)
and its common associated with telephone networks. The next level is the Local Area Network
(LANs) with Ethernet.
From GANs to LANs, the classification according to the spatial extension is evident. One step below,
on the field level, this criterion fails, because fieldbus systems or field area networks (FANs) can
cover even larger distances than LANs. Local area networks have high data rates and carry large
amounts of data in large packets. Timeliness is not a primary concern, and real-time behavior is not
required. Fieldbus systems, by contrast, have low data rates.
In fact, the boundaries between LANs and fieldbus systems have faded. Today, there are fieldbus
systems with data rates well above 10 Mbit/s, which is still standard in older LAN installations. In
addition, more and more applications require the transmission of video or voice data, which results in
large data packets. The growing use of Ethernet results in a reduction of the levels in the automation
hierarchy. Hence the pyramid gradually turns into a flat structure with at most three, maybe even only
two, levels.

7.3 History
7.3.1 The Roots of Industrial Networks
As the field bus term appeared 20 years ago, the basics of this network appeared long time ago. Both
classical electrical engineering and computer science have contributed their share to the evolution,
and we can identify three major sources of influence:
Communication engineering with large-scale telephone networks Instrumentation and
measurement systems with parallel buses and real-time requirements
Computer science with the introduction of high-level protocol design
One foundation of automation data transfer must be seen in the classic telex network and also its
standards for data transmission over telephone lines. Of course, these communication systems have
a point-to-point nature and therefore lack the multidrop characteristic of modern fieldbus systems, but
nevertheless, they were the origin of serial data transmission.

7.3.2 The Evolution of Fieldbuses


The main contribution comes from the creation of computer systems, when the International
Organization of Standardization (ISO) introduced the Open Systems of Interconnection (OSI). This
seven-layer reference model was the starting point for the development of many complex
communication protocols. Below is an image of the protocols developed.

7.4.1 The German-French Fieldbus war


This war was held because of the development of two field bus at the same time, in one
side Profibus from Germany and from the other side FIP of France, both fighting for the
dominion of the world automation.

7.4.2 The International Fieldbus War


Many companies got tired of watching the German-French struggle so they decided to join
up and form the Fieldbus Foundation. Fieldbus had already made their way into the
market. Huge amounts of money where invested in research and development, and also in
implementation. A lot of installations were made. The problem is that no uniform fieldbus
standard could be achieved.

7.4.3 The Compromise


June 15 1999 the IEC decided to take a new path and break the stalling.A month later the
representatives of fieldbus foundation Fisher Rosemount, ControlNet International,
Rockwell Automation, Profibus User Organization and Siemens decided to sign an
agreement to end the conflicts regarding Fieldbus.

7.5 Fieldbus Characteristics


The application of the fieldbus are a lot, because of this many solutions were developed.
Fieldbus was designed for efficiency excelling in these aspects:

Efficiency in data transfer.


Efficiency in design and protocol implementation.

7.5.1 Communication concepts


Same as modern communication systems, Fieldbus is equipped with protocols, which are
modeled according to ISO/OSI. However in reality only covers 1,2 and 7 are used. This is
actually in honor of the failure of MAP which proved that a battery of 7 coverings requires
too many resources and is not efficient at all. That is why the fieldbus consists of 3 layers,
physical layer, data link layer and application layer.
7.5.2 Communication Paradigms
The characteristically properties of the diverse data types inside a Fieldbus system differ
broadly depending on the process that must be automatized. The areas of application
such as fabrication, processing and construction of automatized systems each have
different requirements of time and consistency which are not even constant in their own
field.
This fundamental differences have driven to the evolution of various paradigms of
communication which are utilized individually or in combination. The applicability in
different systems of fieldbus are very different because they require different
communication services and access strategies to the communication media. The 3 basic
paradigms are:
Client Server Model
Producer-Consumer Model
Publisher subscriber Model

7.5.3 Above the OSI Layers: Interoperability and Profiles


A key point for the acceptance of the fieldbus was the possibility of interconnecting devices
from different suppliers and systems also from different suppliers. The standardization of
the fieldbus was believed enough to reach interoperation of systems, but in reality this was
proven not to be true. Norms usually give space for interpretation, and this causes
implementations to vary, even if they are adjusted to the norm. Another reason for so much
trouble causing is the semantic for defining objects, this is not set clearly. Although at the
beginning this was ignored, today it has been found to be one of the major causes of
troubles. The objective is to define profiles for independent Fieldbus, this in order to
address the problems mention before.

7.5.4 Management
Because of the broad applications for Fieldbus, different management programs have
been created in order to make things easier for users. Although it has been noted that
Fieldbus offers a wide variety of management services and the sophistication of this can
vary widely too.

7.6 New Challenges: Industrial Ethernet


The key argument for the introduction of Ethernet was its dominance in the office sector
and the creation of a uniform network. This image was exactly what the marketing
campaigns tried to portrait. Ethernet as the sole network for all aspects and features in the
automation world. A quick glance to reality shows entirely different things. Ethernet is just
only a solution to the 2 inferior layers of the OSI model and as Fieldbus history has shown,
this is simply not enough. Even if TCP and UDP are included, we are still only talking
about the 4 inferior layers of OSI. In consequence there is a possibility to achieve Ethernet
or internet technologies in the Fieldbus area all which in reality are used in practice.
Conclusion:
Fieldbus is very efficient but when it was developed so many problems aroused. There
was no way of creating a standard for it, because companies wanted to compete against
each other and no one wanted to adjust to the standard because they would lose
competitive advantage. Also fieldbus could actually do great thing in automation, it could
not completely replace Ethernet, and actually both of them can be used together in
industry, although they were not designed for it. There were even so called wars regarding
fieldbus, they were not actual wars, but corporate wars. Finally a standard had to be
achieved although everyone can interpret the norms differently, I think fieldbus has proven
to be very efficient in its area.

Questions

1. In section 7.1 which was the main motivation to crate a FIELBUS?


Flexibility and Modulation
Configuration
Maintenance
Distribution

2. What is the origin of the term Fieldbus?


Feldbus, German Word which means process field, the are in a plant where lots of field
devices, actuators and sensors are in contact with the process.

3. How can be compared the industrial networks versus computer networks?


They transport information between hardware and software.

4. What was the first protocol where the OSI model was applied in the automation
area?
Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP)

5. What CAN stand for and when was created?


Controller Area Network (CAN) in 1983.

6. According to figure 7.3 and Table 7.10 arrange (sort) the following models in
chronological order: Profibus,
EN50254, Arcnet, Sercos, AS-i, DeviceNet, Bitbus, Hart. Indicate the meaning of each
one, its creation date or launch and the authors of each model.

FIELDBUS Year AUTHOR

Arcnet 1977 DATA POINT


U.S.
Bitbus 1983 INTEL
U.S.

Hart. 1986 ROSEMOUNT


U.S.

Profibus 1989 INDUSTRY AND UNIVERSITY


GER.

Sercos 1989 INDUSTRY CONSORTIUM GER

AS-i 1991 INDUSTRY AND UNIVERSITY


GER.

DeviceNet 1994 ALLEN BRADLEY


U.S.

EN50254 1998 INTERBUS

7. What CENELAC and CEN stand for?


CENELEC: Comit Europen de Normalisation Electrotechnique (European Committee for
Electrotechnical Standardization)
CEN: Comit Europen de Normalisation (European Committee for Standardization)

8. What is the IEC and the ISO?


ISO: International Organization for Standardization
IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission

9. What are the initial letters used for the norm published by CENELEC?
EN

10. What are the norm numbers assigned by CENELEC to the following networks:
Profibus, ControlNet, ProfibusPA, Profibus-DP, AS-i?
1. Profibus EN 50170-2
2. ControlNet EN 50170-A3
3. Profibus-PA EN 50170-A2
4. Profibus-DP EN 50254-3
5. AS-i EN 50295-2
11. In which of the following communication paradigms the relationship between
master-slave is mono-master:
a) Client-Server b) Producer-Consumer, c) Publisher-Suscriber?
a) Client-Server

12. Why in the first years of its creation Ethernet was considered not appropriated
to use in industrial networks?
Because it was created to be used inside offices.

13. In the standard Ethernet/IP, what is the meaning of the letters IP?
Industrial Protocol
14. Indicate what kind of applications will demand response time of a)100 ms, b) 10
ms y c) 1 ms
a) A first low-speed class application. This is the requisites of the human beings that
participate in the observation of the system, for engineering and for the supervision of
processes.

b) A second class application. This requirement is used in the majority of the machine
control systems like PIC or PC based controls. This must be handled with a lot of care.

c) Lastly the third and most exigent of the classes is defined by the movement control
requirements. To synchronize various axis along a network precisions under 1 ms are
required.

15. One of the oldest real-time networks used for motion control is SERCOS.
Investigate its meaning (acronym)
and write a small summary of the main characteristics of this network. Provide an
example about how this
network is used in commercial PLC such as Allen-Bradley. Note In the Reading there
is no information about this network, you must find the information in the internet.

The SERCOS (Serial Real-Time Communication System) interface is an interface which is


globally standardized, and this digital interface is open for communication between
industrial controls, motion devices, also known as drives, and input and output devices ("I /
O").
It is classified as standard IEC 61491 and EN 61491. The SERCOS interface is designed
to provide real-time, high-performance communications between industrial motion controls
and digital servos units.

Important features of the SERCOS interface include:

1. Collision-free communication through the use of a slot time mechanism (time-slot)


2. Highly efficient communication protocol (few overhead)
3. Extremely low jitter telegram (determined at less than 1 microsecond, in practice as
low as 35 nanoseconds)
4. Highly developed standardized profiles agreed by multi-vendor groups of technical
work for the secure interoperability of devices from different manufacturers.
5. Ability to control, for example, 70 axes of movement in an update of 250
microseconds for each drive. (SERCOS-III).

Bibliografa
Mechatronic-Design. (n.d.). Retrieved February 18, 2016, from
http://web.archive.org/web/20120723202315/http://mechatronic-
design.com/features/using_ethernet_sercos/