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You are on page 1of 6

Let A be a m n matrix, and ~y a vector in Rm . Recall the fact:

Theorem: A~x = ~y has a solution if and only if ~y is in the column space

R(A) of A.

Now lets prove a new theorem which talks about when such a solution

is unique. Suppose ~x, ~x0 are two solutions to A~x = ~y . Then

In fact, we can say more.

Theorem: Let ~x0 be a solution to A~x = ~y . Then the set of all solutions

is the set of vectors which can be written

~x0 + ~n

Proof omittedits not much more than the above argument.

We also get the corollary:

Theorem: Suppose ~y is in the column space of A. A~x = ~y has a unique

solution if and only if N (A) = ~0.

Ex: Take

1/3 1/3 1/3

V = 1/3 1/3 1/3 .

1/3 1/3 1/3

Now

N (V ) is the set ~x : x1 + x2 + x3 = 0

1/3

R(V ) is the set span{ 1/3 }.

1/3

unique one. One minute contemplation: in view of the above theorem, how

do we think of the set of solutions of

1

A~x = 1 ?

1

1

By contrast, take

2

D= 3 .

5

Then ask what people think the nullspace and column space are.

N (D) is the zero space;

R(D) = R3 .

So, for every ~y , the equation D~x = ~y has a unique solution (which we

already knew, because D is invertible.)

II. Rank

Lets understand the averaging example a little more closely. If we try

to solve

1/3 1/3 1/3 x1 y1

1/3 1/3 1/3 x2 = y2

1/3 1/3 1/3 x3 y3

1/3 1/3 1/3 x1 y1

0 0 0 x 2 = y2 y1 .

0 0 0 x3 y3 y1

ro pivots in A after elimination.

So rank of V is 1, while rank of D is 3. (Elimination is already complete

there!)

Let Z be the zero matrix. What is rank of Z?

Now make a little table:

V D Z

rank 1 3 0

nullspace plane ~0 R3

column space line R3 ~0

This may give us the idea that the rank tells us something about the

dimension of the column space, which in turn seems to have something to

do with the dimension of the nullspace. This will turn out to be exactly

correct, once we work out the proper definition of the terms involved!

2

Note that we can now prove

Theorem (Invertibility theorem III) Suppose A is an n n matrix

such that N (A) = ~0 and R(A) = Rm . Then A is invertible.

Proof. The equation A~x = ~y has a solution for every ~y , because every

~y is in the column space of A. This solution is always unique, because

N (A) = ~0. So A~x = ~y always has a unique solution. It now follows from

invertibility theorem II that A is invertible.

LECTURE II

Lots of important basic definitions today.

Remember our discussion from the first week:

Two vectors ~v1 , ~21 span a plane unless one is a scalar multiple of

the other.

Today well talk about the proper generalization of the notion above to

larger sets of vectors.

Definition: A set of vectors ~v1 , . . . , ~vn is linearly independent if and

only if the only solution to

x1~v1 + . . . + xn~vn = ~0

is x1 = . . . = xn = 0.

Alternative 1: ~v1 , . . . , ~vn is linearly independent if and only if the equa-

tion

| | | x1

~v1 . . . ~vn | = 0

| | | xn

x1

| = ~0.

xn

and only if

| | |

N ~v1 . . . ~vn = {~0}.

| | |

3

So the notions of linear independence and nullspace are closely re-

lated.

Example: Two vectors ~v1 , ~v2 . Suppose they are not linearly indepen-

dent. Then there is an expression

x1~v1 + x2~v2 = ~0

such that x1 and x2 are not both 0. In other words, ~v1 and ~v2 are scalar

multiples of each other.

So we can rephrase our fact from week 1:

Two vectors ~v1 , ~21 span a plane as long as they are linearly in-

dependent.

Definition. Let V be a subspace of Rm . A basis for V is a set of vectors

~v1 , . . . , ~vn , which

are linearly independent;

span V.

For instance, lets start our work by looking at the subspace of R2 :

x1

V ={ : x1 + x2 = 0}

x2

Ask: What are some vectors in this space? Can we produce a basis for it?

Is it the only one?

Now (if time permits) turn to partners, and address the following ques-

tion: can we think of a basis for R2 ? How many can we think of?

LECTURE III

Note: I wont define row space and left nullspace this week.

At last we can define dimension.

Theorem. Let V be a subspace of Rm . Then any two bases of V contain

the same number of vectors. The number of vectors in a basis for V is called

the dimension of V .

This is a wonderful theoremif only I had time to prove it at the board.

But I think the intuitive desire to believe the above fact is strong enough

that I can get away without a formal proof.

Our goal for today will be to prove the conjectures from last time. Name-

ly:

Theorem (Rank Theorem)

4

The rank of A is the dimension of R(A).

columns of A.

Before we set off to prove this theorem, let me record some of the corol-

laries.

Corollary. The following are equivalent:

rank(A) = m;

R(A) = Rm ;

Corollary. The following are equivalent:

rank(A) = n;

N (A) = ~0;

Corollary. The following are equivalent:

rank(A) = m = n;

A is invertible.

In other words, we have shown that an invertible matrix must be square!

So: now that weve eaten our dessert, let us turn to the vegetableswhich

in my opinion are actually quite tasty. We want to prove the theorem above.

FACT: Let A be an m n matrix, and let B be an invertible m n

matrix. Then

1. N (BA) = N (A).

Proof: Suppose ~v is in N (BA). Then BA~v = ~0. Multiplying by B 1,

we see that A~v = ~0. The other direction is obvious. This proves 1.

For part 2, let ~v1 , . . . , ~vd be a basis for R(A). So for every ~x in Rn , we

have

5

Thus, we can write BA~x = k1 Bv1 + . . . + kd Bvd .

So B~v1 , . . . , B~vd span R(BA). Moreover, B~v1 , . . . , B~vd are linearly in-

dependent, because if

just multiply by B 1 and we see that all the ki must be 0. So R(BA) has

a basis with d elements, so has dimension d.

In particular, if A is any matrix, and U is the matrix resulting from

Gaussian elimination, then

U = (E1 E2 E3 . . . )A

above, we see that

N (A) = N (U )

dimR(A) = dimR(U ).

elimination is already finished, since Gaussian eliminationas we have just

seendoes not affect the numbers we are interested in.

There presumably wont be time to say much, if anything, more.

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