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VOCABULARY:

coordinate plane- the plane containing an x and y axis


grid- has two perpendicular lines called axes. The horizontal axis is called the x axis
and the vertical axis is called the y axis.
x-coordinate- the horizontal value in a pair of coordinates
y-coordinate- the vertical value in a pair of coordinates
origin- the starting point on a coordinate plane. It is 0
ordered pair- two numbers written in a certain order in parentheses (4,5). The first
number is the x-coordinate, and the second number is the y coordinate.
attribute- a property of an object or person; something you can say it has. For
example, the height of a dog includes height, shape, color, etc. (property)
classify- to arrange in groups by properties or attributes. For example, shapes can be
classified by number of sides, angles, vertices, etc.
hierarchy- ordering or ranking as it relates to shapes, numbers, etc.
line-straight path of points that goes on forever in two directions
line segment-a part of a line and has 2 end points
parallel lines-never cross and stay the same distance apart
intersecting lines-pass through the same end point
perpendicular lines-intersecting lines that form square corners
point-an exact location in space
plane-an endless flat surface
ray-part of a line that has only one end point and extends forever in one direction
symmetry- when one shape looks like the other if you fold it, flip it, turn it or slide it.
Symmetry is also like a mirror image.
angle-formed by two rays that have the same end point
face- any of the individual surfaces on a solid object
edge- the line where two surfaces meet
vertex-formed where two rays share a common endpoint
acute angle-has a measure between 0-90 degrees
right angle-has a measure of 90 degrees
obtuse angle-has a measure between 90 and 180 degrees
straight line/angle-has a measure of 180 degrees
protractor-used to measure or draw angles
polygon-a two dimensional, closed plane figure made of line segments
regular polygon-has sides of equal length and angles of equal measure
triangle-3-sided polygon: 180 degrees
quadrilateral-4-sided polygon: 360 degrees
pentagon-5-sided polygon: 540 degrees
hexagon-6-sided polygon: 720 degrees
octagon-8-sided polygon: 1,080 degrees
decagon-10-sided polygon: 1,440 degrees
equilateral triangle-all sides same length
isosceles triangle-two sides same length
scalene triangle-no sides the same length
right triangle-one angle is a right angle
acute triangle-all 3 angles are acute angles
obtuse triangle-one angle is an obtuse angle
parallelogram-both pairs of opposite sides are parallel and equal in length
trapezoid-only one pair of parallel sides. Isosceles trapezoid has two legs that are the
same length. The base is the top and bottom, and the legs are the sides.
rectangle-a parallelogram with 4 right angles
rhombus-a parallelogram with all sides the same length. A rhombus can also be called
a square
square-a rectangle with all sides the same length. A square is also called a
parallelogram
Quadrant-any of the 4 equal areas made by dividing a plane by an x and y axis. All
ordered pairs in quadrant 1 will always be a positive x and a positive y. All ordered pairs
in quadrant 2 will always be a negative x and a positive y. All ordered pairs in quadrant
3 will always be a negative x and a negative y. All ordered pairs in quadrant 4 will
always be a positive x and a negative y.

To plot (4,5) on a coordinate grid, start by locating positive 4 on the x axis, which is in
quadrant 1. Then, locate positive 5 on the y axis, which is also in quadrant 1. Start on
positive 4 and go up until you locate positive 5. Plot the point where both numbers
intersect.
A triangle is the first polygon, and has 180 degrees. Each time another side is added to
a polygon, another 180 degrees will be added: therefore a quadrilateral will be 360
degrees: 180+180=360.
A pentagon will be 540 degrees: 360+180=540
Formula for finding degrees in a polygon: 180 x (n-2). N means number of sides.
Therefore to find the total degrees in a pentagon: 180 x (5-2) = 5-2 = 3. So, 180 x 3 =
540 degrees in a pentagon.
A line segment looks like a line with a point on both sides: a ray looks like a line with a
point on one side and an arrow on the other side: a line will have an arrow on each side:
perpendicular lines will intersect at 90 degrees
A right angle will look like a square corner, or like this: L. An acute angle is smaller than
a right angle, and can look like this: V. An obtuse angle is bigger than a right angle.
If given measures of 55, and 45 degrees for a triangle, and have to find the missing
degrees in the 3rd angle, add 55 and 45=100, and subtract 100 from 180 degrees. the
missing angle would be 80 degrees. Use the same procedure for any other polygon by
finding the amount of degrees in that particular polygon.
You cannot have more than one right angle in a triangle.
To find diagonals in a polygon:
Triangle-no diagonals
Quadrilateral-2 diagonals
Pentagon-5 diagonals
Hexagon-9 diagonals
Heptagon-14 diagonals
Octagon-20 diagonals
Nonagon-27 diagonals
Decagon-35 diagonals
The pattern is to increase the number of the previous diagonals by 1, except for the
triangle and quadrilaterals, for eg., a quadrilateral has 2, so a pentagon will have 3
more for a total of 5; a pentagon has 5 so a hexagon will have 4 more for a total of 9; a
hexagon has 9,so a heptagon will have 5 more for a total of 14, and so on
Formula for finding the total diagonals in a pentagon: n (n-3) divided by 2. N
means numbers of sides in a polygon.
To find how many diagonals are in a hexagon: 6 (6-3) divided by 2: solve parentheses
first: 6-3 = 3; then solve multiplication: 6 x 3 = 18; then solve division: 18 divided by 2
= 9. There are 9 diagonals in a hexagon.