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grid- has two perpendicular lines called axes. The horizontal axis is called the x axis

and the vertical axis is called the y axis.

x-coordinate- the horizontal value in a pair of coordinates

y-coordinate- the vertical value in a pair of coordinates

origin- the starting point on a coordinate plane. It is 0

ordered pair- two numbers written in a certain order in parentheses (4,5). The first

number is the x-coordinate, and the second number is the y coordinate.

attribute- a property of an object or person; something you can say it has. For

example, the height of a dog includes height, shape, color, etc. (property)

classify- to arrange in groups by properties or attributes. For example, shapes can be

classified by number of sides, angles, vertices, etc.

hierarchy- ordering or ranking as it relates to shapes, numbers, etc.

line-straight path of points that goes on forever in two directions

line segment-a part of a line and has 2 end points

parallel lines-never cross and stay the same distance apart

intersecting lines-pass through the same end point

perpendicular lines-intersecting lines that form square corners

point-an exact location in space

plane-an endless flat surface

ray-part of a line that has only one end point and extends forever in one direction

symmetry- when one shape looks like the other if you fold it, flip it, turn it or slide it.

Symmetry is also like a mirror image.

angle-formed by two rays that have the same end point

face- any of the individual surfaces on a solid object

edge- the line where two surfaces meet

vertex-formed where two rays share a common endpoint

acute angle-has a measure between 0-90 degrees

right angle-has a measure of 90 degrees

obtuse angle-has a measure between 90 and 180 degrees

straight line/angle-has a measure of 180 degrees

protractor-used to measure or draw angles

polygon-a two dimensional, closed plane figure made of line segments

regular polygon-has sides of equal length and angles of equal measure

triangle-3-sided polygon: 180 degrees

quadrilateral-4-sided polygon: 360 degrees

pentagon-5-sided polygon: 540 degrees

hexagon-6-sided polygon: 720 degrees

octagon-8-sided polygon: 1,080 degrees

decagon-10-sided polygon: 1,440 degrees

equilateral triangle-all sides same length

isosceles triangle-two sides same length

scalene triangle-no sides the same length

right triangle-one angle is a right angle

acute triangle-all 3 angles are acute angles

obtuse triangle-one angle is an obtuse angle

parallelogram-both pairs of opposite sides are parallel and equal in length

trapezoid-only one pair of parallel sides. Isosceles trapezoid has two legs that are the

same length. The base is the top and bottom, and the legs are the sides.

rectangle-a parallelogram with 4 right angles

rhombus-a parallelogram with all sides the same length. A rhombus can also be called

a square

square-a rectangle with all sides the same length. A square is also called a

parallelogram

Quadrant-any of the 4 equal areas made by dividing a plane by an x and y axis. All

ordered pairs in quadrant 1 will always be a positive x and a positive y. All ordered pairs

in quadrant 2 will always be a negative x and a positive y. All ordered pairs in quadrant

3 will always be a negative x and a negative y. All ordered pairs in quadrant 4 will

always be a positive x and a negative y.

To plot (4,5) on a coordinate grid, start by locating positive 4 on the x axis, which is in

quadrant 1. Then, locate positive 5 on the y axis, which is also in quadrant 1. Start on

positive 4 and go up until you locate positive 5. Plot the point where both numbers

intersect.

A triangle is the first polygon, and has 180 degrees. Each time another side is added to

a polygon, another 180 degrees will be added: therefore a quadrilateral will be 360

degrees: 180+180=360.

A pentagon will be 540 degrees: 360+180=540

Formula for finding degrees in a polygon: 180 x (n-2). N means number of sides.

Therefore to find the total degrees in a pentagon: 180 x (5-2) = 5-2 = 3. So, 180 x 3 =

540 degrees in a pentagon.

A line segment looks like a line with a point on both sides: a ray looks like a line with a

point on one side and an arrow on the other side: a line will have an arrow on each side:

perpendicular lines will intersect at 90 degrees

A right angle will look like a square corner, or like this: L. An acute angle is smaller than

a right angle, and can look like this: V. An obtuse angle is bigger than a right angle.

If given measures of 55, and 45 degrees for a triangle, and have to find the missing

degrees in the 3rd angle, add 55 and 45=100, and subtract 100 from 180 degrees. the

missing angle would be 80 degrees. Use the same procedure for any other polygon by

finding the amount of degrees in that particular polygon.

You cannot have more than one right angle in a triangle.

To find diagonals in a polygon:

Triangle-no diagonals

Quadrilateral-2 diagonals

Pentagon-5 diagonals

Hexagon-9 diagonals

Heptagon-14 diagonals

Octagon-20 diagonals

Nonagon-27 diagonals

Decagon-35 diagonals

The pattern is to increase the number of the previous diagonals by 1, except for the

triangle and quadrilaterals, for eg., a quadrilateral has 2, so a pentagon will have 3

more for a total of 5; a pentagon has 5 so a hexagon will have 4 more for a total of 9; a

hexagon has 9,so a heptagon will have 5 more for a total of 14, and so on

Formula for finding the total diagonals in a pentagon: n (n-3) divided by 2. N

means numbers of sides in a polygon.

To find how many diagonals are in a hexagon: 6 (6-3) divided by 2: solve parentheses

first: 6-3 = 3; then solve multiplication: 6 x 3 = 18; then solve division: 18 divided by 2

= 9. There are 9 diagonals in a hexagon.

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