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# TUTORIAL N2

Exercise 1:

## A linear displacement sensor constitutes of a linear potentiometer represented in Figure 1.

x is the position of the cursor regards to the middle position of the sensor which is taken as
the origin of the x axis.

## Figure 1: linear potentiometer in push-pull sensor

1. The total length of the potentiometer is 2l = 10 cm and its total resistance is 2R0.
Deduce the expression of resistors Rb(x) and Rh(x) of the potentiometer ( Figure 1) for a
displacement x of the cursor relative to the middle position.
2. The potentiometer is mounted according to the diagram of Figure 1. The voltage
Vmes measurement image of the cursor position, is measured by an electronic instrument of
measure which has an input impedance Rapp. Express Vmes according to Rb(x), Rh(x), Rg,
Rapp and Vg.
3. What will be then the expression of Vmes if Rapp >> R0?
4. Deduce the sensitivity measurement (Smes).
5. What value should be given to Rg to get the maximum of sensitivity ?
6. According to the previous case , provide the new expression of Vmes and Smes?
7. In order to ensure proper operation of the sensor, the manufacturer has fixed a
limit value for the displacement of the cursor speed vmax = 0,2 m.s1. Assuming that the
cursor has a sinusoidal amplitude a = 1 cm around a given position x0, calculate the maximum
frequency fmax movements that can be achieved with this system.
Exercise 2:
Considering the Figure 2, the structure consists of two identical planes capacitors C1 and C2,
and a dielectric core with a relative permittivity r . The capacitors are of rectangular or
square shapes and a surface area A, the core is displaced between the plates along the x axis .

## TU11 : Tutorials Pr :S.IBNYAICH

Copyright notice : This material can be freely used within the E.O.L.E.S. TEMPUS PROJECT consortium. Explicit authorisation of the
authors is required for its use outside this consortium EOLES TEMPUS PROJECT. This project has been funded with support from the
European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any
use which may be made of the information contained therein.
Figure 2: dielectric capacitor sliding

## 1. The core is in its initial position, centered at x = 0, determine the expression

Of the capacitors at x=0 ( C1 (x = 0) = C2 (x = 0) = C0) (in this case we neglect the effects
of edges and possible coupling between the two capacitors).
Note that : 0 = 8,85.1012 F.m1 , r = 3, e = 1 mm and A = 6 cm2.
2. The core now is moved from its original position with an x displacement, determine the
new expressions Of C1(x) and C2(x).
The expressions should be written as follows :C1(x) = C0 + C1(x) and C2(x) = C0 + C2(x)
By specifying The expressions of C1(x) and C2(x) according with C0, x, l and r.
3. The two capacitors are connected in a bridge circuit (As shown in Figure 3). Express
differential voltage Vmes measured in terms of x, l, r
and Vg.

## TU11 : Tutorials Pr :S.IBNYAICH

Copyright notice : This material can be freely used within the E.O.L.E.S. TEMPUS PROJECT consortium. Explicit authorisation of the
authors is required for its use outside this consortium EOLES TEMPUS PROJECT. This project has been funded with support from the
European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any
use which may be made of the information contained therein.