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College of Electronic Engineering Dept. of Electronic Techniques

University ofNinavah, Iraq Institute of Technology

Sayidmariek53@uomosul.edu.iq Mosul, Iraq

Abstract-A crescent-shaped planar monopole antenna for operation band. An approximate estimation of this frequency

UWB applications is proposed. The design parameters were can be found by equating the area of the planner printed

investigated using CST software package. Modeling of the UWB antenna to the area of an equivalent cylindrical monopole

monopole antennas is investigated using two methods. The input having the same height (L), as explained in Fig. 1 [12].

impedance is represented by the first Foster canonical form,

where the equivalent circuit components at resonance are derived

from either the reflection coefficient or the input impedance

responses of the investigated antenna. In the second method, a

SPICE-compatible equivalent circuit is used to model the input

admittance of the antenna utilizing the vector fitting technique.

The CST Microwave Studio is used to obtain the reflection

coefficient and input impedance of the investigated antenna, and

these results are used to extract values of the components of the

equivalent circuit. The performances of the investigated methods

are compared, and validity of the modeling methods is verified

using MATLAB and ADS softwares.

Keywords-crescent-shaped antenna; antenna modeling; UWB

antennas; SPICE equivalent circuit.

The area the arc-shaped monopole can be found as:

I. INTRODUCTION Area of arc=area of outer sector - area of inner sector;

UWB technology has received much attention by Area of arc=0.5n (rJ2-ri) .......................(1)

researchers, scientists and industrialists due to its attractive

features of faster data transmission rate, low spectral power According to the idea of equivalence [12], the surface area

density, inexpensiveness and simple configuration [1]. The of cylindrical monopole is made equal to the area of the arc.

antenna is an important component in theUWB system since it For a cylindrical monopole antenna, the length L is usually

affects the transmit and receive performance of the system. The chosen as quarter of the resonant wavelength /'AL. Therefore;

UWB antennas must offer; bandwidth requirement, constant the band lower edge frequency fL is given by[12]:

gain, omni-directional radiation pattern, high radiation

efficiency, constant group delay, while low profile and easy fL=C/'AL=7.2/(L+a) GHz ..........(2)

manufacturing influences cost issues [2]. The literature shows where L is the length in centimeters, a is the effective

numerous publications on the design ofUWB antennas [3-11]. radius of the equivalent cylindrical monopole antenna in

centimeters, and c is speed of light. The monopole is fabricated

In this paper, a compact crescent-shaped monopole antenna on substrate, and if one includes the effect of feeder length p

is proposed forUWB applications. Estimation of the monopole then Eq. 2 is modified to [12]:

length and lower frequency of the operation band, as well as

the design parameters, were investigated. The proposed UWB fL=C/'AL=7.2/[(L+a+P)*k] GHz ..........(3)

antenna is then modeled by three methods, and the where k is a correction factor. This factor (k) may be

performances were compared. The impedance and reflection considered as the estimated value (k=-.iseft), or it is sometimes

coefficient at antenna input port is obtained using CST empirically taken as k=1.15 [12]. Another moderate value of k

Microwave Studio while the equivalent circuits are verified has been considered as (k=4-.iseft) [7].

using MATLAB and ADS.

To investigate the performance of the above-suggested

formulations; effect of L on the value of fL in Eq.3, six

II. DESIGN ANALYSIS & SIMULAnONS antennas were designed and analyzed using the CST software.

The designed crescent monopole antenna is shown in Fig. In the simulations of the antennas, an FR4 substrate of 1.6 rum

1. The lower edge frequency, is an important parameter of the thickness, Sf of 4.3, and dielectric loss tangent of 0.025 was

planar monopole antenna since it controls the start of the assumed. The parameters of the designed antennas are listed in

442

Table 1. In the analysis, three methods for finding the length L The other value of the constant (k=1.15) is then used, and a

of the equivalent monopole are investigated. These three table similar to Table2 was constructed. Comparing the results

methods are described in Fig. 2 and as the following: for (K=1.15) with the lower edge frequency ofUWB, which is

equal to 3.1GHz, it can be concluded that method2, and

Methodl: L=L,=r, (outer radius of the arc),

method3 have given slightly better estimations as compared to

Mehode2: L2= length of the outer 90 arc S; i.e. that of method1.

L=L2= S=nrI/2, The same procedure was then repeated for (k=4-Vceff =l.275

for the used substrate). The obtained results show that,

Methode3: L3=average length of the arc Say; i.e., method3 has given much better estimation (average

L=L3= Sav=rc(ft+r2)/4 error=6.77%). Comparing the percentage errors obtained from

the above investigations, it can be concluded that using the

value of k= 1.15 has resulted in lowest overall error for the

three methods.

The performance of the proposed UWB antennas2 was

investigated to explore the effect of, inner (r2) and outer radius

(rl) of semi-annular ring. The reflection coefficient of antenna2

for various inner radii (r2) is shown in Fig. 3, where it can be

seen that decreasing the inner radius r2 from 9mm to 7mm

enhances the matching performance of the antenna.

Figure 2 The three methods to find the length L of the monopole.

For of each of the values (LI, L2, L3) Eq. 3 was used to find

the frequency fL of the lower-edge. The antenna characteristics

were obtained from the CST simulations. Table 2 shows the

antenna characteristics for each of the assumed equivalent

lengths; LI, L2, and L3, and assuming (k=-VSoff =l.627 for the

used substrate). In Table 2, a wide range of r, for various fixed

values of w were considered in the CST simulations, but the

shown values in are those which result in fulfilling UWB

characteristics. The Table shows that, for method1 (LI=rl), the

lower edge frequencies (fLl) for all antennas have an average

value of 3.05 GHz and an estimation error of 1.624%. Method2

(L2=S) gave an average value of 2.l4GHz with percentage

error of 30% while method3 (L3=Sav) gave an average of

2.26GHz and percentage error of 27.1%. Therefore, the relation

Fig. 3 Simulated S11versus frequency for various inner radii (r2).

considered in methodl gives the best estimate to the lower

edge frequency (fLl).

Figure 4 shows the reflection coefficient responses obtained

from the simulations for the six investigated antennas. The

TABLE I. PARAMETERS OF THE DESIGNED ANTENNAS. DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM

figure shows that all antennas comply with the upper UWB

frequency, while antennal, antenna2 and antenna3, have

rl r, W Wf If Wg Ig I P

slightly higher fL values. Comparing results of the -lOdB

Antennal II 6.5 4.5 3.2 17.75 25 17 30 0.75

Antenna2 11.5 7 4.5 3.2 17.7 25 17 30 0.7 bandwidth, it is concluded that antenna2 has the best

Antenna3 12.5 8 4.5 3.2 17.2 30 17 32 0.2 performance followed by antenna1, while antenna4 has the

Antenna4 13.5 9 4.5 3.2 17.2 30 17 32 0.2 worst performance. Considering the overall performance,

AntennaS 11.5 5.5 6 3.2 18 25 17 35 1 antenna5 can be considered to have the best compromised

Antenna6 12.5 6 6.5 3.2 17.5 27 17 32 0.5 performance.

TABLE 2. FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ANTENNAS FOR (K='-'EEFF Table 3 shows a comparison of the obtained frequency

=1.627). , FOR THE METHODS WHEN; LI=RI, L2=S, AND L3=SAV. characteristics of the designed antennas. It can be seen from

Fig. 4 and Table 3 that, when keeping the width of the arc

LI fLi L2 fL2 LJ fu

(mm) (GHz) (mm) (GHz) (mm) (GHz)

constant (w=4.5mm), and increasing the value of r, from 11 to

Antennal II 3.27 17.27 2.31 13.74 2.43 13.5 (in antennas 1,2,3 and 4) the bandwidth decreased from

Antenna2 11.5 3.16 18.06 2.22 14.52 2.34 14.15 to 10.374 GHz.

Antenna3 12.5 3.04 19.63 2.11 16.1 2.22

Antenna4 13.5 2.84 21.2 1.96 17.67 2.05 III. EQUTVALENT CIRCUITS AND MODELING FOR THE

AntennaS 11.5 3 18.06 2.16 13.35 2.29

ANTENNA

Antenna6 12.5 2.87 19.63 2.04 14.52 2.17

Av. values 3.049 2.14 2.26 The input impedance of an UWB antenna can be modelled

% Error 1.624 30.96 27.1 by the first Foster canonical form [13]. In other

443

Fig. 4 Reflection coefficient curves for the six designed antennas.

(a)

TABLE 3. COMPARISON OF BANDWIDTH CHARACTERISTICS OF THE

INVESTIGATED ANTENNAS

Antennal 3.25 17.4 14.15 5.35

Antenna2 3.16 17.338 14.173 5.478

Antenna3 3.146 14.04 10.89 4.46

Antenna4 3.1 13.474 10.374 4.346

Antenna5 3 14.82 11.82 4.94

Antenna6 3.035 14.29 11.255 4.7

several adjacent resonating modes. Each mode can be

represented by a parallel-RLC resonator [14]. The following

three approaches are used.

A. Models derivedfrom the reflection coefficient (b)

The equivalent circuit modeling here utilizes the reflection Fig. 5 Results obtained from CST software for antenna2. (a) Reflection

coefficient response. Figure 5a shows the CST simulated coefficient response, (b) Real and imaginary parts of (Zin) versus frequency.

reflection coefficient curve of antenna2. Each dip (below the -

lOdB margin) in the response can be represented by a resonant

circuit. According to the figure, five anti-resonance modes are

observed in the shown investigated band (2-18) GHz. In this

case, the equivalent circuit model of Antenna-2 is proposed, as

shown in Fig. 6. Figure 5b, shows the input impedance

responses for antenna2, where the marked points from 1 to 10

show the real and imaginary parts of the impedance at the five

points indicated in Fig.5a. Figure 5b shows that, the values of

the real parts at the above points are close to 50n, while the

values of imaginary parts oscillate around zero. This result

means that these matching points represent resonances.

Figure. 6 shows the equivalent circuit for antenna2 that is

derived from the data shown in Figs. 5a and 5b. Table 4 shows

the values of the equivalent circuit element for antenna2. The

values of resistors, inductors and capacitors are extracted from

simulation results. These values are adjusted to obtain the

Fig. 6 Equivalent circuit in ADS derived from data of Fig. 5.

proper response (response in MATLAB is similar to that in

CST simulation). The impedance is represented by five

Figure 7 shows the variation of the real and imaginary parts

parallel-RLC cells that are connected in series and resonate at

of the input impedance (Zin) with frequency. The figure shows

3.74, 5.6, 9.024, 12.16 and 16.6GHz.

that, there is a good agreement between the results obtained

from; CST, ADS and MATLAB at the five indicated

frequencies. However, some values at other frequencies are

different; for example at the frequency of 2.768GHz. This

444

deviation is caused by the equivalent circuit model based on bandwidths ranges from 3.16 to 17.36 GHz in CST ,from

the values which are approximately matched to son. 2.973 to 17.78 GHz in MATLAB and from 2.973 to 18.1S GHz

in ADS.

TABLE 4. VALUES OF THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT ELEMENTS FOR ANTENNA2

Rn Cn Ln f" Cn Ln fn

Zn

Zo

(0) (pf)

124

(nH)

0.123

(OHz) I) I (pf)

123.8

I (nH)

0.123

I (OHz) I

Z, 52 1.92 1.059 3.53 54 2.94 0.611 3.74

Z2 42 3.68 0.234 5.4 50 8.02 0.1 5.6

Z3 52 1.09 0.32 8.94 46.74 17.94 0.017 9.024

Z4 45 1.53 0.106 12.5 57.71 2.434 0.071 12.16

Zs 70 0.84 0.099 17.4 42.79 0.741 0.124 16.6

were obtained from; CST simulation, ADS and MATLAB

(a)

where there is a good agreement between the results especially

at the matching points. However, there is a slight shift in the

upper frequency of the bands

Figure 9a shows the CST simulated input impedance curves

of antenna2. The shown response shows six specific points that

are characterised by; an imaginary part nearly crossing the zero

and having a negative derivative, while the real part has local

maxima. These points are marked by the numbers 1 to 6. The

proposed equivalent circuit model of antenna-2, as obtained

from the results of Fig. 9, is represented by six parallel RLC

cells connected in series as shown in Fig 10.

Figure 9b, shows the CST simulated reflection coefficient

response of antenna2. The points from 1 to 6 show values of

the reflection coefficient at the coreseponding points indicated (b)

in Fig. 9a. The two figures show that, the value of the Fig 7. Variation of the Zin versus frequency.(a) the real parts, (b) the imaginary

impedance parts at point number 7 are (l97+j38) n, while the parts

reflection coefficient is equal to -4.8dB. This point does not

represent a matching point (since ISlll>-lOdB) but it is

considered here because it has a maximum real part, and

sometimes this point affects the start of the band. Comparing

the values of point number 8 with those of point numbers 9,

and 12 one can observe that the three points have reflection

coefficient values less than -10dB. However, point number 8

has the lowest reflection coefficient (SII= -2S.7dB), while point

number 12 has highest reflection coefficient of -10.S4dB.

As shown from Fig. 10 and Table S, the input impedance is

represented by seven parallel RLC cells connected in series

which resonate at 3.08GHz, S.03GHz, 6.9GHz, 9.1GHz,

11.77GHz,IS.66GHz and 18.4GHz.

Figure 11 shows the variation of real and imaginary parts of Fig. 8. Comparison of the reflection coefficient responses that are obtained

the input impedance Zin with frequency. As indicated in these from CST, ADS, and MATLAB.

figures there is a small shift between the results obtained from

CST simulation, MATLAB and ADS. This shift can be

attributed to the capacitors, inductors and resistors used in

MATLAB and ADS were adjusted to satisfy the proper

response which causes a shift in resonance frequencies from

the CST simulation results. Figure 12 compares the reflection

coefficient responses obtained from CST, ADS, and

MA TLAB. It can also be observed from Fig. 12 that the

44S

(a)

(a)

(b)

(b)

Fig. 9 (a) Variation of the real and imaginary parts of the impedance (Zin) with

frequency. (b) Reflection coefficient response for the antenna. Fig. 11.(a) Variation of the real part of the impedance (Zin) with frequency.(b)

Variation of the imaginary part of (Zin) with frequency

TABLE 5. ELEMENT VALUES OF THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT MODEL FOR Fig. 12. Comparison of the reflection coefficient responses obtained from

ANTENNA2 CST, ADS, and MATLAB.

I Tn MATLAB and ADS II Tn CST I C. Models derived from the rational transfer function

Ln fn Cn Ln fn

I ) I I I I ) I I I I

c..

Zn (pt) (nH) (GHz) (pt) (nH) (GHz) The modeling method based on the rational transfer

Zo 123.8 0.1233 123.8 0.123 function is applied here to obtain the equivalent circuit models

Z, 110 1.718 1.967 3.08 197 1.618 2.067 2.75 of the input admittance of antenna2. The simulated input

Z2 50.4 1.757 0.5095 5.03 50.41 6.08 0.136 5.54 admittance of the investigated antenna was estimated fIrst, then

Z3 60 2.752 0.1932 6.9 86.76 2.852 0.173 7.16

the calculated input admittance was fItted using the Vector

Z4 44.8 2.722 0.1207 9.1 46 63.22 0.005 8.72

Z; 45 1.6046 0.1139 11.77 67 5.905 0.032 11.52

Fitting (VF) technique. Twenty linearly spaced poles were

Z6 68.5 0.892 0.116 15.66 98 0.891 0.115 15.728 chosen initialy in the VF procedure, and the number of

Z7 106 0.807 0.0927 18.4 120 0.577 0.128 18.436 iterations was 3. The fItting procedure provided (10) complex

446

pairs. The input admittance, and the root-mean-square error length and lower frequency of the operation band were

(rms-error) in the magnitude was found less than (-29dB). examined. The influences of the design parameters were

investigated. The proposed UWB antenna is then modeled by

Figures 13(a) and (b) show the responses of the admittance

using two approaches. Firstly, the input impedance is

Yin (real and imaginary parts ) that were obtained from; CST represented by a series of resonant circuits. A parallel RLC

simulation, fitting the same input admittance, and those

circuit, derived either from the reflection coefficient response

obtained by means of spice equivalent circuit. The proposed

or the input impedance, is used to represent each resonance.

synthesis is clearly seen to allow a satisfactory approximation

The obtained results showed that the equivalent circuit devised

of the antenna input admittance. Agreement between them IS

from the input impedance gives good details about the whole

very good.

studied band (from 2 to 18GHz). In the SPICE-compatible

equivalent circuit and vector fitting technique approach, each

RLC circuit is suggested to represent a complex pole pair. The

model responses using MATLAB and ADS showed good

agreement with those obtained from the CST simulation.

REFERENCES

[1] Z. N. Chen," Antennas for portable devices", John Wiley & Sons Ltd,

2007.

[2] S. B.-T. Wang, "Design of ultra-wideband RF front-end", Ph.D. Thesis,

University of Califomia, Berkeley, 2005.

[3] K.P. Ray ,Y. Ranga and P. Gabhale, "Printed square monopoles

(a) Real part of the admittance. antennas with semicircular base for ultra-wide bandwidth", Electronics

Letters, Vo1.43, No.5, I SI March , 2007.

[4] K.P. Ray and Y. Ranga, "CPW-fed modified rectangular printed

monopole antenna with slot", International Microwave and

Optoelectronics Conference, IEEE MTT-S, 2007, Brazil, PP.79-8J.

[5] K.P. Ray and S. Tiwari, "Ultra wideband printed hexagonal monopole

antennas", lET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol.4, No.4,

2010, PP. 437-445.

[6] V.G. Kasabegoudar and KJ. Vinoy,"Coplanar capacitively coupled

probe fed microstrip antennas for wideband applications", IEEE

Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 58, No.IO, Oct. 2010,

PP.3I31-3I37.

[7] K. H. Sayidmarie, and Y. A. Fadhel, "Design aspects of UWB printed

elliptical monopole antenna with impedance matching", IEEE

(b) Imaginary part of the admittance. Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference, 12-13 Nov. 2012,

Fig.13 Comparison of the admittance of the antenna obtained from; CST UK, pp.I-4.

simulation, the VF technique and SPICE equivalent circuit. [8] Y.Wang, J. Z. Li, and L. X. Ran, "An equivalent circuit modeling

method for ultra-wideband antennas," Progress in Electromagnetics

Figure. 14 compares the frequency-domain responses of the Research, Vol. 82,2008,PP. 433-445.

reflection coefficient, between the results calculated by [9] Khalil H. Sayidmarie, & Likaa S. Yahya, " Modeling of Dual-Band

extracted models and the CST method. Good agreement is also Crescent-Shape Monopole Antenna for WLAN Applications", Int.

seen in broadband frequency range from 2 to 18 GHz. Journal of Electromagnetics and Applications, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2014, PP.

31-39

[10] S. B. Wang, A. Niknejad, and R. Brodersen, "Circuit modeling

methodology for UWB omnidirectional small antennas", IEEE Journal

on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 24, No. 4, Apr. 2006,

PP.87 I-877.

[II] J.-H. Lu, and C.-H., Yeh, "Planar broadband arc-shaped monopole

antenna for UWB System", Proceedings ofiSAP, Nagoya, Japan, 2012,

PP.575-578.

[12] K.P. Ray, S.S. Thakur and R.A. Deshmukh, "Broadbanding a printed

rectangular monopole antenna", IEEEApplied Electromagnetics

Conference(AEMC), 14-16 Dec. 2009, Kolkata, PP.J-4.

[I3] I. Pele, A. Chousseaud and S. Toutain, "Simultaneous modeling of

impedance and radiation pattern antenna for UWB pulse modulation",

IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Tnt. Symposium,VoI.4, 20-25

Jun, 2004, Monterey, CA,USA, PP. 1871-1874.

Fig.14. Comparison of reflection coefficient responses of the antenna2

[14] D. Caratelli, R. Cicchetti, G. Bit-Babik, and A. Faraone, "Circuit model

obtained by means of CST simulation and SPICE equivalent circuit.

and near-field behavior of a novel patch antenna for WWLAN

applications", Microwaves and Optical Technology Letters,Vol. 49, No.

IV. CONCLUSIONS I, Nov.2006, PP. 97-100.

A compact crescent-shaped monopole antenna is proposed

for UWE applications. Accuracies of estimating the monopole

447

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