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A BRIEF SKETCH OF

GREEK CHURCH
HISTORY
BY T H E

REV. CONSTANTINE CALLINICOS, B.D.


Great O cco n o m o s .

TRANSLATED BY

K A T H E R I N E N A T Z IO , B.A., B .L IT T . (OXON.)

W ITH A N IN T R O D U C T IO N BY

T H E M O S T REV. A R C H B IS H O P O F T I I Y A T E I R A ,
G E R M A N O S , D .D .

KG You

LONDON

T H E F A IT H PRESS, L TD.,
22 B U C K I N G H A M STREET, C H A R IN G C R OSS , W .C . 2
MILWAUKEE. U S A.: T H E MOREHOUSE PUBUSHING CO.
l-'irst p u b lis h e d , J u n e , 1931.

M a d e a n d p r i n t e d in G r e a t B r it a in .
CONTENTS.
PART I.
a n c : i i :n t t im e s .

( a . d . 3 3 7 0 0 .)

CHAPTER I.
THE FI!;sT P R E A C H E R S OK T H E GO SP EL.
T h e C h r is ti an C om m u n ity in J e r u s a le m . S tep he n, th e
fir'.t M a r t y r . T h e c o n v e r s io n o f S a u l. T h e j o u r n e y s o f
th e A p o s t l e 1atil. T h e arrest an d m a r t y r d o m o f Iattl.
T h e A p o s t l e P ete r. T h e o t h e r A p o s t le s . T h e A p o s t l e
John.
C H A P T E R II.
The c o n fl ic t hetw een Ch r ist ia n it y and p a g a n is m . 9
P r o g r e s s w ith im p ed im e n ts . P e r s e c u t i o n u n d e r N e r o
a n d D o m i t i a n . P e r se c u ti o n u n d e r T r a j a n . P e r s e c u t i o n
u n d e r H a d r i a n . P e r s e c u ti o n u n d e r M a r c u s A u r e liu s .
P e r s e c u t i o n s u n de r S e p t im iu s S c v c r u s a n d M a x im in .
T h e D e c i a n perse cuti on . P e r s e c u t i o n u n d e r V a le r i a n .
P e r s e c u t i o n tinder D io c le tia n .

CHAPTKR I II .
T H E T R I U M P H OK C H R I S T I A N I T Y O V E R P A G A N I S M . 17
C o n s t a n t i n e the G reat. T h e v i s i o n o f th e C r o ss .
C o n s t a n t i n e as the c h a m p io n o f C h r is tia n it y . T h e s o n s
o f C o n s t a n t i n e the Gr eat. J u li a n th e A p o s t a t e . T h e
s u c c e s s o r s o f Juli an a b o li sh P a g a n i s m . C h r is tia n it y in
A r m e n i a and Iberia. In P e r si a , A r a b ia , India a n d
A b y s s i n i a . C hr is tia nity a n d the n e w p e o p le s o f the W e s t .
CHAPTER IV.
T H E P E R I L S OK H E R E S Y . 25
T h e a t t i t u d e o f the C h u r c h t o w a r d s h e r e t ic s. J u d a ic
h e r e t ic s : Khionitcs , N a z a r c n c s , E l k c s a i t c s a n d C c r in th i-
a n s . G n o s t i c s . M a n ic h a c a n s . A n t i t r in it a r ia n s .
CHAPTER V.
THE FIR ST SIX fKCCM ENICAL SYNODS.
A r i a n i s m . T h e first O e c u m e n ic a l S y n o d . T h e s e c o n d
O e c u m e n ic a l S y n o d . T h e third O e c u m e n ic a l S y n o d .
T h e f o u r t h Oec um e nic al S y n o d . T h e fifth O e c u m e n ic a l
S y n o d . T h e s ix t h O e c u m e n ic a l S y n o d . P c l a g i a n i s m
a nd A u g u s t i n i a n i s m .

iii.
C H A P T E R VI.
TllF. M OST E M IN EN T FATHERS.

T h e A p o s t o l i c F a t h e r s . A p o l o g i s t s . R e p r e s e n ta ti v e s
o f th e S c h o o l s o f A s i a M i n o r a n d A f r i c a . R e p r e s e n ta
t i v e s o f th e A l e x a n d r i a n S c h o o l . O r ig c n . A th an asiu s.
T h e th re e C a p p a d o c i a n s . A r e p r e s e n t a t iv e o f the
S c h o o l o f A n t i o c h : C h r y s o s t o m . O t h e r F a t h e rs .

CHAPTER V II.
C H R IST IA N I . I F E AND W O R S H I P .

T h e m o r a l r e f o r m a t i o n b r o u g h t nlxuit by th e G ospel.
T h e ta r e s a m o n g th e c o r n . T h e C h u r c h s tr e a tm e n t o f
s in n e r s . T h e first h e r m it . T h e s pr ead o f th e m on ast ic
l i f e . P l a c e s o f pu blic w o r s h i p . T h e m o s t im p or tan t
fe a s t - d a y s .

PART II.
M i:n i/i-:v .\i, t im e s .

( a . d . 7 0 0 1 4 5 3 .)

CHAPTER V III.
THE STREAP OF C H R IS T IA N IT Y AMONG THE SLAVS.

S e r b s , C r oats , D a l m a t i a n s , and th e S l a v s in G r e e c e .
T h e M oravians. T h e B u lg a r ia n s T he conversion o f
th e B u lg a r ia n s . T h e R u s s i a n s . T h e c o n v e r s i o n o f th e
R u s s i a n s . T h e B a p tis m o f V l a d i m i r a nd o f h is p e o p le .
V i c i s s i t u d e s o f th e R u s s ia n C hurch.

CHAPTER IX.
IC O N O C L A S T I C A N D O T H E R PIS PlT E S .

L e o th e Isauria n a n d h is p r o g r a m m e o f r e f o r m . T h e
w a r a g a in s t im a g e s . T h e s e v e n t h ( E c u m e n i c a l S y n o d .
O rthod oxy Sunday. T h e P a u lic ia n h e r e t ic s . T h e
B o g o m i l he ret ic s.
C H A P T E R X.
TH E H E C IN N IN G o r T H E GREAT S C H IS M .

C h u r c h g o v e r n m e n t . D u r i n g th e first th r e e c e n t u r i e s
a n d a f t e r C o n s t a n t in e th e G r e a t . T h e five P a t r i a r c h
a t e s . T h e a m b itio n o f th e P o p e s o f R o m e . T h e p r e
t e n s io n o f P o p e N i c h o l a s to k c o m e a r b i t e r o f th e
E a s t . P h o t iu s as th e d e f e n d e r o f the i n d e p e n d e n c e o f
h is i h r o n e . T h e s o - c a l l e d E i g h t h ( E c u m e n i c a l S y n o d
a n d its d e n u n c ia tio n .
C H A PT ER X I.
T H E C O M P L E T I O N OK T H E G R E A T S C H I S M .

M i c h a e l (,'crularius and I.e o I X . T h e C r usa d es.


E m p e r o r s dr iv e n by n e c e s s ity t o f a v o u r reu nio n.
J o h n V I I . P a l a c o l o g u s at Fe r r ara. T h e fa ls e u n io n o f
F l o r e n c e . T h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f th e f a l s e union.

CHAPTER X II.
THE ENSLAVEMENT OK T H E EASTERN CHURCH BY
M OHA M M ED ANISM .
T h e f o u n d e r o f M o h a m m e d a n i s m . T h e H e g ir a . T h e
d o g m a t i c a n d e thic al s y ste m o f M o h a m m e d a n i s m .
I s l a m a s a c o n q u e r in g p o w e r . T h e s u b je c tio n o f th e
P a t r i a r c h a t e s o f J e r u s a le m , A n t i o c h a n d A l e x a n d r i a .
T h e s i e g e o f C o n s ta n t in o p le by M o h a m m e d II. T h e
las t h o u r s o f C o n s ta n t in o p le . T h e s ig n if ica n ce o f th e
fall o f C o n s ta n t in o p le .
C H A P T E R X III.
M K .D I .E V A L L E T T E R S .
C h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f M cd ixval T heology. T heology
d u r i n g th e I co n o c la s tic q u a r r e ls . T h e o l o g y u n d e r th e
M acedonian E m perors; P h o t i u s . A f t e r P h o t iu s .
T h e o l o g y u n d e r th e C o m n c n i a n d y n a s t y . T h e o l o g y
u n d e r th e P a l a c o l o g u e djm ast y.

CHAPTER X IV .
C H R IST IA N LIK E AND W O R S H I P .
T h e c o n d i t i o n o f m o r a ls . T h e r e v e r s e o f th e m e d a l.
T h e progress o f m onasticism . T h e degeneration o f
m o n a s t i c li f e . C h u r c h e s a n d ic o n s . C e r e m o n i e s a n d
S acram ents. Sacred h ym nology.

PART III.
MODERN T IM E S .
( a . d . 1453 1930.)

CHAPTER XV.
T H E N I G H T OK O P P R E S S I O N A N D T H E D A W N O F L I B E R T Y .

T h e C o n q u e r o r s p r o m i s e s to S c h o l a r i u s . T h e C o n
q u e r o r s v i o l a t i o n o f h is p r o m i s e s . A p io u s q u e s t io n
a s k e d by S c l i m I. P c s k e s i , h a r a ts i, c h ild - k id n a p p i n g ,
a nd f o r c e d c o n v e r s i o n t o I sla m . D a w n i n g im p r o v e m e n t
in th e c o n d i t i o n s o f th e s u b je c t r ace . T h e G r e e k
R evolution. H atti S e r if and H a tti H o u m a y io u n .
vi. CONTENTS
Page.
CHAPTER X V I.
T H E I'OUK M d S T A N C I E N T P A T R I A R C H A T E S A N D C Y P R U S . 110
T h e P a t r i a r c h a t e o f C o n s t a n t in o p le . It s s y s t e m o f
g o v e r n m e n t . T h e a r ea o f it s j u r is d ic t i o n . T h e s tr u g g le
o f th e P a t r i a r c h a t e f o r the r e t e n tio n o f its p r iv ile g e s .
T h e Patriarchate o f A le x a n d r ia . T h e P atriarchate o f
A n t i o c h . T h e P a t r i a r c h a t e o f J e r u s a l e m . T h e C hu rch
o f C yp rus.
C H A P T E R X V II.
R U S S I A , (' .R EE C E, SE.RIIIA, RUMANIA AND PUT.C.ARIA. 119
O t h e r O r t h o d o x C h u r c h e s . T h e C h u r c h o f R u s s ia in
m o d e r n tim e s . T h e R u s s ia n C h u r c h o f t o - d a y . T h e
C h u r c h o f ('.recce in m o d e r n t im e s . T h e C h u rc h o f
('.recce to - d a y . T h e C h u r c h o f S e r b ia in m o d e r n ti m es .
T h e C h u r c h o f S e r b ia t o - d a y . T h e C h u r c h o f R u m a n ia
in m o d e r n ti m es . T h e C h u r c h o f R u m a n ia t o - d a y . T h e
C h u r c h o f B u lg a r ia in m o d e r n t im e s . T h e B u lg a r ia n
q u e s tio n .
C H A P T E R X V III.
M O D ER N E R R O R S AND H E R E S IE S . 129
S o m e u n o r t h o d o x d o c t r i n e s in ('.recce : P a p u la k i s and
M acrakis. Acarnan, K aires and P racu les. T h e E duca
tio n a l S o c i e t y . H e r e s i e s in R u s s i a : th e f o l l o w e r s o f
Z a c h a r i a s . T h e M e n o f G o d . T h e S t a r o v c r ts i.
CHAPTER X IX .
T H E R E L A T I O N S OK O R T H O D O X Y W I T H Ro m an CATHOL ICISM
AND PRO TESTA NTISM . 135
P a p i s t att a ck s o n th e E a s t e r n C h u r c h . P a p i s m in
C o n s t a n t i n o p l e : C yr il I .u cnr. P a p i s m in P a l e s t i n e a n d
S y r i a . P a p is m in R u s s ia a n d in le ss d is ta n t c o u n t r ie s .
T h e P a p a l U n i a in G r e e c e t o - d a y . T h e first P r o t e s t a n t
l e tte r . T h e t h e o l o g i a n s o f T u b i n g e n , th e P r o t e s t a n t s o f
P o l a n d , a n d the C o n f e s s i o n o f C yr il I.n ear. P r o t e s t a n t
m issionaries. A nglicans and O rthod ox.
CHAPTER XX.
T! IE-1 L O u I C M . L I T E RA TI' R E. I-?-?
T h e o l o g i c a l l it e r a tu r e a f t e r th e fa ll o f C o n s t a n t in o p le .
S c h o l a r s o f th e f i f te e n th a n d s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s .
S c h o l a r s o f the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . S c h o l a r s o f th e
e i g h t e e n t h c e n tu r y . T h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n tu r y . S c h o l a r s
o f th e n i n e t e e n t h a n d t w e n t i e t h c e n tu r ie s.
CHAPTER X X I.
C H S 1ST I AN L i r e AND W O R S H IP . 152
T h e sin s o f th e e n s l a v e d C h r is tia n s . T h e v i r t u e s o f
th e e n s l a v e d C h r is tia n s . O r t h o d o x m i s s i o n a r i e s a n d
m a r t y r s in m o d e r n l i m e s . T h e H o l y .Mo untain. O t h e r
m o n a s t i c c en tr es . E c c l e s i a s t i c a l A r t . T h e W o r d o f
G o d . P r e s s i n g p r o b le m s to be s o l v e d in th e n e a r f u t u r e .
INTRODUCTION.
T h i s book forms one of the series which was sta rte d
by the H o ly Metropolis of T h y a te ir a with the publica
tion o f the Greek O rth o d o x C atechism . T h is brief
sketch o f Greek Church H isto ry is intended, as th a t
w ork was, mainly for Greek, and, in general, O rth o d o x
(children) who, being born in countries w here th e ir
m o th e r tongue is not spoken, o f necessity have learn t,
and m o re easily understand, the language o f th e ir
co untry o f adoption. But, here again, this book is n ot
intended fo r use exclusively by children learning th e ir
c a te c h ism ; it is hoped it will be of interest also to
adult O rthodox, who desire to have a brief but reliable
account of the evolution o f the O rth o d o x C h u rc h
throu ghout the centuries o f the Christian E r a .
F u rthe rm ore , although th e re now exist som e
works in English dealing in a general w ay w ith
the O rth o d o x Church, w e th ink th a t this is
the first time that a sho rt h isto ry o f the O r th o d o x
Church, the work of a G reek O rth o d o x , has come into
the h ands of English r e a d e r s ; a w ork, th a t is, th a t
touches upon all the periods o f its history, and, above
all, th e latest period, which, f o r th e m ost part, has n o t
been studied by the n on-O rthodox . T h e close relations,
which, o f late especially, have developed between th e
two Churches, the O rth o d o x a n d th e Anglican, an d th e
recent contact established betw een them a t the L a m
beth Conference, ren d e r the contents o f a book dealing
with the fortunes o f the O r th o d o x C hu rch interesting
and timely.
T h e compiling of this w o rk w as entrusted by the
Holy Metropolis of T h y a te ira to the V ica r o f the
G reek Church in M anchester, th e Rev. Constantine
Callinicos, the au th o r o f m a n y notable religious an d
theological writings, who, on the recent publication o f
vii.
viii. INTRODUCTION
a n im portant C om m en tary on the Psalm s, received
a signal honour at the h an d s of the Oecumenical
P a tria rc h a te which bestow ed on him the title, of
r a re distinction in the O rt h o d o x C hurch, of Great
O economos of the G re at Church. T h e Rev.
Callinicos has fulfilled the task entrusted to him
with great s k il l; not only has he refrained from
dwelling upon questions w hich, while included in the
life and history o f the C h u rch , have no immediate
relation to its essential n a t u r e ; he has also refused
merely to collate m aterial which is easily obtainable
in the historical w ritings o f o th e r Churches. His deep-
rooted love for, and devotion to, the O rth o d o x Church,
his insistence on historical tr u th and accuracy, and,
finally, the polished style o f writing, are characteristic
o f the a u th o r s present w o rk , as o f all his works.
T h e translation into E nglish has been zealously
carried out by Miss N a tz io ; the fact that this lady was
born and bred in E ngland, a n d had a successful career
at an English U niv ersity ( P . A . and B.Litt. O x fo r d ) ,
is, in itself, a g u a ra n te e o f the translating accuracy
an d perfection.
T o both the a u th o r and the translator, therefore,
w e express our w arm est tha n ks and give o u r blessing.
It is o u r earnest hope th a t this book, in fulfilling the
pu rp o se with which it w as w ritten, may help to m ake
the O rth o d o x C hurch m ore widely known, a C hurch
which, in the past, w ate red the tree of C hristianity,
w h en first it was planted on this earth, with the blood
o f its m artyrs, an d even to-day has m a rty rs to show
in its struggle against the p o w ers which plot against
its very existence.
* T hk M e t r o p o l it a n of T h y a t k ir a , G erm a n o s .

L ondon , Palm S unday, 1931.


PART I.
ANCIENT TIMES.
(A.D. 33-7 0 0 .)
CHAPTER I.
THi: FIRST PREACHERS OF TUI- GOSPEL.

Tin-: C h r i s t i a n C o m m u n i t y i n J e r u s a l e m . The
liistory o f the Church begins on the day of Pentecost,
w hich f o r this reason has been called the C h u r c h s
b irthda y. O n that day, in the presence of a h u n d r e d
a n d tw en ty people, the Holy Spirit descended upon the
Disciples, and they began to speak in divers tongues,
so th a t Je w s from far and wide, w ho were dwelling in
Je ru sa le m , were am azed at the sudden tra n sfo rm a tio n
o f the men who only yesterday had been simple fisher
m en. But the apostle Peter, rising in the m idst of
them , explained that this tran sform atio n was due to
J e su s the Nazarene, who though crucified by the Jew s,
had risen again by the pow er of God. A nd on th a t
very day three thousand souls flocked to the new faith.
A few days later, as P e te r and Jo h n were on th e ir w ay
to the temple to pray, a lame begg ar lying by the temple
gate asked them for alms. Silver and gold have I
non e, said P e t e r ; but such as I have give I t h e e ;
in the nam e of Jesus C hrist o f N azareth, rise up an d
w alk. T h e lame man was healed, and Peter, holding
him by the hand, showed him to the astonished crow ds
w ho thronged to see the miracle, as a testimony o f the
pow er of Christ. A n d the th ree thousand believers
thereupo n became five thousand.

S teph en , the fir s t M artyr. T h u s the first


followers of the Crucified C hrist increased in nu m b e rs
by leaps and bounds, and form ed the first Christian
com m unity in Jerusalem . Bound together by ties of
m utual love, such as had n ev er before been seen, they
ate at common tables, and u n d e r the general super-
3
100 GREEK CliURCII HISTORY
transm itted to his successors a written record of the
eight musical m ode s on which the various church
hymns w ere chanted. H e then went on to compose
his O ktocchus, w hich contains poems divided accord
ing to the tu n c to w hich they are to be sung. It may
here be noted th a t the hymnology of the Eastern
Church has n e v e r m a d e use of the organ, although the
organ was a G re ek invention, m uch used at the
H ippodrom e and in the palaces o f Byzantium, and
introduced thence into the W est during the reign of
Constantine C opronym us.
PART III.
MODERN TIMES.
(A.D. 14531930.)

s
CHAPTER XV.
THE NIGHT o r OPPRESSION AND THE DAWN OP LIBERTY.

T h e C onquerors p r o m is e s to S c h o l a r iu s . O n the
day of the fall of C onstantinople, its conqueror,
M oham m ed I I . (1430 1481) acted tow ards the C hris
tians like a blood-thirsty t i g e r ; la ter, however, he
changed his attitude, an d began to cajole them w ith
promises. Some say th a t he h oped thereby to retain
within his E m p ire the in dustrio us w o rk e rs w ho w ould
provide him with the necessary ta x e s ; others think
th a t he wished to isolate th e m completely f ro m
E u ro p e a n in fluence; an d others, again, take the m o re
probable view th a t he w as sim ply complying w ith
ce rtain injunctions in the K o r a n , which perm itted a
m e a s u r e of self-governm ent to m em bers of m onotheist
com m unities, provided th a t they paid a trib u ta ry tax.
H a v in g learnt, the re fore, th a t th e patriarchal th ro n e
w a s vacant, he ordered th a t a suitable man should be
elected to i t ; and w hen the learned G ennadius
S c h o la riu s w as chosen and appe ared before him , the
C o n q u e r o r received him favourably, clothed him with
a p rec ious cope, p ut a pastoral staff into his hand, an d
p r e s e n te d him with a thou sa n d florins and a white
h o r se . Rule yo ur flock in peace, he said, " and enjoy
o u r f r ie n d s h ip ; and keep all the privileges o f y o u r
p r e d e c e s so rs . T h e n c e fo rth , according to the clear
o r d e r s o f M oham m ed II., the O rth o d o x P atria rc h
w a s to continue in his duties with his a ttend a nt
clerics, unm olested an d exempt fro m tax es; he was left
in possession o f the Christian churches, allowed to p e r
f o r m freely all the ceremonies of Christian w orship,
a n d expected at the same tim e to supervise the domestic
a f f a ir s o f his people. T h e sam e privileges w ere ac-
103
104 GREEK CHURCH HISTORY
corded by th e C o n q u e ro r to th e O r t h o d o x Patriarch of
J e ru sa le m in 1455, w h e n h e recognised an d confirmed
the rig h ts o f th e G re ek race o v e r th e H oly Shrines.

T h e C o n q u ero r' s v io l a t io n o f i i i s p r o m ises.


U n fo r tu n a te ly , h o w ev er, the fanaticism , with which the
M o h a m m e d an ru le rs w ere im bued, m a d e it impossible
for th e m to r esp e ct prom ises fo rc ed fro m them by
necessity a n d p r u d e n t cunning. T h e Conqueror him
self, w ho s h o rtly b efo re h a d recognised the Christian
churches as places o f w o rsh ip f o r his C hristian subjects
(with the exception o f S a in t Sophia, which he had
ap p ro p riated f ro m the beginning) rapidly changed his
mind, a n d t r a n s f o r m e d tw elve o f the most beautiful
o f them into M o h a m m e d a n m osques. W hen, more
over, a f t e r a v e r y sh o rt time, G cnn a dius retired from
the P a tria rc h a te , M o h a m m e d , f o rg e ttin g his promises
o f exemption f ro m tribute, exacted at each new p atri
archal election a su m o f m oney kn ow n as peskcsi,
which g r e w eve r la rg e r at each subsequent election;
so that, w h e re a s a t first it h ad a m ounted to one
thousand gold pieces, it had risen to tw o thousand five
hundred by 1475 at the election o f the Patriarch
Raphael, w ho, n o t being able to collect this great sum,
was deposed an d sent in fetters into the streets to seek
charity from the passers-by. F o r even against the
person o f the P a tr ia rc h M o h a m m e d s violence knew no
b o u n d s ; w itness, a m o n g o the r examples, his l>chaviour
tow ards the P a tr ia rc h Joa sap h (1464 1466) whom he
insulted by cu tting o il his beard because he had refused
to confirm, a n illegal m arriage, while at the sam e time
he cut oft the nose o f the P a tria rc h 's first chaplain.
T h e C o nque ror also systematically organised that
abominable system o f child-kidnapping, which owed its
origin to S u ltan O r c h a n in the y c3 r 132S. E v e ry
fourth y e a r T u rk is h officers m arched th rough the
provinces, and fro m one Christian family in every ten
chose a child not m o re tha n seven yea rs old, w hom
they carried a w a y to Constantinople, educated to
THE NIGHT OE OPPRESSION 105

Mohammedan fanaticism in a n institution specially


created f o r the purpose, a n d th e n placed in the fe a r
some military regiment o f the Janizaries. T h u s, fro m
Christian flesh and blood w ere w ro u g h t Christianitys
most deadly foes, w ho tu r n e d th e ir swords against
their o w n fathers and brothers.

A r i o t ' s q u e s t i o n a s k e d b y S e l i m I. All the suc


cessors o f M oham m ed the C onq ue ror equalled h im in
ferocity, an d some, indeed, surpassed him. Selim I.
(1512 1530) submitted to the m u fti the question
whether it w ere m o re profitable to his soul to brin g
the w hole world into subjection, or to convert his
E m pire wholly to Islam . W h e n h e w as told th a t th e
latter achievem ent would be m o re acceptable to Allah,
he instigated a fierce persecution against his C hristian
subjects, com m anding his G ra n d V izier to tu rn all th e
churches th a t had been spared by the Conqueror into
mosques, an d to kill all Christians who would n o t
change th e ir faith. B ut the G ra n d Vizier, w ho w as
fo rtu na te ly o f a m ilder disposition than his ruler,
secretly com m unicated the S u lta n s decree to the P a tr i
arch T h co lep tu s, w ho presented himself before th e
Divan, bringing as witnesses th ree aged Janizaries,
w ho h a d been present at the fall of Constantinople,
appealed to the privileges promised by the Conqueror,
an d th u s m anaged to restrain the fanatical rage of the
ty r a n t fro m fulfilling his most violent threats. H e was
not, h o w e v e r, able to save all the churches; for such
b ea u tifu l an d stately buildings, said the S u lta n s
counsellors, should not be used for the w orship of
idols. A m o n g the few churches th a t escaped a t th a t
tim e w as th a t of the P am m akaristos, to which the
P a tr ia r c h a te was tr a n s f e rr e d , a f te r the destruction of
the c h u r c h of the Holy Apostles, which had succeeded
S a in t S ophia. P.ut in 1586 th e church of the P a m
m a k a r is to s . too, was seized by the ferocious hordes of
M u r a d I I I . an d tu rn ed into a m osque; and a f te r
r e m o v in g from place to place, the O rthodox P a t r i
II
106 GREEK CHURCH HISTORY
arc h a te a t la s t settled in the y e a r 1600 at the church
o f St. G e o rg e in th e district of P hanari, where it has
rem a in ed u n til th is day.

P e s k e s i, iia r a t s i, c h il d -k id n a p p in g and forced


c o n v e r s io n TO I slam . T h e sufferings of the Church
u n d e r T u r k i s h r u le w ere no t confined merely to the
loss o f th e places o f worship. T h e peskesi levied
at each p a t r i a r c h a l election still continued to grow,
even a t ta i n in g th e sum o f 4,600 gold coins; and since
f re q u en t c h a n g e s o f P a tria rc h meant to Turkish
voracity m o r e fre q u e n t paym ent of the " peskesi,
forcible c h a n g e s becam e so num erous that during a
single p e rio d o f e ig hty years (1620 1702) no fewer
than fifty P a t r i a r c h s ascended an d descended the steps
o f the P a t r i a r c h a l throne. F o r w hat value, in the
S u lta n s eyes, could be attached to a head of the Greek
nation w h o se v e r y life was constantly in jeopardy?
M u r a d I V ., in 1638, h ad the Patriarch, Cyril Lucar,
d row ned in th e Bosphorus. Mohammed IV., in the
years 1651 a n d 1657 respectively, caused the Patriarchs
P a r th e n iu s I I . a n d P arth en iu s III. to be hanged.
W h a te v e r h a p p e n e d in the capital had its echo in the
provinces. A tr i b u t e o f money was exacted by the
rulers a t th e a p p o in tm e n t o f every Metropolitan, just
as it w as a t e v e r y P a tria rc h a l election, and the life of
a bishop w as n o m o r e safe than that of a Patriarch.
M eanwhile, th e h a r a ts i, o r capital tax, which cvcrv
C hristian s u b je c t h a d to pay fo r the privilege of
bearing his h e a d on his shoulders, also increased.
Child-kidnapping, th a t h u n g ry Minotaur, grew more
f r e q u e n t ; no t e v e r y fo u rth year, as in the time of the
Conqueror, b u t e v e r y y e a r the children were now col
lected, a n d no t u n d e r seven, but u nd er fifteen years of
age. T h e r e w e r e o rgies o f forced conversions to Islam
at the expense o f th e subject Christians. According to
Mcletius P cgns, in E g y p t alone th irty thousand Giris-
tians had th e ir to n g u e s cut out, so that the parents
m ight not tr a n s m it th e Christian faith to their children.
THE NIGHT OF OPPRESSION 107

A nd according to Montealbani, w h o travelled th ro u g h


Albania in 1625, there w as n o t on e o f the rem aining
Christians whose son o r b r o th e r o r some other relation
had not turned M ohammedan. I n 1620 the n u m b e r o f
Christians in Albania was 350,000. B y 1650, they had
been reduced to 50,000, th a t is, to one-seventh o f th e ir
fo rm e r number.
D a w n in g im pr o v e m e n t i n the c o n d it io n s oe t h e
su b je c t race. M ore tolerable days began to d a w n f o r
the Christian subjects in T u r k e y , fro m the m o m e n t
th a t P ete r the G reat (1682 1725), E m p e ro r o f th e
fre e and O rthodox country o f R u ssia, began, in p u r
suance of a definite policy w hose u ltim ate aim w a s th e
rem oval of the Russian capital to Constantinople, to
ta k e under his protection th o se Christians w ho w ere
groanin g beneath the foreign yoke. T h is policy w a s
followed, a f te r P ete r th e G re a t, by all his successors,
a n d among others by C a th e rin e I I ., w h o indeed incited
th e Greeks by m any promises to rebel against the T u r k s
in 1770, only to abandon th e m a f te rw a rd s to th e l a tte r s
av enging sword. R ussias r ig h t o f intervention on
b e h a lf of the Christians in T u r k e y w as a t all events
recognised by the E u ro p e a n P o w e rs, w ho confirmed
th is right in 1774 by th e T r e a t y o f K ainartzik. A p a r t
f r o m the self-seeking inte rest ta k en in the oppressed
C hristian s by Russia, which w a s a n im portan t fa c to r in
t h e improvement o f th e ir position, the P h an ario tes
themselves also contributed to w a r d s this result. T h e se
m e n w ere Greeks who lived in th e district o f P h a n a r i,
w h e r e the P a tria rc h a te h a d eventually settled, a n d
w h o , distinguished by th e ir intelligence, politeness,
E u ro p e a n culture, an d know ledge o f languages, w ere
o f te n raised by th e Sultan to high positions, such as
th a t of secretary, in te rp re ter, p rivy counsellor, o r even
g o v e rn o r of one o f the T u r k i s h provinces o f W a la ch ia
a n d Moldavia. T h u s, to t h e best o f their ability, they
fo u n d opportunities to influence the Sultans, a n d to
intercede with them on b e h a lf o f their less f o rtu n a te
fellow-Grccks and Christians.
108 GREEK CHURCH HISTORY
T h e G r e e k R e v o l u t i o n . O n the 25th March, 1S21,
in th e H a g ia L a u r a , the A rchbishop o f Old Patras.
G erm anu s, raised the b anner o f rebellion against the
T u rk s , b ea rin g the motto o f F reedom o r Death, and
the w hole o f th e Greek mainland, with the Pelopon
nesus a n d the /E g c a n Islands, rose up to an unequal
struggle. T h is event, which touched the hearts of
sensitive people in the W est, correspondingly enraged
the S ultan , w ho sw ore revenge against the revolution
aries. T h e first victim o f his rage was the cultured
and ascetic P a tr ia rc h o f Constantinople, Gregory \ .,
who, on A pril 22nd, E a s te r Day o f that same year,
was hanged fro m the gates o f the Patriarchate, and
whose dead body, a f te r having been dragged through
the streets o f Constantinople by the crowd, was finally
llung into the sea. A f t e r him, the Metropolitans of
Ephesus, Chalccdon, Dcrki, Salonica an d Adriancple.
were all put to death in a sim ilar m a n n e r in various
parts o f the S even-H illed City. T h e G reat Logothctc.
Stephen M avrogcncs, was beheaded, and the Grand
I n te rp re te r o f the Fleet, Nicholas Mourouzes. was
butchered with his brother. Not only in Constantinople,
but in A drianople, Larissa, Cyprus, C rete and other
places as well, the blood o f m a n y venerable bishops
was shed, sometimes even upon the holy altar. Put
a f te r seven years o f war, the little country o f Greece
achieved her independence.

H v n rr S e r i f a n d H v m H o t u w to tw . T h e e s t a S
lishment o f a kingdom in independent G reece bv the
Protocol o f London in ISaO, an d the -in:u!tanc u>
proclamation o f the scmi-indcpcndrnce o f Serbia an i
Montenegro, w ere followed in 1SoO hy T u r k c v s r u h -
lication o f the document known a< " H a tti S e r i f .
THE NIGHT OF OPPRESSION 109
lig io u s and civil equality, abolished the taxation o f
P a t r i a r c h s and bishops, rem oved all restrictions on the
b u ild in g o f C hristian c h u rc h e s a n d schools, recom
m e n d e d the setting u p of com m ittees consisting of both
clerical and lay mem bers to e x a m in e m atters not strictly
ecclesiastical in scope, and pro v id ed for the establish
m e n t o f mixed tribunals on w hich members o f o tb e r
religions might sit toge ther w ith M oham m edans. B ut
t h a t all this was a m e re pretence adopted by th e T u r k
t o deceive the W e ste rn P ow e rs, w hose frequent in te r
v e n tio n he bitterly resented, no urishing as he docs an
im placable hatred against all Christians, was clearly
p r o v e d by the periodical an d methodical attem pts to
e x te r m in a te all the followers o f the Gospel which he
n e v e r ceased to organise. I n 1860, the m assacre o f
D r u s e s in Lebanon and D am a sc us claimed th ousands
o f victims. In 1876, 1885 a n d 1896 h u n d red s o f
th o u s a n d s o f A rm enian s w e re massacred in C on stan
tin o p le and in oth e r p arts o f th e O ttom an E m p ir e ;
a n d in the coastal and interior districts of A sia M inor,
in 1922, the slaughter of A rm e n ia n s and of the native
G re e k s, who had been established there since H o m eric
tim e s , am ounted to millions. H ow ev er that m ay be,
t h e O rth o d o x Christian peoples o f Greece, Serbia,
R u m a n ia , Bulgaria, A lbania a n d the islands o f the
M e d ite rran e an , who for centuries were torm ented
u n d e r the T urkish yoke, a r e n ow enjoying the g re a t
g i f t of fre ed o m ; an d f o r th a t, at least, o u r th a n k s
a r e due to God.
CHAPTER XVI.
T i n : FOUR MOST ANCIENT VATRIAUniATES ANT) CYI'RCS.

T iik P a t r i a r c h a t e o f C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . T h e P a tr i
archate of Constantinople, which h ad fo rm erly owed
its superiority over th e other P a tria rc h a te s m erely to
the historical significance of the city itself, assum ed
a much g re a te r im portance a f te r the fall o f C o n s tan
tinople, because o f the ecclesiastical an d civil privileges
accorded to it by th e T u rk s. H o w e v e r f a r practice
m ight lag behind, in the o ry and in principle the P a tr i
arch of Constantinople had the right to re su m e in his
ow n person an d re p re se n t before the D ivan th e whole
O rth o d o x race, w hose national leader he w as held to
b e ; to w atch o v er th e ir spiritual life ; to look a f te r
their churches a n d m o n a s te rie s ; to settle family dis
putes am ong his fiock; to confirm wills, a n d to grant
divorces. M o reo v e r, since the oth e r th ree P atria rc hal
T h ro n e s o f the E a s t w ere situated f a r fro m the
S u lta n s capital a n d w ere themselves in a v ery sorry
state, the P a tr ia r c h o f Constantinople not infrequently
took up the d efence o f their interests also b e fo re the
Sublime P o rte , not from a despotic wish to tram ple on
their liberties, but fro m a brotherly sp irit o f concern
f o r his w e a k e r b rethren. T h e h alf civil, h a l f ecclesi
astical functions o f the (Ecumenical P a tr ia rc h w ere
indicated even by his vestments, which w e re sim ilar to
those of th e B yzantine E m p erors, an d by the two-
headed eagle depicted on his encolpion a n d on his
seal.

T he system of governm ent. D u rin g the first


three centuries a f t e r the fall o f C o nstantinople, the
P a tria rc h had th e co-operation o f tw o a d m in istra tiv e
bodies; nam ely, th e " Holy Synod," w hich w as com-
110
TH E ANCIENT PATRIARCHATES 111
p o se d o f bishops .ind deliberated over the most
im p o rta n t affairs, and the Ecclesiastical Council,"
w hich consisted of office-bearers, and dealt w ith less
w eig h ty matters, l ut in 1763, d u ring the p a triarch a te
o f Samuel I., this system o f C hurch governm ent w as
replaced by the senatorial system, known as " G eron t-
ism os. T w elve bishops, th a t is to say, chosen from
th e places nearest to Constantinople, w ere continuously
in attendance on the P a tr ia rc h , perm anently assisting
h im in the work o f governm ent, and representing all
t h e i r fellow-bishops. I 'r o m one point o f view, this
system w as a good one, because, through long e xp e ri
ence and frequent contact w ith the rulers, it trained a
g r o u p of men to knowledge of the dangers su rro u n d in g
th e m and un derstanding o f the methods by which such
d an g e rs might be averted. I t had, however, the g rea t
disadvantag e th a t in th e course o f time th e rule o f
th e se " elders became a rb itra ry , since all au th o rity
w a s centred in their hands. A hun dred years a f t e r its
institution, therefore, the system o f Gerontism os was
abolished, and a new ad m inistrative system, b etter
suited to m o d e m requirem ents, was introduced by the
" G eneral Regulations d r a w n up in 1862. By these
regulations, the affairs o f th e P a tria rc h a te w e re
divided into the purely spiritual, o r those that con
ce rn faith an d morals, a n d the m aterial, which deal
w ith the supervision o f schools, the control o f bills,
th e property o f m onasteries, the settlement o f wills,
a n d other kindred m atters. T h e care o f th e fo rm e r
w as entrusted to th e H o ly Sy nod, which was com
posed o f twelve bishops o f th e (Ecumenical T h ro n e ,
elected in rotation, an d w as so constituted th a t its
m em bers w ere constantly being renewed, all the bishops
in tu rn taking p a r t in th e ad m in istra tio n ; while to
deal with the la tte r a M ix e d Council w as created,
on which f o u r m em bers o f the H oly Synod sat
together w ith eight em inen t laymen, duly elected by
the people.
Tug area of ju r is d ic t io n . I t was particularly
112 GREEK CHURCH HISTORY
during the eighteenth century that the a r e a subject to
the jurisdiction o f the (Ecumenical P atriarchate
reached its widest extent. At that tim e th e re were
dependent upon it about one h u n d red a n d fifty Arch
bishops, Metropolitans and bishops, w ho had their
sees in T hrace, Macedonia, E p irus, Albania, Greece,
the /Kgcan and Ionian Islands, M ontenegro, Serbia,
Bulgaria, Moldavia an d W alachia, H u n g a r y , and the
region called " Little Russia, which m a rke d the limit
o f the P a tria rc h 's a u th o rity ; f o r although the
Metropolis of Moscow had been prom oted to the rank
of an independent an d self-sufficing R ussian Ecclesi
astical Centre in th e sixteenth century, Kiev, the A rch
bishopric o f Little Russia, still continued to acknow
ledge the P atria rc h o f Constantinople as its spiritual
head. T h e desp erate circumstances contributed towards
the extension o f the P atria rc h's sphere o f authority.
Bulgarians, Serbs, Ylachs, Albanians an d oth e r peoples
w ere being crushed by the all-powerful T u r k , and
needed protection if they were to save at least their
f a i t h ; and w hat o th e r refuge had they but the
(Ecumenical P a tr ia rc h a te ? T h us, in 1766 a n d 1767,
u nder the previously mentioned P atria rc h Samuel, the
Archbishoprics of Ipek and O chrida, which w ere at that
tim e the ecclesiastical centres o f the G iu r c h e s o f Serbia
and Bulgaria respectively, came spontaneously to the
(Ecumenical P a tr ia rc h , requesting him to take them
u n d e r his authority. Such was the vast extent of the
P atria rc h ate o f Constantinople d u rin g th e eighteenth
century. But the jmlitical independence, which from
the beginning of the nineteenth ce ntury o n w a rd s began
to be enjoyed by Greece, Serbia, R u m an ia . Bulgaria,
and, lastly, Albania, also resulted in the emancipation
o f these countries from the ecclesiastical a u th o rity of
the P atria rc hate . Consequently, an d particularly
a f t e r th e wholesale eradication of C hristianity by the
Kcmalists from th e land o f the " S e v e n S ta r s o f the
AjKJcalypse, the l>oundaries o f this P a tria rc h a te , first
in rank and in a u th ority, have been signally reduced.
THE ANCIENT PATRIARCHATES 113
T h i: struggle of th e P a t r ia r c h a t e for t h e r e t e n
t io n of it s pr iv il e g e s. D u rin g recent years, all th e
efforts o f the P a tria rc h ate of Constantinople have been
d irec ted tow ards the retention of those privileges
w h ich w ere the only g u a ra n te e o f its continued exist
ence u n d e r rulers of a n o th e r faith, and which, though
recognised by the T u rk s from the beginning in ac co rd
an c e w ith the teaching o f the K o ra n , had never ceased
to be the object of th e ir treacherous attack. U n d e r
S u lta n H am id, th a t g rea t enemy and b utc h er o f the
C hristians, these attem p ts on the liberties o f the
P a tr ia rc h a te reached their most formidable dimensions,
a n d it was in his reign, in the y e a r 1883, th a t the
fam ous question o f the privileges began. G ifted
P a tria rc h s, such as Joachim I II ., Joachim IV . a n d
Dionysius V., exhausted th e ir precious energies in
defence o f these privileges. Sometimes, indeed, th e ir
valiant resistance succeeded in stem m ing the tide o f
T u r k i s h violence, as w hen, for instance, in 1891,
D ionysius V. proclaimed a sta te o f persecution in th e
C h u rch and closed the churches until the P o rte s u r
r e n d e r e d ; but the T u rk i s h policy of eradicating th e
C h ristian element from th e ir E m p ire was n e v e r
ab andon ed either u n d e r the despotic rule o f H am id, o r
by the pseudo-constitutional N ew T u r k rulers w ho
succeeded him, until finally K emal, finding C hristian
E u ro p e in a state o f exhaustion as a result o f the recent
g re a t w ar, took a dva nta ge o f the opportunity to c a rry
o u t the old policy in all its unparalleled ferocity.

T h e P a t r i a r c h a t e o f A l e x a n d r i a . N e x t in rank-
a f t e r the P a tria rc h a te o f Constantinople comes th a t o f
A lexandria, which was m ost illustrious d u rin g the first
few centuries o f Christianity, but declined so miserably
a f t e r the Monophysitc troubles and the ap p e aran c e o f
M oham m edanism th a t a t th e beginning of the seven
teenth century its churches num bered only three.
Almost the only occupation o f its P atriarchs, w ho had
th e ir seat in C airo w henever they w ere not forced to
114 GREEK CHURCH HISTORY
seek shelter u n d e r the protecting wing o f the P a tria rc h
of Constantinople, was to beg for the financial support
necessary to buttress the P atria rc h ate again st the twin
dangers of M oham m edanism and heresy. T h u s , when
Cyril L u c a r was P atria rc h of A lexa n dria, h e sent out
his E ogothete M axim us in 1608 to beg for material
aid from all O rth o d o x C hristians everyw here. T he
P atriarch Sam uel Capasulcs addressed him self in 1712
to Queen A n n e of E ngland, a n d in 1717 to the
E m p e ro r P e te r the G re at o f Russia. Similarly, in
176.5 the P a tr ia rc h M a tth e w implored the aid of the
Em press C atherine II. o f Russia and o f h e r son P a u l;
for when he becam e P atria rc h o f A lexandria, he
found the C hurch in great d isorder both within and
w ith o u t; the churches dilapidated, the po o r distressed
and unvisited, the T h r o n e deeply in debt, the Q iristia n s
unshepherded and hesitating in th e ir faith, the lambs
pasturing side by side with goats an d wolves, so that
the la tter o fte n seized upon the fo rm er, an d the priests
living a careless life. Fortunately, from the days of
Mehmct Ali P ash a ( IS 0 6 IS4S) o n w ards, conditions
began to improve. G reek m erchants began to go down
into E gypt, and vigorous G reek com m unities were
founded in A lex a ndria, Cairo, P o r t Said, Suez, and
elsewhere. B rig h te r days thus d aw n e d fo r this
Church, especially a f t e r it had come u n d e r the energetic
rule of P a tria rc h s such as Sophronius (1870 1899).
Photius (1900 1925), an d Mcletius M etaxakis (1926
to-day), u n d e r w hom the debts o f the P atria rc h ate
w ere liquidated, churches w ere built, schools m ulti
plied, charitable organisations w ere developed, and
new life w as in fused into O rth o d o x y in A fric a. T o
day the seat o f the P a tria rc h a te is in A lexandria,
w here a r o u n d the P a tria rc h assembles his Synod,
composed o f seven M etropolitans. T h e P a tr ia rc h a te
embraces o v e r eighty churches, the m a jo rity o f which
a r e in E gypt, while others a rc scattered in X ubia,
Abyssinia, T u n is an d the T ransvaal. Concrete evidence
o f its ab u n d a n t vitality is provided by its scientific
TH E ANCIENT PATRIARCHATES 115
review s, its brilliant preachers, its printing press, its
se m in a ry , its orphanages, schools, and other p hila n
th ro p ic institutions.

T h e P a t r i a r c h a t e o e A n t i o c h . T h e P a tr ia rc h a te
o f A ntioch, too, had to w e a th e r m any storms. A f t e r
its once flourishing O r th o d o x y had suffered sorely
fro m the Monophysitc heresy d uring the sixth century,
a f t e r it had been subdued by the M o ham m edan in
v ad e rs in the seventh century, it was fated to en d u re
yet f u r th e r evils at the h an d s o f the Papists, w hom the
C ru s a d e r s established in S yria, when they had evicted
the O rth o d o x clergy. W h e n the Papists w ere driven
out by the Mamcluks in 1268, the O rth o d o x clergy
w e r e restored to their positions; but fro m 1700
o n w a rd s, Rom an Catholic p ropaganda reappeared in
S yria , m ore vigorous and better organised than before,
a n d by means o f its schools, universities, m onastic
o rd ers, and influential political protectors, continued to
c a r r y on its w ork o f conversion. T h e spread o f the
U n ia in the T h ro n e o f A ntioch was also assisted by
certain latinising prelates, such as Cyril I I I ., who
u su rp e d the P atria rc h ate in 1724, and whose activities
w e r e combated with apostolic zeal by his law ful rival
S ilvester (1724 1766) b y m eans of rounds o f visits,
encyclical letters, serm ons, w ritten works and schools.
Silvester's struggle in defe n ce o f O rth o d o x y w as con
tinued by his successors, Daniel (d. 1791), A n th em iu s
(d. 1813), S eraphim (d. 1823) and Methodius (d.1850).
A f t e r th e Papists, the P ro te sta n ts bore do w n upon
this u n f o rtu n a te P a tr ia r c h a te ; an d a f te r the P r o te s
tants, the Russian P an-Slavists who, disguising th e ir
political aims u n d e r th e m ask o f a defence o f
O rthodo xy, began to sow dissension between the
O rth o d o x S yrians an d th e ir G reek pastors. T h u s
incited, the A rabic-speaking Syrians dismissed their
G reek-speaking M e tr o p o l ita n s ; and, disregarding alike
the rules o f Canon L a w a n d the protests o f th e th ree
o th e r P atria rc h ate s, they elected as P a tr ia rc h o f
116 GREEK CIIURCII HISTORY
Antioch Mclctius (1899 1906), w h o com pleted the
arabisation o f the C hurch o f which J o h n C hrysostom
and Jo hn of Dam ascus had been the b rig h te st o rn a
ments. T h e O rth o d o x Christians o f S y ria a r e not,
however, at bottom inimical to the G r e e k s ; and the
cessation of P an-Slavist propaganda am o ng them was
sufficient to restore th e m to more b rotherly feelings.
T o-day this P a tr ia rc h a te has its seat at Damascus,
w hither it was rem oved in 1269, an d em braces alxnit
twelve Metropolitans.

T h e P a t r i a r c h a t e o f J e r u s a l e m . T h e P atria rc h ate
of Jerusalem , whose seat is, and always has been, at
Jerusalem , has the distinctive characteristic o f having
always constituted a m onastic B rotherhood, with the
P atriarch as its abl>ot, a n d with the special vocation of
tending and g u ard in g the Sacred S hrine s o f the Holy
Land. T h e P a tr ia rc h is assisted in his w ork by the
Holy Synod, consisting o f twelve titu la r bishops and
seven A rch im and rites. T h e life o f this P atria rc h ate
has been an incessant struggle for the m a intenance of
its privileged position against m ore p o w erfu l and
m ore num erous rivals. T h e Brotherhood o f Jerusalem
can trace its rights o v e r the Sacred S hrine s right back
to the tim e of C onstantine the Great, w hen the Shrines
w ere first established ; a n d it can also claim as fu rth e r
p ro o f the recognition an d confirmation o f these rights
by the Caliph O m a r in the seventh century. But from
the times o f the C ru sa d es onw ards, the R o m an C hurch,
too, began to lay claim to rights over the S h r in e s ; anil
in the reign o f S u lta n Selim I. (1512 1520) Ixath she
an d others contrived, by means of large paym ents to
the T u rk s and th e support o f po w erfu l p rotectors,
surreptitiously to a c q u ire certain privileges, although
o u r Church still rem a in s in possession of th e greatest
number. A s though foreign enemies w ere not enough,
th e re ap peared in 1885 the R ussian P alestinian
Society, with the ostensible aim o f founding churches,
schools, hostels a n d bishops palaces, a n d th u s raising
THE ANCIENT PATRIARCHATES 117
th e position and reputation o f O rthodoxy, but w ith the
secret intention of accomplishing the R ussianisation of
Palestine. Rut the B rotherho od o f the Holy S epulchre
co ntinued nevertheless to p e rfo rm its duties an d to
re ta in its coveted position. T h e m aintenance and
a d o r n m e n t of the Sacred S hrines for c e n tu r ie s ; the
r e g u la r distribution o f alms to the indigent n a tiv e s ;
th e upkeep of schools, hospitals, hostels an d prin tin g
p re s s e s ; the rebuilding in 1810 of the C hu rch o f the
R esurrection which h ad been burnt d o w n ; the m a in
tenance o f the excellent " Theological School o f the
C r o s s during its long y e a rs o f valuable se rv ic e ; all
this, an d m any oth e r unavoidable expenses bu rd en e d
the Brotherhood o f the H o ly Sepulchre w ith almost
overw helm ing debts, although the Greek people never
failed to send its contributions of money on beh a lf of
the Holy Sepulchre. Lately, however, a certain
m e asu re of o rd er has been restored to the financial
affairs of the C hurch o f Je ru sa le m , foreshadow ing also
a closer attention to spiritual matters.

T h e C h u r c h o f C y p r u s . T h e Church o f C yprus,
like the four eldest P atria rc h ate s, can also boast of
g re a t antiquity. F o u n d e d in the year 45 by the A postles
P au l and Barnabas, an d n um bering am ong h e r m e m
bers saints such as Spiridion and E piphanius, she was
g ran te d the privilege o f autonom y by the T h ir d
Oecumenical Synod, which forbade the A rchbishop o f
A ntioch to in te rfe re in th e affairs of C yprus. U n
fortunately, in 1191, R ic h a rd Coeur de L ion took
possession o f the island, a n d sold it to the K n ights
T e m p la r ; and th e n ce fo rw ard the u n f o rtu n a te
Cypriotes, u n d e r th e yoke of the fanatical R o m a n
Catholic L usignans, u n d e rw e n t ever)- kind o f suffering
for the sake o f th e ir national and religious inde
pendence. N ot only did th e T em p lar in tru d e rs tr a n s
form the m ajo rity o f th e m into serfs, but th e P ope
imposed on them a R o m a n Archbishop, to w hom the
O rth o d o x bishops w ere obliged to sw ear the oath o f
118 GREEK CHURCH HISTORY
allegiance. In 1231, in the presence o f the Portuguese
Pclagius, the representative o f P o p e H o n o riu s III.,
the T h irte e n H o ly I'athcrs were m a rty re d , having been
condemned as heretics fo r not accepting the innova
tions of the R o m a n Church. T h e y w ere first tied to
the tails o f horses an d dragged o v er stones, then burnt
together with anim als, so that it should be impossible
to collect their bones. T h e Venetian occupation o f the
island in 14S9 w as merely the substitution o f a new
tyranny fo r the o l d ; and the only redeem ing feature
o f the T u rk is h conquest which followed it in 1571 was
that it drove a w a y from the island all the Roman
intruders. T h e crow ning act o f T u rk is h ferocity was
the strangling at Nicosia o f the A rchbishop o f Cyprus.
C yprianus, the M etropolitans o f Paphos, Kition and
K yrenia, and o th e r Cypriot notables, by the blood
thirsty T u rk ish G overnor, K uch uk Mcchmet. during
the first y e a r o f the G reek Revolution (1821V In
1878, Cyp rus w as taken over by G reat Britain, whence
had come h e r first conqueror, Richard C o e u r de Lion.
But the tw o h u n d r e d and fifty thousand O rthodox
Greeks o f this m a rty re d island, who co nstitu te four-
fifths o f its whole population, will never tu r n their
thoughts to hig h e r things until they a r e freed from
foreign dom ination, and return once m o re to the care
o f th e ir n atu ra l mother-land.
CHAPTER XVII.
RUSSIA, GREECE, SERBIA, RUMANIA AND BULGARIA.

O t h e r O r t h o d o x C h u r c h e s . T h e O rthodox, E a s t e r n
a n d Apostolic Church, w hich according to p r e - w a r
statistics embraced about one h u n d red million souls, is
n o t represented only by th e f o u r oldest P a t r i a r c h
ates an d the G reek O rth o d o x C hurch o Cyprus. By
th e grace of God, it is also represented by v ario us local
a n d independent C h u r c h e s ; namely, the C hurches o f
R u s sia , Greece, Serbia, R u m ania , Bulgaria, Polan d and
G eorgia, to gether w ith th e autonom ous C hu rches of
F in la n d , Czechoslovakia, E sthonia and A m erica, a n d
t h e Churches o f the Dispersion in Europe. N o r m u st
w e forget the O rth o d o x G reeks of the Dodekanese and
o f A lbania. I t is impossible in th e present w o rk to
d w ell upon the history o f all these Churches. S o m e
t h i n g m ust, how ever, be said about the first five, which
a r e th e m ost im p o rta n t o f them.

T h e C h u r c h o f R u s s i a i n m o d e r n t i m e s . W h e th e r
it h a d its head q u arte rs a t Kiev, as a t first, at V ladim ir,
w h i t h e r it went in 1229, o r at Moscow, as happened
in 1328, the C hurch o f Russia never ceased to consider
a s h e r spiritual h ead th e P atria rc h ate of C on stan tin
o p le , fro m whence she h a d received Christianity. I t
is, indeed, tr u e th a t w hen in 158S the P atria rc h o f
C o n s tan tin ople, Je re m ia h II., visited Russia to beg for
a lm s , h e proclaimed this g ro w n-up dau ghter of the
C h u r c h independent, and recognised the M etropolitan
o f M oscow as th e fifth P atria rc h of the E a ste rn
C h u r c h . But cith er because he thought that this office
w o u ld concentrate a dan g e ro u s m easure of p o w er in
t h e h a n d s o f its possessors, o r for o ther m ore political
r e a so n s, P ete r the G re at quietly suppressed it in 1721;
119
120 GKKEK CHURCH HISTORY
an d with th e co-operation o f the grea t Russian
theologian Procopovicius, set up th e P erm anent Ad
m inistrative Synod, with its seat at Petrograd , com
m unicating this change to the P a tria rc h s o f the East,
w ho all accepted it. P e te r the G re at also worked
tow ards the improvement o f the clergy by founding
clerical schools an d reform ing the monasteries. His
exam ple w as followed by C atherine II. and by the
T s a r s who succeeded her, in whose time the Russian
Church rejoiced in the possession o f four important
Theological Academies and num erous seminaries, and
succeeded not only in fulfilling her obligations towards
h er own m em bers, but also in supporting flourishing
missions am o n g the Israelites, T a r ta r s and Japanese.

T h e R u s s i a n C h u r c h ok t o -p a y . Unfortunately,
since the recent great war. all these promising shew'!*
have l>ccn uprooted by the Bolshevists, who. afte r
overthrow ing the Tsarist T h ro n e now delude them
selves with the idea that they can overthrow the
T h ro n e of God. At the present time, atheism is the
official cult o f Soviet Russia. Christians are perse
cuted merely for l>cing O iristians. Magnificently 1 nil:
churches have been transform ed into clubs, music-
halls. cinemas an d theatres. Icons o f inimitable beauty,
painted by Publiot! or StroganofT, who lived in the
fifteenth anil seventeenth centuries respectively, are
sold abroad o r publicly burnt in the squares. Th -<c
who have rem ained devout, an d are still attached
the ways o f th eir fathers, live tor the r u 's : part in
exile, while many have cither 1-crn killed o r arc
languishing in prison. In the years l'MS. 10 10 and
1920 alone, twenty-six bishops and six th.ou<ar. i scccr.
hundred and fifty-live pric-is were marts red by the
Bolshevists. leaving nut of account th.'Uvan Is an !
millions o f o th e r victims Bolshevism is founded on
the materialistic and earth-Numd principles o; C o m
munism. while the Gospel exhorts us to foll ow higher
and m ore spiritual things. "Religion an ! I omm.ur.tsm
OTHER ORTHODOX CHURCHES 121
says B ukharim conflict with each o ther both in
th e o ry and in practice. . . . W a r to the death against
ev e ry form of religion ! A n d an o th er w riter adds :
T h e Christians teach sym pathy and love, w hich a r e
co n tra ry to o u r own beliefs. Consequently, the only
official society in R ussia is the Society of A theists,"
u n d e r whose inspiration ten thousand anti-religious
clubs pursue their w o rk th ro u g h o u t the vast lands of
R ussia, foolishly seeking to tr a n sfo rm hu m an n a t u r e
a n d put out the inextinguishable light of its religious
instincts. T h e re is not th e slightest doubt th a t the
ultim a te solution o f this vast traged y will be, as eve r
in th e past, the trium ph o f th e Cross. But the ta ngled
plot that m ust precede it is bitter indeed f o r the
stru g g lin g O rth o d o x R ussians, w ho call for all o u r
p r a y e rs .

T h e C h i 'r c h o f G r e e c e i n m o d e r n t i m e s . The
C h u r c h o f Greece, which h ad likewise suffered g rea tly
u n d e r T u rk ish ty ran n y , entered on a new stage o f its
l i f e from th e day when it th rew off that heavy yoke.
T h e flag o f the Revolution received the blessing o f the
G r e e k clergy; clerics distinguished themselves as
m il ita r y le ad e rs; an d clerics, again, sat on th e first
n a t io n a l councils o f N ew Greece. F rom the tim e o f
L e o th e Isaurian (714 741), the Church of those
r e g io n s had been a dependency of the (Ecum enical
P a tr ia r c h a te , to which it was organically joined. But
t h e leaders o f the Revolution considered that th e ir
political independence from T u rk e y would not be com
p l e t e unless it w ere accompanied by ecclesiastical
em an c ip atio n . H e n c e at the General A ssembly o f
N a u p li o n in 1833, a n d a t the proclamation o f the C o n
s ti tu tio n u n d er K in g O tto in 1844, the representatives
o f th e nation declared th a t, although the C h u rch o f
G r e e c e was an d would alw ays remain united w ith the
G r e a t Church o f Constantinople on m atters o f d o g m a ,
it w ould hen c efo rth en jo y complete autonom y in
m a t t e r s of governm ent. T o a grea t extent they w ere
1
122 GREEK CHURCH HISTORY
r i g h t ; f o r ccclcsiastic.il boundaries b a d alw ays con
formed to political ones, and a free c o u n try should
have a free Church. But fo r a long time the
(Ecumenical P atria rc h ate would not consent. It saw
the C h u r c h s property broken up, ostensibly to supply
the C h u r c h s needs, but actually to be squandered by
the laity. It feared that the adm in istra tiv e secession
of the C h u rch o f Greece might be taken as a precedent
by o th e r Balkan peoples who w ere not yet prepared
for s e lf-g o v e rn m e n t; and it w as particularly appre
hensive lest the P rotestant advisers o f K ing O tto
should in trod uce into the young state o f Greece forms
of g o v ern m e n t contrary to O rth o d o x principles. In
the end, how ever, it gave in, and issued in 1S50 the
Synodical T o m e on the emancipation o f the Church in
Greece, declaring h e r right to self-government.

T u t; C h v r c h o k G r e e c e t o - d a y . In the years that


followed the Revolution, the boundaries o f the G turch
of Greece, like those of the nation itself, were re
stricted. But in 1S63, the Ionian Islands w ere united
to the M o th e rl a n d : in 1S7S, T hessaly and part of
E p i r u s ; in 1913, Southern Macedonia. C rete and some
of the .-Egean Isla n d s ; and in 1922, W e s te rn Thrace.
As a result o f these various increases in national
te rrito ry , the boundaries of the Church o f Greece were
also ex tende d, at the expense o f those o f the
(Ecum enical P atriarchate, under whose jurisdiction
they h a d been to r centuries. T o-day, the Church of
Greece includes almut eighty Metropolcs, o f which
thirty -th ree belonged to pre-w ar Greece, while forty-
seven h a v e been added since the war. It is governed
by a double S ynod : the " Periodical S ynod," which
assembles once a yea r in A thens and includes all the
bishops, an d th e " Perm anent Synod. which consists
o f eight bishops and deals with everyday affairs. Both
Synods are presided over by the Archbishop o f Athens,
who also bears the title of "A rchbishop o f the whole
o f G reece." T h e Church o f Greece is faced by many
OTHER ORTHODOX CHURCHES 123
problem s. H e r bishops a r c all men of scholarly educa
tion, and financially in d e p en d e n t; but h er priests are
o f te n w anting both in education and financial means.
Theological and clerical schools do indeed e x i s t ; but
a s the priesthood is a n almost unpaid calling, th e ir
stu d e n ts usually tu rn to o th er professions. The
people arc attached to the O rth o d o x faith, which is,
h ow ever, continually being underm ined by foreign
p r o p a g a n d a ; and though O rth o d o x y is considered as
the official state religion o f Greece, the rulers o f the
c o u n try passively watch the m isappropriation o f
ecclesiastical property, an d keep the Church in su b je c
tion. A gainst all these evils, the Church of Greece is
h a r d at work. T h e position o f the clergy is gradually
im p ro v in g ; sermons are m uch sought a f t e r ; th e
religious press is g ro w in g ; charitable institutions a r e
being fo u n d e d ; the Bible published; hostile p r o p a
g a n d a co u n tered ; and religious life is pro gressing
lioth in theory a n d in practice.

T h e C h ir c h o f S e r b ia in m odern t i m e s . The
fo rtu n e s of the Church o f Serbia were sim ilar to those
o f the C hurch of G re ec e; she suffered and grew with
h e r nation. A period o f g re a t glory daw ned f o r h e r
in the middle o f the fourteenth century, w hen the g re a t
S erbian prince, Stephen D u sh an , taking adv a n ta g e o f
t h e internal troubles o f the Byzantine E m pire, extended
his conquests from the D an u b e to the TEgean a n d the
A d r i a t i c ; and, aspiring to establish his capital at C o n
stantinople, called him self T s a r and E m p e r o r o f
S erbs and G reeks." In those days, the Serbian C hurch
enjoyed full independence, which had been g ra n te d to
h e r in 1221, when th e Byzantine E m p e ro r T h e o d o re
L ascaris an d the (Ecum enical P atria rc h G erm a n u s
recognised the A rchbishop o f Ipek as the ecclesiastical
h ead of the Serbs. But days o f slavery soon cam e to
th e Serbs, to o ; and the sam e M oham m ed II. w ho had
destroyed th e Byzantine E m p ir e soon conquered the
S erbian territories. T h r e e centuries later, w h e n the
124 GREEK CHURCH HISTORY
Serbs had done w hatever they could to improve their
ow n condition, they at last tu rn ed once more to the
(Ecum enical P atria rc hate in 1766, a n d requested the
reigning P a tria rc h Samuel to take them u n d er his pro
tecting care. T h u s, the S erbian provinces of Ipek.
P riz re n , Skoplie, Belgrade, etc. form ed during the
eighteenth century departm ents o f the jurisdiction of
the P a tr ia rc h a te of Constantinople, until Serbia rose
against the T u r k s u n d e r K arageorgevitch and
O vrenovitch in 1817 and gradually achieved her
political independence.

Tin; Cnt'Kcn o r S e r b i a t o - o v v . O n e result of this


independence was a m easure of emancipation for the
S erbian C hurch from the (Ecum enical Patriarchate,
g ran te d by the Synodical T om e issued in 1831. But
the C h u r c h s emancipation was not yet complete; f '
S erbian bishops still frequently received th eir ordina
tion from Constantinople, and the Metropolitan <"
Belgrade, w ho was appointed head of the Serbian
C hurch, though elected by the rulers o f Serbia, was
confirmed in his office by the (Ecumenical Patriarchate
T his period o f transition was brought to an end by t~-
Synodical T o m e o f 1879. by which the Patriarchate
o f C onstantinople recognised the C hurch o f Serbia a-
a totally independent and self-governing sister in '
full m eaning o f the word. Since the Balkan a r .:
E uro p e an W a r , the Serbia of to-day has beo-ruc art
extensive co u n try incorporating not only Northern
Macedonia and a considerable portion o f Allsania. l et
also a large part o f A u s tr ia : and has been joined !y
M ontenegro, whoe ruler, called the " Yladika. cr.ce
combined in his person the suprem e offices o f Church
and S tate, being at once both king ami bishop. To-day
Y ugoslavia, o r Southern Slavia, bv which title the
K ingdom o f the Serbs. Croats and Slovenes is known,
contains about thirty Mctropoles and Bishoprics, at the
head o f which stands the P atriarch o f B elgrade; for
since 1922 the O rthodox Church o f Serbia lias beer.
OTHER ORTHODOX CHURCHES 125
ra ise d to the rank o f a P atria rc h ate . T h is C h urch,
too, is governed by tw o S ynods, annual and p erm a nent,
b o th of which arc presided o v er by the Serbian P a t r i
a rc h .
T in : C h u r c h o f R u m a n i a i n m o d e r n t i m e s . A n o th e r
O rt h o d o x country whose b oundaries have been notably*
e x te n d e d by recent w ars is R um ania. T h e R u m a n ia n s
first appeared in the Balkans d u rin g the tw elfth ce n
tu r y , and were called by th e ir conteni[>oraries Vlachs.
D escend ants of the ancient R o m an colonists and s p e ak
ing a L atin language, they a r e th e only people o f
R o m a n origin who do not acknowledge the R o m a n
C atholic Church. A t first they had joined forces w ith
t h e i r Bulgarian neighbours to form the Vlachobul-
g a r ia n Empire, and w aged w a r against the B yzantine
E m p ir e , even while they submitted to its cu ltu ral
influence. L ater, however, th e Vlachs and B ulgarians
p a r t e d company, ow ing to th e ir differences lioth o f
o rig in and of language. T h e dependence o f the
R u m a n ia n Church from the CEcumenical P a tr ia rc h a te
d u r i n g the period of T u rk ish domination is evident
a n d is attested by con tem p o rary catalogues, in which
t h e R um anian provinces a r c n um bered am ong those
s u b je c t to the P atria rc hate . Indeed, certain tow ns in
R u m a n ia n history, such as B ukharest, Ja ssy a n d
o th e rs , developed into centres o f G reek culture, th a n k s
to t h e large Greek colonies established there befo re the
G r e e k Revolution, an d to th e G reek P han ario tes w ho
f r o m the seventeenth ce ntury o nw ard s w ere sent out
b y th e Sultans as go vernors o f those regions. W h e n
by th e treaty of 1856 R u m an ia achieved h e r political
independence, Prince Couza, following the exam ple o f
th e C hurches of R ussia a n d G reece, sought to w ith
d r a w the R um anian C h u rch entirely fro m the
jurisdiction of th e (Ecum enical P a tria rc h ate an d to
in tro d u c e a new o r d e r of affairs in h arm on y, as he
th o u g h t, with the needs o f m o de rn times. Couza's
r e f o r m in g laws w ere passed by the R um anian P a r lia
m e n t in 1864 and 1865.
126 GREEK CIIURCII HISTORY
T in : C h u r c h o p R u m a n i a t o - d a y . l :o r a long time,
how ever, the (Ecumenical P a tr ia rc h a te resisted this
ch a n g e : firstly, because this new le gislation tended
tow ards the subservience of the C h u r c h to th e State,
and secondly, because in the a r d o u r o f his refo rm
Couza confiscated all the richest p ro p e rtie s ow ned by
A thos, Sinai and the Holy S epu lc hre in Rum ania,
w ithout cith er com pensating their o w n ers o r even using
them for ecclesiastical purposes. At last, in 1SS5, und er
the P a tr ia rc h a te o f Joachim I V . , the G reat Church
published the Synodical Tome, in which the G iu rc h of
the K ingdom o f R um ania ( f o r R u m an ia had been
m ade a kingdom in 1SS1) w as legally proclaimed an
independent an d self-governing sister-C hurch. T here
was still occasional friction between R um an ia and the
M other-C hurch, as in the m a tte r of the Coutsovlachs
of Macedonia, w h om Rum ania insisted on treating as
R um anians, in spite o f their own desire to belong to
the (Ecum enical Patriarchate, whose fortunes they had
shared f o r centuries. It is to l>e hoped, however, that
this difficulty, too, has been solved by the new frontiers
set u p by the G reat W a r . To-day the O rth o d o x G iu rch
o f R um ania includes twenty-eight Metropolitans,
bishops a n d assistant bishops, elected by a general
assembly o f bishops and members o f the L ow er ar.d
U p p e r H ouses o f Parliament. It is governed by a
Periodical S ynod w hich assembles u n d e r the chairm an
ship o f th e P a tr ia rc h of Ilu k h a r e s t; f o r the G iu rch
o f R um an ia , like that of Serbia, was raised to the rank
o f a P a tr ia rc h a te in 1925 because o f the great increase
in th e size o f the kingdom.

T m : C iin tc ii o f I U t . g a r i a i n ' m o p k k n t i m i : s . T he
strong feeling o f patriotism characteristic o f the Local
O rth o d o x C hurches has frequently brought them into
collision with each other. Hence arose the Cot:to\lach
question previously referred to, the Panslavist intrigues
ill P alestine and elsewhere, and the long, hlo-Me strife
caused by Balkan rivalry during the years o f i urkish
OTHER ORTHODOX CHURCHES 127
m isrule, when religion w as used as a pretext fo r the
cre atio n o r extension of political rights. All these
q u a r r e ls arc distressing to the O rth o d o x h e a r t ; but
n o n e m o re so than the irre g u la r way in which th e
C h u r c h o f Bulgaria sought h e r em ancipation from the
P a tria rc h a te , whose protection she had enjoyed in m ore
trouble d times. It was only n a tu ra l that the liberation
o f Greece, Serbia and R u m an ia from the T u rk ish yoke
should fan the flame of Bulg arian independence. B u t
w h erea s the other Balkan peoples had first gained their
political freedom, an d had then acquired their ecclesi
astical independence, the Bulgarians reversed the
process, an d pursu ed ecclesiastical independence w ith
te rro rism and dynam ite as a m eans tow ards political
conquests. A lthough one o f the main principles o f
C a non L a w is that tw o O r th o d o x Church le aders o f
equal ran k shall neve r exist side by side in the sam e
place, in 1870, by the au th o rity o f a T u rk ish firman,
th e Bulgarians deliberately set u p a Bulgarian E x
a r c h a te in Constantinople, as th e suprem e head o f the
Bulgarian nation a n d th e rival and equal o f the
(Ecum enical Patriarchate.

T h e B l t c a r i a n q c e s t i o .w T h e P a tr ia rc h a te p r o
ceeded to m ake ever)- possible concession. It p e r
m itte d the use o f the Bulgarian tongue in all th e schools
in B u lg aria; it sent B ulgarian bishops to B u lg a r ia ;
a n d it accepted th e establishm ent of a B ulgarian
E x a r c h a te exclusively for the Bulgarian nation, w ith
the sole reservation that it should com m em orate in
public worship the n am e o f the P atria rc h . But th e
Bulgarians would accept no com prom ise. W ith th e ir
eye on Macedonia a n d T h ra c e , they drea m t o f a g re a t
Bulgarian E m pire exten d in g as f a r as the TEgean an d
th e Adriatic, and in corporating a m ixed population o f
Greeks, Serbs, A lbanians an d Vlachs, with its capital
a t Constantinople. T h e y d em a n d e d that they an d
th e ir E xarchate should rule n o t only in purely B u l
garia n regions, b u t in mixed a n d foreign te rrito ry as
128 GREEK CHURCH HISTORY
well, so that by m eans of their c om ita djis they might
stam p the whole o f the Balkans with a Bulgarian im
pression and th u s p rep a re the w ay f o r th e new cos
mogony that w as approaching. It was impossible for
the .Mother C hurch to accept such a situation. Sum
moning, th e re fo re, to Constantinople in 1872 a Great
Synod of fifty m em bers u nder the c h a irm an s h ip of the
P atriarch A n th im u s VI., she excom m unicated the
Bulgarians for causing a schism in th e ecclesiastical
body of O r th o d o x y by their subservience to political
interests, a proceeding not consonant w ith th e Gospel.
T h e n c e fo rw a rd , the relations between the Patriarchate
and the Bulgarian E x a rc h a te became strained. T he
entire blame docs not, however, rest only with
B u l g a r ia ; for, behind her, Russian Pan-Slavism lay
concealed, scheming to make Bulgaria a bridge towards
the conquest o f Constantinople and the Rii'sianisation
of the Balkans. T h e recent G reat M a r has put an
end to Russian ambitions. Bulgaria is now an inde
pendent kingdom within its natural txiundarics. The
new Balkan w orld has been created, a n d Macedonia
definitely portioned out. T h ere is no do ubt that, since
the causes o f friction have now been removed, the rela
tions between Bulgaria and the P a tria rc h a te will seen
be regularised anti restored, to the satisfaction of all
who wish to see th e O rth o d o x E astern C hurch a single
compact an d imposing body.
CHAPTER XVIII.
MOD I - R X KRRORS A ND I IKRI-S11- S.

Som i: u n o r th o d o x d o c trin e s in Gri:i:<t: : P aiti.ak is


and M acrakis. Altliougli, as will shortly be seen,
R u ssia lias been the most fertile field of heresy d u rin g
m o d e m times, Greece, too, has produced a certain
n u m b e r of religious fanatics, innovators, a n d even
enemies of religion, since the recovery o f G re ek inde
pendence and the introduction o f theories from abroad
h a v e given rise to discussions. T h e m onk C h risto p h e r
P apulakis, who ap p e ared d u rin g the reign o f K in g
O t t o (1833 1862), m a y be described as a religious
fanatic. His hatred o f th e Bavarian m onarch led him
to w and er through G reece in the guise o f a h e a v e n
se n t messenger stirring u p pop ular opinion aga in st the
existing o rder o f G reek political governm ent by his
fiery speeches. Religious fanaticism, again, inspired
A postolos Macrakis, w h o in 1863 began to believe
h im self the divinely-appointed instrum ent not only to
p u r if y the G reek C hurch, which he considered to be
c o rru p t, but also to d riv e out the T u r k s fro m C o n
stantinople and to re-establish there the C hristian
Byzantine E mpire. M a c ra k is was not, h ow ever, like
Papulakis, an ig norant a n d uneducated m an. H e was,
on the contrary, ex tre m ely learned and eloquent, and
th e author of m a n y volum inous books; he w as also
a n ascetic, and the severity o f his moral code a ttr a c te d
m a n y of his hearers, w h o even included a n u m b e r of
distinguished clergymen. B u t pride overtook him , and
he degenerated into the p ro p h e t o f certain violent an d
narrow -m inded theories w hich he tried stubbornly to
impose by m eans o f se rm o n s, w ritten w orks, a n d r e
ligious and political associations. H e called him self
t h e brother of C hrist a n d son o f M ary, and held that
129
130 GREEK CHURCH HISTORY
every baptised C hristian was composed o f a body,
animal sotd, a n d spirit, as distinguished fro m the un-
baptiscd, in w hom he only adm itted the existence of
the tw o first. M acrakis maintained his principles even
when he was th ro w n into prison for a tim e by the
Greek G overnm ent. W h e n he died in 1905, he had been
abandoned by his principal fo llo w e r s ; but his de
nunciatory te aching had, nevertheless, contributed not
a little tow ard s the revival o f religious feeling, and it
is regrettable th a t a m an of such le arning and piety
should hav e fallen into such foolish error.

A carx an , K a ir k s and D racti.es. In complete con


trast to the severely conservative teaching o f Rapulakis
and Macrakis w ere the liberal and m odernistic opinions
of Christodoulos A carnan, Thcophilos Kalres, and
Plato Dracules, to w hom current philosophy proved
more attractive than the unvarnished principles of
Christianity. A c a rn a n appeared during the eighteenth
century, an d in 1793, while living in Leipzig, published
a Ixiok in which he sacrificed lx>th the divinity of
G irist an d the divine inspiration o f the I!ible to the
pantheistic philosophy of Spinoza. H is book was
immediately condem ned by the (Ecumenical P atria rc h
ate as anti-religious, irreverent and blasphemous.
Kaires, w ho lived du rin g the last century, took an
active part in the G reek struggle to r independence, in
which he distinguished himself by his patriotism and
his philanthropic a c tiv itie s: he was, m oreover, a man
o f undisputed scientific ability, especially in the branch
o f physics. But in 182.8, having founded an oqdinnnge
in A ndros, he began to preach there a theistic system
denuded o f the grea t tru ths o f Christian Revelation,
which he had b ro ught back with him fro m P ra n c e ;
and, when sum m o ned as a clergyman by the Holy
Synod in Greece to ju stify himself, he stated that the
Christian doctrines o f the T rinity and the Incarnation
were incomprehensible, and that he was unable to
admit them against the dictates o f his conscience. If
MODERN ERRORS AND HERESIES 131
K a irc s had lived at the present day, lie would have
heen punished simply by degradation from his holy
office; but in those days things were different, and he
w a s flung into gaol at S v ra , w here lie died in 1853.
D raculcs, on the o the r h an d , is still alive in E nglan d,
w hence his suave and learned pen continues to dissem
in ate into Greece opinions compounded on socialism,
feminism, pantheism, and belief in the tran sm ig ratio n
o f souls, which lie has set out systematically in his
w o rk , Lii/ht fr o m -within. According to Draculcs, the
goal o f life is the elevation o f mankind to the fem inine
ideal o f altruism, whose g rea test prototype w as J e su s
Christ.

T h e E d u c a tio n a l S o c ie t y . T o the foregoing list


o f nam es may be added th a t o f the Educational Society
o f A thens, whose m em bers, with the alleged object o f
ca rry in g out educational r e fo rm s on m o re practical
lines, began by means o f vu lg a r educational books to
pro p ag a te anti-religious, pliysiocratic, com munistic an d
bolshevistic ideas. T h e y substituted a crude fo rm o f
P an theism for the personal God of C hristianity, an d
reje cte d the S a v io u rs ex hortations to meekness in
f a v o u r of the, to them, m o re effective a r g u m e n t o f the
sw o rd . God, w rote o n e o f these rem a rk a b le
te a c h e rs is both m an a n d w oman, m ortal a n d im
m ortal, dung an d spirit. H e begets, fertilises a n d kills,
love an d death t o g e t h e r ; a n d again he begets a n d then
kills. A nd an o th er, as thou g h add ressing C hrist,
th u s expresses h im s e lf : I f you had m a d e y o u r
theories, not in the w ilderness, hut in the m idst o f lif e ;
if instead o f a r m i n g every m iserable m a n with a m e re
w o rd , i. o v e , you had th r u s t into his han d a d a g g e r , . .
the n one might have hoped fo r a radical change in the
aspect o f the w orld, fo r a n ew life on the e a r th . T h e
official Church o f Greece is, however, not inactive.
Ry means o f serm ons, books, and especially encyclical
letters read out in the places o f worship, she p rotec ts
h e r children fro m the contagion of such false a n d
132 GRIiKK CIIURCII HISTORY
deceitful teaching which is foreign to the Greek
mentality.
H e r e s ie s in R i .s s i a : the follow ers of
T h e e rr o rs of belief in Greece enumerated
Z a c h a r ia s.
above, most o f which were short-lived a n d personal,
do not possess the characteristics o f heresy. Heresies,
in the full sense o f the word, with n u m e ro u s adherents,
a system o f th ought difficult to uproot, an d a fanatical
organisation, have appeared chiefly in Russia during
modern times. T h r e e o f these will suffice to give us
some idea of all the rest. L et us first mention the
followers of Z acharias, who first m ade their ap p e ar
ance in 1470. Z ac h aria s was a Jew ish alchemist who
played upon the credulity of the people by means of
his alchemistic tricks, and, presenting him self as a
heaven-sent w o rk e r o f miracles, disseminated his
fraudulent religious doctrines am ong the crowd. The
Old T estam ent, he taught, ranked higher than the New.
and Ju d a ism was m o re perfect than Christianity. The
Incantation was a m y th ; there was no real presence
o f the L o rd at th e S acram ent o f Holy C o m m u n io n ;
no resurrection o f the d e a d ; and the festival of Easter
was meaningless unless celebrated as the Jew ish Pass-
over. T h e followers of Z acharias w ere vigorously
opposed by G cnnadius, Archbishop o f Novgorod,
whose efforts w ere responsible for their condemnation
by a Synod convened fo r that purpose, a f t e r which the
heretics w ere sent out into the streets, riding their
horses lu c k to front, and bearing on their caps the
inscription : Soldiers o f S atan. Still h a rsh e r tr e a t
ment was meted out to them by the governm ent, who
exiled some an d b u rn t others at the stake, until by
1504 no followers o f Z acharias remained.
Tin: M e n o f Gon. W hereas the followers o f
Zacharias w ere essentially Judaic heretics, the Men of
God might be com pared as to the outer aspect o f their
life with the dervishes. T h ey appeared d u rin g the
eighteenth century u n d e r the leadership o f a certain
MODERN ERRORS AND HERESIES 133
Daniel, who was always accompanied by a n o th er man
called Ivan. Daniel gave out that lie himself was God,
revealed to m ankind, while his follower Ivan w as Jesus
C hrist, his only-begotten S o n ; so that the title of
M en of God was really synonymous with fol
low ers of Daniel, who p ro fe ssed himself to be G o d .
A t times of worship, the Men of God fell into crazy
ecstasies, as though overcom e by the spirit of prophecy,
a n d leapt and danced and tw irled like d e r v is h e s ; hence
th e ir alternative nam e o f Dancers. T h e Daniclites,
o r Men of God, o r D ancers, split up in the course of
tim e into various peculiar sects, such as th a t o f the
speechless ; of those who beat themselves, or m utilated
themselves, o r cast themselves into the fire, an d so
f o r t h ; until, a f te r passing from one m ad practice to
an o th er, they finally disappeared.

T he S ta r o v e r t si. A m uch more serious Russian


heresy, by reason not only o f its origin b u t also o f its
g r e a t proportions and long persistence, is that o f the
S tarovertsi, o r O ld Relievers, which first appe ared
d u r in g th e sixteenth ce n tu ry , and has continued ever
since to engage the attentio n of both C hurch and State.
O w in g to the carelessness a n d ignorance o f copyists, a
n u m b e r o f m istakes h ad been introduced at vario u s
tim es into ecclesiastical books, so that th eir m eaning
w as sometimes fun d am e n tally d is t o r te d ; an d because
o f this, in 1518, the R u s sian Prince Basil invited the
learn ed monk M a x im u s th e Ilagiorite, su rn am e d the
" G reek, to revise them a n d make the necessary cor
rections. M axim us p e r f o rm e d the task th a t h a d been
e n tru sted to him. But R u ssia abounded in n a r r o w
m in d e d and superstitio us people who p r e f e r re d the
d u s t o f ages to enlightened research. B anding th e m
selves together against M a xim us, they accused him o f
laying sacrilegious h ands o n divinely inspired books,
denounced him as an in n o v a to r and c o r r u p to r o f the
faith, and shut him up, as in a prison, in a distant
m on astery, w h ere a m iserable death overtook him.
134 GREEK CHURCH HISTORY
But at his death Maximus left behind him m a ny fol
lowers, a n d th u s the Russian Church w as divided into
two g re a t opposing camps : the O ld Believers, who
clung to th e c o rru p t text, and the R e form ists, who
accepted the corrections m ade by M axim us. In
1564, u n d e r Ivan the Terrible, the R e fo rm ists suc
ceeded in publishing revised an d exp u rg a ted editions
of the A cts an d the Epistles based on the ancient
Slavonic m anuscripts. But the O ld Believers, winning
over the people to their side, raided the press and
burnt them . A m o re perfect edition of the ecclesi
astical hooks, based on both G reek and Slavonic
manuscripts, w as undertaken by the enterprising
P atriarch o f Moscow, N ico n; but he, too, was set
upon In- th e O ld Believers, who in their intellectual
blindness called him a wolf and the prec u rso r of
the A n ti-christ. W h e n Nicon resigned, he was suc
ceeded by lo a sap h II., under whom a G reat Synod
was convened in Russia in 1667, n um be ring am ong its
members the G reek P atriarchs of A lexandria and
Antioch. A t this S ynod the O ld Believers w ere e x
com m unicated t o r honouring the dead letter m ore than
the living spirit, a n d were cut off from the lv>dv o f the
G iu rc h , w hose injunctions they had failed to honour.
T h e n c e f o rw a rd , these incorrigible disturbers of the
C h u rch s peace w ere called by O rth o d o x O iristian s,
not S taro v ertsi o r O ld Believers, but Raskolniki or
Schismatics. T h e official G iu r c h founded a special
internal Mission on their behalf in 1752: but they
continued nevertheless to exist, and split up into
smaller sects, all equally inspired with the sam e hatred
against the official G iu r c h and her r efo rm ed l>ooks.
CHAPTER XIX.
T H E REL AT IO N S OF ORTH ODOXY W I T H ROMAN
C A T H O L IC IS M AND P R O T E S T A N T IS M .

P a p is t attacks on t h e E a s t e r n C h u r c h .T h e R om an
C h u rch never ceased to d re a m o f the subjection o f the
E a s te r n Church, and n e v e r failed to exploit an y dis
ord ers, w herever they occurred, to her ow n advantage.
H ailin g the fall o f Constantinople as a divine p u n ish
m e n t inflicted on the stiff-necked Greeks, she soon sent
o u t against the Christians o f the E ast h e r form idable
Je su its, who, from 1583 on w ards, began to a p p e a r
successively in Constantinople, Chios, S m y rn a ,
D am ascus, N'axos, X auplion, P atras, A thens a n d else
w here. As though these w ere not enough, in 1581,
P o p e Gregory- X I I I . fo u n d ed th e College o f St. A t h a n
asius in Rome, w here clever young G reeks chosen
fro m Greek districts w e r e brought up acco rd in g to
R o m a n Catholic principles, a n d then w ent out, like
a n o t h e r kind o f Janizaries, against the faith w hich had
n u r s e d their infancy. A n d further, in 1622, Pope
Gregory- X V . instituted his P ro p a g an d a on b e h a lf of
th e unbelievers, the object o f which was described by
th e Papal Bull as the conversion of the nations of
t h e T u rk ish E m pire, once glorious and dow ered with
adm irab le divine gifts, th a t n o w lie sunk in a besotted
condition and, having fallen to the level o f wild beasts,
only continue to exist in o r d e r to swell the m ultitudes
o f Hell, to the g r e a te r glo ry o f Satan and his angels.
D iplom acy and bribery, calu m ny an d coercion, p e r
suasion and dissension, these w ere the various
w eapons employed by th e despotic R om an C h u rc h in
h e r efforts to dom inate h e r needy brethren.

P a p is m in C o n s t a n t in o p l e : C y r il L ucar. The
fam ous Cyril L u c a r (1572 1638),the m ost prog ressive
135
136 GREEK CHURCH HISTORY
and enlightened o f the P atriarchs u n d er T urkish rule,
was the m ost em inent victim of the unhrothcrly hatred
o f Rome. E u c a r, who was lmrn in C rete and educated
in Venice a n d P adua, was sent into Poland in 159a as
legate o f the Patriarchate of A lexandria. T h ere he
witnessed the struggle that was being waged between
Catholics a n d O rthodox , and very soon realised Ixith
the m a g n itu d e o f the danger th reatening from Rome
and also the only means of averting it,namely,
collaboration with the P rotestants. W h e n , therefore,
a f te r al>out eighteen years a s P a tria rc h o f Alexandria,
he was called to the Patriarchal T h r o n e of Constan
tinople in 1621, he not only carried on a correspond
ence with m a n y distinguished P ro te sta n ts, hut even, at
critical times, hail recourse to the diplomatic aid of the
am bassadors o f England and Holland. But. just as he
was assisted by the representatives of Protestant
powers, so the Jesuits continued to fight him under the
protection o f Catholic F rance a n d A ustria. In P E,
I.ucar founded the first Greek press in C o n s tantino ple:
but the Je su its at once reported to the G rand \ irier
that the press was intended to com bat Mohammed.Tr.-
ism. a n d a h u n d r e d and fifty Ja n iz a rie s immediately
raided an d destroyed it. H ad it not been for the inter
vention o f th e English am bassador, Cyril himself
would also have been d estro y e d ; but if he was spared
this time, it w as only to fall a victim later to the
calumny o f th e Jesuits, who falsely accused him of
conspiring secretly with the Cossacks tow ards the
revolt o f the G reek s against the T u rk s . F o r the tilth
and last time he was de|x>-cd from his T hron e, and
a f te r c m k ir k in g on a Ixi.it that w as ostensibly to take
him into exile, be was drow ned by bis gu ards in the
waters o f the Bosphorus. T h e m u r d e r of I.ucar. for
which, according to Ricaut, Rom e paid the sum of
30,000 crow ns, will always rem ain as an indelible
stigma on the Papacy.

Partsu i s P a l e s t in e and S y r ia . The conduct of


PAPISM AND PROTESTANTISM 137
th e Rom an Catholics in o th e r centres o f O rth o d o x y
differed in no wise from th e ir behaviour in C o n s ta n
tinople. In Palestine, w h e re they had possessed no
rig h ts until the sixteenth century, when the P a tr ia rc h
D oro th eo s (1493 1534) first g ranted them a m o n a ste ry
a s a favour, they lost no tim e in setting on foot th eir
m achinations. T h u s u n d e r the P atriarch S o p h ro n iu s
(1 5 7 9 1608) we see them offering the T u r k s six
th o u s a n d florins, th rough the medium of the F re n c h
A m b as sad o r, to evict the O rth o d o x from C alv a ry and
t h e C a v e ; w hereupon Sophronius, to p rese rv e his
rig h ts over the H oly S hrines, was obliged to offer the
T u r k s double th a t sum. In 1633, in the reign of
S u lta n M urad, a n o th er sim ilar attem pt was m ade,
accom panied by a fo rg e d golden bull, an d lavish
p rese n ts to the Sultan an d V izier; and th ou g h this,
to o , ended in failure, because the forgery w a s d is
co vered, the Papists n ev e r ceased to put f o r w a r d n ew
claim s, until in 1847 they succeeded in r e sto rin g the
R o m a n P a tria rc h a te which had been established f o r a
s h o r t tim e d u rin g the C rusades. T h e same policy was
follow ed by the Papists in Syria, w here in th e first
h a l f o f the eighteenth c e n tu ry they m anaged to win
o v e r tw o native P a tr ia rc h s o f Antioch, Cyril and
S e r a p h im , a n d to fo u n d th e P a tria rc h a te o f the
" G reco-M elchites. T o this day, Jesuit colleges,
lavishly su p ported by subscriptions from F ra n c e ,
c o n tin u e to fo ster th e p rop agation o f R o m an C a th o
licism.

P a pism in R u s s ia and in l e s s d ist a n t c o u n t r ie s.


T h a n k s to the activities o f th e Jesuits, O r t h o d o x y w as
also persecuted in the south o f Russia, w hen a false
u n io n w ith R o m e w as declared at Brest in 1594, while
t w o Russian apostates, P o tze u s an d Terleski, travelled
to R o m e and kissed the P o p e's toe, claim ing th a t they
d id so on b ehalf o f th e whole body o f the R ussian
C h urch. N o t only here, b u t in R ed Russia, V olhynia,
L ith u a n ia and Galicia, too, th e O rth o d o x w ere m o r a
le
138 GREEK CHURCII HISTORY
Icssly persecuted by the Catholics. A n d if P apist rage
reached out so fa r and so widely, it m a y well lie
imagined how Rom e behaved tow ard s the O rth o d o x
Christians in countries closer to her. In the Ionian
Islands, she did not allow O rth o d o x bishops, but only
priests, who w ere obliged to be present at the e n th ro n e
ment a n d funeral of Rom an Catholic bishops. T h e
O rth o d o x colony in Venice, w ho had tied th ere at the
fall o f Constantinople, w ere forbidden to have their
own church until 1553, when the R epublic o f Venice,
for commercial reasons, gave them the necessary p e r
mission. T h e O rthodo x inhabitants o f H ungary,
Slavonia a n d Croatia, who had m ig rated thither from
T hrace, M acedonia, Thessaly and Greece in 1687. were
allowed by the Je su its to use their own language and
service, but forced to recognise papal su p r e m a c y ;
while th e G reco-Italians of Calabria, Sicily, Tuscany
and G eneva w ere gradually absorbed into the Roman
C hurch by m e ans o f the Jesuitical " accomtHiatio.

T h e P .\r.u. L ' n i a i n G r e e c e t o - p a v . Right up to


the present day, the Papists have persevered in the use
o f these sam e m ethods, in spite o f their proved fu tility ;
and the " U nia is, indeed, their dearest weapon of
attack. Catholic priests of foreign nationalities, who
have adop ted G reek names and dress like the Greek
clergy, a p p e a r in the midst o f Athens itself, and try
to pass themselves otT as O rthodox priests. Them
churches a r c impeccably Byzantine in style; their
ritual is also Byzantine, ami the liturgical language the
G reek o f the Gospels. O n one jwint only i to r the
present a t least) do they differ from O rthodox u s a g e ;
they c o m m em o ra te the nam e o f the Pope in their
prayers, as S u p re m e High Priest and Pontifcx. These
false G reek P riests are lavishly paid by Rome, and
spend equally lavishly, especially among the indigent
refugees, to whom particularly thev represent them
selves as m inisters of the Greek O rthodox Church,
and w h om they seek to lure by offering them pecuniary
PAPISM AND PROTESTANTISM 139
aid . But th e God o f righteousness will surely never
p r o s p e r with H is blessing such tortuous scheming.
T h e official O rth o d o x C hurch o f the country, m a k in g
u s e o f books, serm ons a n d various o ther m eans, lias
n e v e r ceased denouncing to h e r flock these wolves in
s h e e p s clothing; and the recent circulars published by
A n th im u s V I., P a tr ia rc h o f Constantinople, Basil,
M etropolitan o f S m y rn a , and Chrysostom P ap ad o -
poulos, A rchbishop o f A thens, are particularly im
pressive. T o protect h e r children from the P apist
converters, w ho designedly give out th a t th e re is no
difference between R om an Catholicism an d O rth o d o x y ,
t h e O rth o d o x C hurch o f la te r centuries has been com
pelled in self-defence to insist on the re-baptism o f all
w h o revert to h e r fro m P ap al error. U n fo rtu n a te ly ,
R o m e has no intention o f changing h e r attitu d e
to w a r d s the Churches o f th e E a s t ; for the C hristian
elem ents of equality an d love a r e entirely foreign to
h e r imperialistic system. P e rn o t assures us that,
d u r in g the recent w ar, the Vatican p raye d f o r the
vic to ry o f th e T u r k s ( e est pour les T u r q u c s qu'il
fa is a it les v o c u x ) , because from the point o f view o f
t h e Vatican, it w as p referab le that th e T u r k i s h
C rescent should a p p e a r on the dome o f S a in t Sophia,
r a t h e r than t h e G reek Cross !

T h e f i r s t P r o t e s t a n t l e t t e r . J u s t as th e eleventh
century saw th e division o f th e O n e C h urch o f C hrist
in to the E a ste rn an d W e s te rn Churches, so the
sixtee n th w itnessed the d isru p tio n o f the la tte r into
t h e Rom an an d P ro te s ta n t G iu rc h e s. T h e co rru p tio n
o f faith and m orals th a t h ad invaded R om anism , the
intellectual decadence o f the R o m an clergy, a n d the
absolutism o f th e Pope, w h o w o re a triple tia ra to
illustrate his dom inion o v e r earthly, heavenly an d
in f e r n a l affairs, these w ere the causes w hich inspired
t h e th ree grea t r e f o rm e r s , L u th e r , Calvin a n d Zwingli,
to protest against th e C h u rc h o f Rome, an d to rouse
u p against h e r h a lf o f W e s te r n Christendom . Busily
140 GREEK CHURCH HISTORY

engaged in w aging their long battle w ith sw o rd and


pen, these m en had no lime to think o f the enslaved
C hurch o f the E a st, who, long befo re them , h ad lifted
h e r voice in protest against the a rro g a n c e o f Rome.
O n e o f them , how ever, did rem e m b er h e r ; this was
M clanchthon, one o f L u th e r s earliest fellow-workers,
who u p o n m eeting Demetrius Mysos, about to d epart
fo r C onstantinople, at W itte n b erg in 1559, entrusted
him w ith a letter for the reigning P atria rc h , Joasaph
II. In this le tte r he thanks God that in the midst of
so great a m u ltitu de o f ungodly an d abominable foes.
H e has preserved fo r H im self a tlock that rightly
honours and calls upon His Son Je su s C h r i s t ; an d
he assures the P atria rc h that the followers of the
R e form a tion also " d e v o u tly observe the Holy S crip
tures, the Canons o f the Holy Synods, and the teaching
o f the G reek F a th e rs, while they a b h o r the prattle,
superstition a n d self-crected doctrines o f the uncul
tured L a tin s .

Tm: t h e o l o g ia n s of T i u i n g e n . T in: P rotestants


ok P oland, and T in: C o n fe ssio n of C y r il I.l c a s.
M clanchthon received no reply to his letter. W hen,
however, in 1574, the Tubingen professors Martin
Crusius and Ja co b A ndrew , w rote to the P atriarch of
Constantinople, Jerenias II., sending him the A ugs
b urg Confession, which was the first formal exposition
o f P rotestantism , Jerenias replied with dignity and
sincerity, thus initiating an important exchange o f
correspondence, in the course o f which P rotestantism
was nevertheless criticised on many points for not
keeping step with the troth. In 1 the bNrum-tcncns
o f the (Ecumenical T hrone, Meletius IYgns, replied in
a sim ilar way to the Protestants o f Poland, who w ere
suffering a com mon persecution with the. Orth<>dox at
the hand s o f the Jesuits, and who, a f te r the S ynod o f
Vilna, proposed an ecclesiastical union between them.
T h e union o f those opposed to each o th e r (so ran
P A P IS M A N D P R O T E S T A N T IS M 141

desired , hut Protestantism and O rth o d o x y differ from


ea ch other on essential points. Let us, how ever, love
o n e another, and let us no t lose hope." But an entirely
different course was, it seems, pursued by the
previously mentioned g re a t P atria rc h, Cyril L ucar,
w h o was favourably disposed tow ards the ideas o f the
R e fo r m e rs . H e collaborated with the P ro te s ta n ts
a g a in s t the P a p i s t s ; he carried on a friendly c o rre s
p o n d en c e with various P ro te sta n ts, including G eorge
A b b o t, the A rchbishop o f C anterbury, bew ailing to
th e m the sufferings o f the G r e e k s ; he* dispatched the
prec io u s Codex A lexa n d rin u s to Charles I. o f E n g
la n d in 1628, as a thank-offering fo r his rescue from
t h e J a n iz a r i e s ; an d he sent M etrophanes C ritopoulos
to stu d y at O x f o r d at princely expense. I n addition
to all this, it is said that he even drew u p and published
a Confession, in which he accepted Calvinistic b eliefs;
b u t on this point the evidence is confused. T h r o u g h
tw o o f her Synods, th e first held at Constantinople in
1638 an d the second at J a s s y in 1642, the O r th o d o x
C h u r c h denounced this C onfession as tending to w a rd s
C a lvinism , w ithout, ho w ever, associating it w ith the
p e r s o n of Cyril L u c a r ; a n d w ho know s but th a t on this
p o in t also L u ca r m a y have been the victim o f fo rg e ry ?

P rotestant m is s io n a r ie s . It was not long befo re


P r o te s ta n tis m began to b re a k u p into a m u ltitu d e o f
h e re sie s , owing p a rtly to its lack o f unity in dogm a
a n d g ov ernm en t, an d p a rtly to the individual in te r
p r e t a t i o n o f the Bible acco rd in g to each m a n s lights.
R e p re se n ta tiv e s o f som e o f these heretical sects, p a r
tic u la rly from A m eric a, visited Greece as early as 1810;
a n d o th e rs a r r iv e d im m ediately a f t e r the Revolution,
w i t h th e object o f assisting the G reeks to w a r d s their
n a t io n a l an d spiritua l aw akening. Som e of them
o p e n e d schools, w hich w e re the crying need o f the
tim e s , a n d o th e rs d istrib u te d books o r gave out copies
o f th e H o ly S c rip tu r e s e ith e r in th e original text o r in
m o d e m G reek tran slatio n . T h e G reeks at first wcl-
142 GREEK CIIURCH HISTORY
corned them w ithout suspicion as th e ir ben e factors;
and certain P atria rc h s o f Constantinople, such as
Cyril V I. in 1814 and Gregory V. in 1819, applauded
the propagation o f the Riblc an d praised the popular
G reek translation s as being o f grea t benefit to the
people. Rut w hen the P ro te sta n t missionaries began
to reveal th e ir secret designs by tr y in g to effect c o n
versions an d by distributing together w ith the Scrip
tures little volumes offensive to O rth o d o x sentiments,
they aroused the enmity of the nation a n d immediately
became u npo pula r, while th e ir S crip tu res were con
signed to public bonfires. T h e G reeks, who have
suffered so greatly for the preservation o f their faith,
a re acutely sensitive to any attack on it. T h a t is why,
a f te r m o re tha n a centu ry of activity in Greece.
P ro te sta n tism can to-day point to no g r e a te r achieve
ment than a h a n d fu l of so-called Evangelicals " in
A th ens an d elsewhere.

A nc . m c a n s a n d O r t h o d o x . T h e relations between
the O rth o d o x an d Anglican Churches a r e rathe r differ
ent, fo r the la tte r, alone am ong the various branches of
P ro te sta ntism . l>oth acknowledges the th ree orders of
Priesthood an d m ore o r less honours th e sacred T ra d i
tion. A s we h a v e already noted, relations were firs:
established between O rth o d o x and A nglicans in the
tim e o f I.ucar. T hey w ere renewed again in the
eighteenth century, when the N o n -ju ro r s (th a t section
o f the G i u r c h who refused to take the oath of allegi
ance to G eorge I. o f E ngland) subm itted a plan of
union with th e E a ste rn G iu r c h to the P atria rc h s of the
East. Rut it was particularly from 1869 onw ards that
A nglicans a n d O rth o d o x began to come closer
together, w hen the P a tria rc h o f Constantinople,
G reg ory VI., a f t e r receiving with g r e a t satisfaction
letters from Campbell, A rchbishop o f C an terbury, in
fa v o u r of union, sent an encyclical le tte r to his clergy
directing them to bury m em bers o f the Anglican
G iu r c h , in th e absence o f A nglican m inisters, and
PAPISM AND PROTESTANTISM 143
despatched the learned A rchbishop of Syra, A lex a n d er
Lycurgos, to England, in o r d e r to strengthen the bonds
between the tw o C hurches. Since then, A nglican
bishops have m ore than once visited the C hurches of
the East, as Jo h n of S alisbury in 1898, the p re se n t
Bishop of L ondon at the beginning of the G re at W a r ,
an d the present A rchbishop o f Canterbury, Cosmo
L an g , who was welcomed in A th en s last year. Bishops
from Greece, Russia, Serbia and other countries, n o t
forgetting the P atria rc h s P hotiu s of A lexandria and
D am ianos of Jerusalem , have visited E n g la n d in
re tu rn , and have joined w ith the Anglicans in solemn
p r a y e r in St. P a u ls C a the d ra l and W e stm in ste r Abbey.
A great f o rw a rd step in the relations between the tw o
C hurches was taken in the sum m er of 1930, w hen
alm ost the whole o f the O rth o d o x Church sent its
representatives to the L a m b e th Conference, u n d e r the
leadership o f the present enterprising and progressive
P a tr ia rc h o f A lexan dria, Meletitis Mctaxakis, in o r d e r
to discuss a n d discover te rm s of union. This friend-
ship between A nglicanism and O rth o d o x y is due in the
first place to the recognition by the O rth o d o x C h u rch
o f the validity o f Anglican O rd e rs , which has alw ays
been d ispu ted by the R om an C h u r c h ; secondly, to the
ab stention o f the A nglican Church from efforts to
co nvert the O r t h o d o x ; a n d thirdly, to the exchange
o f letters o f peace on ceremonial occasions. T h e
A nglican a n d O rth o d o x C hurches differ fro m each
o th e r on points o f dogm a, an d a sacramental union
b etw een th em is fo r th e present still remote. T h e
v arie ty o f belief, which characterises the one C hurch,
is incompatible with the u n ifo rm ity of faith, professed
by the o th e r. But by th e m utu a l interest they ta k e in
ea ch o th e r, an d by th e brotherly n a tu re o f their
ex te rn a l relations, A nglicanism and O rth o d o x y arc
m a rk in g o u t the path th a t all separate Churches should
follow to w a r d s the even tual attainm ent o f full an d
catiiolic unity.
CHAPTER XX.
THKOI.OC.ICAI. L I T K R A T l' R K .

T f IK O f.O C IC A I, A FT ER T H E F A I. t. OF CoN-
I.IT K R A T F R E
STa n t in o it .e. Theological literature- in the G reek
speaking O rth o d o x , E astern and Apostolic Church
does not, natu ra lly enough, reveal the same progress
that m a rk e d it in earlier periods. L earn in g flourishes
best in free te rr ito r ie s; and the tim es when a monk
here a n d th e re barely contrived to assemble a few
youths at night in the porch o f the C hurch, to teach
them the Eight Church T u n e s and th e Psaltery, were
hardly propitious to scholarly research. Yet the love
of learning did not entirely desert the G reek clergy. On
the one hand, a few centres o f learning, such as the
P atria rc h al School o f the Nation in Constantinople,
which succeeded the Philosophical School o f the P atri
archate b e fo re th e fall, continued to function, though
hardly to flourish ; and, on the other, a te w chosen rr.en
were f o rtu n a te enough to pursue their studies in Europe,
especially in th e towns o f Venice, P ad ua, Pisa ar.d
Florence, then fam ous as scholastic centres, and were
thus enabled, on their return home, to hand on the torch
o f learning. F ro m the seventeenth century onwards,
public schools began to I>c founded am ong the Greeks,
such as those on Athos, in Patmos, at Salonica. Cas-
toria. Cozani, Ja n in a , Moschopolis, Cydonia. Smyrna.
T rebizond, Ilukharest an d Jassy, w here notable
scholars, for the most part clergymen, prepared the
way for the Independence o f the nineteenth Centura',
and, th ro u g h it, for the simultaneous scientific and
theological Renascence of the O rthod ox East. Ecclesi
astical literatu re subsequent to the fall o f C onstan
tinople does, the re fo re, exist, and is witnessed to by
such o f its produ ctions as were circulated in prin t, o r
l-U
THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE 145
remained in manuscript fo rm in various libraries. W e
shall now enum erate a few representatives o f this
literature, dealing with each century in succession.

S c h o l a r s ok t h e f if t e e n t h and s ix t e e n t h cen
t u r ie s . G ennadius Scholarius (d. 1460) w as th e first
P atria rc h a f te r the fall o f Constantinople, w hose
learning illuminated, comet-like, the d a r k n igh t o f
slavery that succeeded it. H is works, which are n o w
being published in full fo r the first time, fill ten larg e
volum es; notable am ong them are those directed
against th e Latins, his R e fu tatio n of the e r r o rs o f
J u d a ism , and his Dialogue with M oham m ed I I .
M a tthe w Camariotcs, w ho was a contem porary o f
Scholarius, was appointed by him head o f the N atio n al
School o f the P atria rc hate . H e composed a n E x
position o f the Creed, an d a pathetic M o n o d y ,
lam enting the fall o f Constantinople. Manuel the
Peloponnesian (d. 1551), w h o was chartophylax, o r
reg istra r, an d o r a to r of th e CEcumenical P a tria rc h a te ,
is the a u t h o r o f a R e fu tatio n o f the arg u m e n ts o f
F r i a r Francisco, a w ork on M ark of Ephesus, an d
treatises ag a inst G em istus and Bessarion, an d a ga in st
P u r g a to r y . M axim us th e H agiorite, th e G reek (d.
1556), w as invited to R ussia by Prince Basil in 1518,
in o r d e r to revise the R ussian ecclesiastical books, as
w e have seen previously. H e w rote against the
R e f o r m a tio n , the Jew s, th e H ea then, ami the M o h a m
m e d a n s. Je re n ias II., P a tria rc h of Constantinople
( d . 1595), m a d e him self fam ous by his correspondence
w ith th e L u th e r a n theologians o f Tubingen, which he
c a r rie d on with the collaboration o f the head o f the
P a tr ia r c h a l School, Jo h n Zygomala. Meletius P egas
f d . 1603), P a tr ia rc h o f A lex andria, was a stu d e n t of
L a tin , H e b r e w , S yriac a n d Arabic. H e composed,
a m o n g o t h e r w orks, the O r th o d o x Doctrine. M axim us
M a r g u n iu s (d. 1602), Bishop o f Ccrigo, was both poet
a n d p ro se -w rite r, both hellenist an d latinist. O n e o f
h is w o rk s is th e Dialogue between a G reek and a L atin.
146 GKKKK CHURCH HISTORY
S c h o l a r s o k Tin: s i : v i:n ti:i :n tii c k n t u r y . During
the seventeenth century, the following men particularly
distinguished themselves : Gabriel Severtts (d. 1616)
was, from 1577 onwards, the first bishop o f the Greeks
in Venice, u n d e r the title o f Rishop o f Philadelphia.
H e w rote a Treatise on the S a cram e nts, an Exposition
against those zvho say that the Children o f the Eastern
Church are schismatics, an d various o th e r works.
G eorge K orcssios (d. 1633) was a theologian and
doctor, who w rote on the S acra m en ts, on T ransub-
stantiation, on Predestination, on G race and Free Will,
on the Procession of the H oly G host, etc. Maximus
Callipolitcs (d. 1637) was the first to translate the
N ew T e sta m e n t into m o d e m Greek. Cyril I.ucar
(d. 1638), th e illustrious P atria rc h an d m artyr, is the
au th o r o f several brief polemical works against the
R o m an Catholics, a Compendium against the Jews, and
(as is generally believed) a Confession o f the Christian
Eaith, which arou sed great opposition on account ot
its Calvinistic tendency. M etroph anes Critopoulos
(d. 1641) w ho studied at O x f o r d and in Germany, and
la ter became P atria rc h of A lexandria, composed the
Confession o f the Eastern Church, known under h:s
name. P e te r Mogila (d. 1647), M etropolitan o f Kiev
in Russia, an d a Vlach by descent, composed h:s
Confession, in o r d e r to protect his dock against the
prevailing erro rs o f Roman and P rotestant belief. This
was later expanded and perfected by the Iearr.ee!
Cretan, Meletius Svrigos (d. 1662), when it was
countersigned, to give it g r e a te r validity, by the P a tr i
archs o f the F a st, and thus |>ccainc the official Kxpos:-
tion o f the O rth o d o x Faith. Nicholas K e r a m t u '
(d. 1672), a doctor and scholar, is the au th o r o f a work
entitled T he sin o f those w ho calumniate the one and
only Catholic Church. N cctarius o f Jerusalem
(d. 1676) w rote a h 'e fu ta t ii: o f Papal S u p re m a c y, full
of weighty arg u m e n ts and wide learning, from which
many later w riters have Ixirrowcd freely. Dosithce's
o f Jerusalem (d. 1707) who reigned as P atria rc h for
THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE 147
thirty-eight years, composed, among o ther w o rk s, a
H is to r y o f the Patriarchs o f Jerusalem.

S c h o l a r s oij t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . H e r e are
the most distinguished n am es among scholars o f the
eighteenth c e n tu r y : E lias Meniatcs (d. 1714), Bishop
o f K alavryta, was an excellent linguist a n d a m a n of
g r e a t eloquence. H is S e r m o n s , rem arkable f o r th e ir
h a rm o n y and vivacity, a r c still read with enjo y m en t
b y the people; and in his w o rk entitled T h e S tu m b lin g -
B lo c k he dem onstrates th a t Papal S uprem acy w a s the
ch ief cause o f the G reat Schism. Mclctius o f A th e n s
(d. 1714) composed w o rk s on astronom y, geo g ra p h y
a n d rhetoric, hut he is chiefly famous f o r his C h u rc h
H istory. H is brothers, Joh a n n ik iu s and S o p h ro n iu s
L cih o u d ac (d. 1717 and 1730), w ere both priests, who,
a f t e r a f ru itfu l m inistry in various centres o f H ellen
ism , went to Russia a t th e invitation o f the T s a r
T h e o d o r e , a n d foun ded t h e A cademy o f M oscow,
w h e r e they themselves ta u g h t literature, philosophy an d
theology. T h e L eihoudae b ro th e rs revised the S lavonic
S c r ip tu r e s, a n d also w ro te various w orks in d efe n ce of
t h e O rth o d o x F aith. C hrysa nthos o f J e ru sa le m
f d . 1731) h as left us a H i s to r y and D escription o f the
H o l y L a n d , a n d a small b u t valuable w o rk on the
Ecclesiastical Offices. E u s tr a t iu s A rgentes (d. 1760),
a learned doctor, w ro te theological w orks, am o n g
w h ic h a tre a tise on U n le a v e n e d W a f e r s is n o table fo r
its wide le arn in g and so u n d judgm ent. E u g cn iu s
B u lg aris (d. 1S00), w ho w a s head of the schools o f
J a n i n a a n d A th o s, a n d w as later pro m o te d by
C a th e r in e II. to th e A rc h b ish o p ric o f Slavonia an d
K h e r s o n , w a s th e g re a te s t a n d m ost erudite of m o d e rn
G r e e k clerics. l i e spo ke a n d w rote ten languages,
t r a n s l a te d V irgil into H o m e r ic verse, a n d introduced
m o d e r n p hilosophy into G reece. H e also edited the
c o m p le te w o rk s o f T h c o d o r c t, translated the w ork
o f Z o e m ik a u on th e P ro c essio n o f the H o ly G host,
a n d is h im s e lf th e a u t h o r o f T h e O r th o d o x Confession,
148 GREEK CIIURCIl HISTORY

A d d r e s s on Tolerance, D ogm atic T h eo lo g y , F irst Cen


tu r y f r o m th e Incarnation o f Christ, Pious T alk, etc.
N icc p h o ru s Thcotokis (<1. 1800), w ho succeeded
E u g c n iu s as A rchbishop o f S lavonia, before being
tr a n s f e r r e d to A strachan, rivalled his predecessor in his
know ledge o f theology, philosophy and physics.
A m o ng o th e r works, he published a Catena of notes
com m enting the P e n ta te u c h ; and his S u n d a y Courses,
in which lie interprets in beautiful m o d e m Greek the
ex tra cts f ro m the Gospels and Epistles appointed for
each S u n d a y , arc still extremely popular. Anthimu< of
Je ru sa le m (d. ISOS) composed a S y n tag m a o f theology
and a C o m m en tary on the Psalm s. Xicodemus the
H agiorite (d. 1809) was a studious monk, whn-c pen
is responsible for many w orks in hagiography, ascetic
ism, mysticism, liturgies, canon law and practical
exegesis. H e w rote Com m entaries on the Ce.th :
Iipistles a n d th e Psalms, the AV.v M a r ty re! _;v. the
Ini'isilde Iiattle, the Spiritual Exercises. the E xc el
lence o f a Christian, the P ooh o f Confessirn. etc. :
but his most im portant w ork is the R u d d er or - -.e
O r th o d o x Church, which contains all the sacred camr.s
to g e th er with a com mentary on them.

T h e n i n e t e e n t h c k n t i r y . T h e nineteenth century
m ark s at last a notable step forw ard. Till then, sacred
scholarship hail, as it were, w andered through the
East vag ra n t a n d homeless; but the retu rn of freed m.
now afforded h e r jsermanent habitations once again
As early as 1810, the English nobleman W ildferd. a
friend o f G reece an d o f O rthod oxy, had founded, f 'r
the benefit o f the Greeks, the Ionian Academy ot
C orfu, which was indeed o f inestimable service to
them. In 1837 the town o f m o d e m Athens acquired
h er U niversity, in which serious scholars taught
theology. In 1844. the Patriarchate o f Con-taiitiri. ple
founded the Theological 8choo! at Halki for the
scientific training o f future bishops; and its example
was followed in IS53 by the P atria rc h ate o f Jerusalem ,
THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE 149
which founded the Theological School o f the Cross.
A ro u n d these main centres, o ther smaller ones sp ran g
up. T h e G reek S tate a n d the Church provid ed
scholarships to enable successful students to go to
G erm any, w here they specialised in certain branches
o f study, and retu rn ed to Greece to transm it th e latest
results o f theological science as lecturers o r professors.
T h is practice was followed not only by the G reek-
speaking O rth o d o x , b u t by the R um anian, S erbian
a n d Bulgarian-speaking O rth o d o x as well; f o r they,
too, on acquiring national independence, provided
themselves with U niversities and Theological Schools,
a n d sent their g rad u a tes abroad, and especially to
R u ssia, to complete th e ir studies. F or, b efore the
cataclysm ic ad v e n t of Bolshevism, Russia exercised a
g r e a t attraction o v er the O rthod ox peoples o f the
B alkans, especially the S erb s and Bulgarians, not only'
because she shared the sam e faith, but also because,
f r o m the point o f view o f religious scholarships, she
h a d reached an enviable state o f development, m a i n
ta in in g as she d id fo u r excellent Theological A cadem ies
a n d possessing a n am p le supply o f capable teachers
a n d learned w orks. T o -d a y , however, the A cadem ies
a r e all closed ; w hile o f h e r scholars some are teaching
o u ts i d e Russia, like the em inent theologian Nicholas
G lu b ak o v sk i, w h o is no w a p ro fe sso r at the U n iv ersity
o f S o phia, while o the rs h a v e congregated in P a r is and
f o u n d e d there, as a te m p o r a r y measure, the In stitu te
o f R u s sia n S tud ies. T h e nineteenth century, at all
e v e n ts , gave a n ew im pulse to O rth o d o x T heolog y
b o t h in b re a d th a n d d e p t h ; in breadth, because
th e olo gic al w rite r s no lo n g e r confined themselves, as
f o r m e r l y , to p u re ly polemical works, but em braced
e v e r y b ran c h o f T heology, an d in depth, because
h is t o r ic a l a n d critical rese arch w as hen c efo rth recog
n i s e d as th e o nly reliable m ethod. H ere, again, a r e
s o m e o f th e m o st p r o m in e n t names.
S c iIO I.A R S OP T in; N IN E T E E N T H AND T W E N T IE T H
cen tu rie s. C o n s ta n tin e O cconom os (d. 1857) dis-
150 GREEK CHURCH HISTORY
tingu ishcd Himself as an eloquent p r e a c h e r a n d an
excellent Hellenist. H e is the a u th o r o f m a n y works,
but is m o st fam ous for his well k n o w n hook on the
S ep tu a g in t, in which he su pports th e G reek text,
th ough not w ithou t a m easure of exaggeration. Thco-
cletus P h a rm a k id c s (d. 1860), p r o fe s s o r at the Ionian
School in C o rfu , an d later at the U n iv ersity o f Athens,
was a liberal opponent of the conservative Oeconomos.
B efore the missionaries had revealed th e ir real designs,
he gave his s u p p o rt to the M o d e m G reek translations
o f the Bible, a n d he also exercised considerable influ
ence on the development of ecclesiastical government
in Greece. Besides o the r literary w orks, lie published
an edition o f th e N ew T estam en t, copiously annotated.
Dionysius Cleopas (d. 1S61), who was professor first
at the School o f the Cross in Jerusalem , and then at
the U n iv ersity o f A thens, disputed the critical con
clusions o f O economos. H is best w ork is an edition
of the Catechism s o f Cyril o f Jerusalem , with many
learned annotations. A ndronicos Demctracopoulos
(d. 1872), p riest o f the G reek C om m unity in Leipzig,
devoted him self to the discovery and publication of
unpublished G reek codices lying hidden in the libraries
o f E urope. C o nstantine Contogones (d. 1878), a
learned an d dev o u t p ro fe ssor at the University of
A thens, published a H e b re w A rch e o lo g y . an Ir.tr. due-
linn to the Scrip tures, an Ecclesiastical H ist cry and
Patristics. H e w as also the chief editor o f the G estel
H erald, the first really serious review to l>e published
in Greece. Nicholas Damalas (d. 1892), professor at
the U niversity o f A thens, worked mainly as a com
m entator, a n d left a n Introduction to the AY:r Testa
m ent a n d an an n o tate d edition o f the three Synoptic
Gospels. X icephorus Calogcras (d. 1S96). wrote, among
o ther things, Pastoral Theology, and edited from a
m anuscript copy the Com m entary o f Zignbcnus cn
St. P a u ls Epistles. Jo h n Scaltsunes (d. I'XM). was a
student o f law, but also an excellent Christian
apologist, as m a y be seen by his works on T h e H e r-
THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE 151
Monies o f Christianity and Science, Psychological
S tu d ie s, and others. Philothcos Bryennios (d. 1918),
w as professor at the Theological School o f H a lk i and
la ter Metropolitan of Nicomcdia. H e discovered and
edited the Epistles o f Clement of Rome, a n d the
T e a c h in g of the Apostles. Anastasius K y riacos (d.
1923), professor at the U niversity o f A thens, le ft as
his chief w ork an Ecclesiastical H is to r y in th ree
volumes. Apostolos C hristodoulos (d. 1914), p r o fe sso r
a n d principal o f the Theological School o f Iialk i, has
le ft us books on P atristics and Canon L aw . A m o n g
living w riters, we may m ention Manuel G edeon a s a
g r e a t auth o rity on B yzantine m atters, Basil A nto n ia d es
a s a le arned c o m m entato r a n d moralist, G re g o ry P ap a-
m ichacl as a widely-read apologist, an d C hry sostom
P apadopoulos, once D ire c to r o f the School o f the
C ro ss, and now A rc hbishop o f A thens, as an unrivalled
h isto ria n and asto undingly prolific author.
CHAPTER XXI.
C HRI S TI AN L I F E AM) W O R S I I i r .

T in : s i n s o r r u t: e n s l a v e d C h r i s t i a n s . T here is a
d a rk an d ugly side to the m oral life o f the O rthodox
u n d e r th e ir T u rk ish conquerors. T h e captive Jew s
(w r o te Ypsilantcs, the a u t h o r o f E v e n t s A f t e r the
EaJl) had realised that th e ir se rvitude was the result
o f th e ir revolt against the L ord, a n d so they sat down
by the rivers of Babylon an d w ept in repentance o f
their sins. Hut the Greeks, even a f t e r all the evils of
their servitude, a r e still im penitent. A nd one by one
he descril>es in his Ixiok the shortcom ings o f his fellow
co untrym en. E nvy and hatred of each oth e r were not
infrequent. S om e o f the clergy did not scruple to
intrigue against their fellows w ith the T u rk s , in order
to scramble into th eir shoes. O th e r s Iwught the office
o f bishop by s im o n y ; m a n y im itated their rulers net
only in th e ir in n e r arrogance, but in their outw ard
display o f lu x u ry an d dress. T h e pulpits w ere for the
most part em pty, owing to th e prevailing ignorance of
the clergy, a n d superstition reigned a m o n g the people.
Because the T u r k s looked up on th e C hristians merely
as p roperty from which the grea test possible amount
of money w as to be extorted, th e C hristians themselves
became intent on money al>ove all. A characteristic
feature o f this w orship of money w as dow ry-hunting,
which caused m a n y girls w ho lacked f o rtu n e to remain
u n m a r r ie d ; a n d the voice o f the G i u r c h w as constantly
upraised in denunciation o f this scandal, threatening
the d o w ry -h u n te rs with excom m unication. F or in
those days it w as only by m eans o f th e barbarous
mediaeval weajvin o f excom m u nication that these
erring souls m ight l>e induced to re tu r n to th e ir senses.
152
CHRISTIAN LIFE AND WORSHIP 153
T h e v ir t u es o p t h e e n sl a v e d C h r is t ia n s . And
y et, if we turn to the b rig h te r side of the picture, w h at
holiness went side by side with these gross ab errations !
T h e houses o f p r a y e r w ere crow d ed; and fasts and
o t h e r ecclesiastical injunctions were strictly observed.
C h a rity was a n atu ra l obligation. T h e Christians
f re q u e n tly collected m oney am ong themselves to set
f r e e prisoners o r those w ho w ere unjustly being kept
in g a o l ; and f o r centuries th e ir pennies had suppo rted
hospitals, o rphanag es a n d schools, whereas the Moslem
S ta te , f a r from helping them, only attacked them as
a n enemy. T o this deep-seated spirit of charity m any
in stitu tio n s ow ed th e ir fo und ation, the hospitals of
S m y r n a in 1745, o f A d ria n o p lc in 1752, o f C o n s ta n
tin o p le in 1753, o f B rousa in ISOS, the le per-house of
C r e t e in 1818, th e leper-hospital o f Chios in 1830, the
o r p h a n a g e o f C o n s tan tinople in 1853, and m a n y m ore,
w h ic h w ere followed la ter by o th e r m ore p erfec t an d
n u m e r o u s ch a ritable establishm ents due to the
g e n e r o s ity o f g r e a t national benefactors. A n d if we
c o n s i d e r the settling o f 1,500,000 Christian refugees,
w h o a f t e r the recent c a ta stro p h e in Asia M inor a rriv e d
p e n n ile s s in the p o v erty -stric k en country o f Greece,
a n d w e r e a t once received a n d sheltered as brothers,
w e shall readily a c k n o w le d g e th a t the spirit o f C hrist
is still alive a n d activ e in th e E a ste r n Church.

O rthodox m is s io n a r ie s and martyrs in modern


t im e s . T h e sa m e thin g m ig h t be said about the m is
s i o n a r y zeal o f th e O r t h o d o x C h u rch , which E u ro p e a n
h i s t o r i a n s co n sid er as n o n-ex isten t. I do not allude to
t h e R u s s i a n O r t h o d o x m issio ns o f the eighteenth an d
n i n e t e e n t h c e n tu ries to S ib eria, China an d J a p a n ,
w h i c h reflect g r e a t c re d it on t h e O rth o d o x C hu rch. I
w ill n o t even go so f a r a s to say that the d aw n in g
c i v i l i s a t i o n o f the T u r k s o w es not a little to th e ir long
c o n t a c t w ith the O r t h o d o x , a n d the la ttc r s silent influ
e n c e u p o n them . B u t I r e f e r especially to those G reek
b i s h o p s a n d clerics o f all r a n k s w ho m the d arkest
L
154 GREEK CHURCH HISTORY
days visited the G iristia n provinces, and, at peril of
th e ir lives, built churches, founded schools, and saved
the faith th a t was threatened with extinction. One
o f these, Cosm as the Actolian, succeeded in founding
tw o h u n d r e d an d ten schools in E p ir u s , Macedonia and
Greece, b e f o r e his head fell at last, u n d e r the sword
o f the T u r k i s h executioner, while his lips m urm ured
the w o rd s o f the P s a lm is t: W e w ent through fire
an d th ro u g h w ater, hut T h o u b roughtcst us out into a
wealthy place (Ixvi. 12). W e ad m ire the missionaries
who preach G i r i s t am ong savage peoples, and sutler
m a rty rd o m f o r the Christian faith. Rut were the
T u r k s o f those days less savage tha n Hottentots and
Kaffirs, a n d did but few o f th e O rthod ox sutter
m a rty rd o m in T u rk e y for the sake o f Jesus G irist and
H is G ospel? T h e m o d e m m a rty rs o f the East are
legion, a n d th e ir long procession stretches from the
fall o f Constantinople,w hen M oham m ed the Conqueror
slaughtered th e children o f N'otarns one by one before
the eves o f th e ir dying father, w ho cried as each head
f e l l : " R ighteous a r t T hou, O L o rd , an d upright are
T h y j u d g m e n t s ! (P sa lm cxix. 137), until the la<t
M etropolitan o f S m yrna, O iry so sto m , whom in 19.
N u rc d in P ash a , a f t e r steeping S m y rn a in Giristian
blood, h and e d o v e r to the frenzied T u rk ish mob to he
t o m in pieces.

Titr. H oly MofXTAts. Monastic life still continued


to flourish d u r in g later centuries, a n d provided the
harassed C hurch with a constant supply o f zealous
and fearless clerics. Its chief centre rem ains to this
day the Holy M ountain ( Hagion O ro s ) as Mount
Athos is habitually called, which is the hom e o f about
5,000 monks, mostly Greeks, but with a certain number
o f Russians, Rum anians, Serbs, Rulgariar.s and
Georgians, o r Iberians. T h ey arc distributed among
twenty monasteries, twelve skctae, tw o h u ndred and
four cells, and various other lonely h e r m i ta g e s ; and
are governed as a confederation by a " Com munity
CHRISTIAN LIFE AND W ORSHIP 155
of twenty members, each o f whom also represents one
of the tw enty monasteries. T h e C om m unity also
recognises the P a tr ia rc h a te o f Constantinople as its
supreme head, and accepts its decisions. A s early as
1749, the A thonias S c h o o l was founded f o r the
education of the H ag io ritc monks, and w as staffed by
such excellent teachers as N cophytos K ausokalybetes
and Eugenius Bulgaris. T o-day, however, it lies
almost idle; for, with a few exceptions, both p ast and
present, the monks h ave u n fo rtu n a te ly no love o f
learning, an d confine th e ir activities to p ray e r, a g r i
culture and light h an d w o rk .

O t h e r m o n a s t ic c e n t r e s . A n o th e r a n d sm aller
ce ntre o f monastic life th a n A th o s is th a t upon M o u n t
S inai, whose m on a ste ry dates fro m as f a r back as the
six th century, w hen it w a s founded by J u stin ia n the
G reat. T h is brotherh ood is ruled by a n abbot w h o is
also an autonom ous A rchbishop, and only ow es his
ord in atio n to th e P a tr ia rc h o f Jerusalem . T h e P a t r i
a r c h a te o f Je ru sa le m m a y itself be considered a s a
c e n tr e o f m onastic l i f e ; f o r the B ro th e rh o o d o f the
H o l y Sepulchre, which controls it, is n o th in g b u t a
b o d y o f monks, living in co m m unal life a n d ack n o w
le d g in g the P a tria rc h a s th e ir abbot. O th e r m onasteries,
n o ta b le for th e ir p erse v eran c e in th e faith, th e ir richly-
sto c k e d libraries, o r th e ir struggles on b eh a lf o f
n a t io n a l independence, w ere, d u r in g the p ast centuries,
a n d in some cases c o ntinue to be, those o f M e tco ra in
T h e s s a ly , o f E ikosiphoen issa in Macedonia, o f S um ela
i n P o ntus, o f the T h co lo g o s in P atm os, o f the H oly
T r i n i t y in H alki, w h e r e th e Theological A ca d em y o f
t h e (E cum enical P a tr ia r c h a te is functioning, a n d o f
t h e H o ly V irgin, also in H alki, in which the School
o f G re ek M e rc h an ts used to be established, a n d m any
o t h e r s . A n d as in G re ek -sp e ak in g localities, so- in
R u m a n i a n a n d Slavonic regions many convents and
m o n a s t e r i e s sim ilarly flourished, o r a r c still flourishing,
e x t e n d i n g hospitality to all, a n d offering a sa fe haven
156 GREEK CHURCH HISTORY
to m a n y o f lifes castaways. Rut the secular powers
d o not look favourably on this m ode o f life, and have
g ra d u a lly but steadily pursued th e course of closing
t h e m on asteries and confiscating th e ir property. T his
practice w as begun by the G reek G overnm ent as early
a s 1833, a n d has severely curtailed the list of 2a'.)
m on asteries which then existed in Greece. 1 he
R um an ia n G overnm ent did the same, when in 18o2,
th rough Couza, it seized the pro p erty owned by the
H o ly L a n d an d o ther Sacred Institutions in Rum ania:
an d a sim ilar policy was adopted by the government o f
T s a r is t Russia, which in 1876 laid hands on the
property, which G reek monasteries owned in the
Caucasus a n d elsewhere in Russia. It must I>e a d
m itted, how ever, that in spite o f all its services during
the past, th e monasticism o f the E astern Church is now
an ou t-o f-d a te phenomenon, and calls for reform along
m o re practical and social lines.

E i c u :s i .\s t ic a i . A r t . I t any progress has been


achieved in ecclesiastical a r t during recent centuries,
it is in the pow erful Russian E m p ire o f the Tsars that
we m u st seek it. It was mainly in Russia that m ag
nificent churches continued to be built, still on the basis
o f the styles transplanted from Byzantium, but in::u-
cnced by elements from Italian, Polish, Georgian and
Persian art. Belfries topped by a crow n, and peculiar
vaulted to w ers decorated these churches, which were
adorned within by icons, many o f them lying conccalev.
u n d er precious metals, but many revealing their art
naked an d full o f the expression o f a mystic passion.
W ithin them, too, the singing o f the choirs rang out m
rich, complex an d moving harmonics, combining the
old Bvzantine airs with the polyphonic music of
C H R IS T IA N L i r a A N D W O R S H IP 157

and would not suffer bell-ringing and public choir-


singing to take place. 1 he Christians o f the E a s t in no
wise differed from those who, in the first centuries of
Christianity, used to w orsh ip their Saviour in caves
an d catacombs. O nly a t the beginning o f the nin e
teenth century did some slight impulse begin to stir in
the ecclesiastical a r ts o f the Balkans. C a th e dra ls arc
being built by native arc h ite c ts; iconography is culti
v ated by the B rotherho od o f Josaphaei on A thos, and
o th e r s ; and the m o re polyphonic music o f Chaviaras
a nd Spathes is beginning to be introduced th ro u g h the
G reek com munities in E u ro pe . All these, how ever, are
but tentative efforts, a n d have as yet p roduced no
p erfec t results.

T h e W o r d o f G o d . \V c m a y welcome as signs of
goo d omen the religious fraternities, Catechetical
Schools and C hristian Associations of Y o ung Men and
Y o u n g W o m e n , all o f w hich have as their aim a revival
o f the religious spirit th ro u g h study an d the practical
application o f G od's W o r d to daily life. T h e official
C h u r c h steadily encourages these movem ents, although
th e y a r e as yet but slight an d spasmodic. A n d since
t h e stud y of th e S c r ip tu r e s is the object o f such m o v e
m e n ts , the C h u rch h as m o r e than once contributed
t o w a r d s th e ir publication in recent years. T h u s , in
1843, with th e assistance o f the Bible Society of
E n g la n d , she published th e O ld T estam e n t according
t o t h e S ep tu a g in t t e x t ; la te r she gave h e r blessing to
t h e p urely G re ek edition, p rep a re d by M a r t i n u s ; in
1904, a t the expe n se o f the reigning CEcumenical
P a t r i a r c h , C o n s tan tin e V aliades, an d u n d e r th e s u p e r
v isio n o f P r o f e s s o r Basil A ntoniades, th e first critical
e d i tio n o f the N e w T e s t a m e n t appe ared fro m th e press
o f th e P a t r i a r c h a t e ; a n d in 1928 a n d 1929 that
s p le n d id society in A th e n s , kn o w n as Z W I I ( " L ife "),
w h i c h f o rm s a k ind o f m ission ary bodv for w o rk at
h o m e , p u t into circulation a new, e n rc fu b h an d y and
in e x p e n s iv e edition o f th e O ld and N ew 1 estam ents.
158 GREEK C H U R C H HISTORY
But G reek editions o f the Bible alw ays confine them
selves to th e official text in the A lexandrian tongue,
which differs only slightly from G reek as it is written
to-day. T ra n sla tio n s of the S crip tu res arc opposed
n either by dogmatical n o r by scientific reason, and are
th e re fo re accepted by the Russians and by others.
T h e y a r e n o t, however, considered w ithout reluctance
by th e G r e e k s ; firstly, because they arc reminiscent
o f th e su rre p titio u s efforts a t conversion made by the
P ro te sta n t m issionarie s; secondly, because the Greeks
a r e proud o f possessing the S crip tu res cither in the
original text, as is the case with the N ew T estam ent,
o r in the first translation, m a d e fro m a text centuries
older than th e M assoretico-Ilcbrew o f to-day, as is
the case w ith the Old T e s ta m e n t; an d thirdly, because
a valid translation into M o d e m G reek by men with
both the lite r a r y and the theological equipment neces
sa ry for the task, has never yet been made. 1 he last
m o d e m G reek translation o f the Gospels was the w ork
o f a m erchant living in England, who chose this means
f o r p ropagating his theories on the vulgarisation of the
w ritten G reek language.

P r e s s in g problems to be solved in the near


future. T h e recent reform o f the calendar, which
most O rth o d o x Churches h ave accepted, and thanks
to which E a st a n d W est once again celebrate on the
same days the m ost important of th e ir fixed festivals,
has raised th e f u r th e r question o f the celebration of
E aster, on w hich the moveable festivals depend, and
which only a n (Ecum enical Synod o f th e O rthodox is
competent to decide. But it is not only the question
o f E a ste r th a t dem ands the convocation o f an
(Ecumenical S y n o d ; there a r e m any o the r urgent
problems which have l>een accum ulating for years, and
which now call for settlement. A m ong them are the
reform of the education of the clergy from the double
aspect o f scholarship and social se rvic e; the struggle
against atheist a n d communist te ac h in g ; the genera!
CHRISTIAN LIFE AND WORSHIP 159
use o f se rm o n s ; the simplification o f over-elaborate
r i t u a l ; the r e fo rm o f m onastic life in a m ore practical
direction; the m a rria g e o f th e clergy; the reduction
o f fast-d a y s; the revision o f the degrees o f relation
ship prohibiting m a r r ia g e ; the establishment and
operation o f lioth hom e and foreign m is s io n s ; the
relations o f the O rth o d o x C hurch with other C hristian
C hurches, especially with the Anglican C h u r c h ; and
m a n y o th e r matters. Rut, dom inating all the o th e r
questions that will engage the attention o f the coming
G eneral Synod, stands th e one essential question of
h o w the local parts com posing the O rth o d o x E a s te r n
C h u rc h , at present so loosely bound to gether, a r c to
a c h ie v e real an d effectual unity in one single b o d y ;
a n d how, renouncing once an d for all their allegiance
t o distinct political ideologies, and setting aside th e ir
n a tio n a l differences, they a r c to place themselves u n d e r
t h e exclusive leadership o f Je su s Christ, an d strive
t o g e th e r with a single will to extend the dom inion o f
t h e K ingdom o f God.

***** , ' ,TAI! ,v T* fA'T" LTD' *",A,n