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In recent years, with the utilization of thb incomparable wealth of

the Ottoman archives, studies on Ottoman social and economic history
are making rapid progress. Many of these publications nevertheless
appear to be'of limited value, and some totally misleading, simply
because their interpretations or statistical tables are based on imprecise
or inaccurate deflnitions of the terminology and units of measurement.
Admittedly, editors of texts have'sometimes made efforts, focusing on
a particular area, to determine terminology and measurements used in
their roslsr;S. But in most cases such efforts do not go beyond repro-
ducing iflftrrnrr,r, on found in the dictionaries, or at best Walther Hinz's
handbook on Islamic weights and measurest. It was assumed, for
example, that the Ottoman dirhem weighed 3.207 gr at all times, and
all series of weights okkq, kantdr and so
- it was supposed that kile, okka orcomputed
were on
this assumption. Also, kantcTr were
always identical in all parts of the empire and for all kinds of goods.
Sometimes, it has not been noticed th.zt lidre and loclra, usually writren
in the same way as o;J, were different units of mearsurement. The word
krlc was often used by the Ottomans interchangeably for all local grain
measures regardless ol'their actual size or weight, and the lilc lbr ricc
was half the kile used for wheat. Thus, a measure could vary in the
same area according to the kind of merchandise measured.
It is evident that in order to reach reliable conclusions in the studies
on Ottoman social and economic history, our primary task is to
begin a comprehensive and systematic study of Ottoman metrology.
Such a study should comprise not only a tabulation of weights and
measures with reasonably exact equivalents, but also Ottoman policies
and practices in metrology, and local practices and nteitsLrrer)'.ent
systems which often continued under Ottoman terminology in v'arious
parts of the empire.
This is clearly a work that goes beyond one person's capacity'. It is
necessary to organize our efforts as a team in this vast and arrduor-rs

I I.iurr stl'e IIussc urtd Grv'ithtt untg,ercclutet itr.t trtc!rist'ltt'5'r'.r/r,lr. Lcidcn : E. J. Urill
1955 (hci.. I tcr l,ll G l.
3t2 TI,,\LIL INAL('IK lNl l{Ol)UCl-lON TO O1-TON{AN l\lh l-ltOLO(i\ 3ll

field. Experts in each Near Eastern country should fbcus on local as a result of Turks' commercial relations with Iran through the
metrology trying to find concrete evidence lor local measures; folklore Sogdians. On tne other hand, Chinese intluence, particularly in thc
with regard to local Uighur culture area, is attested.
evidence should also be checked measuring
ArStn, also in the lbrrn of arSun, cujtn, ulg'irt in Tr-rrkish dialects,
Iionr the Pahlavt uru,stt (new Pcrsian '. draS, ru$. Butttmn, butlnlair in the
In 1981, at the meeting of the Internutional Conmrittee oJ'Pre-Ottotttutt Uighur docunrents, came lrotn the Pahlavr word petnldn, in ancient
and Ottotnun Studit.y at Cuenca (Spain), the proposal fc-rr such a common
Persian putittruna. Composed of put tpad) and nutut putimAtru nTay
effort was enthusiastically endorsed . Turcit'u promised to publish such
originate lrom <the mana ol- the king)) of the late Assyrian systcm
studies in a series in order to accumulate the necessary materials and
(see App. I). According to the Uighur texts, it was used in measuring
studies for a final guicle on Ottoman metrology. In this paper, I have
meat, cotton, grain and various groceries as well as wine and rvater.
tried to bring together some notes on the formation of the Ottoman
Also. the surlace of sown land was shown to be meiisured tn budnrun.
central measuring system and some observatiolls otl Ottoman policies
towards local measuring pracLices.
In modern times it was identified as the equivalent. o1'one Chinese
Ottoman metrology itself is an irrrportant topic involving Ottoman ketti or 604.79 gr. In Buhara it equalled 45.093 kg. The series of the
measure was as follows : I batntan : 4 uiltser : 80 urua. The use' of
cultural, administrative and economic history. Generally speaking, a
particular rneasure used traditionally in a society is part of its culture batman in lran, and its spread in Anatolia, may be associated with
ancl often continues as one of the most persistent elements of that the Selluk and Mongol rule. Batmar and nrcirut were usecl inter-
particular culture. Custom has, irt a traditional society, the assuraltce changeably in the Ilkhanid Iran s. Batntan was known to Fr. B.
of reliability established through centuries of experience. Thus, it is Pegolotti u at Ayasoluk (Ephesus) around 1340. He states :
1o wonder that under the Ottoman rule local or regional weights and Il peso d'Altoluogo si chiama 'huttirttuno, trl qualc pcso si vende ln
measures persisted in nrarty areas even when terminology confbrmed Altoluogo tuttc mercatantie. Panni lani si vendono ad Altoluogo a ur.lir
to that of thc ccntral system. This is particularly true for the Ottomans misura che si chianra u(('ono. Biado si vende in Altoluogo a moggio (...;
as their central bureaucracy had ofien recognized wisdom and prac- Battimano I d'Altoluogo di cosa che non nianchi torna in Cenova
ticality in local nteasuren'rent systerns. This point shall be illustrated in libbre 32. Ivloggio 100 d'Altoluogo di biado f-anno in Genova mine -57.
the evolution of measllrement systems in Serbia, Bosnia and Albania. Clearly. hatnrun was the basic weight in this busy Turkish (Aydrn)
This line ol' study can substantially be supported and enlarged by port and apparently used for the same commodities as in Central Asia
field work on lblk nleasuremL'nt systcms in the countries once within centuries weighed 32 Cenoese libhre or 10.144 kg. (One huttclrccl
the Ottorttittt cmpirc. ol' wheat equalled 57 ntine of Gettoa or 57 x 83 kg :
4131 kg; lbr libbru .;rr'td minu of Genoa sec Hccrs, Piccarniglio. 2l:
thus, I nrcggio (trtud or kile) equalled 41.31 kg. .lccono lbr punni[wollcn
cloth] may be a distorted spelling of arSwr (urt'ono) rather than Arme-
nian gankoun: Evans, 55 note 5).
The Ottomart imperial metrological system itself apparently owed At any rate, the original Turkish measuring system must hal'e cotlle
its formation to a conrbination of Turkish. Islamic and local traditions. into existence already in Central Asia as a result of intensi"'e com-
There arc- indications ol- an original Turkish measuring system in mercial relations with Iran and China 7. A closer study of Uighur
Turkestan based on ar$tnand btttnuul. Middle Persian origins of these documents ir thc future may reveal the Turkish systern in detail. Divan
two words 3 can be interpreted as the influence of the Persian system Lugut al-Tili'k8 (written in 1074 or 1077) contains these measures:
: In arr inquir_1 trl'Abdulkrrdir inen. I-iirk Itulk Bilgisitrr uit ,lluddcltr. lstanbul 1910.
f7,5,c'lclrrrr tIut the lirlltruirrt nreilsrlrcs n'crc still ilt use itt Artattlliu tt that titttc: ur;trt, o Scc R. R. Arut, (Balrnun >>, ibid.
hatnrun, (('!ltt, (nl(i:(,, kilt, okku, dl;ek, s()nt(rr. (i'tca is lbund in an Otttlntan rc'gula- 5 Sce /.1/U. t7-ll.
rion dared l5-ll (sec l3crinclc-i-Vcinstein. XV-l)conccrning goods intported liom Circassia.
lellu.llcrcttturtt, cd. Allan Evans, Cantbridgc, IVlass.. 1936, -5-j-56.
" Lu Prutit'u -furkish
Tcrdal'thc trorr.l is prtrnouncr-'d iirlrrir, ('L'!(n, ('i!(tt. I'L'li.'tt( altd sil on. nlcaning a large ' Ir) castern r'i--rJ ctttltcs liom r''', a Chinesc li)()l nleasure and 7lr liorrr
h;,tskct t() eitrr\ slr.r\\. tlrcnce. rr trrtil ()l' rltci.rsurc lilr :tntw'. I-hc uord colllcs liorn 1it,
r'ia, a C'hirtcsc pound : B. l-lrrli'r. Sitw-lruttirzl. Ncw Ytrrk : l)itragort llook (irrllcry.
clricd rcctl to rtltkc l'xrskcts 1l)t'rlctttc St):/rlga, lll. lOSIJ, ll19--101.
r R. R. Ari.rt.,,Batrnan >,. islint, ll, 3'l-1: Ibid., <Ar$tn" (T. H.). I,615-616: 1967,519; tbr Uighur ntelrsllrcs scc N. Yanrada. ,r<Four Notcs r)n Scvcral Nurrics lirr
Wcights and IVtcasures in L;ighur l)r)cumctrts>. Slrrr/rrt cd. Ligcti. -19 l-98. ,\
G. Claust'rrr. .-ltt I:ttrrntlogi<ul Dictiotrur.t ttl Pra-l-hirtccntlt Ccntur-t"furkish, Oxlord : Thc
lhvidtrr ich, ,llutrriul.t ptt .llt'trttltt.qii SrrJnaytkortti Sretbtci .{--ii. l\losctrri 197().
Clurcndon llrrr.tsc. 1971, -ll)-i--l(Xr. his ctlntol()!t\ (1rrrl-: 'solttcthiltg wltich sirrks') citttnot n I lnt indcbtcd ttr Rrrbcrt DanktrtL'lbr the abr)\'c list: scc tlrc ncri cclititrn trl'the
be acccplcd

artry (half a balanced load), iilgii, krklun (a.heaping nleasure), sugu of 3.207 g) the Ottoman standard oftka should actually be 1228.8 g.
(al-miky,A/, a grain tneasure), krin'g'i (: l0 rat[)e, batmun (: I matru), At any rate, she believes these weights cannot be assigned to the series
of the milkalunits of Iran.
lgag (: I Jursah), tuda ('a piece of land extending as lar as the eye The Ottoman ring weights of the sixteenth century, Pyle notes, are
reaches'), kulug (lathom), ktrrrs, karr (;irc1' ), I'rg (iiru' ).
different from these <Seljuk)) ones in appearance. The ottoman weights
The surc-st way to dcternrine the origins of Ottoman ntetrology is have no decorative rnotils and (are often stanped on thc- surlirce>>
to examine the physical mcasures fiom the Seljukid period. with identilying rugra. The ear_liest ottoman okku weights dated by
Pyle belong to Siileyman I (1402-l4l l).
For the Seljukid period, the vakfilyes (pious loundation deeds)'a
Preliminary studies of Seljuk and early Ottoman weights were carried constitute another reliable source fbr the weights and measures. In
out by Nancy Pyle'o. She studied the Seljuk ring weights and fbund one of the earliest vakfiyyes, that of Karatay dated 65111253, v"'hich
them to vary in weight between 30 g and 1290 gr'. They are all made was drawn up for his caravanserail ls, ul.ti1ta, irclab, and mucld are
of bronze and copper and some bear stamps, tanrgas. of Ottoman referred to as the measures used in the distribution of the provisions
times. She suggests
that < the ring shape of these weights apparently meat, wheat and bread to the guests and employees t6. It is said -
exclusive to Anatolia at the time of the Seljuks, was spread by the that every guest was to -
be given three ulSiya of bread daily, <the ul;iy,a
Ottomans in the form of okkas to the lar corners of the Middle East>. weighing one hundred dirhem))r7, <The oklia (ul;iyu) in general use
They can be used lor metrological studies only when detailed lists in this peri<od in Anatolia>, Osman Turan suggests, ((was most likely of
with exact weights are' published. It is extremely curious that some that weight>, that is, one hundred dirhem. One of the weight rings
of them bear nntgas of early Ottomiin Sultanstr. These weights may examined by L. Pylctu is indeed'of a weight of one hundred dirhetrt
be standard weights kept in the central treasury department or made or about 320 gte. This was the equivalent of the Byzantine argiriki
on the models coming fiom there. litra (Schilbach, 229) or what is called ratl Rilmi (321 .428 g: Hinz, 3l).
All of the sixty-one ring weights studied by Nancy Pyle are based
on dirhenl and cast in a series of pieces, the largest unit being 400 Also in the vakfiyy'e of Kemal al-Din Alrmed (d. 72511324)20, bread
dirhems. The descending units are : 200 clirhems (l 12), 100 dirhems ( I /4), is distributed <by ukiya of Sivas> which was apparently l0A dirhem.
50 dirhems (l/8), 25 dirhents (l/16) and l0 dirherns (l/a0). Departing In Pegolotti (p.65) 2*! ntene (mcinn) of Sivas equalled I ruotoli of Acre
from the assumption that the Anatolian tJirhem weighed 3.20135 g, she or Famagusta. He added that all goods are sold in the ruotolo of Sivas
is of the opinion that physical changes which occured over time were (< Salvastro ))). Since I ruotolo of Acre equalled 2.2 kg, I mcinn of Sivas
responsible for the variations in the ring weights. She observed that correspondeC to 977 g (Hinz, 2l). Neither ruotoli nor mene of Sivas in
themajority of them vary less than l0 percent <from the standard Pegolotti corrc3i;1nd to the full okka (400 dirhent) or its subdivisions
units of dirhents>. One actual okka piece weighed 1248.835 g or 389 as tabulated in N. Pyle (p. 103)2r. Pegolotti's weights might be'con-
dirhem (see chart no. l). If we take Ottoman clirlrcltr as 3.072 g (instead nected with the transit merchandise from Iran to Syria. In the everyday
transactions in Sivas, a one hundred dirhem piece of okka (in Pyle's
list i of okka) must be used as demonstrated in the vakfiy1,es. This
Dit'drr; Tiirk $ivalcri Liigutt, eds. R. Dankoffand J. Kelly, Cantbridge : Harvard Printing
Office. 1982. l-ll.
e Perhaps the Pcrsian v'ord ktiJg'a liom Arabic kuJJu (the basin or scale of a balance) 'o For a list ol'the published vukfiyyes of this period see Kayaoglu, Vakllur Dergtsi,
might be suggested as an etymology of kdwgi.ln western Trrrkish we tlnd kepg'e < ktiJ;e. XIII, I-I5.
ro <Ortoman Okka Weights >, Belltten, 61, Ankara : Turkish liistorical Socicty, ts
Published by Osman Turan, <Selquk Devri Vaklryeleri, Ill. Celaleddin Kararay.
January 1977, I l5-l2l: ilun, <Anltolian ltirtg WeiglltsD, J()untul o/ Turkish Studi<'s, Vakrllarr ve Vakfiyelcri>, Bt,lltten, Xlll45, 11-171.
tb lbid.,lines 63. 65, 91.
II, Cambridge, 1978, 97-106: lbr the existing collections see N. Pyle, I0l, notc l; tbr t1 lbid., p. 95 line 20tt.
Persian wcights Bruno Kisch, Sla/cs und lVaight.r, New Haven, 1965, Paul Balog, <Pesi
tE Pyle, 99.
di Bronzo Islarnici del XIII sccolo >, ,lrtulcrni Ticirtt'si li i\,t urrti,trtttttiL'u tt Cotttitr'rilu re ln the vukJi.t'1'e ol'Sahib Ata (ed. by
Classit'ln', Lugrttt..r. I 971' 179-87. $adi Bayram and Ahmct Hanrdr Karabacak.
<Sahib Ata Fahrtid-din ,\li'nin Konya imaret ve Si','as Gokmcdresc Vakliyclcri,,,
'r N. Pylc, r<.Attatolirttt Iting Weights>>, 9tl, l0l.
2 Ibid.. 98.
| Vuk(lur, XIII. ll-69) thcre seems to be a relcrcnce to a varicty of okka
rrThe tunrgu on the rcverse side of the bronze ring weight photographed and published wcights (sec p.56;thc prirrted Arabic text is not legible).
2o ismel Kayaollu, <<Rahatoglu ve Vakfiyesi>, llukllur Dergisi, Xlll. Arabic rr'xt
by Pyle, Ibid.. p. 106, ll-cure -5, can be read rs Nlchnrcd b. Bayczid Uan; comparc
P. Wittek, <Notes sur h tughra ottomanc>, B.t':untirtrr, XX, 1950, p. 27'l; and Suha p. 20, line 65.
2r an okku subdivision of 300 dirht,nr.
Umur. O5ntunlt Pulisuh Tudrulurr,lstanbul : Cent Yayrnevi. 1980' 99-102. Unless there existed
316 II,\I II INAI-('IK I\I tiOI)t ('l ION l-O Ol lO\1.\\ \ll:I R()t.o(;\
.)t /

is identical to rutl
Rfinti or Byzantine urgiriki litru. This weight is also T,ruLc I

identical uith the Ottoman litlre of 100 tlirlrcnl in the butntan system.
Wt,lt;il1S. \ll \sL I<ts .\\t) IIR]\ls l\l)l('.\Tl\(, ( \il (,()t{llrs rlt CoODs
The lact rhat the Ottonrans revalidatcd and used Seljuk ring weights tr .1.1t l ttr tt tt-t R.r.7tD7,.rxD /tl.s tt.t,tt. I: tr r't n t i(!,r li{,ir
is taken :rs a prool'that thc- Ottornan okku was also based on rlirltent
with the sante weight. While Byzantine /itra seems to have been cont-
[:quivltlents irt ()tttrrilrrr
monlyuseditissa|etoSaythirtIranian-Ilkhanidtradition(hutmun> 'l'urk
niin) cclnstitLrtccJ the busis o1'<<the imperial-olficial)) nteasuring system r

of Turkel' bclitre thc risc o1'the C)ttomans. Handbooks on state finances '.4lttl : nunrbcr (ol'aninurl: Iunrbe r. irort bur. ctc '.'lth'tl
written ih Irun ilere lbllou,ed in the chanceries of Anatolian states22. Ak;u : silvc'r coin .'lkSu
The fbllowing list ol'tcrms used in connection rvith measures may givc Rir-i u.slt: horsc pirckltrad .'l r-t tikii
an idea ol- thc c.\l.cnt to rvhich thc Ottomans inherited this tradition Btir-i ttstt't': mule packlcllrcl Kutrr-viikii
(see Table l). ('ir t h : nrrusLlrc tll' eltplreitl (lor graln) ('r'rlr (rarcll uscrl. scc ttttrtltl
irnd Arlt')
Besidc's ol,ku (400 dirlrcrrr) ancl lidrt' (100 dirlu:rrt). tttiinn and butnrun Diistiit'i: a sltcet (ol' l'ur) Dr:lt'
were apparently widely uscd as larger units in Anatolia in the early Ditrclr : money ol'account'trt' ( sikkt't. ttIttot
l4th century. In the 1330's, Al 'Umari23, obtaining his inforrnation Dirhunr: wcight (lirr nrLrsk, clrugs, sallion, aloc Dirltttn (:ce rtrlrul
from two visitors to Anatolia, reported that there, ratlvaried lrom one wclod, c'tc. )
regiorr to another betweetr 8 and l2 Egyptian ratl. According to the Furd : a single piece (ol'carpe t) F-trtl
same sourcc2a, Bursa's rutlwas identical to that ol'Gerntiyan which Iluhbu: a gntin (ol'pcarl) I luhht
rvas 3120 dirlu'nr. Since I Egyptian clirlutn equalled 4.68 g (Hinz, 4), Ltintl : (pl. uhtrulll cartrcl lold. or any packlotd I.l itttl. tl,'y, - t iiAli. riiA
one Gerrniy'an or llurs;,t rutl was 3120 x .1.6ti : 14.600 kg. Flere. r'all khdu: hilt (rl'suord or bow') Kttlr:rt
was apprrrcntly conlirsccl with niinn or hutnrun. As a matter of lact a Ku.t'lsii r nreirSUre or crtpltcity' (lbr grain) l\t',t'/1 r', kL')'l or kilt
unit of 4 ttu'itttt which is lburrcl in India, with a wcight varying betwu-en Kilida: so n.lJn) collrtrs (ol'huntirtg animalsl Kililt
12-16 kg (in Surrt' 1.1.969 kg) (Hinz,22-23), niight be the same as Kit'u: piecc (til-rtrohuir. stonc, tcltt. ctc.) It'i t- tr

the rutl (1 triirttt\ ol-rvestertt Arlatolia. Kutir : a train ol' scvcrt earncls A'rrtrJr' (u tntitt of' sir clrrncls)
Lt't'. A piecc (ol'Iiuropcatt eloth) ( rilrc )

:ll ulil: : strilnd (ol' pcirrls) Di:i

,lltjnn : rleight (lirr spiccs, srrrtclal, mcat, breaci, iron ,lltn
inrplcnrcnts. barlcv in retuill
,l'l ilkul: r.nusk. \loncs. ingot ol'golci or silvcr .ll tlAil
:: Scc Z.\'. -l-oglr11. ,,
i\'logtrlllrr l)sr rindc Arlrckrlu'nun Iktislili Vrrzilctir,, 'l'iirk ,lluculludd: books ,lliitrllcd
llukuk yt'iAti.strt lttrilti .ll((tnu(t.\'t. l. I9ll. I-i. /lt'.trrlri-tt'l:uliiki)'.u7 rliscovcrcd h1 tlludl: (Asia Nl irror) It)clsLrrc litr grairt .Il rttl. nrtitl
Z. V. -l-rrgrrn is ctlitecl bt Walthcr Ilint. Dfu llcsili-.t't' I'-uliiki.r)li ,lt'.t '.'1luhtlltllt Iltrt !,1ulur : pcrs()n. ttutnber (ol' pcrsotts) .\'clu'
,llohutttrttuLl Ihn Ki.t'tl ttl-.llt7:utrtlttrirti. l:itt l)(r.\i.\( /t(r kitludut dc.s .stttutliL'/tL'tt llt'tltrtuttc.t- Prl.stit,'. suk irlit lLittrtlpeun u'oolen cloth) Itu.sttu, t.skirlit. IttAu (l ltLt.ttLt
rr'(,.r(,/r.r ( tttn l-16-l l, Wicsbrrclctt : Franz Stcincr Vcrlag. l95l . firr othcr llnancial hand- : ,50 _:ir.a-)
books sce Ibicl.. [,inliihrun,q, ltlso Nclat Coy'i.inq. I)u.: .sttgt'rtunnt(' tt l-llt'.ttilt tlt'.s
'Enid rt.r-5rlrnli. Ra'.r (pl. rrr'u.r) : head (ol'anirnal) Rt".r. rl'rJ.r
trrrpublislted Ph.[). disscrllttirltt. Gottinge n 1962 . idcttt. <. lntird es-
'l'urilt DL'r.qi:i. XV 10. lstanbul : Univcrsity ol' Istitrtbul. Faculty' rrl' ,Sorr : bar (ol'silvcr). cu. 516 gr. (l{inz) Sont
Serari vc Ilseri >.
Lette-rs. 196-5, 7-l-fi6: iVlirkrrntal Nlbipour. I)it bt'idttt'lrctt Lcitliidur dr's I:uluk Tultd, tulrtdtli: a sltect 1of'lirr) lhItu. ILtlttttt tt
',11i-.t't, 7'ultri:i illttr tlu.t .\t(rutli(lt( Rt't'lrrturtg.srr't'st'tr itrr 11. Jultrhund(rt, unpublishe'd 'Jtl* (pl tikdt): it srttglc (gurrnent) t'dk
Ph.D. disscrtrrtion. (iiittirrgcrr, 197--l . rrlso scc the importurtt studl'ol'Walther llinz. <, Ihs Tut hckii : lirur (horsc-shocs) (ritrc)
Rcchnurigs*cscrr oricrrtulrschcr Rcichslinlnziitntcr inr lVlittclalteri>, /)t'r l.tlutrt.19. Bcrlin 'J'p[ . Qrulhair). .utkirlrit 1l:urtipcan u'oolcn cloth)
.sr1l 1ir7r (;1 b;1lr'I
19.19. l-19 and I l5-l+l Anronr the sources ol'thc latc llkhanid pcriod in Iratt, .llukutt'hit. silk cloth. postin (l'ur). A(//rrr and .rrrrabil (shirt
cd. Nl Srrli. L,rtltorc. l')-15rrrtd rirtltlecd. /li'l'-r/lu,ririi ol'Ilte rizir ILu5icl rrl-l)in. erl . I. Al,srrr. iur(l tr()u)ers). u,t/rji (\irtir),
Tchnrn. trlso corr(lrin vlrlrlrblc irtlilrttuttitltt ol'tltc ttteltsttrittlr s\stctlt tll'lrutt lilr tlris l'ukr, vikr : packltxrrl (rirrc)
rr .\l .l/,rrrrliA. l9--lfi /,tt't \:it' r't : a plir (ol' sltoe s. stirrups) /.tyc.:itti<'
:t i6. Jl l.iri' : tcrtiles, vilid lsilk eloth), kirbu.s (eotton or /it'A'. Ltt'lktt I ur)ttt 'rtdi.
llur lirbrrc)
3r8 lt,\1 il_ IN \t ( lK lN r i'OI)tr('l'l()N l'O Ol-l'ONl/\N fU[: I l{Ol ()(;\ rl9

The Seljukid SLrlti.lnirtc and the Turconran beyliks werc lbllnded on Tqslr ll
Byzantinc tcrritories and cstablished con'rmercial relations with Italian
It rt \\ | t(;lils ,\\l) Ntti\S('RLs IN trsE t\'. til l-t \ \\
maritime statc-stt. An active trade, particularly in wheat, alum and (Pt'c;oLotr t. t,i'lrl)

cotton had developc-d betu,een ltall,and Turkey in the period 1200-

1350. Thcrc' was also a lurge-scale trarrsit trade between Asia and the
Mcciitcrr':.lnci.u'l thrtluglt lnrtt attcl Anltcllil in thc slurlc pcriod.
two scts rtl'ucights r.urcl ttrcltsurcs, B)'zr.ultinc ancl Arlbo-lrlnian, contri-
buted to thc lilrntation ol an international lltalian) measuring sl,stent Bcrllc' (sce Schilbach : Bot,riior')
which wils pre\/alertt in the conrmercial transactions in the Levant. Cunturo (Arabic'. kintar known in two units large
In othr'r \'ords u,ltilc' in the past Rornan-Byzantine (and Iranian) and snrall: sce Schilbirch : 1uv'lt1r'ctptor', XuvT(I-
systems had beconlL- tht-' basis of thc Islarnic weights and measures in prov)
the post-Crusacles period it was Islan'r that provided the basis of an Carrura (Arabic : girir) Giryr, or .qurdr. or fiurt7r
internationlil measLlrinq svstem:b (see Table il). Cubello (see Schilbach : 1oL,[]ci.ror'.; Krbtl. kubul
Dirt'rrttt (Arabic : dirltunr. sce Hinz, l-8; Schilbach : Dirltctrr
In brief'. the Seljukid and Italian sources ol- the early fourteenth bpaXptl, bpuptov)
century irttcst lhat hutntun, lidrc. okka, kuntir a,r'td, kilt:, the basic Lihbru, see ruotolo '
terntinologv ilt thc Ottontan systent w'r-rr' comnronly' usecl lbr weights trlutit'ule (Arabic : rnitkdl. sec Schilbach ; d(uyrov) tlI ilknl
luncl rttclsut'cs itt thc Scl-irrkitl Asil IV{inor bclirrc thc'Ottonlrn perir)d. :ll t<'tt<'t'tt ( Ara bic : tnuk k ik I ,lltkAik 1in Sr riu)
Otttltttttt oA'Au (r'lrArllr', lA'rlr'). w'hich becanrc thc basic unit in the 'lIt'tro (Arabic : ,n('(r'(') (see Schilbach : [urpot', ,lI trlrt, ntr I t'L', ntdt urd
Ottomatn $'cigilts s)'stcnr, equaled 100 dirlrctn or ten tinles onc ;rrr'i Lrttin : tnctru. tnat r(lLt, rtritr,'tu)
t,uki)'.r't'(sc'e Tuble lll) or four tinres rutl Rilnri (lirlra)of 100 dirltt,trr. ,llinu (Arabic rrttirtrr) (sc'e Schilbach: pivu; Hinz: .lI tn
Tlrus, the idcntilrcation ol' the exact w'eieht ctl' dirhenr is of crucial trttittn)
import;.rncc. ln the calcr-rlutions ol' oAA.a in kg. Walter Hinz's sug- .lltrygio lrntttltlli or ttrtttti,'llr : I l-l ttl- lro.q.grir; .ll ul. ttrtlitt
gestion 21 1l okku : 1.2828 kg, basc'd onl dirhern: 3.207g) is lollowed Arabic : trtudd; Schilbach : irirtiro;)
in all recent publications \\'hereas according to Sahillioglu's calcula- ()tt'hiu (Arabic : rlrArllcr or riAi.r'cr; sce Schilbach : 0kk,t
tions r8. the olliciiil dirhun in use (in coinage) dou,n to thc end of the oirTTiu)
rArlu; sec Sehilbach : oriyyia, onca)
Ont'iu (Arabic : L'ttkt', ttiigi, riiki
r5 [n addition to W. FIeycl, I!rl.ttoirt'dtt tttrnrnt'rtt'<ltt l.t'tutil. l, cd. fr. Ray'naud. Quurtu (Roman-Byzantinr', sc'c Schilbach : Tupru; Kurtu. usctl in Albania ti>r
Paris. I936. rc'ccntlv ciiscorered dclcunrcnts show'that thcse comr.nercial relations u'crc Pegolotti refers to it as a mcasure of grain in grain mcasure during the
closer than rrc- rcllizcd . scc Turati. I'lirktvt' Stlguklulurt Hukkrndu Rt,.snti I csikulur'. Pcra, ol-oil in Rhodcs rnd wine in Cyprus. This llrst declcie s ol'the Ottonran
Ankura : Turkislt llisttrrierrl Socictl . l95ti; L--. Zuch;.rriudou, ,,Scpt truitcls irrctlits cntrc <,one lburth)) mcrrsurr is used rridely in ltaly, rule . it is relbrrcd to as a
Venrscct lc:6tttirats d'A1drn et clc l\lentele (l l-1 l-l-1()7),,, Stutli prc-()t!rtttttttti I OII()ntLtnt. Turtis, Spain a;:cl Errqlltncl) nlcasurc lionr prc-ott()nti.llt
Napoli, 1976, l19-2'10.
2n Non' scc E, Schilbuclr, R)':utttitri.s<he .lletrtthtgr,', I, l\{unchcn: C'. H. Ileck'schc pcriod.
(fiortt Arabic ur-ruh')
Rubo. rovu, riot'tt, urrohr.r Rub' , E'tir.t t'k
Verlagsbuchhandluns. 970, I 75 lf.

2' IMG,l-t\: itfunr,,,Hlperper und Asperr,. Dcr l.slutn, 19, 196-1,79-ti9. Ruotolo, libhru (Artttic '. ul-rut l: rce Schilbach : Lidrt. /ot/t'rt
'o O. L. Barklrn, <,J-hc Pricc' Rcvolution of the Sixtcenth C'entur\': A 1'urrring Point iirpu, libra)
in the Eccrntrrttic History ol'thc- Near Easlr,, lntt'rtrcttiortul Jourtnl ol t\'litldlt, Studie.s,
VI I, Janurrrr l()7-5. ll note 2. garc u sumnri.rrl ol'Sahillioglu's llndines in his Ph D.
'fabrizl Jirltt'trr, ucighing -1.071 g, uas uscd in thc Ottoman cmpire until
the end r:l'thc scvcntcetrth ccntur). Sahilloglu assL'rts that in the .l,500's and l-571 thc
tlirfurn rvas J.072 g. (Btlg,'lrr, I\'. lt'': illt,23, 176); <according to our calculatigns
clue: ((ll- the gold coin (//rrri) is to be of pure gold. 129 coins arc struck fionr one
l.rrrgcf tlr thc gold coin ol' N{chrncd ll,r. hc s.rys (( one .lirltL'tn rvas -1.()71 g. until thc
hurrclrcd nilkal ol'soli goltl ,, 1l{cgulations of thc mint rrl' Scrrc:. 1'KSI-. Rerun l'/-i-5,
middlc ol'thc sL'\'cntuenth centur\',, lBI-'I'D.1. 1969. -191.'fhe sur'i dirht,rtt u'as delinitcly tblio l-jll). An Ottoman (l()cunt0nt r"'stablishes that I ntilkil cquallctl 1.5 r/rrlrt'rt (scc
ljxcd as -l.ll5 g (l.llG.,1;. but Dlnttski (Dantascus) tlirlrcttr ueighc'd -1.086 g lHinz, -r). llarkan, lf',t1, XtX. lj--l). A cornpletc list of thc amounts ol gold or siircr u'ith thc
Iror (iuzan K hun': rnonctilrv rclorm and thc rve ight o| dirhcn sce Z. V. -['ogan, cxact l)umber ol cclins struek elrch tinre can be establishccl fiotn tltc ()ttornart recorrls.
<<N{oiollar,,. I IIl.II. l, 5, ll. I:clr thc Ottornatt drr/t,'ttr and changes introducccl or 'I'heir comparisorrs *'ith thc retual coins can tcll us thc cxuet werght of ltilArJl rrntl
legalizcci ut r lrrious clutcs. C)ttt>rnatr clocrulcl)tation has still to bc carcfully collccted dirlrcn units lirr coinagr al a gircrt tintc. Such I study is still tLr bc citrne
ancl stuclicd. hc lirllowing is ;.ur exlnrplc ol- hou' such rlocunle nts can sirc il dee isrve
310 lt\til lN\l(lK l\ Ilt()t)L t'llO\ IO Ol'l()NlAN Ill: ll{()l o(;\ .tl I

sr'vcrrtecltlh ccttturr \\'lts 'fuhri:I dirlunt ol'3.072 g uncl afier that tinte We llnd the twct dillbrent weight series in the pre-Ottor'nllr'r slsteprs
tlre Rrirri iirlu'ttt ol'-1.207. lt is kno\\'r'r that Ottontrrns also used Dimiskt (Flinz l6-13. 27-3-i; Schilbach. 285)
as lbllou,s
dirhettt nhich u'as cqual to i.086 sr". The quc-stion is u,liether the Egypt: I rul.fttlfitli: l2 illiiya : 144 clirlrttt: -150 g (tbr tinc goocls)
Riltttt dirltt'trr tl'as itt usc'itt cveryclay'litb belbrc it wus nracle the standard rutlkultir : 160 dirlrcnr : 500 e (fbr ordinarl,goc-rcls)
for coinagc. In ull our citlcul:.ttiorrs here w'e lbllow,ed thc RrTlri rlirlutn Syrirr : ratl : 600 dirhent : L850 kg
ol-3.207 u uciglrt or onc of;f,rr - l.2li2tl kg. Ztlhiri rtul : 180 dirhc,,, :- 1.500 kg
Iritn : srrri.rf l ttrIiun - ]60 dirlrt'ttt: liJi s
I iur r lll Itcrrr'1' ('l-lbriz-i) rtttitttt : -i kg
.)rli i,( \\()\l( \l ,\\tl(,nlS \((()l{l)t\(, t(l Nllttrttt> l\lttXf I\lt'ru''
Venice: lihhru s'ottilc: 301.230 g
libbra s,'().rf(/ : 357.749 g
Genoa : lihbru .\ottil( : 316.750 g
I rrr.rA - ir() rc7 Jr)L'itsLtrL' lbr l ht-' thi ngs ttl' grca r q ua D ti t; libbru gros.ta : 3118.450 g
l.ra' ----, S r,rtl ttteas[lre lirp ths tltings ot'snlrll quuntit-l In rddition to the clual system in weights ariother continuing tradititlp
I llAir'.r't' - lll tlirlt<'trt is the duodecirnal systern. The duodecimal- und lie.radccirnul-s,\,stenrs
ilppart-ntly originatcd lionr the Mesopotanria und wirs tr:.rrrsniittccl
I hirrtl i ) t:iA : )l)l) tilttutt btttt)ttt)l l()r Cr)ll()n through the Greco-Roman system to the Meditcrrurnean world.
I tiuitrtt i hdutt(tn, : l(r() tltr/tt'trt In his recent work on Byzantine metrology', Erich Schrlbach pointcd
(t\ dirltttrr: I i:tttt' oul 3oh that the basic unit upon which depencled all other Btzantine
| 1,tr,tA , .\(t r',tt I
weight units, ancl the measures'derived ll-oni thc w.eights, was thc
kryul>r111 ).itpu. the accorrnting pound. This poLrncl \\,1s rlircctll
I rutl '-. ll rrrAir ll
related to the lihru ol- the Rontan empire. In thc'latc'Rorniln empire thc
I Airlru - i0 lttttttttttt system was based on the following series: I libru : 12 uttciu : -lf,i
.sit'iliuts : J2 .;c.t'tttlu : 96 drucluttt' : 2titi scripultutt : 5J(t oholtt.s.
Ftrr -1,11"1 rltt ltrttr scc tttlrtt. and 100 /r),'rr was cstintated as I cent(uuriutrt. Altcr the nronetar),
refiornls of Constal)tine the Great the /rbra was assignccl il w,ciglrt
corresponding to 326. l6 g
IHt l)t \t_ \\tt(;ilts s\st[.\t \\D ilil.: t)tot)t..('t\t\t. s\slt.\t Irr thc- Byzantinc'enrpire loguriki lilra, the golcl pouncl. u,as rliviclecl
In the Ottotttan s)'s[em ol-weights as given in the lificenth cel]tury
as lbllows : I ioTuprlr ),[tpa :12 oiTylur : 72 iquTru : l7]S
handbooks written lbr the finance department scribcs, as well as irl Itpu^tru : 6912 otto{_oxxlrr. The basis of- this series - | litru :
a 72 soliclif nomi.s'ntd gold piece lvas generally mainrained down to
the sixteenth celttury oflicial records (sec'TKS. Revan,43a) two svstems
the twellih century. In order to-determine with thc- greatest precisron
are clearly'drstinguished:one based ort lorlra, or kantar litlre.siequal to
the actual rveight ol- litrq in various periods. Erich Schilbach usccl
176 dirhetn (: 561.132 g). and the other on lidre, or ,c:ne litlre.;iequal
statistical data based on the monuments and gold coins. and he canre
to I00 dirhgtt (: 120.7 g) (sornetirnes l2A dirhatl : 3iJ4.84 g). to the following conclusions 32 : 322 g (6th-7th centuries); 32C) g (7th-9rh
Thcnce. t\\o weight series w,ere derived :
centuries); and 319 g (in the lbllowing periodl.
I hutntutt : 72 liilrt, : 7200 dirltt,tn (: 23.090 kg) Under Islam tlte Greco-Roman systern continucci, and rnainl.ailrecl
I kutilir : l0() lolru : 17600 tlirlu,n (: 56.4-13 kg) sirnilar lerrninology: kutudr (t'entenariutrt), rutl (litru), ilki.t,u (rrtl,girt
The first series was used in u'eighing line valuable goods, and the seconcl uttt'iu).rnitktll (a.rugiu)trnd dirlrunt (druclunt'), kirit (kt,rutiu./. In lact.
series, lbr hc'avt,goods. Silvcr r.l,as ueighed and cornputcd in litlre.
the two types ol' litru (litre) of the Greco-Rornan and Bl,zantinc
periods were to be found in the lslan-ric nretrological s)stent. l-hc
Byzantine argiriki litru, also known as m(gu tulunton. w,hich ',1'as usccl
r'' Stltcr'\\i.r\ *ciqlterl trt DurtisAi tlirh.'rrr irr thc silrcr nrincs of'sicieroklpsa
(Nlittlcrttt'klt,rri.t) rtrt(l Ktiit()\() : sdc R. ,\rrheggcr lurrl ll. inulcrk. Ktitttttttttltrtc. (t6.
'\r)r Nl . \1. rr llte tnttt:llrttrr lrnc,l c()lnnrcl.ltlr(t ol' .llrtltuki' ul-.1b/tur. a c()ntpcncliunt "'t' Bt'' .llt'trttlo.qit. Munchcn: C'. fl . llcek':che \'crluu:frrrchhlrrrrllurrr:.
ol lslrtntie luri br lbnthirrt al-l.lalabi (l-l-59-15-19; w'ho canrc lionr AIeppo arrtl serrled 197(). l(r() l-or tlrc uncrerrt \lc\()l)otlrnia:ee Ap. l.
in lstanbtrl l.lcrI'trlirl's tntn:lulitln had a uidc circulution in tlic Ottorrran errrnirc " lhid.. l6l-l()1.
I u:c'd ll:; ctliti,,,; rt'l-llli. rol. l. l:turrbul. l-il--5 l. rt Il'i,l . 166.
lll il \t tt l\ \t( lK l\l li()t)t ( iloN 'ro c)tt()\tAN Nlt,-l R()r ()(;\ )'-l

cr)ptplolllr,ip rr';.rrle. rreighcd -l-1,1.-l-l-l g ultd corrcspolttlctl to l2i oirTyiur It was a s)';ten) rrencralized in largc arelrs b1'thc inrpcrial blrreuucnrts
lurlgiu)rr. Rotnan, lJyzantinc, Perso-Arabic and Ottonlan, ancl local ntctro-
' --
bii.6 SchilbacS trclie\,cs thatr+ undcr thc Unayyads, thc Byzantirtc logies tollowed this serial arrangement (see Table IV ancl VI).
ttrgiriki lirru. ucighrng .333.333 I (or in.early Byzantine period 337.5. g)'
,..i,,pi.1.t lr tltrntiil.rnt pltrcc irt dtc'Arabic ntctrtlltlgical s1'stcttr and haci
O'rtOrt r\ \\ trt(;HTS ANt) r\tEASIiRt:S l.urr
i.l \\r'ight trl'.1-i7 55 g.
An Upr;.r11r.rcl lrtrl u.'ight ol-the yc'ur 7-l-1 A.D.. cxltnirrecl bi R. Etting- Handbooks lbr uccot-tttting and arithrnetic contlrininu lists 9l' thc
harrserr r... illus lituprl t9 g'eig11 -337.-5-i g. Since I dirltott wciglit cor- rveights and measures uscd in a given period n-lLlst be classilletl :-tntong
resporl(1.r1 t() I .l ttti1l,i1l. thc dirhcnr in tltis rurl r".
\\'lts conlputecl lts
our sourcc's on metrolog)'. Thc'following ilrc'Ihc. bcst knttw'n Ottoplitr.t
-1. ll5 g. ,\bbltsirl sli.lss rl cights ctlttllt'ttt lhc sillllc
books of this kind.
Muhyi al-Din Mehnt"'d b. Hacci Atmaca wrote his ,llut'rtui ul- Kut'tl' it/
l'rtrt t IV
irr 89911 4933t, at the end oi his career. Writic-n by, t ttttltis'ib kitih.
[:l rrnt \\ t l(,lt t s. ..\ ttt ()l)l ( l\l \l \) \l t \l scribe specialized in accounting, this work is designed to be a handbook
\((()rit)l\(, l(} \\.lltrz trrr I-. S< ]lllli\(lir for beginners (mubtutlt) in the art of accounting. Hai.'ing u thct>reticll
basis in the ear.licr Arabic and Persian handboclks on uccounring and
arithmetic, it provides us with the actual Ottomun n'tL-asures in usc i1
Rtttl I
his tinre in the introcluction and in the exanrplc's hc qives. N{:.ur-r' copics
fk,:.t,, ll I
ol- this popular book survivedrs.' Here we rrracic usc ol- thc l\,1S.
.Il iykil 'l 6 I
tsibliotheque Nationale, Paris, Supplement rurc no. 5.13. l5b-j9a.
[)tr'/t,ttttttl-A,li l{)s 9 ]5 I Though three or lour tblios are missing at the beginning. this particular
Kirtit llls ll'l ll 16 I MS appears to be a vcry good one with tables. The same volume
Ilthb,t (r9l I 576 9() 6"t I I contains (40b-6la) a translation by Y[suf b. 'Abdullah ot' Mil'trth-i
Kunil:-i Erbub-i Kulent .Llisbah-i Runtuz-i Eshab-i Rukun written by
Uayr ai-Di'r $alll b. Ibrahim in Persia around ti80,i 147-5.
Evide.ntlt. thc durlclccimal s),stenr \\'ils an ltritlinletic arri,lllgen'lent Handbooks on arithrnetic and measures in Ottoman Turkish closelv
follorvecl bj the llnar.rcr' sccretirries and accounting expcrts that dL-ter- Ibllow Muhyi al-Drn Mehrned's work. Nasfih Matrakcr's '(Jntrlut ul-
mincd thc particulur scriul arrangcments itl l'arious mcltsurittg s)'sl.sllls. Hi.ytib, written in 92J;'1517, rnust be mentioned in particular. Anrong
It must h1r,c bccn upplied lirst to the coittitgc systclll, ancl sirtce golcl later works on arithrnetic und accountingrq, thc lbllow'ing arc worth!,
and silyer coinage recluired precision in rveight to the highe'st degrec. of mention Mi/tfih u/-Hi.vab by Dervir; b. Hasan written in 988,'l-58d,
it u,as taken trs ite nroclel by'other serial arrangemellts. Ill thc Greco- and Tuh/ut ul-A'did /i'l-fli.rib by 'Ali b. Veli Selaniki+o.
Roman w,orlcl rhe rvcight ol .wlidu.s,nontisntotu L\nd rts subdivisiclns, and
in the lsllmic culturc arsa Ihi,rt ctI' dlnur, ltnd its rclationship to thc
silyer crtin (l ro l2) provided the birsic systellt to be lollclwed. Since
clivisibilitl, inrcl lructions wirs highcst in a duoclecimal systcln. this
ofl-ered tiie p-lost elljcient ancl practical means in accounting ancl
transactions. Tlius a scriul arrangentent with l2 and its fractions or
multiples was establishctl.

' M. Tahir, Osntutrlr ,\lilt'llilltri.lll, Istanbul, 13,12 l9ll. l5l.

,rr fjor I:llrnrie \)slcnt\ ol' rlrclrsurcrrrcnt itt gettcfttl ll. Saurlrirc. .llulttriutt.Y p()ttt' to For the copies in TKS. see F. Karatay, Tilrkg't' Ytt:tnulur Lutulo.(u.Il, no. l-5tjl.
.rt,r'r'il r) l'lttttrtttt' rlr' ltt ttttttttsttt(t!t(ltt( ,'t rlt' ltt 111i'111tl1t.qir tttlt\ttlt)ttttl('. -l vtlls. [)lrfis. lfifi]-
ro l'lalil's bttok, lir;/ttku-i I.!i.sih: Stiley'rnaniye Library, Hsacl Illcrtdi. no .ll/l'
llifiT; uitS t[e c\(rl)li(]tr ol Lrsclitl )uP!!'sti()l]s irr /.1/(, (hcrc is tl() \\\tcllliltic irtie:tiglttttrrr Mchnted b. Atrrracl: l:srrd I:lcntli. tto. J176, Kopriilii l-ibrarl . Nl . ,'islnr. rcctt,rtt tto .]'ll.
tft'rn.'orr thc r>rigint itrrd er.llutirirt tll'lsllrttic s-\'stcllls ol'tlleasurctl.tcttt. Nasfih Matrakcr's'(.trndut ul-I.lisil>, $ehid Alr Library, rto. l9(t7. Nurioslttarlil'c. rto lt)fi'1.
r* Schilbrre h. ,t1t. r j1 . ll6-ll1. lblio 5l afl'.;tirr books on urithrrictic and ntctrology also scc O. Nuri [-.rgin. lluullirtt
r: R. [:ttingh;.ruscn. ,,r\n [,]nuri\ud l)truncl Wcight r', 'l-ltc J,,utrt,tl ttl Ih,' Il ultt't.s '1rt ('crdrt t'e llu.y,tttr. lstanbul; ll. Slhillioglu, ,<Eski Hesap Kitrrplarrnrn t)cgcri n. B'l'il).
Gttllo.t..ll. Ilultrnrtrrc. l').1(). 7.1'76. eitcil bt /l/(;. l. rtotc .1. VIl. March l96tt.
t" llinr. ll,r,l o'r N'f . Tahir. up. t'it..2El. .105. -ll0; Karatay'. ttp. t'it, -516-19
l\ I liot)t ('l ION l-O O-f-fOIl \N \lL I lt()l ()(;\ .tl-5
-1 It,\l ll lN.\l.c'lK

-l-.rltl.t'V l'rut-t- VI

r tn i tr -l)Ir i\lt,Hrti usi \ul L ()l \\ l(,llls \\l) \r \sr tit \

tl ll sr | \l]l l ()l \ll \\t N'l
Yf s[ t \ rolt l_l I{l s
{ | -+'1.1 )
t'" lir'tr'

Nleasurc of \\eight (for linc things): mtkrrl and it\ I'ractions

:r Iq:r. rrrrrrlll ll: ()l (/A( i/
tl ll l l{. lri I tttitAil = (t tltut{ - )1 kirit
kirir \\r
ctr' ('L'kirJ(k t}r'l,/.r17 r)r
I ,rAi il - l(X) /)r)t': "' or 1till I ttrilkil ,- 1.5 tlirltctrr
| /,it,': - l()l) t,r'ir | ilirhtnt: ltltur,ga)
| ,r,t'ir : l0(t ltrtrtt r

I k irit : .l Jrr'rl'
\lc:tstrre of l.cngth : 4ir5'
| :iri' (trr r'rtilrt:t') : I0() l)ut't)t(tA
i\Ioney: akqa (or dirhem) and its liactirlns
| /,(tt tttttl\ " I ri r/rA
: l0() pisa: or.liil{r-t
I ukt'tt
I rltlik . :prtlcr": tltrerttl
. ltt0 ,r.r'ir
I pip,'--
.nt.rllcr urtits trl ---a rr' : I J. I
I ,rri'ir' - l()0 l-trtr,litl
I J trl' --rr',J I 1,lr.t .'/.
I frunkl - l()0 :(n't'Lt C('t't'()
I .ll trl ;rlr7' | .q ir,'h ,git ilt ,

I rtJ.ill ttl lttt :rtlr l5()() (/i-)l/i, ()l

\teasttrcs rtf Clprrcill : nttrdd .' k ile

Ile as,rrc of Lcngth : giri'
I rtrttLltl .. l() Arlt | ;tr0- - l(X) l)Ltt'tttuk
I ktl.' '-. 50 A,t,/t'li tlt' Ari.rr' I ltitrrtruk = 100 rr,rlr'or iplik
\rrr;'fller rttlits trl'kilt I l ktlc - Lrt'rt,q -' l2 Aul''lt 5(l ltttltltt'
3 fttrttt,tA lrrtcl Il.i li,tIr' : I girtlt
I I Ail,' ,,- I lirrrA '., )i kudt'lr
\lcasure of Capacitl : nrudd (plural: anrdld)
\lcasures ol'\\cight (ftlr heatr goods): IantIr - lodra I tttudtl - 20 I'crlst' ( kih:cc )
) Attttrir =' )OO htrlrrt I kr.t'/Sr'- -50 (rlrt'
I ltttlrit : I 7(' ,lirht'ttt I Ari.rr' =- ],00 lluhbt'
I 1ktvl1,:: l.tririk
\le asurc for silk : lid re

I lilrt .- ll() tlirlt,'trr

.\u lttlrr' I r', :rl, rrf Ir _-//lt l r
A lrandbook on ;.rrithmetic in Greek a-r, nrc'rsl probubly, \\'rittcn by tr
Creck scribe in Ottornan service in Salonica aroLrnd 1500+r. pro\ides
\leasure of \\ cight (lbr fine things) : nr i1[ a I interesting infornlrtion on Ottoman weights irnd nrr'asures ol the period.
I tttilkil 21 Lirit ln the arithmctic problems givcn as exitnrples in tlie text thc olcl
l/'it,it. J),r'ir. Byzantincweightss)'stem (l litru: l2 uUkc : J)(.\ogiu: l7l8 kutttiu)
l.\ du-tlrileil list ol'\lltllller tlllits ol- rttrtAil is gircn) is abandoned, and. instead the Ottornan kunttir > lodru (lilrtl systcnr
is applied as lollorvs+s :

o: l'rtll l)ersian tlittu. ldrtut', grain t>r dArtuk, sntlll grtrirr. riltg ir ir l(,ttrllr put.t ol
it dirlttttr or sixth ltlrrt ol'lln)'thing (Steingass; cf. llirlz. I lt.
*r lf. llurrger ltrrcl K \;ogcl. Ein b.t':tuttintstltr'.s llr'tltt'rtlru, lt il'.r /.i .lultrlrt,tttltrt:.
Tctt. ['hr,r;1,!:utts 11111! ]1ltnrtut',1/(/r. Ostcrr. Akad. dcr \\'iss. Phil.-FI ist Kl [)ertksehr. 7S.
llancl l. r\hh.. Wicrr. l()(r.1.
*o Sirrcc tllc l/ori rrus rvortlt 5(i rrAf'a and ()llc lrttt'ttl':rlk l(ttt rtAlrt itt llte hook tt
n)ust bc writtcn urorrnd l-i()0. rvhile llungc'r atttl Vogcl.9. tlltte it ttluch elrrlicr
tr -l hc Itcrrilttt \\'()r(l /)e('-- ()r /)i)(':(/ Illc.tlls ;.t ttnltll III(rllctltr\ ln thc ()ltrllttitn a' Ihil.. 19. .15. 9+. I I I
I:trtprru. llte etrtl)tlltrtl \\t)ftl lirr it uit\ /)l(irl(//' \\r ttl(ttlqttt
3lc, ll.\t.ll. t\\t.( tK
li\ lltOt)ti(-l ION l(-) Of-foi\1.\N \ll,l lt()L(Xi\ 'r'i

I kantiurt'o, : 11 ,kudt'.s' : 176 :

/itre 17600 tlruntr.s Tnsr_r. VIII
I ttkutlt.s : 1 litrc : 400 dromis
I litrc : 100 drunti.s Co\t.rt\t,tts.\\It(;ilts.\\t)\l[:.\st ltt:S.\Nt)nt:\tSI()li\\lil(lt Illr:) \t{l I

compare thischart u'ith thc'Ottornan ollicial list belclrv p 2j5.Ottontan lN tlil: l{1.(jt\tt:t{s()t c',F.t, r\Kxt, l{\t .\\ rrD Kil t\ \lt()t \l) i.oo+
olllcial sources lglr.r- in ss11st'xl lvith the lisrs giyc.n in thcl hanclbooks
(sc'c- Tablcs V lntl \/l).
Terrn or i\leusurc Cit)0tl: tttCltsttrerl ()r l'crCl l C(l t()

.-lrlrtl (nLrtrtbct trl . . ) Itidcs, blrlcs. cr'r:lnties. lrlt't't's ol'llrbl it'. krr jte s
'f rnr r, \ill Irr)uscrs. lunrbcr'.\, et(.
.lrSurt. sc'e _:iriJ'
\\ t tt,til\ \\l) \| \)t l{t\ l\ llil \t \ltKl t lti (;L l \il()\i,t Bt l<s r. Bunluk (it cu1r, rt ntelrsurc)
lstrrtrt I \\l) EDit<rt \R()t \l) li(xrr(,
Bnril, sce t'or il (r barrcl)
Batrnutt dyes, soap.' eott()lt rarn. riee . /rrtlr.rt
Nlrus urc Ctrods Nleusurcd ('ar.t'* (onc fourth. l mcusurc) raw silk
(-eki meat
.lrStrtt > rulf 111 lgu'ril ) tcrtilus. lurs (.r/i (u pair). shoes
.-trstttt > Attrt,s lunrber. h:rir-clttth saeks (-it (a basket, ii ntelsurc) dried tiurts
Bttltltutt '- ttAAtt {rr)cg1'1g5. ntcut. liuits dricd r)r licsh (in'cl (a sack) u'alnuts. hazclnuts. ulunt. ricc. sttlrl-l
(in rc'tail) Danc (u singlc picce ol) llrs, cups
Kuttldr > okAtt > tltrltr.rrt groccnes, pcpper. iron, llux. rVortl. ctrttorr Dtnk (a bundlc) ropcs. lL'lt
( rvlrrrle srrlc or in rutaili Destc (u packct ) knives, hantlkcrchicl'. rtirdlcs. ltuts.
Ki!c >,,Akrt - drrlrtttr su lt Di:i (u string ol) ligs
.llruhl :, kilt' > Sitri/r gr:.rirr. l)our (Ailr,, rrlso spelled kr1.l1,t,) DtiS, sec turu/
.lli1kell > dahi'nt prL'cltrus rle-tals (iqt\ (a caskl
Fug't wine, honcy. lenrorr .;uice. rincgar
D i r ltt'ttr llnc tpiccs. druus Gurdr (a large sack) cotton
Dt.t t c irnpL'lncltrs lnd rhc like . f elt Kah:u (handlc ol) swords, knircs, borv
IItt:rrrt' Jllr pcr Kuntir tirr, copper. rurils. dvcs, he nnu. srrsi-lr. l)tt.\.tn.nt(t
BiSin. buq cl()\er : I higitt I hut : I (dricd rt.tclrl ). driccl liuits. lrorrcr . cl,rrrllctl
= 20 buy,. ttkAu
Ettlctt litr:: I ltt'tlt.n - l:ttil butter. flar. soltJ-1. cotl()lt
('dtnlek Kut (a complete t
)()uurt . | ;iitttltk : 2 ttkku se t-ll') hanke rchicl. ltieccs o1'll.rbrrics. cr)lrr: ;111{ ,,t",.-
coats (/(i/(J/il4). prcecs ttl' lclttltcr. etlrtl.
carpet, lurblrrt
Thc'rcgularion ( v, p 33t{) required ther Ailc (capacity measure Kuruti/ u'i nc, caviur. (/rrlAi. itlunl
^ gririrr. llour irnd sllt), urgutl
for (linc'ar measure). and tliriat, (6riiic ,nit Ar,t'.t'c, scc lrA'it'r'r,
lbr weights) R'erc' constantl)' to be checkc'd by' thc rnttlrtes,)'h, marker Ktt'u (n piccc ol) plck covcrirrg. picecs ol r clve t an(l r.n()ltirtr
inspector. (,vi/) lrrlel c()tlr)ll !otrds 1/'oq'r^r). ei.|l'l'rr'1.
lcatlter, quilt. shirt. drcsscs. bor. hrrrrcl kcr-
chiel. girdle. a bridlc. a saddle
Kt.t'lcc (k ilt) rr'heat, nrillct. llour. rree. rrulnuts. the elrick
Kirhu (a leathcr sae k ) rmplerncnts
Lilri' rlrrv silk

o" O l . llrtr-l'lrrt- ,r lJrtzr IJti,riik

$clrirlcrtlc t:5,rl I'i-\'atlrrrrprrr 'T-cshrit ye 'l-clii:,i Iltrsu:-
llrtnt 'l'rtrtzirlr l:derl Kanuttlrtr,,. 'litrih I t,siAulttrt, It)s. -5, 7, lrrd 9; a cririeul cclititl' tll t ' Ft)r {'le\c ruJistcr\
thcsc ttttportltttt tltleurllcilts ()n tltc blrsi: ()l'rnlul-! c\tiiltt c()pics is ncctletl.
scc n\'<Thc qucstion of'thc ('1,:irrl trl'tlre lillek Sclr Lrntlcr (hc
Otttltnltns, .-lrAr'itttt I'tttrlttu l(r, Athcns. 1979. 9l-91
_lts lt\1il_l\\l(lN t\ I li()l)t ('l l()\ I'o ()l lo\1..\\ \il ilt()t()(;\ -ll9

I ltttttttttrt -, 7l()() tlirltr'ttt. in Lcrrns ttl litlrt it rr 7l li,lr,.'. ut tcr.llrs trl' r'll, r lr ,
it is lli ytrkiy.vt
:lI t'rr liquids (wine. oily. pcppcr. urensils ol'ccrppcr, I litlra : 100 lirltr'ttr
llorrr I r'uA'i.t'.t't' : -l(X) dirlrott
.l[ttlrr I u irre l;lihton (gold irirc) ol' lstlnbul is l0 tttit kdl ttntl | 5 dirltcttt. I t is ri orrh
.lIi:tirti' (ttt,'::11tttl'.'. bctrrccn Attruril I licltrids 95 uksu.
ancl i rrrril) +' kldbton ol'Bursa is l0llrtAcil and lA dirlntn and it is u'orth 91 uksu.

.llul j urlin. ricc, flour

Howcver. tlte l;utttil h:.tcl a'dil]'erc'nt weight in Bursl us is rllustnrtctl
,\'ilgi I tin. :ilk. ii llrrur
Puri'. lttirt't tA (tr pice e r)r u Jr.nlill piccs
in tlre [fursa court rccorcls. In Ruhi'I, 891,r\{arch l-lfi(r l s}iiprnent rrl'
tcrrt. piecc' rtl' uOttle n elctth ((lAa) ()r cottol)
8 kutttir of steel ancl l3 l,,utucir of tin \\'ils senI to Bursu 5'). These rreiqlrts
oli cloth 1Airbr7.r). lcurhcr. srccl. lc'lt, rock-salt
were given ((in ternls ol'the kantdr of IstanbLrl>>. <<When tl-iey w'crc
Pu,s I tt t' rrotrlen eloth (1'lArr). cr-\sti.rl cu[)s
weighc'd in Bursa \\,ith the kuuu,' ol' Bursa)). thc ckrcunrcnt rclrtls.
Pu.:t (tt si rtgie skirt oll ur:
((the steel was lbuncl to be 4 r,'e (okktt)and thc tin l2 rttl;i.t't't'
.\unduk (u btrr ol) s()lrp. 5 t-tglr r
short>. Thus, the l;urtttil'ol'Bursa must be about 43.5 okku u,hile thut
.\upo. .strJtr sult. clarilicd butrcr
ol'Istirnk ul was 44 rtl;liu at that time.
Scpt,tl (\q)(t) (a baskct ol',y rai:ins, ligs
Sclh (trlrjl)J (t gunlcnt ()l') elrltltn:. rntrhlrir or lur etrtrt
$ilu|/ (a llrge bori'l ol) e hccse. ptstil (l'ruit paslc) S'I"{NDARDIZA-TIO\
Tulttrit (u sirtgl.' piccc ol) lur
l1N t.r ltrld trr rr pic'cc' ol) silk cltlth. turbtn. ntohuir lirr onc- clrsss. Ottoman conservartism regarding nieasurL-s is in cornplctc conlbrntit)'
labric lbr onc bcd (rl)icA.iili). tish with the gradual Ottonran process of integration ol' lln ltrL-it into the
/irrrrl (rt :rdc t)l) lish inrpcrial administration. It was a policy of thc Ottonrans to kecp the prc-
Tli r blrlc ol'c()tl()n e loth. rrrohair or hcrrrp conquest laws and custolns to which the incligcltoLls populatioll \\'Lts
7-0!, (tt * lttrlc plecc ()r u buncllc ol') balc'ol'hcnnu. hlshish. lcirthcr. silk ckrrn lortg accustomed'ir. Their abolition, it was thorrght, \\'oLllcl t:lltitil
(tilu, tdltu), l'urs, clrr'sse s dillicutties :lnd cliscontt'nt. As will be seen. clirngc' ollen was sintpl)
lfulutit (u skrrt corttlrincrl cltccsc, bLrttcr, honey, pckrttc: the replacernent ol' the pre-conquest terminology with tlte Ottornun
Iirlr'. -sce rrr).q,i one. This pt'occss usr.lully took quite a long periocl ol'tirtrc, and in sonlc
l'uril clteesc. honsy. r,inc.gur. nails, knivcs. uruki cases it was never conrpleted. As to the spcciitl groLlps which \\'cre
I'ukit'.t't ( I r lA'r t') r' - l(10 dirht'tttl peppcr. {rairr. llour. sugitr. hcrrna lirr reraill, nlaintained in their original status with pre-conquest reeulations
all kinds ol-spiccs, corton yarn local Christian nriners or military groups such as the Eflaks, lbr e.ramplc
/iri' lll kinds ol'clolhs -: the process of charrge was much slower. Thus, we flnd the Serbian or
Zi lrl<' lpuirs ol) sltrlcs Bosnian systems ol-meusurement. withr or without original tcrrninology.
included in the Ottonurn rcgulations of the lil'tc-cnth ccnl.Llr')' conccnting
such cornmunities.
However, tlrxutir-rn in the timar system require(l u kincl ol'stiutclitrclizir-
tion in prices ancl consccluently in nreasurcs. Sirrcc in thc Ottottturt
Finally. the litllou'it'tg ttote fionr an ci.rrly sixtccnth centLlry collccriol registcrs all iirrrur rcvenucs were to be conrputc(l in tentls r)l-thc Otttttttlttt
of Ottotnatt rcgulittiotts4" can bc considcrcd as an oflicial list ol' ukg'u lbr cach tinrar ulrit thc price ol-caclt agricultunrl product. gri.tir) in
Ottomitn weights in this pe-ricld and corroboraLes continuecl use ol- particular, was to bc- ljxed by the sovernmcnt. Iri doing this thc csntntl
kuntir anLl l)utttt(/l sVStcnts. It reircls :
government had to Llse a standard measure wliich was the L;turrltttl
l-he lirllou'irrc is recortlcrl lls prircticctl unrons pc()plc
I /.tttttir =., l7(r00 tlirln,ttt : -1.1 Arr.r't,
I ltxltu - 176 iirln,trt 5" Ilursu
$er'i11e Sieilierr. Ilurx Archlctrlrrgical Nlusculn. l1t) ..\ 5 5..lfirr Steci rrrrtl
tirt *crc ttl hc :hippctl ',,r l.lrre ntlc to lirurrcl clull'lr)ns.
" Scc nty' ., Sule rrrr.rrt tlrc l-lrrgivcr ltrtrl L)tttlntlrrt [,lrri ,,. lt,lttytutt Ott()nlturi( unt.
| thittk tltlrt tltir i: . kislt lirlk ctrnrol()!r)' tll'thc ltlrliu' nrei1surc nt(,::(ptLt.
I rrt l. lt)('9. ll6-.1(r. itltttt. ,,()tt,rrrrr.rrr Nlcthods ol' (-()nuuc\t,'. .\'ttttlr,t ltlttrtrit,t. ll. 19i1.
+'' hirt[ttr,thrr... l'KS[,. lte rlrn t1(). l0.r- l 19
lg.l(). J.lll
ti0 il,\l lt tN,\l ( lK IN I'tt()t)tr('t'toN I o 0l"IOl\t \\ i\ll: I li,ol o(i\ )-1 I

kila.yi t-tr ttl,l;u. Orrce thc pricc w'as firccl. price fluctuuticlrts ut the nrarket previous nlcasurcs shall bc totally discarclccl ancl ncu'oltc'S t)l'-l() r'rr(r'r'r't,
wL're no lr)ngcr takett ittto accoLlnI s:. Itr gettcrttl tlrxrttion lrncl lrclnrin- nrade, attcl lionr Ilow on thc nreitsurgnrent lrnrl tri.lllsi.rcli()ns sh;.rll bc
istrutivc crigcncies lccl thc Oltomun govr'nuncnt to introcJuce relornts carried on bv thc nc'w A.a.l'/ and the local cadis shall cnter in their olllcirrl
fbr stlrnclarclizutiort itt ccrtltin arcits. Urtrlcr Ottclrtrart aclrninistrirtion, court books a cop) ol- my imperial order so that thc ne*'lr uppoinrecl cuclis
the suttcul, is tukcn as u basic itdntinistrative unit lrncl lax rates were too shall act accordingly. This order is given to Sinan, onc- ol'the (l('ft(r
deterrrrirrecl lbr cach .s'rur<zrli in a speciul regulatic-rn (kdrmttrtutrtt') con- ('Lrvrl;es ol.tsudin [to be taken to Budin] onJ Cunuldul ol' 987 I July 1579.
cerrrirrg thut .tttncttA. Thus. irr u quitc lurgc urcu ri'ithin the However, unifitrrnitv was not established throughout Hunu:.r11, us
bourrcl:.rrics ol'tt.suttt'uk. unilbrrnity in the u'eig.hts and rneasures w' G. Kaldy-Nagy58 could identily the following ku.t'ls in rhe iarrious
to be realizccl trnclcr tl'te .vutcttk kilttttttrttlrtta,s'i. In most casL's, however, parts of it :
tlrc stlrncllrtliz.lrtiorr r.lithirr thc.\rlrcrtA'w;.ts carriccl out bt'ertencling a I kile >f Mohaq : I Hungarrun.fertil : 21 ttkl,u : 30.7(r ku
typiell locll nlclrsurc to thc u'ltolc .stuttul, rtttrl its ccltrivirlcnt clelrrly I kilr d' Pcgrry : -12 okku : .11.02.1 kg
dellnecl in tcnr'rs ttl- tltc ollicial Ottotnatt stitnclurds. Such relbrms I kile of Egri (1693) - 41.02a kg
attenrptc'ri in [lurtuitr;' lurcl Bosnia cluring the sixtccnth centLrr] are I kilc ot barle;' irt Buda (1665) : 18 okku : 1J.76 kg.
lrr IlLurglrr)'. t kilt' tl;u.rl). tltc nrcusure ol- cup:.rcity lbr grain, variccl Ottoman standardization attempts in
Bosnia lrnd Hercegovinu lre
widelv fl'om one i.rrr'a Lo r.ttrotlter lts cvideflcc'd in lrn impe'rilrl decree particularly interesting for demonstrating not only thc Ottorni.ul motivl-
clutcd Jrrl\, 1. 1,5795i. Thc slunL. clccrec'stutecl thltt thc population ol- tion lor reform but also the lact that grain measLlres rvere dircctly
thc c()t.tnll'\' trskctl lilr ;.r trnilirrrtr n.lclsrlre.'fhcrcuprln, the Sultlrrr relatcd to the prc-Ottonlan units of grain tux. Appurclttl-\, the Ottolltln
trrclercrl tlurt ll'ortt thut tintc ol.l. r.r /tilc ri,lts to bc 30 ol,l,u throughout administratiott began to show. itn increusing coltcenl lbr the g111
the prrtlvincc. r.rrrcl thc locul c:.rtlis rverc orclcrctl to cnlbrcc it. Thc measure in thc region in connection with thJ gorenu'ncnt llxccJ ir1i,r
follo*'ing is :.r tnutsllrtiort ol'this orclcr ''* lsee Appenclir II). prices and their- rr'pr'rcussions on the timar incornes. For cxariiple.
tlre t-rxed price ot'l5 uk('u per kila was confusing it'the kilr, u,as i3 okku
Or.lcr lo lhc lleilerbetiol'lluclirr:.trttl lrl Behrhnr, tl:lc tful'tr'r-t'tttirtiss ol'the
itt one areil and 61 okku in artother. Thc' ciiscrcpuncy ntight huvc'lc'rl
siune pf()\irtcc ti'itlt Ithc' spccill ltssigtuncrtt] ol'rnlrkirrg thc population and
tir\ survcv ol'tlrc slrir.l prtlvirtcc: sirtcc Yrlu subrnittcd ttl rrrl l)tlrtc Lttpether
to serious disputcs between the timar-holclers uncl thc pcasaltts. In
the early reguli.ttions there was no specification ol- the c..ruct" iultount
uith a list ol'prtlblenrs to bc alts*'ered thut tlie Aa.r'/ [to rnL'usLrrc tithes
of the measure usecl; how'c'ver, in the regulation of 1530 and subsectLrcpt
in gruin] is E-{ r'rrA/r'l'('it' in some ol-thc kultlrAs5' uncl ()6. 71, 100, 90.
regulations, each local measure was carefirlly dcljnecl in tcrms c'i' thc
rrr'.15 ilt sortic trlhc-rs irt thc prorincc. urtcl thlrt tltc po1'lullrtion in lrll tll'
Ottoman standard u'eight, the okku. (see Table IX). Thc' Kinrlrtttitrrr,r>l'
thenr uanls irnilirrttiitf irr thcir kurl. I or,-lcr thlt the Arr.r'i bc J0 r'rrArr lc 1565 opens with the tbllowing provision -se :
lirr .rll o!' tltcrn Nt)r\ this is nr\' ()r-(lcr tltut t ou sltoultl [crlrnl-rutc the
titlrcs] ;.rrtrl cntcr tltcrtt itt tltc ltc* sur\e\ book rtccorclinglr.lncl thlt this When it *us repc)rtcd to thc'Porte that in thc old rcgistcr thc Ailt,rius
t'rrrlcr uiil bc rleclurcti irt it ntost elllcicnt rr;.r\ irt eaeh kr:l,ltltk s() thut 61 vuki.t'.r'r @kkui in the city ol'Saray (Sarqc'r'o) *'hilc in the Aulis o|
Vr;egrad, Brod and Kobay the weight ot'the krcal Ailr,und thc llred
price per kilc' u'as dillerent, the Sultan ordered that kilrs ancl prices slrtrulcl
-il ..\ettrr'.lir)-{ ttr llte ittstrLt.'li,)ns l() llt.'sttrtc\()r'\. tlte etrrrertt prie'.'lirr ctrclr prrrtlttct b', iclentical in all tltese kaqlis, and price s would bc incrcuscd 2 rA 1 rr
is lirctl lr: ltrllrrrts: lltc \ellr' \\ils tlirirlctl ittttl (ltrcc lrcrrtrrls. tlte tirrte ol' ltlrrrc:I r)l'
{pcr Ailr'] lirr rrltcrrt rrnd lcntil lnd I rrA('tr lirr rriltl rrhctr( iul(l ();rts,',,. ln
delircrl . the rrriddle lrnd the llttter pltlt. hc'sLtrrerr)r hilrl to Irrirrt rritlr liirn tlrc rloe unrcrrt ctlnpliancc'uitlt thc order, kilr'w'as llxcd ut sirt5 r'rrAr't'r'r,unrl recorrlcd
certil_rir)rr \\l)lrtcvcr pnee rrlrs l'irccl br the ltlcul clrdi lirr cuclt pcriotl. und thc uelltri.rl as such in thc nc\\'sur!'r'y book, and wheat lncl lentil *'crc pricccl lrt ll
govcn)nrcl)t tlrcd tlrc stlrnrllrrtl pricc.-lhu: thc priucs uc llrrd irr thc registcrs lrre bused uk;u per ftilr'and *'ild wheat at 13 ukgu per Ailt,. ()ats i.rt 7 uksu pcr Ailt,.
ort tlrc eurrclrl prires ()l cuclt Arlrlrl ltrcrt. llorvcvcr. irt lhc tultrit'registcr\.,.lrlrurr up its a
tn ll anr indebtctl to Artrlras Riedlnra;,er lor kindlt trrrnslatins
rulL' onc lrlr circh .\'dtt(dk. tht' pricc tlred lirr cuclt kind tlf'gruin rvas oltcn upplicd lrl the lirr utc (jlulir Krrltlr-
rvhtrle .\dnr(t/.. lrt trthcr uords. it ults llte ccrttntl *tr\cnllltclll or. acl.ulrll_i. .\'i,rrlrrr'r ultrr Nagy, <, Mitgyltrorszirgi tordk adocisszeirasok > (l-urkish -l ax-Rcgistcrs ilr ll ulgrrr,i ).
lirr'd ltr.-rrtge pliee s lrrr elte l) .\rilrri/4
. new seric's nrr. 5l of CrI.'4.',-r; tck u tc)rlint'lrtri Iudttnuirr.t'ttk kirtthil. ccl. bt J. \'lrrgu. lrrsriturc
5r B.'\. ll[ihintttrt'. no. -l(). {7. lilr Historicul Rcserrch ol'tltc Hunglriun Acadcntr ol'Scrcnecs (Budupc:r Aklrtlclrrlr
s+ l.ot'thc lircsirrrilc sct lrppcrltlir ll. Kiado), 1971. l7-18;:ce [-. Fekcte, <<Tiirk Vergi Tahrrrlc-ri,,. Rtllt, \1. l9.l?..1i-]
t* 'llre I)t'llt'r'-t'trtitri rrl'llLrdill is the reetctltrr itt ehltrgc t'l lhe lrlllrrr: e()l)cerl)llls tllt
'u Kutrtt, i K'..',ut-nLrttii'. l. cd. B. Durdcr ct a1.. Slrnr.jr.'\t). ()ricntuini InstitLrt rr S.rr.r-
titrtir: rtt thc [rr()\titcc ttl lJuclirr. _;cr u, 19.i7. , r 7l
55 I rrArltt, hcre is the Ottotnl'i ,t,l ;\ t(' irtAktt ' ol'-1(){) tlrrlttttt tlr l.lfilt kr: bo ,lluhlut
irtrultlut, i: a kirtd of u'hcat with thick skin like l-rirrlcr lsce I)t'rlt,rttt
i" Il,ttlrlrA is tltc urel ultrler tltc Jltnidt!ti()lt ol it Arlli (cutli). Sd:lii{il. 1X,,{ttkanr :'l-urk Dil Kurumu. 1971, p. -1105) ttr tiiltl out:.
lt.\ tN \l('tK INIROI)t ( lloN To OT1()ll.\N \tE'll{ol-o(i\ 1-t-l

wlrile must is pricecl ul 7 ukE'u per tttedra itt itccorduncc ti'itlt the olcl
On the 6thcr hund. the kile in use in thc ku(d ol- l'ctti-l'u:ut' uus ottl-\
11 okku and rihc'at was priced at 15 ukg'u pcr kilt'. riilc'l *ltcat ut l0 a/.1a
per kilc, oat itt 5 uksu per kile ancl must tt 7 ul;su pcr ttu'tlrc. Sincc thc
prices fat kilt ol- +:l ol;ku) cannot be llrther incrcitseci ther ucre leli lt
thcse prices rlithout clt;.tttsc as the tllcl registcr.

It sho,rld be noted that tlre Ottoman aclministration clid not introclucc

its standavJ kile of 20 ol;kct in Bosnia. the so-callecl i.stutthtrlA'ilr'.ri. but
took the local mcasurc as a basis lor staticlitrclizi.rtion lilr thc rcgiorr
bccause a drastic charrge in the actual weight ol' lhc nreasLlrc miglit
have caused confusion in tht: collection of tirnar revenues and clispirtcs
betwecn the peasants and timar-holders. Ottorlan stanclardizutirln irr
Bosnia and Hungary revL'als the real nature of- thc Ottcln'urn retbrnt
in weights and'measures ivhich aimed at uniforrnity onli,' in a purliculur
region, or .yuncuk, under particular conditions. In some areiis evcn
: the nreasure in use in each l;rultlrk was officially recognized irs tl.]e only
r-rnit in which to 1 ay tithes in kindt".
t= ln fJosnil, ohriousll' stlrndardizlttiotr was lrttcnrptccl to lrvoicl over-
,: taxing certirin ureas ultcrt tltc sarne llxed pricc' (rturlt) u'lis r.rppliecl in
Xi a region where gnrin tlr\ \\, not cleliverecl in tithes. Il'thc t:.rr w;.rs
I to be paicl in kilc or.r'irA. the areas r.l'ith largcr nlei.rslrrcs rvoulcl sul'lcr'.
c ll-it was to be paicl in cush, tltc areas witl'r snraller nrcltsurc's rvoulcl sulll'r.
(- Both rnethods were practiced in the Ottoman cmpirc. although thc
t-- Ottoman regime triecl to extend its original systenr of tithes in kintl
I cveryrvhere. Whut is to bc noted hcre is thut the llxccl price systel'n
a, was closely interrelated rvith the measuring. Fi.xing grain priccs rvas
the basis of the Ottoman llnances as it made it possible to compLrte thc
'- -C
revenues and their ciistribution among the timar-holclers each w'ith it
llxed tirnar inconre- dcterrnined in ntortetary units. Suppose the grliin
prices we-re'lo\\'er in onc area compared to another bcclrrrsc rlf ir
good harvest or soil l-ertility, or distance fiom the rnarket tlie tithcs
=l'- delivered in kind would mean il lower incomc (Sipdhls hacl to scll
their tithe's at the rn;.rrkct). but in such a case tltr'v t-tsuallr tricd ttr
nrake the peasants pu)' irt cash in ternrs ol- a trxecl price. Thcn lirr rhis
particular region, a lurgcr rneasure was the solution liorri the llnancirrl
A similar situation *'ith clivergencic's irr mu'asurc und in pricc clur hc
lbuncl in Bulgariu as lirtc r,rs 1579 as demottstrutecl in thc lirlloriinu

"r J-ltc Rcgulrttiott ol' Silistre drrted 1 569 rclds : " J-ltc pclr\liltt\ rhirll rle lir cr ( trl tlte
tinlrr-htrldcrl b-r thcrr orirr lltrerrll kilt,, lScc rltc tert irr () t . 1l;.rrkrrn. Ktttttttrlttr. lN l-10).
i-l-l II\|l l\.\t,( lK I\ I l{()l)t ('IION l-O OI'lONt..\N Nll: I R()l ()(i\ 1.1.5

l.rtrr t .X In general decreasing the contents indicated b;' a particular nlci,rsure

was the usual meitns ol'adjustment to the changing nrarkct condirions
l.l:l "l ()t \ \lit()t s A// /\ l\ t SI .\\l) (,1<.\l\ t,l<t('l S
l\ ltll \ r\( tA ot Nlr;l ll()l t rNlt ol,Ol lsr l\ llit \ I \lt \r\r- lir!)
when under a govL'rnnrent-enforced rnaximal pricc ceiling there was
no other way of- adjustment left fbr the producc-r. Merchants ancl
government had recourse to the same rnethod in export trade . Apparentll,
pnccs t t.t rl/, 1 ,1 ad.jusrcci alfected by such a policy. Venice made Hmr, ruler ol'Al'drn gLrarantee
k il, I l) price litr' in the treaty ol l34iJ not to change the weights und rncasllres irr lrt--r
s herrt [-rlrrlcr .ttt(tltlil rr hcut ol' l0 trade with the principalityut. Examples ciln be lbuncl durins rhc
okAu lirr uA( u) Ottoman period ol'the gov-ernment agents' decreasing thc measui'es in
order to increase tilxes which were cornputed per unit o1- nrc'asurclllent.
Nigcbttlu- Rulroru rrrrd Pilcr nc l(x) l: e 6 )
..1 The traders tried to do the oppositc to pay less on thc' cLlstorns (sec
l',raca attcl Srrlrlt l0() t-l 9 6 l. ti Appendix III). This practice was responsible.lbr the diminishing ovcr
'l'irtt<ti lr. Ziytt,r t rrrtrl I lrrltrlelt time of weights ancJ measures in general. Ho$'ever, in the- cupital citi
lJ0 ll 9 (t 2.11
'l-irrr,rrir (cert.ritt Aa/rlrA Istanbul a policy of strict standardization and control was pursuect.
sl {){ ) li {r -5 I
Hcza rgrlrtl (r() 965 l Assaying and the periodical inspection ol'w,eights ancl nreasLtres \\,r.1s
)urrrnrr lrrrrl I.:ki-('Lrrrr'lt (r( I ll 7 6 .1.7 considered one ot' the rnost important duties ot' the sovL'rnme-nt since
izladi 20 l{ _5 ;l It the opinion of the populace was that shortages, high prices and l-aniine
Yan btilu t1 fi _i "1 I .67 were ofl:r,associated rv'ith the lailure of the autliorities to check lrarud and
abuses cornmitted by merchants ahd traders. In the capital city it was
consicJered one of thc mosl. important functions of' thcl grand vizir Lr>
personally inspect u,eights and measures in Un-Kapanr *'here Istanbr-rl's
Fronr thc'abovc tubulation it is clcar that in Danubian Bulgaria provisions arril'ed and the main bazaars were located u*. All the office rs
grain prices $'L'rc niuch low'c'r. and the units ol'gruin measuring nruch
responsible for the city's provisioning and security accompanied hirn
larger corxpitred to lzlacli (u mountainous arca), itncl Yanbcllu ( in his tour. He punished on the spot those traders rvho haci firilc-d to
large urban ccnters). The ciiscrc-pancies rvhich hacl bcen maintained
cornply with the standards and pricesos. Enforcemcnt ol'a llxeci pricc
for such u long timc cart pcrhaps be cxplainecl by thc ubcivc rnentionscl pcr unit as recordcd in tlie nurfi or ihti:;ab regulatior)s \\i:]s thc objcctivc
reasons. such as permitting thc' .rpr7ll.s of cheap grain areas to havc
ol'such inspc:ction tours. In otherwords, in the capital city of the enrpire
larger ilntounts ol'urititt pcr unit. Thus it is reasonable to sLlggcst that the grand v'zir tc,ok care to perform the duty of cadi ancl trtulltcsrh.
standardizatiott \\'as not alwuys secn as an ideal policy by the Ottontarr (market inspector) hinrscll', and he tried to shorv peoplr-- thut hc u'as
administration. The actual price ditl-erential occuring as a result ol' concerned personally with this matter of'vital importance for the cit_t,.
shortage or transporti-rtior.r costs \\'as met not by irrcreasing the price <<One of the important points on which people's welfbre depcndccl
but by, rcdr-rcing thc' unit ol- measure. It was important lor the adnrin- was the enforcement of the regulation of fixed prices and thus thc'
istration to dcllnc clearly in thc regulations the actual size ol' the maintenance of goocl orclcr in the aftlirs of people in trade >>t"'.
rncasurc lor eitch ltrelt itt order to kccp timar-holcJcrs'cash revenue In Istanbul tw'o rlll'icials, kiltt'i (irssayer) ancl tunt,qut't (stanrper).
n'torc or lcss stuble sittce grain tithes \\'erL- surrcnderecl in kind. Thus. undc'r lhe ntul.rtt'.r'ib u'cre- constantly in chargc'ol'tc'stins und certilling
a sipuhi in the area ol-'firrtovu and Zigtol'i shoulcl rcceive w'heat tithe
all kinds ol'measures in use at the market. Using stundard nrcusLlrcs
liom a fr i/r of-eigh1t okAu irl orcie r to obtain elevcn ukg'u w'hen convertcd kept in the public treasury the kilet'idid the job ol'assaying ('u.r'dr) an,J
into cash, while the same umount ol'cash was obtained in the $unrnu then the tungu(r certiliecl the correctness and validity by irrprintinu
and Eski-Cunr'a areu liom t kila ol'60 okku. the olficial starnp (tttiri turngu) on nleasures. Their olllcc w'as at thc
This sittuttiott cutt explain rvhy thc Ottclman government was cautious
in pushing a strict standardizatior) policy lbr evcr), re-gion. Dc.lining
the actual sizc ol'the kilc t-t-tr grtrin in a rc-gion tvls used trt prcvcnt "r
E. Zachariudrru's lrrticl,.'. .\upru, note 25.
Kurrtdr baluttce: rrt tltc cusl()lns hclusc. consitlerccl tlrc rrrtl:t rclilrble. rrere u.scri
prtssiblc clisptrtes ltttcl. ultir.tlately. tcl quarltlltee the ltrrrar-holclcrs' bt tlrc of'liciitls to e ltee k nrcirsrrres lirr hcavv goocls : scc () Nrrri (l:rgin). .llctrll,'. l.
urtercsts ln cusc tltc pclrsants u'c-rulcl clainr to clelivcr tithes in thc snrallcr ()"10.
unit ol'nrc;.r\urc ol'lr neighbourins lirea. "t ,,Osntiurlr Klnhnnlrnclcri ,,. ,Villi Tctr'hhilur .llrttrtLitrtr. I l. l.lll l9lj. i()l-.r().i
"" lrnpe rill tlrdcr cllrtetl .lu'hin lll5'Jlrnulrl' llitll rtprotltrcctl irt ()snrirn Nrrli
n: .\'tt,r'1,,,1t,,,:/trir,lr'l li'ri. ( I:rgirr),,11 tL cllt. l7.l-7-l
I lh ll\lli 1\\lilK l\ I l{()l)t ( | ION l'O () I lONl.,\\ \lt: I I{()l ()(;\ I t7

(-arcluk t('urrrlk) picr rrhcre ull kirrds ttl-prrort.:iotts itt'rtr.'d b,r ssa lor A dortri,iant conlnrcrcial center irnposes o\cr ttntc its vr,,eights arrcl
Istart brrl's provisitltlittg " measures rn a sponttuteous way in a quitc large areil. For cxurnplc.
1-lte l..trtrrctrs. thc nlrkers o1' sri-ritt nrr-i.rsLlrcs. had to bring to the Tabriz, tit.: n-tost ccnter <>l'Asiurr-liLrroJruarr
ktl* i .rittJ /rllilirt i in ('.trdlrk lirr atljLr:u.).rc-nl and certilication uttder trade during thc pcrit.rcl 1260-1360 acLually' irrrposccl rls rrrcir\urcrrlcrll
rCgulutirtn tltc /. i/r's tltet tttlttlc ['rcltlrc thc'; solcl tlte ttt. systen-ls on Alti.rtolia. particularly casterrt Att:.ttolia. I'esolottr rcntlr ks
A list rtl' r,urious kinds ol- nreasurcs ( t'r:n() tnaclc by' kulut'us of that Trcbizond (-frabzon) r,l,hich was onc ol'the grei.rt cr)tpr)t.iunrs ol'
the Tabriz trade had the same weights and measures as Tabri2. Ottornan
IstanbLrl lrrc listc'd ri'ith their cxtrct capacity in the trurlt rcgtLllttiort ol-
l(r40"8. Ip tor.vns lrncl snlrll citics thc lirrrctitttts tll'kilt'ci ttr-ttl tunr,qttc't Istanbul play'cd a sirnilur role for the rcgions which rnuintainc.d 1p
\\,L.rc pcrlitrrttcd tr) thc rttulllt'.rilr u'hcl cl-rlrrged it sn-rall l'ec lbr this intcttsive tralllc w'ith it. lstanbul's standarcls canlc into use in a pror ince
sclr'icc (l rrAE'rr lirr l;ilc lt C'allir. in 9-19 l-542. bLrt.l ul;;u fbr starnping mostly for the goods subjc.c't to such a tratl'rc - ' in Cairo, lbr c.rup-rplc,
urlul). Thc ntrtl.ttt:lb w;,rs to pcrioclicull)'toLlr thc rrtarket placc's in the :ird'Lo ntcasurc woollcn cloth was the siune thlrt ol'lstunbui in
lcrrgth (Hinz, 56). Kila ol'Istanbul to measure gnrin becanrc u stitnclarcl
to\\'r'l und check thc u'cights ancl nreiisures in Ltsc. Il'he lound out any
clcliiulr hc il,oulcl tuke tlie oll'cndcr to tlie carli's court and penalize hirn in several areas nrainly because of'their regular grain e.xports to Istanbul.
lccor{irru lo ths court t'lccision by intposing lincs or sutr-iecting hinl Also it was truc that malrket dues imposed on weight or pL-r pic'cc
wcre rcsponsible lbr scltnc sort ol-standardization. It was not oplt, thc
to u bcuting ilt public clr imprisor.nncnt. Ol'l'enccs comtrtittecl otl tleccs-
sities \\,crL' considcrccl crirtrinltl ltncl scvere lv pttttishecl("'. nature ol'the gclocls transported, or the mu'ans of- tnrnsportatiori but
It is kt)()\\'lt that tlic Ottornln govenunent kept stullrlltrcls t() llssay also the goverltntent tuxation per unit that cleterrnined thc starrcllr<iizecl
types ol'contairters (st-'c Tuble VIII). While hdt'. u tr:.rnsit cJuc. or n'ri:rkct
ucights unri lncilsLlrcs in circullttion. Iror e.rltl'ttple. a rtlpe scitled ltt
- and therefore goods wcreetc
trvo cpcls lbr nteusurins llelds in ddtiitrr l!'as kcpt in thc treasury due was taken per unit bundle, bale. packloaci customs
dc.partntci,t at thc Sultun's palace-t'. Unrlcr Selirn lll a standal'd urSutt dues were taken acl vitlorem u,eighecl 1t t5c
(tti';rtt) nrrrrlc ol'ehon_r lnd dil'idccl into ytmruA uncl /-1tttt was pttt in thc public scales. In orcJer to prevent disputes the rcgulations of tolls 1pd
ncrr lv cstublishcd scltor-ll ol' c'tlgittccrirlg irt lstltttbttl
rr .
tnarket dues (ArTrtltrt-r hit' r,c tamga) ofien dc'flnecl thc rveieht upcl
i\ rcrolutiorrirrl plun liir thc sturtclltrdizutit.xt ol' lrll wcights attcl lllsilsure ol- thc blrle ttsecl. For ccrtain -uoorls it \\' nranclatory rtr
lpc;.lsul'cs lirr thc *'hole cntpirc \\'lts propctseci litlltlw'ing lttt cct>ttc'rtttic be weighed at the public scales called Lilntit' t>t' tttl:dtt. Thcrc \\'crc
crisis urouncl l6-10. Wlien. in l6;10. a rclontr u'us etntrirrkcd rtpotl to two -cf l;urttir, big and srnall (bti.r'tik l;utttir uncl A-rig'rlk l;uttttir\.
halt the inllation in silvcr dL1'tt and to set correct prices lt thc ttttrkct. wherears, tbr prccior-rs goods such as silk, a brlance w,ith gr.catcr
tlrc- govcntntcnt w'rrs lclv'isecl <<to stltnclltrcliz,e kilc. urglttt. t'tlA'l-t't't' ancl precisiorr called rrti:titt wus used. It is nlso tr-r bc rertrentbercc'l thlt
tlirhutr in all the provinces ol'tlic enrpirc accorcling to the startciards Ottomans tried to simplily commercial ta.ratiorr in the coltqucrecj
ol'Istirnbul>>':. It w'trs obscrvccl that the travcllirtg ntcrchltnts dcspaired lands, lbr examplc. in Eastcrn Asia Minor during the periocl l-516- 15-10.
beclus,-. c.Lrch provincc had its on,n systcnt o1' weights attcl mei.lsures They distinguished between horse and camel packs as llr irs trirpsrt
so tircv n,cre'chcatccl. <,Just its tlre Sultan's [sy'rlbols ol-authority,] clues were conccrned and reduced the ratc ol'customs dues liont llv'c
per cent to two per cetlt.
fiuthu lncl .lrAA.r, (Friclal' sermon and coinage) ure the sanre- everywhcre
in his L'nlpire>>. tlic lrdviscr acldccl. <<so kili'. urgutt, t'uki.t')'a and all the
ptficr lncilsufcs shoulcl bc thc surlrc r.ts in Istlurbul>r. Thc proptlsal,
liorvcvcr. ltad rttt ellccts. l_.r\\:; '-.r. st.\\t) \RDlz_A'l'lo\ lVI llt. \l\l. ll,t..\ ill ( t..\ lt R\

('' 'l lie !t)\ err)lllcltt \r it\ !()lrccn)cd i.lh()ut e ttlirrcittg stillt(iilr(l\, cspecrltll-i u hctt Serious attetttpts at stitndardization and unilrcation ol'rvcights antl
mei-tsures throughout thc- empire were nradc onll' when wcstcrnizipr:
ltlrtlcr: rrrtr.le lrirtrrls rn the $cigltts lrttrl tttc-lrsttt'cs itt trrtlcr [() rc(luee the rlttc:0l'lltc relbrms werc introduced in the Tun:imat period (lti39-lfi7(r) -r.
lir\cs t() hc prrid:lirr ltrt crltnlple sce O. Nuri (Ergilrl. lltil .

"s l:r',il l)t'll,'t't. lliesirlrilc tcrt. l'l-1.

,"' See () )'1 rtri. t)lt ttt.. J. ('.-j 7--{.i. rrl:tr tlte reuttllrliottr <tl' tltti.tri/, rll'lstlrrtl'rtrl. lltrrslr
- t lr()r tlte lcgisl:rtr()rt ilttr'()(lucing thc rttetric s)\tellt rt.e 1)rrrlrll..
rintl lrtltrttr'Itrl'rltsltt'tl l.r i) | ll.rrkrrlr. / I tto:. \. \'ll. l\ rol \'. TJJ. .iirrr
" Se.' nl\ .,ltrr'c ( ultr\ilti{)ll lln(l tlrt' q,'/liiAr i-li, rtrrJ Srrtcrrr ln tlle ()ttr)llllrn tts 1,tttl (sttlrlrlctttcrrtl. rol ll. 10.1. (;. \ trur)r.t. ('1ty1t: ,l, l)ttttt ()ttrtttttrtr. rirl l\.
Errtpirc,,. /rtttii,t. \l\. ll.l Orlirrcl 1905. -l(16-67 \'orrrrrr ulso publishcd 1367-76t tlblc: ol'the trltl rieir:hls ;rrrtl
-r .l;1'lt qtlnttri..'.1 irt.rrtbrtl Sul;rt itllrrt:i. Irtlttttrrtl l()5J ltlci.t)tlrc\ rrttlt tltctr rttetrie eqtrivlrlcnts nlrich arc'blscrl ()r) tlrc irrlirrlt.trl()1 (lrlr\\tr ()1
-' S,t,ilttt ll, t,iltJtt l-rtttitlrtrtitt tr tn('uili t'l-.llti'ttritritr. cr.l. \'lr;rtt' \'ticcl. .\ttkttrlt : [)tl tttt IJullctiu tlt' ltt ('lrr.urtltrt' lc ('tttntrtt'r'ct' Frurtgttti.Lr'. \',:rne r and [)lrrnbrnlrrrn. /,,,r
rc I rrr.rlt ('()rrrtl\lr liltktiltest. l9S(). ll ltttit.ttttttt'.t ,,t!'rr't ,/tuts lt' I.t'\Ltnl, antl tlte dlttlr :trpplictl br tlrc ()t!,ttttrttt [)trltlt, [)r,ltl
.-ltltttitti:!rrttirrri. ..\lsrr \('f ()\n)ilt) Nuri ([:ruirr). .lltr'r'llt.ll. lst.rnlrLrl.
lSti ll.\l ll_ I\,\l( lK IN I'R()t)t C'ilON fO O-t't OI\lAN tvtI: I t{()l.o(;\ .ri9

Witlr l spcciul llu' tltc Ottorttirn g()\'et'l'rnrent nl.rdc thc rrsc ol' thc this article (Table XI) which introduced the metric sy' cr.yl bc
mctric s)'stenr nrartdalorv in all olllcial transactions fl'orn March l, taken as a point of'departure lbr Ottornan olllcial nretrologv in gepcrll.
1871. arttl lirr all subjects throughout the empire liorn Mtrrch l,1814. In addition, tables published by G. young basecr on-ihir-ofil.irt
It rnirclc r'.\ceptions lclr the curtonical dirhurr used in the transactions regulation, as well as the information in the Bullt,tin de lu Chunthrt,
administcrccl unclcr Islurtric Law us rvell us in coinagc anci jewellery. de Contmercc Frc:tr,'ai,st'(nos. 77-80, 1893), and some other soLlrces.
SuhseclLrcntly. scvcntl lltttclbooks \\'ere llublishcrl lilr thc application are useful in that they provide further details on old Ottomun wcisSts
ol'tlre neu svstcnr. Galitr lley's I'ctri ,rlik.r'd.t'lunr di'ir Ri.;ilt'(Trcatisc and measures ol'various parts of the empire (Table XII).
on the Nov Wcights ancl Measures), lstartbr.rl' 1287iltJTl, wzts rc- As was true for lhc cltrlier attempts to rcforrn thc u,cighls upcl
prrblislrecl in ll99 artd I33I. Uncler a kururndrrc (decrc'e) issued orr measures in the Ottoman empire, the new law irrtroducing tlic nr..trie
29 $'cvtdl 129u,24 Scptenibcr ltiu l, lists of'conversions o1'the olcl weights system remained a deaci letter except in official ciealings atxl in thc big
nncl nre:.rsurcs irtto thcir rnctr-ic ec;ttivalents w,cre publishecl?a. port cities of Istanbul, Salonica, Izmir and Beirut. Under a law J'
Thesc luu's r.rttcl rcgulittiorts rentairtccl r"rninrplcmented. arrd in Scp- the.Republic of rurke; dated March 26, 1931, thc mcrric systc-nr was
ternber ltiti I . l nc\\'clccree hucl to bc issucd to nlrke thc use rll'thc nre tric to be applied throughout Turkey beginning ih 19347t'. Brit again it
systL'r'rl rtr.rnclutor'_i' in the cntpire . Aglin a clccree issued in 1886 w,hich took some years belbre the people used the new measLrres. Evcritocl:.rv
nracJe the usc ol- the nrctric systcnl clbligatory in Istanbul afier llve one can flnd many old weights and measures still used in rentote ani
),ears. h:.rcl rro n)orc succr'ss cluc- to tlte resistlutce ol'the people whrch isolated parts of Turkey.
apparr'ntl\'\\'irs suppol'tcd in religiclus circlcs. In lirct thc rcligious
coclc rrf-lu*,(,1'lrccllc), coclillc-cl since I869. tirllori'ecl Islirmic nrctrologf irr
gettc' (kuyl I'or tttukiltlt. t't':rt I'or trrtn':hrtt7t,'utlt't/ I'or'utluli)'.t'it, ttntl TnsLL- XI
;irrt' l'ot' ttttt:t't1" it)-; .
Wt,tr,tils..\Nl) \ll,\\t til.\ IN illlr OltONt,.rx lil:(it | .\il()\ ()l Itvs r'r
Irt corurcctiort w'ith thc qttcstir)rr ol- w'ltetlter itn-\' chlrngu' c-rccrrred 1y,51

irr the w'cight tll'thc ,sur:i dirltt'rr, Cevclet Pa;;r"r. chlrirnran ol.the coln-
mission lirr prcprrnrtion of'the trlctcllc, sent a lc-ttcr Lo tlit-' Egyptian f\'leasurc of l-ength: ar$un
govct'nnrcrlt ln l\llrf ltj7l, irrquiring ltbout tltc ltncicnt rnoclcl ntuld urSutt <-tt'rltirs()ll ()r ilrLi)ituct : 24 purnuk
rrltcle ol' eo1'r1'rcr itt l:s1pt '". I tc rcrttinrlcrl thcnr thut in 57 | I 175. pttrtttuA : l) llql
llqt : 12 ttttk!,t
Al-Rilr.r'rr rirotc tlutl he sltu it tttttticl irr the Dir ul-Lli.s'bu in C:.rircl
rcpr)rtc'rll) lrrrscrl tln .\rJ' (FIinz. 5l) trsctl in tlic l)rophct's tilrre. rrcishing rrr';lrt rrl'1rrr,r'rr (blr^tlrr) or rndd:c : tl ruh'
337 lirltttrr rll-1'rurc \\'i.tlL'r'. fit'ortt Cltiro Mltluttr-lucl BcY rcpol'tccl (through .rrr'rrl rrr lur.;uh-i kudirtt : 7-500 urSun ol- rntsoll
Tal'rrt Prrlr.r) tlurt his clilculution show'c'cl that the u'eight ol- lirltt'trt. l\Ieasure of !,\eight: oNf,a
based on thr'ntellsLlrc rr'portcd by al-Rifir'a, had not changecl und it okku ctr trr rt, - 100 dirht'nr
Irlu,a)'s n'us J.089lr g-t. At an1'nrtc. the Otti-rnlrn lln,sunlnltrizc'd irt dirlttrtt : l6 krrLit
-t f i )9 .)L'r'r17/ \('/i(' /-)9,\ r't' li I I t') liil .tort l)97 Ittrlltrlt -nttrtr,'ttllrk
kuttdr : 11 okAu
,st'rt,f htt) rulLrtt
irid.'-i'\(,///|l(,.iPi,lt;tl/ti C'L'ki : 1 Aunrir
lrukktndu kttrttrttirtrL'tlir'. sectrrtd eclition. lstanbul : 'l'ophune-i 'Arnirc l'rrntirtg f.ltrusc, huttttun : 6 okku
Ctttrti,ltt I 9. ll99
-5 .1/.'.,'//,. .rlticlcs lll-ll7 (.lcllnrtion:). urticlc: ll7-199. clcirls rrith Nleasure nf Capacitl : kile
lhc rrlitlit-r .rl'
thc':ltle c()ntr.rcts iihcrt tlrc lcgltl rteights ltrrtl nrclrsrlrcs \\crc nr)t uscd: lirr ucights itntl I kilt, ol'Istanbul = -l ,rirriA
ntcirsures tne rttiottcrl nt .llt'ct'llt'. rtlso scc lltc chlrl'ricr ott thc dir ision tll' inhcritlrncc : lsinik=2Auru
articlcr lll{-Ilt)1. lltr\lc\cr irt tltc crplrrn.rtiort:!. \\eights lntl nrcirsurcs irr current usc
such tts r.tttrl oAAir ltre ltlst-r llterlli()ltfrl. ltt tltc sirtccrttlt ccntur\ ltr)()thcr grcitt l\leasure of Surr.rce; diiniinr
Ottrrtttlttt legi:t ..\brr :lltcl))pte(J l() rr'\i\c iu)(l cr)li)tec olrl lslrrrnic stlrlrrirrrrls lrs I di)niint : lOOt) squitrc ursurt ol rnitson
pltrl trl hir -uirrelrl irtLcntJ)t to ltillr .rppl-r tltc ;rl'i prirreiple: irt thc Ott()nlilr) lrdrrrini:tru-
ti()tt (sca ttlr. ,,Strlcirtt.ttl tltc L.twgitcl' ltlttl Ott()lllilll l-il\\,,. .1 ttlrirtttrt OIIontuut(ut,t. l.
p Illt Ilt'.rl:,r trrcri (rr e rpllrin. ott tltc atrtltori tr ttl'rra'i srrtrrecs. the dilli'rcrrec frctrrecl
thc;rrl' !'urrcl)tl\ u:crl in nrclrsurittg tertiles ltiti tlt.rt used irt :urlucc nrcasurinu.
' \lrtltt.ttorrrl llcr. ,,[-c Sr:tcl.ttc Ilte tritl uc ire ltlcl rl'l:grpte ,,. Juttntttl .1 tiLttitlttt'. ri'rie 7. ?8 No.
l. lX-?.l. l(r-X{.1
lTltl and l0li.l in thc oljicial cocle ol- llws ol''furker
-- C,rtllnltrc Ill(i " Scc lbovc note 7.1
l-1. rrhtr lrlllrntccl thlt thc \tundlrr(l canonieul dirlttttt rvus -l.ll-5
lN I ltol)L'('l ION I-O ()l l()N{.\N Nll: I ltol ()(i\ .t+ I
,j -t( ) ll,\l ll. lN.\l ('lK

Kittttir 2;t'rrt' 0.00{)-l I g

,1ft,rr (snrall) 6 okku 7.69.1 kg
l,r;uirulcnts ol'tlte old measures in the mctric syslom
,l/crr (speciiil) 12.5 okku 16.0.j(r kg
I ttrStut ol'nrirson : 0.7-5ti rl
rl'lt,ir (lre avy) l). okka I .5. lfilt kg
I urytrtt ol'grl ,ru : ().6fi0 nr
,ll ur Bughdltl 19 okku l-1.-196 kr
I cttrld:L : 0.6-50 rn
.tt iTkil 1.5 ri'. or l-1 .l.l{ll g l)re cl () u s
| /ttr.ttt/t : -5bfi-5 nt
I rtAl'u - I .ifil9-l-r kg k irit oil

I tlirlttttr - I lt)716-l g
,rl ilkil l-Lrrki:lr llg
I Ailr'ol'lstirnbul - -17 eubic dccirucrcrs
,\l ilkil I'ersilr n llg
I Attttrir -., -50 -l-i9(r kg Iti uk rr 2 kitrttir 0 ()(XXrl5 s
Okktt .100 rir. L2fi1 kg
I 1','Ar , ll5 79li kg
OlArr (old) 6 okiyt l.2l'(l()-15 r: 7li r,/r/.r,, I()() i,11,
I l,(ttttt(ilt - 7 tr,)767 kg
rrlte r tlte u)tt\'rlu\'-
I squtrrc rl',rlrr tll-ntilsor.l : ().-i7-1-56-t sq. ntr-ter
I sclultrc rrr,rrrir rrl'( {//',\'1l : 0.-161-l sq. lltctcr Lron rll'tlrc rrrclric
I :rlLrrrre t'uiltrrt' 0 -llli srl. n.tctcr
()A rl ( rtc*
| ,/iitttlittt ') I ()..j srl. rrictcr A )
()AArr (rtcw
0AArr thcav'y ) 2.5 okku
OAArr (lirruclulcnt\ J80 rir'.
I rtrt t' \ll 0AA,r (Egypt)
OliIu 1 l't'rtt,rltk ;rll kinrl. ol' rrrcrclrrrrr
\\'r t,,ut\ tst \irl l\llltl trt (j. \'()t \(i (irlti'r l)l t)titttl Ottrtrt tt kuttrir t tli:C c\udnt .tlk lt tt.l
l\ ()\l ()lil) l')rli r(i-- i()-
c()cllcr)clt I

0kit't' (()un(t'l 100 r/r. \'J (r

I:c1Lrirulcrrt 0Ait't' J l l'lir 75 dr. lt,r g

\\'cirrht I)l.rec Lrsccl lirr 0kiyr S-r'rirr 66.5 lr. ll3 g
)L rl rttetrre
0 ki.rt Nl lghrch l0 dr. .ll g
tu.ttt .'\:i;.t \l trttrr (r,kku 7 (r91 kg
.ll.t)li kg
IJu !
| 't'i l lt' 51 rirr l-5 o(lrt or
Bu!trtdtt ..\tlu tta { ,kAu -l fi-lfi k'r
rut I
Billtn(ut frl ossul 1 ,AA,t fi() r/i'. tt.l-16 kg intli-utr lrrcl spices
l'c:ttt' Bltghtllrl 78 okku 100.066 kg
IJu !trtutt LIrll ( llLrha) I ,AArr -ll0 r/r. l.-it)9 ku indigtr
| 't': ttr' l\'ltrsstrl l0 o,AArr l2.ll:t-t kg
8().{([l.l (scc (/(]/r.{)
I ti nt, N Icstrpotlt ur ilt 32.5 ttkku -ll 6t)5 kg
(.,t1, Vlrn .l(r-J5 oA Arr -l{, 57 kg gftrll) r)6_t g
Quur Irt Slr lott ir'lr -1,-l rrAArr
D<tttg {) {)5 g
Quintrrl tkutttirl izrnir -10-{-l rrAArr .i I ..1(18- llcltr \
I)irltr'ttt (r-l r/crr.q tlr -l l()7.161-5 s j6 -{()() ku
k irir 80 rr(lrr 6 kg ()rrlillrtr\:Iotlrl'
I iril ) nukir 0.001 t-i g
IttO olArr 1-10.t)ll kg speeilrl uot,.l:
ll ilun ls tlr n bLrl 1.5 g liq uicls
Quintal 78 okku l(.x).066 ku r.trttids liortt Iiurrrpe
Kttrldr 11 ttk ktt 56.-l-le kg (i lJritain
Quintrrl .19 oA A ri 50 0ll kg gtlrrris l'roni
Kurrlu r \lrrghrcb (lllrblrl _s l ..160 kg
Ilutl trrttttl) Sy ria 2-2.5 okku l.-i6-l-3.2U5 kg
Kant ur ..\nlrtolilr lli{) rrAAtr 130 t)J2 kg
llurl l\l r\()p()tl nt lil I okku l.lfi.j kg
Kuut ur S; ril u ncl \l ashrc )()tl ukku l-ll.-1(J() k_s rvotld attd churcual
/ilul 1 [:ey ptian ] Jcdda l13 dr. 160 ir
Katrir \1urdin )10 okku -j07.tte6 kg 'fugdr 1000 oAA'rr l2fi-l kg
Kuuilr .Alcpptr 150 oAAcr 32Ct.72-5 kg lirr caral'an plckloa(ls 1560 okku 1000 kg
Tirr3ir ( hca r .r )
Kuru Ilu:ru )(l()0 okku 256-5.9()t) kg dii te s 'l
u.qir 200 okku 156 kg rcc Arlrrlrlr
KttrulLtl [--rzrrrurn I r,AArr l0() I 603 kg
('rk i lJ6 oAku ll-5 7e() ks
Iluntl' or A'irrit 1 tltttt,g 0.2t)0.1 g
1tl li\ I R()l)Li('1-lON TO o-l'l()Nl.\N \ll llt()l ()(;\ I tl
-){ il,\1,il_ l\,,\t_( tK


('ck i 195 okku' 2-50 kg \\ ()od (()llicial )

(rk i .{r i lrirk l(10 okku I28.l8 k-rr !\ oo(1 It in the origins of nreasuring slstr'nls the fblk measures
seems i.htt
('ck i Sulotticrt I .15- l-10 ol Aa I 73- I 79 kg \\ ()od based on grain, foot. cubit or finger were givcn precision iln(l ccrtain
('tk i NIitvlcncrrnd iznrir llJ0 rrAA.c 23t) ti96 kg \\ ()0d arithmetic division arrangements by state bureaucnrcies. Il.ornan uncl
('aki lzrn ir 25tt lr. plus .5 763 g opiu rn medieval measuring systems including the Ottonralts' ci"ul bc tracc-rl
pcr ccnt back to those of' Mcsopotamian civilizations in their basic lbaturcs I.
-1.-s6.1 kg nrohair Decimal, duodecinrul s-vstems and ihc use of l particulur nlclrsurc lbr' ;.r

Irrrkel l0l) tlr. .l:rt g grlld und siiver particular comntoclity and even tlrrl nantes of' sortie nreasurcs cillt bc
traced back to this origin.
< Neo-Assyrian weights)), J. N. Postgate sal s
r. <. Ittight hrc cithcr
'heavy' (tlannu) or 'light' (qallu), the one beirtg tw'ice titc othcr. -fhe
'fhe n*v s)'stcm caused conlusicln in the bazaaluvhen, lbr instance, absolute value of these weights is best attcrtecl by a seric's of inscribccl
unclcr tlic luw, introclucing the nretric systcnr. the nerr.' g'rki lvas trxcd at bronze lion weights discovered at Nimrud by A. Il. Luvarcl. und nrnuirrg
t-our kutrttTr of ,50 kg each or 200 kg which was 12.5 kg less than the old fiom 5 (heavy) tttitrus to 2 (heavy) shekt'ls>,r. As an c'ramplc' \\'e carl
g'rti. 1-hc rncrchants ol- llrewood began to Llse thc new i'cAi without take the seties o|ntinu (mana).
acljusting thc pricc uccorc'lillgly. Thereupolt the sctl'ernrlreltt rulecl that
1't,Ai u,trs to bc 2-50 kg in the luturc. It w'as reporte('l by the French in
Istanbrrl (Bullt'titt tla lu Clturnhrc dc ('onttnt'rt'c fiuttq'ui.s(i, lto. 180, I\{arch 1,/r)rrl lJea r'-i Il inu Light S/ttkt/ Heirr r .\/rr'Ar'l l-rghl Kg
1902) that is rvls irnl'rossible to determinc the exitct weight o1'g'cki used
l-lclr vy 2 ()o ll0 l(tl
by thc ntc'rchuttts ctl' Istunbul.
'fhc lbllowiltg shttw's the continuation ol-tlie- olcl tneasurcs (Bt'zuntinc- (r{l
Light .r0 0 )(l
Italiirn'l) ilr u ntthcr isollrtcd pl'ovittce.
In the later AssS'riln system rneitsures ol'lcngth tollou'ctl tltc scric: ol'
l- rrrr r, Xlll | -24 - l;+4 - 2t{8. und w'eights lolcl system) lhut ol'l - 60 - ](rUO. With
the Hr.tites. I - 6 - 24 - 12 series are to be tbund in thc' mr-asLlrc ()l'
WI tr;ttts ttr lit,il(r s l\ ilil, lNro. capacity (puri.stt.;utu. [u:i/, and upnul+. It is t-rhsen'ccl tltat dcspitc thc
,( j. \', rt \(, /r,,,j
great variety ot' units the systern of metrology is basicully' thc sarnc.

nu-ttu or ttut-tir,-r, hacl two rttajor varietics . llrc rtuut{/ 'ol tlrc king'
[:qurr lrlcnt ancl thc nu)na 'olCurchemish's. The ttrunu 'o1'thc rttcrcltrrtt',<ctlrrltl rclc'r
rnerely to a set ol'wcights used in the tritnsucl.ion in qucsticltt>. nrtitr
rllrl ) 1l |
ol' 60 .sltckr,l.s lo I nutttu is constant. .s'ltt'l;tl cclLutls lli0 gririns but
only liactions til' .s'ltcl;clwere used. Thc largcr w,cight unit n'us tlrc talcrrt
hl ,t s.s,' I li6l rrA A rr t| rltltl
( dl'| ()u L\r) 1 l)rcr e zlt ) | -5() r/i .

tlt't L ttr i .1. -r rrAArr ru rr hlr ir

k tttlttt tt .1.5 oAArr {..190 kg olivc oil ' C.1". .e hnllrin. ,r [)lrs lrltblbyltlniscltc Nlaitss- tttttl (itrr ielrt::r :luttt ;.rl: ( irrrrtrlllruc
litr,t I -l rrliArr 127 g dcr antikcn Gc$ichts-. Nliinz- uncl N'tlltss)'stelncr. .l( It'.s tltr ,\'' ( rr7iq,2 1)1 lrttcrttl. tlr':
()t t.q /r it)t I ( ()uncf ) ll dt. ()rit'tttuli.;tt'.\ l(nu t'tt l,\,\'9 Li Stttcklrttltrr t't tt ('ltri.s!itnttt. l' ;llrrtic. rectiott I ll Ieiticrr.
e l. Se hilbuch. l.
691. l('5-l-{9 :
Irt.git' l() rrAArr t-i kg I
50 tlr (r0 riAAc \\ Inc
N. f)ostgrlc. l:iltr .\t'rt-.l.r.t.t'riutt Lt'g,tl l)t,t ttt)t( ttl\. \\':tlttiittslct' (l:rrsl;rrr.i) . .\lrr
and Phrllips Ltd., (r-1. I rrnr inclcbtcd ttr I\1r:. J.;\. Serrl,re L' kirtrl rte': 1ir1 1111 Ie l('r'cll!'r'\ l()
thc ancicttt rr'orld.
r ll,tl.
' L;. F. (lcl l\l()r)te . ,, \lctr',rlogirr l.littitrr I

.ltttit1rr.t. l9 (l9li0). ll()

5 (r5-tr(r.
I)tt:ltllltc. rtlt t !l..
l\ | lt()l)tr( l'lON l() OI l Oi\|.'\N i\l1: I l{()t o(,\ -t+5
344 ll,{t_lt_ tN.\L('tK

60 lteut'r' tnunu or 120 light tttuttu. Thus, APPf:NDIX llt

(bi-lttt or br.r.rrr) w,hich was
the syste nt was as lilllou's :('
I herrrl (itlent : 60 It. ttttttttt ,.' tl0 l. tttttttrt : .1600 lt. .shckcl - 1200 l. sfukal : 60.6 kg
I light rirlcrrt : -10 h. rrrartrr - 601. rtttuut: lfi00 h..slttktl : -16(X) l..slrckrl - 30.3 kg

Tlre s1'stcnt is birsctl orr rriultiplicutir.ttt ol'30 trttrtttnvith 2-4-60-120-240.

lp clry clpacitl' thc decimul systenr wlls lbllorvecl. Lirtcar lncasures
were-based on 'lingcr', 'palnl' arlcl 'cubit'. It can be suggested that e-\
the Mesopotantialt basic wcight tntiL ttrtttttr (pound)continued in Greco-
Ronrarr ntinu (see Schilbuch, p. 279) a,nd Iranian-lslarnic niitrrt (see IMG, s?.
pp. l6-23). We have in lritn two kinds of niinn as in Mesopotamia,
nttitttt-i ,v7ll (roylrl niinn) and snrall tniitrtr.
7, <<
< Sorne times>>, Postgate poillts oLlt the normal SyStemS of measure-
ment by volume (or weight) gave place to a unit more suited to the
particuiar- corntrioclity. Most such units were containers ol- various
'/b)ri ri,aiJ: /r+r ,.Ji,_
kinds ancl rrot strictly nteasLrres at allr>. For ittstance, tnuqurrutu meant '"!:r;t i q,r/,i:,
a 'roll' or 'bale' (1or straw), cbi.r.rtr. 'bunclle' (fbr reeds) or pittu (for
trrritrrrs. scstrnrc). ntidtlttttt llirr u'ittc). I lotttt't' t)r cntdt'rt, itttt;t'tr. thc
.clonkey'(-loacl)n wrrs usecl as a mcrisurt; (Arabic llinttlr nrcans donkcy).
;,,{) t /;:;,, Jrar j
lJiad r:t /) .!;;rr;
, t l
-lt rl,i i,Jrj.t slt) ,r,,
?tY r; i c. Lt) rr zrlt: li *.r ;, ; iF*, rt;
4'/vt' q i/.$I 1t qtl) dp,: gv, ,tr
!-U- u,, q'L
'! YiV rl
4r ttJ,tt ti aI|1.-, d; u U

i:: ;P * o! lt -: d,Jt*W! wt A) o

rlJ, t r'.t!
6.f;1 .'
'J- d-/
" J o t\.
,VrI; {r;A,:1rrflur-)!
t uut ae: iV
/-ir(qai,, a ,t;.-J r

" ()ur':lfliulgell)elll is [t:.r.e,l trn l)tr:tglltc':. (rJ

- lltitl . (:\-(,')
' lhtl . (r7. I:rrf \lc:ogro111111rart rieiuhts ltrrd rrrcirsurcs alstl sec F. 'l'hurcltu-I)an-urn,
L'L'. lc Q.'\ ct lc \{ina. lcur rnesurr' ct lcur nrppr)rt,r. Jourtul .l.tiutiqut', l0' scric.
L\ll. l!)()i t')-lll: O Neugct'rlttter'. I'lrt Lrrrr'l Jt'it,l(('\ i/r ..1/i/i(/ui1.r. Nf\\ \ ork:
Br.ititl I rrrrcr:itl l)te:s. l9-il: .J ]litlttr) itl 'l LLltrtttlrtqt. eti' t [. Singc'r,'l rrl.. Orlirrd.
195-1. --l-i-l
il \t-il IN.,\t.( lK lN I ltol)l.j(' I ION
O'l'l Ol\lAN 1\llr I lt()l ()(;\ j-r7

,f--.::l -'l -* ;'iilt ;7 Al-'Umari, Masalik '. Al- L'nruri's Bericht iiber Anutolien in stittutr l'l/t:rk ,llusilik
t'i 4ix3
4ll ul-Absar Ji ,UIunulik ul-Atrtsdr, ed. Franz Tasschner, Leipzig. 1929.
B A : BagvekAlet Arqiv Gencl Mtidiirliigii, Istanbul.
J-Lddi 4:ts> S-py. -,U; |.; ?-f s 16 t-f -- I Barkan, Kanunlar: 6rncr L0tli Barkan. .YI' r'(' .\'l'ltttt't ,1:trlurtltt O.r'rttuttlr
imparutorlugwulu Zirui Ekontntinin Hukuki vc .lIuli I:.v.rlurr, I. Kanunl;.rr.
c;,orJ J-L-r*j; (5- )y- *g )* t4-1, l! r[-: -, ) ot! 2 Istanbul : Trirkiyat Enstittisri, 1943.
)r-r f -jsl ),r)yJ Belgeler: Belgaler, Tilrk 'furih Belgelari Dergisi, Ankara: Ttirk Tarih Kuruntu.
t964 --
$ttst :-fb ,$*;-$iyl );,.t,Ji6 jLIt/ ,41 r)l osl )-h 3

Berindei-Vein:rtein :
Mihnca Berindei and Cilles Vcinstcin, ,,Rt-lglenrcnts clc
s); Stileymar I"
concernant le Liva de Kele>>, Cultit'r.s du .llotulc rrt.\.\'(' (,1
sovidtiqut, XV- I (anvier-mars 197 5).
:J Jsl ,S)-P -tJ):, f lt)l ,*Je S:s)-r iUJl J\.d*l otS)ye> I B T T D: Belgelt'rk Tiirk Turihi Dergisi.lstanbul.
D T C F Dergisi : Dil ve 'furih CogruJt'a I'ukilltesi Dt'rsi:i. Ankara.
-riv 4-r.jl Derleme Sozlugti Tiirki.t'e'fu Hulk Ai:tndun DerlurtL'S'r,,:/r(,ii, Ankaru: -fiirk
L,r,L G); 4stp )t-f ojl+llJ-l g,)l ;,CJl +V s &-:6 5 Dil Kurunru, 1963-1979.
Es'ar Delieri: 1610 Turiltli Es'dr DeJtcri, tacsimilc' cclition b1 Yagar Yiiccl.
ljrrt iYJl Ankara: Dil ve Tarili Couralya Fikriltesi Public:.rtions. no. 3ll, l9fi2.
G. Young:George Young, Corps de Droit ottotnun.6 vols.. Oxlbrcl. 190-5,1t)06.
:t)-y'-P --|) ;:):" -/..i'-r-! il-t*s lt- )-v- o,t;)l .;iu 6
ffayraf-Din Halil :Hity'rll-Din l-{alil, Fu:luku-i Hi.sdlt.lVlS. Siilel'rnuni;'e Libnrry.
J)s +L--'Uri Istanbul, Esad Et'encli no 3172; Bibliotheque Nutitrtutlc. Plris. Suppl!.nlcnt
turc, no. 5.11, ,10b-6lu (,llilrill).
4s y. o-uJllyl (]" -:6 Jjri iUit, !+l r)\ i)t -lst 7
Hcers, Piccanriglio:Jacqucs Hecrs, Le livrc clt cttntlttr'.s lt Giot'ttrtrti Picutttticlit,.

-l:t :lt lnnntcs d'u//hire:' gtttttti.s'. 1156-1459 Paris : S.E.V.P.E.N.. 1959.

Hinz: Wirlther Hinz. l.slurti.s'cltt rtIusst' und Gcx'it'ltt( unt.q('r(,chttct itr.s tttrtri.tcln,
z L>gL>l
(- i-tll -*k -\:r f<,--d1l ^r) ^;*- S)-F
4st.s: )-y.r. tt S'l'.vlr'rr. Leiden: E.J. llrill, 1955.
gU; 6r -b-'l I M G:Hinz.
I F M : istanbul
Lirtit'arsitt,.si ikti:;at Fakilltesi Ilcctrruusi,lstanbul. 1939
lLc +; ))p _," :J;[l iL-;") JJI S tf : 9
'tl -l r
4rr.\Lr t _y ) ismet Kayaoglu: isntct Kaf aoglu, <Rahatoglu ve Vakliyesi,,, I'tk4/lur Dcrgiti.
XIII, Ankara: Vakrllar Ge'nel Miidtirl.ngri, 1981, l-19.
\\'rittcrr b-\ Huslur SOn t)l'ldns. cldi :.rt thc court ol'Nori lVlehnred MevkDflti:ft'rir,t'kit-/iti,2 vols. eds. lVI. Kanril and M. Karnil.
rr';.rson lirr thc uriting ol'this clocurlrcnt is thitt prcviously. iiltcrt Istanbr.rl, l--120 H.
salt uls inrpeirtecl liorn the lbrtress ol'Dubrovnrk to the lirrtrcsses ol'Nova Muhyi al-Drn Mchrred: N'luhyr al-Din N{chnrc'd b. I-lucci Atmaca. .llt'tnttt
and Rilcsln. the establishccl ancl confirrncd rule was that cach Vcnetiart ul- xur i'zd MS, SLilcynranil'e Ktittiphancsi, IstanbLrl, Esacl no. -1176. Iliblie-
nut:ur w'hich eclualled one huttcJrecl itnd t\\'enty Vcnetian lilret. rvas to bu' thequc' Nationalc, Plris. Supplernc-nt turc, no. ,5-l-1.
solci lbr thirtccrr aA1a. But. rvlrcrr thc knezcs ol'Dubrovnik applicd thc Mukirtabirt-i Rayiclr : Fitdl'ulluh Ra;;id al-Din, tllukurubit-i llu,lidi. cd. M. Shlli',
rtut:ur rihich is irt usc in I)irbrovnik fiirr thc selling ol'thcir salt hcre] Lahorc, l9:15.
iurd sold cleh llr--rrr lbr elc'r'cn uk('u. lt clisputc ltitcl ltriscrt [bcnvcen thc' 'l'tl'ril_t-i
knczes and thc Ottonlrns]. At the prcsent tinrc- the albrr'mentioneci knc'zcs
O. Nuri (Ergin), Mecelle : Osrnan Nuri, ,l/c<'tllt'-i LittuTr-i Balttli.y.r'e. L'
t'rl'Drrbrovnik ugreed lnd untlcrtcrok tltat tltc rrtu:ur lin sclling salt] is tr-r Teskilat-i Belcdiy.r'a. I, Istanbul, 1922.
be, in accorc'lrtrtce with the prel'ious regLrlatictn (kutlitrtr kurntn ii:trc\. Ottoman Regulation ol'll99rl88l : Yeni 6lsiilt,rirt'liut:irrt t,t'Tttt.sikilc Suvtr-i
rhe rntcur ol'one hundred t\\'enty Venetialr lidrr. ; taclt ttru:ur is to be It'raiy.t'asi Hukkindu Kurdrtanrcdir, second edition. lstunbul : T'ophllne-i
ri,eishc'd bt kuuur and sold lbr thirtecn uk<'u. Thcrcttn,rrt this docurt-tcttt
'Amire Matba'asr ll99 I 881 .

is drau'n up ancl clelilered into the hands ol'thc r ol' Dubrovnik str Pyle, <Anutoliun Ring W'cigltts>: Nancy S. Pyle. <<Anuttlliun Ring \\'cigltrs,,.
prool u'hcn rtec'ded. Journul o1' Tu-.t' ish Studie.s. II (C'ambridge 1978). 91 -ltJ6.
T'his took place lncl rvas writtcn on the lirst clal'ol'thc. sercrcd nr()r.lth
Pyle, <<Ottom.Ln ()kka Weights>: Nancy S. Pyle, <<Ottonran Okka Wcights,,,
o!' Rurrudfut itt thc lear ol- t9ti.
Bcllttot 6 (Ankanr: l-urkish Historicll Societl'. Junuur\' 1977). ll-5-ll.l.
I I Vcnctirrtr lihhnt .gt'()\'re : -l-i7 7-19 g.

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