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HOW

PLANTS
SURVIVE
CHAPTER 5 | ALYZZA ALBAY
MA11B | M. SARIGUMBA
PLANT ORGANS
AND THEIR
FUNCTIONS
To maintain life,
plants need water
and minerals from
the soil, carbon
dioxide and oxygen
from the air and light
energy from the sun.
To obtain these
needs each organ
must be structurally
designed to perform
one or more vital
functions.
Plants organs are
classified into the following:
1) Vegetative 2) Reproductive
Vegetative Plant Organs
Vegetative Plant
organs are the
following:
1) Leaves
2) Stems
3) Roots
LEAVES
The plant leaf is an organ whose shape
promotes efficient gathering of light for
photosynthesis. The form of the leaf must
also be balanced against the fact that most
of the loss of water a plant might suffer is
going to occur at its leaves (transpiration).
FUNCTION
conteins chlorophyll - eligible for
photosynthesis
water vaporization and exchange of gases
between the plant and the environment
3 TYPES
1) cotyledons - on the bottom of the plant
2) asimilation leaves - above previous
3) bracts - on the very top of the plant
STEM
The stem arises during development of the
embryo as part of the hypocotyl-root axis, at
the upper end of which are one or more
cotyledons and the shoot primordium.
FUNCTION
To hold the leaves, sprouts and reproductive
organs
TYPES OF BRANCHING
1) monopodium - side stems do not over grow
the main stem
2) sympodium - opposite of monopodium
3) pleiochasium - stems are dividing equally,
none of them is dominant
ROOTS
The root is the (typically) underground part of
the plant axis specialized for both anchoring
the plant and absorbing water and minerals.
FUNCTION
To hold the flower in the ground

To take nutrients and water from the ground

PARTS OF THE ROOT


1) Growth zone meristem cells and caproot
cells
2) Streching zone cells enlarge their size
3) Differencial zone cells get water and
nutriens from the soil
Reproductive Plant
organs are the
following:
1) Stamen
2) Pistil
3) Stigma
STAMEN
The male fertilizing organ of a flower,
typically consisting of a pollen-
containing anther and a filament.
PISTIL
The female organs of a flower,
comprising the stigma, style, and
ovary.
STIGMA
The part of a pistil that receives the
pollen during pollination.
STEPS
OF
PLANT
REPRODUCTION
POLLINATION
The pollen grains drop on the stigma
of the pistil through the wind, insects
and water.
POLLEN
GERMINATION
Carrying the sperm cells is a long
cylindrical extension called a pollen
tube which enters the micropyle of
the ovule
FERTILIZATION
The zygote undergoes a series of
division producing the embryo.
After fertilization the ovary develops
into a fruit. The ovule becomes the
seed.
SEED GERMINATION
As the seed germinates the hypocotyl
of the embryo grows into the primary
root. The epicotyl develops into the
shoot and leaves.
SOURCES:
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Botany/Plant_structure
http://www.jazyky.mluvmespolu.eu/default.aspx?id=175&dwn=1
779
https://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=i
mages&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiuqeDs8L_SAhVIHZ
QKHYkNDwsQjRwIBw&url=https%3A%2F%2Fcourses.lumenlearni
ng.com%2Fbiology2xmaster%2Fchapter%2Fpollination-and-
fertilization%2F&psig=AFQjCNGk2KuZ7TaYdWXeHtZnxhALGnKS
MA&ust=1488820900903793
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Root