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XVII , ,
. [Farquhar, 1978] . [Grupper, 1984].

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48
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[Sperling, 1987]


1227 . . .
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[ibid., . 90].

50
2.



,

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--.

2.1.

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, 1941], --
(1 247-1318) (--) [-
-, 1946, 1952, 1960].
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5* 51
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XIII
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52
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XIII
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53

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, ), .
Dorben Oyirad
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[, 1934, . 156-157].


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. 18]; . : [, 1893, . 32]).
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54
--, , ,
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[--, 1952, . 1, . 1, . 118].
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cor [Tucci, 1949, vol. 1,.256;, 1991,.2, .31;, 1981,.219-
220]. ,
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p .9; Schulemann, 1958, S.222; Ahmad, 1970, p. 195; , 1983, . 142]**.
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1996, . 35]). , -
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55
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. 142-143] , 1X-XII
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[Das, 1902. . 554]. -
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, 1983, . 78].
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1251 .
Gtam-gyi-tshogs thag-pai-rgya-mtsho zhes-bya-
ba : (), --,
, 100.000 , ...
Stod (.. ), -
(stod hor ), ( ), ,
- (smad hor); . : [Wylie, 1962, .134].

56
,
.


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.

2.2.
.

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I
.. [-, -, 1990, . 30].
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[ , 1992, . 34],

57
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.

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58
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[, 1963, . 1, . 458^ 59].[ , ^
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59
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, 1968, . 150].

60
, , -
[, 1968, . 5, . 108, 618].
1007 . [, 1980, . 168] '.
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, 1994, . 169].
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[, 1970, . 261; . : , 1992, . 164; -
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X [, 1975, . 69]. . : [
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61
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[,
1940, . ]. : ...-- ,
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62
, . [1978, . 143], . [1991,
. 2, . 28], . [1972, . 22], . - [Rona-Tas, 1965, . 121] .

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(1 8 6 7 -1 9 3 7 ) ,
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121], ,
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. 93]. ()
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Paksi mkhas pa mams kyis yu gur dang/ mon kol mams la yi ge bri klog
dang/ ston pai dam chos bka bstan gsung rab mams/ rang rang skad du bsgyur tsul
ston cing bslabs/ [Bio bzang rta mgrin, . 5 .].

63

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(-).
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; .: [, 1857, . 87]. .. ,

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64
[,
1907, . 1, . 1, . 4].
.
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1032 1227 , ,
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, . XIII .

(Gtsang dkon mchog seng ge, 7-1218/1219),
( ) (Ti
shri sangs rgyas ras chen, 1164/1165-1236) [Sperling, 1987, p. 34];
.
,
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(, ),
, ; ., : [-
, 1940, . 1, . 213].
-
.., :
[Stein, 1966, . 281-289]. .: [Kwanten, 1972,
. 52].

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.
: , ,
[-, 1993, . 66].
, , , .

6 9335 65
,
. . .

[Tucci, 1949, vol. 1, .9] ,
;
.

- - (Gtsang dung khur
ba dbang phyug bkra shis) [Tshal pa kun dga rdo ije brtsams, 1981, p. 130],
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:
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-
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.. , XIII - XIV
- [ ,1958, . 336].
Gtsang dung khur ba dbang phyug bkra shis gung thang bla ma zhang gi slob
/ thog mar shis zhva rgyal poi bla mar gdan bzangs te mi nyag gi yul du thsal pa bka
brgyud kyi chos lugs thog mar spel/ ijes su jing gir han gyis shis zhva (mi nyag) rgyal khab
gtor rjes sog yul du gdan drangs nas jing gir han la chos gsungs te sog yul du thal pa bka
brgyud kyi chos lungs thog mar spel/ [Tshal pa kun dga rdo tje brtsams, 1981, p. 452].
Sa kar gnyis las kyang mtshal pai bstan pa byung ba snga bar snang ste/ zhang
rin po chei slob ma gtsang pa dung khur pa dpon slob bdun gyis hor yul du byon nas ri
khrod la bzhugs/ [Dpa bo gtsug lag phreng bas brtsams pa, 1986, vol.2, p. 1414].
Gtsug lag khang mang du bshig bstan pa nyams mams pai tshe bla ma
gtsang pas rgyal poi dnmg du byon te rgyal pos kyang gnam mohod thams cad kyi gral
mgor bton sgos kyi sbyin bdag dza yin/ jing gi rgyal po la lo tsa bsgyur nas rgyu bras
dang chos kyi che ba bshad nas sems can gyi bde skyid sangs rgyas kyi bstan pa la rag/
bstan pa la rgyal pos bkur sti byed dgos/ [Dpa bo gtsug lag phreng bas brtsams pa,
1986, vol.2, p. 1415].

66
, ...
,
, ,
, , . . [,
1964, . 35].
, ,

1227 .
. . -
,
[, 1975, . 42].
, ,
. ,
. X V I-X V III
[, 1978, . 184;
H eissig, 1959, S. 43 -4 4 ].
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.
, [Howorth, 1876, . 506]. ,
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- [, 1983, . 12-13];
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., 1965, . 57].
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); ...
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[Vernadsky, 1953, . 102].
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, [ : Douglas,
Conger, 1962, p. 331]. ,
( , )

6* 67
.
,
, [-, 1991, . 35].
, 1240 , 1245
(Sa skya pan di ta kun dga rgyal
mtshan, 1181-1251)^ ,
. ,
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- , ,
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.
XIII

. -
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1991, . 40]^. V,
XIII -
: ,
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.
- [Dpa bo gtsug lag phreng bas brtsams
pa, 1986, vol. 2, p. 1416].

,

. 1255 -

.., ,
.
, - [Wylie, 1977,
. 112].
, ,
[-, 1991, . 78].
. .
De yang mon khor rgyal pos bri gung pa sa chen ( ,
. ..) rgyal pos tshal / hu la hus phag mo gni pa mams so sor mchod
gnas su bzung ste/ [Ngag dbang bio bzang rgya mtsho, 1967, p. 63].

68
, 1256 . .
,
, (), (), ()
[Richardson, 1958, . 143].
. ,
1260 .
1261 ;
[Dpa bo gtsug lag phreng bas brtsams pa, 1986, vol.2, p.
1421]
( Gro mgon chos rgyal phags pa, Phags pa bio
gras rgyal mtshan, 1235-1280),
. . ,
, - [Richardson, 1958, . 144; Rossabi,
1988, . 143], -
.
, ,
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.

,
[Wylie, 1977, . 120].
: ( ,
. ..), (
. ..), ... Dii gong gi lo
bshi Inga na grub thob chen po karma pak shis rgyal po mong gor gan la chos gsungs
byin gyis brlabs pas rgyal po khor bcas sems gdzung jin las grol/ [Dpa bo gtsug lag
phrengs bas brtsams pa, 1986, vol.2, p. 1419].

69

,
[ , 1969, . 144; - ,
1969, . 19], . --
: ^'* []
, , ,
[--, 1952, . 1,
.1, . 120]. ,
^^,
.
-, (sic!)
[--, 1946, . 2 2], -
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().
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(.3.2.).
,
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Kwanten, 1972, p. 128].

70
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[1968, .5, . 538]
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.. XIV -X V II .

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1256 ,
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1267 ,
[Tshal dga rdo rje brtsams, 1981, p. 122]. JI.
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[Petech, 1983, . 183]. ,
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[, 1970, . 249].

71
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[Roerich, 1976, .4 8 5 -4 8 7 ]. , 1253
., ,
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[Petech, 1983, . 183]. .. ,
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- IV.

72
, XIII
, ( 1259
. , 1264 . -,
1265 . )
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,
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XIII
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1285-1290 .^'

: (stod hor) [Tucci, 1949, vol.
1, p. 16,253]. , , -.
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1290 . , , 1265 .
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[-, 1991, .
175], .
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; ,
.

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, 1994, . 273]. 1285-1290 .
[Kwanten, 1972, . 131]''^. , -

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2001 .
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... [-, 1991, . 40].
, (, ,
) [Petech, 1983, . 189, 201; Rossabi,
1988, . 222; Wylie, 1977, . 131-132].

73
-
1290 . [ibid., . 130].
XIII ,
-. 1269 . . -
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1317 ., , , ,
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. 259-261].

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74
3.

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75
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168 (. 316)]. ,
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76
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dbang bzang rgya mtsho, 1967, p. 108].

77
, [, 1978, . 87]. |
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1981, . 176]: (gung than)
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78
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., 1997, . 243],

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79
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.: , 1994].
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Phag mo gru pai snge srid dang rgyal ba tsong kha pai bstan pa gnyis srog
gcig/ [Ngag dbang bio bzang rgya mtsho, 1977, p. 95].

84
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, [Snellgrove, Richardson, 1968, p. 184].
Rje bsod nams rgya mtsho la rod shig gis mdo sde gser od dam pa la phyag
nas shus pai tshe / gsung rab kyi ming dri ba gnang bar / al tan kha rel zer shus pai
tshe/ [Ngag dbang bio bzan rgya mtsho, 1967, p. 120].

94
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, 1969, . 142].
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lhag p a i lha zhig gnang ba dang / dgon pa debs dgos p ai zhu ba phul ba Itar [Ngag
dbang bio bzang rgya mtsho, 1977, p. 84].

107
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chos dby ins rdo rje, 1604 ., 1610 .
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. 233]. , ,

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thon dhub) .
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(Chang- Icang skya ngag dbang bio bzang chos Idan, 1642-1714), a Cesep-

114
(rje btsun dam pa);


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122
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156

(. 1 .)
1 thor god yul grui chos brgyud kyi byung khungs phan bde kun gsal
zhes bya ba bzhugs so//

(c. 1 .)
1 bde legs su gyur cig/ dir thor god yul Ijongs kyi chos brgyud ring
thung ji Itar byung bai khungs snyan brgyud cung tsam sngon gyi bla ma rgan
rabs 2 mams kyi gsung las thos pa bris pa la/ de yang I li rod jun gar gyi yul
las dpon rigs kyi slob ma gcig dang I jil yul gyi thor god yul las slob ma 3 gcig
dang mam gnyis rang rang gi yul Ijongs las chos kyi zhing khams dbus gtsang
gi phyogs su slob gnyer la gro bas der slebs pai d ei tshe bras spungs sgo
mang 4 gra tshang gi gdan khri la *** rje btsun jam dbyangs bzhad pa ngag
dbang brtson grus kyi zhal snga nas phebs pai skabs yin skad/ d ei tshe slob
ma de gnyis kas mkhan 5 po rje jam bzhad rin po ch ei zhabs la btugs nas slob
gnyer la thugs sbyong byas bas yon tan gyi mthar phyin nas ming btags kyi go
sai m ing bos pai lha btsun 6 pai jun sgar lha rams pa bio bzang phun tshogs
dang/ thor god rab byams smra ba bio bzang dge legs zhes pa ming btags pai
go sa thob pa yin skad/ de nas dpal

(c .2 .)
1*** /Idan smad rgyud grva tshang la bzhugs nas nas rgyud pai gar thig
dbyangs gsum sogs cho ga phyag len mams legs par khong du chung bzhin pas
dug 2 pai tshe skabs su sgo mang mkhan chen bla ma jam bzhad rin po chei
zhal snga nas slob ma gnyis la khyed gnyis kyi las smon brel bai lhag lha ije
btsun jam dbyangs yin 3 pas dge p h e l ri khrod la song nas rje btsun gyi bsnyen
mtshams la bzhug shig ces gsung gnang nas de dag gyang phral du ge phel ri
khrod la byung ste rje btsun 4 gyi bsnyen mtshams la bzhugs pai bsnyen pai
sgang la slebs pai tshe rab byams pas rje btsun gyi zhal gzigs dang gsung gleng
sogs kyi rtags yod ba la lha btsun pa 5 la ci yang mi byung bas bdag gi yid la
khyod kyis yi dam dang gsung gleng sogs byung bai rtags shar bas bdag la ci
yang mi yong ba di ji Ita bu zhig yin zhes rab byams pa 6 las dri ba la khyed kyis
nga rgyal skyangs cig zhes pa la ga re bdag ni dpon rigs can yin zhes pas Ian pa
lags sam snyam nas ri khrod di nyid du bsags sbyangs la bad pas rdzogs

(c. 2 .)
1 pai mjug tu yi dam gyi zhal gzigs gsung gleng sogs kyi rtags bmyed pa
yin skad/ de nas bsnyen pa tshar nas slar yang grva tshang la ong nas bla ma

157
mkhan po dang phrad pai dus su bla m ai zhal snga 2 nas khyed gnyis bsnyen
mtshams su bzhugs skabs su rtags mtshan ci byung zhes pai gsung gi dri ba
gnang bai tshe rab byams pas phran bdag la yi dam gyi sku mthong zhing gsung
gi gleng 3 Ian sogs yod ba yin zhes zhu ba yin skad/ lha btsun pas bdag rtags ci
yang m i byung ba la sags sbyangs la bad nas bsnyen par bzhugs pas yi dam gyi
zhal gzigs sogs 4 rjes su byung ba lags zhes zhus pa la bla m ai zhal snga nas
gsung Ian ci yang mi gnang ba yin skad/ yang d ei tshe khong nas mtshan mo re
rei dgong mo srod kyi rjes 5 su sgo mang thor god mi tshang gyi lha khang gi
thog gi khang gtsang gi nang duj o mo sgrol gsung byung ba byin brlabs can
gyi drung du them skas nas yar phebs ste yun ring tsam du bzhugs 6 gnang zhing/
them skas kyi sgo bsrung la slob ma gnyis po res gas byed du bcug pa yin skad/
de Itar mang por jo m oi drung du thogs pai skabs gcig tu sgo bsrung ba po lha

(c. 3 .)
1 btsun pas di Itar bla ma rin po che nas ring du thogs nas ji Ita bu zhig
la gtad nas them skas nas dzegs ste 2 gtsang khang gi sgo drung du song nas
nyan pas ci yang med pa zhig byung ba skad/ yang rab byams pas sgo bsrung
pai skabs su sngar bzhin du them skas nas yar song ste snyen 3 gtad pas bla
m ai zhal nas chos kyi dri ba jo mor zhus pa la gsung gi Ian zhib tu stsol ba thos
pa skad/ yang de tshe gnas gang nas ongs pai nges pa med ba bud med rgan
m o 4 gcer bu gos med mo mtshan tsam ras kha tshar gcig gis sgrib nas lha sai
khrom dus slong mor rgyu nas rjes su gang du song bai nges pa med par yal
song ba zhig yod pa yin skad/ 5 d ei tshe sgo mang mkhan chen bla ma rin po
ch ei zhal nas lha btsun pa la di nas shar phyogs su klung cung ring ba zhig
yod pai de phur brag khung la sngar slong mar ong nas rgyu bai bud med 6
rgan m o de dug pai phyir de la rtsam pa di khyer song te sbyin cig ces gsung
nas rtsam pa khung gang ma gnang bai de lha btsvm pas rgyab tu khur nas bla
m ai gsung Itar klung der bzhugs nas 7 bgrod skabs su nyi ma nub nas mtshan
m o srod byung nas der zhad gcig gi gnyid log cing sang nang klung de brgyud
nas phur sleds pai tshe rgan mo bud med des brag klung nas phir byung te

(c. 3 .)
1 bsus mas nang du bcug nas nged kyi bla ma nas khyed la rtsam pa di
bskur ba yin zhes phul pa las rgan m os ja bskol te bcos nas rtsam pa las rang
gis bzhes nas lha btsun pa yang gtod nas 2 rgan mo lus las rdul byimg ba kun la
lag pas mnye zhing gril bas lus kyi dri m ai ril bu zhig byung ba de bla ma chen
m o i rtsam pa bdag la khyer ongs te sbyin pa khyed la di las gzhan sbyin 3
rgyu cang ma mchis zer nas lha btsun par stsol ba de lag du dzin pas de nas
slar phyir zlog skabs su sar thed bor nas dgon par song nas bla mar phyag

158
skabs su bla m ai zhal nas nged nas 4 rtsam pa bskur bas rgan mo de dgtes pa
am zhes gsung pa la shin tu che ba dgyes pao zhes zhu ba la de nas khyed la
ci gtod ba yin zhes gsung dri ba la nga la lus kyi dri m ai ril bu de sbyin pa las
5 gzhan ci yang med zhes zhu ba la khyed kyis des ci byed pa yin zhes pa la
bdag gis de tshur gro bai tshe sa thed bor nas ongs lags zhes pa la gsung Ian
ci mi gsung skad/ de nas 6 yang rab byams pa la sngar bzhin rtsam pa gnang
nas rgan mor bskur ba bzhin gong ga lha btsun pai skabs bzhin ja rtsam pa
dang sngar bzhin lus kun spyi dang bye brag tu mo mtshan gyi dri ma 7 phyi
nas dri m ai ril bu de gong gi lha btsun pa la gtod ba Itar rab byams pa la sbyin
pai tshe na bla ma rin po che /nas\ di Ita bur rtsam pa bskur bai Ian du nga la
lus kyi dri m ai ril bu di Ita bu zhig

(c .4 .)
1 gtod pa di ni ji Ita bu zhig nga rang gis mi shes pas di ci byung yang
zos dgos snyam nas khar bcug nas mgul du mid pas lus la sngar med pai dga
2 bdes lus kun khyab pa skad/ de tshe rgan mo des rab byams pai m go la
phyag gis byungs nas bla ma mkhas pa chen p o i slob ma khyed kyis bstan
groi btsug rgyan zhig byung ba 3 yin zhes gsung nas m nyes pa lags skad/ de
nas phyir Idog nas dgon pa slebs nas bla mar phyag byas pai tshe rgan mo de
rtsam pa bskur pas dgyes paam zhes gsung bai tshe 4 shin tu dgyes pa lags
zhes zhu bai tshe de nas des khyod la cis bya dga ster ba yin zhes gsung gi dri
ba gnang pai tshe bdag la lus kyi dri mas ril bu byas nas gtod ba yin zhes 5 zhu
bai tshe des khyed kyis ci byed pa yin zhes gsung pai tshe de mgul du mid pa
lags [zhes] zhu bai tshe cang ci yang mi gsung ba yin skad/ de nas dus slad
mar rin po che khong gi zhal 6 nas sgo mang grva tshang gi dge dun mang po
sogs m am s la bka chos gnang bai dus kyi skabs su di skad gsung skad/ bdag
gis yul gru gnyis nas yong nas bdag rang la brel 7 thogs pai slob ma gnyis kyi
chos rgyud ring thung ji Itar byung b ai rten brel mam pa gsum gyis brtags
pai dang po dge phel la lhag lhai bsnyen mtshams la bzhugs pai skabs

(c. 4 .)
1 bzhin dang/ gnyis pa jo m o sgrol m ai skabs bzhin/ gsum pa y e shes
mkha gro m ai mam phm l rgan m o la rtsam pa bskur bai skabs dang gsum
po lags zhes gsung gi bshad pa 2 gnang b ai d ei dang po bsnyen mtshams kyi
skabs su rab byams pa lhai zhal mthong gsung thos pao / lha btsun pa bsags
sbyangs la bad nas rjes su zhal mthong pa lags/ gnyis 3 pa nga rang jo m o i
gsung gleng dri ba byed pai tshe lha btsun pas ci yang mi thos pa lags/ rab
byams pas jo mo dang chos kyi dri Ian byed pa de thos pao / gsun pa rgan mo
slon ba pa la tsam pa 4 bskur bai skabs su rgan m o i lus gyi dri ma ril bur byas

159
nas sbyin pa de rab byams pas ragul du mid pas rab byams p ai chos kyi dud
pa yun ring du thul bai rten brel 5 byung ba lags/ lha btsun pas de gsum gyis
cung zad dman pas d ii chos brgyud yun thung du gyur pai rten brel yin zhes
gsung gnang skad/ spyir na chos kyi go sai mtshan snyan 6 lha btsun pai sgo
mang bla zur bio bzang phun tshogs zhes pa dang sog skad du no no yon
mkhan po than zhes pao/ rab byams pai chos kyi go sai mtshan snyan rab
byams pa bio bzang dge 7 legs dang thor god skad du an ci than zhes pao/ de
Itar bla m ai gsung gi rten brel gyis rod tsun gar gyi lha btsun pai bstan pa
lo so drug tsam du dar nas nub pa yin skad/

(c . 5 .)
1 rab byams pas rten brel gsum gyis brtag pa tshul bzhin du gyur pas an
ci than gyi chos brgyud da Itai bar dar zhing rgyas pa di nyid yin skad/ yang lha
btsun 2 pas skyabs mgon rgyal dbang rin po cher rod dzun sgar gyi yul la dri
ma med pai bstan pa dar bai lung zhu bai tshe yul der dri med bstan pa lo bzhi
bcu tsam du dar pa yin zhes lung gnang 3 pa skad/ yang lha btsun pas slar yang
dbus gtsang gi phyogs su chibs ba bsgyur nas der slebs pai tshe rang gi bla ma
sgo mang mkhan chen la mjal bai skabs su khong gi zhal nas khyed 4 rang gi yul
der bya ba ci byed pa yin zhes pai gsung gi dri ba gnang bai tshe bdag rang gi
yul du mtshan nyid grva tshang dang rgyud pa grva tshang gnyis bskrun nas bca
khrims dam por bsrung ba 5 zhig byed pa yin zhes zhu bai tshe bca khrims de
ha cang dam par gyur pa yin zhes pai gsung gnang bai tshe mtha khob yul du
bslab bya dam po mi byung na bstan pa yun ting du gnas 6 par mi byung snyam
nas bca khrims dam por bya nas tshugs pa yin zhes zhu bai tshe de dang po nas
Ihod por byas nas de nas rim gyis bslab bca dam por bgyis na legs par 7 byung
ba lags zhes gsung skad/ de yang thag bai gril pa dam na myur du chad pa yin
zhes gsung gnang ba skad/ de Itar gong gi rten brel gsum dang rgyal dbang gi

(c. 5 .)
1 lung bstan dang bla ma jam bzhad kyi gsung ma thag pa bshad pa Itar
dzun sgar gyi bstan yung cung tsam dar zhing rgyas pa de Ita bu byung pa yin
skad do// yang chu go gangs la 2 thugs pa Itar thor god gyi bstan pa chos kyi
brgyud pa yun da Itai bar du dar rgyas pa di nyid skyang bstan pai chu go
bla ma dam pa an ci than las slob ma bkshi ming can bdun 3 byung ba yin skad/
de yang khe red shog gi has lun dang nu su he bkshi gnyis/ tsha than shog gi
tshul khrims dang yon tan gnyis/ bar ran shog gi grags pa bkshi/ zhabs gnyer 4
shog go or gun byams bkshi/ ho shod bio gros bzang po ste bdun byung bas so
so nas slob ma chos brgyud dzin pai mang po byung bas an ci than [gyi]
chos brgyud dung sgra dang 5 bsang gi dud pa Itai bar du sgra mi chad cing

160
bsang gi dud pa ma chad pas thul zhing gnas pa di nyid lags zhes pa/ ces
thor god yul grui chos brgyud kyi byiing 6 khungs cung zad smras pa sngon
gyi bla ma rgan rabs mams kyi bel gtam phan bde kun gsal zhes bya ba di ni
bka drin mtshungs med an ci than rin po ch ei gser 7 khri la zhabs kyi padma
bkod pa dgon sde bsam gtan chos gling gi khri chen pa bla ma chos dang jig
rten la mkhyen dpyod kyi spyan padmai dab Itar sogs bsngags os yon

( c . 6 .)
1 tan du m ai mdzod dzin pa bio bzang mthu stobs lags kyi zhal snga nas
di Ita bu zhig bris cig ces gsung gi bskul m ai m e tog spyi bor 2 gtor bai gsung
bcag par mi nus par mi nus pas rang gis gang spobs pa chu thig tsam du chos med
ser gzugs rmongs brtul gyi na ba dge slong byams tshul ming can zhi[g] 3 gis rab
tshes kyi nang tshan me stag loi zla ba gnyis pai dga ba gnyis pai nyin mor sug
bris su bgyis nas phul bas phyi rabs kyi gdul bya dang skye gro yongs 4 la phan
thogs par gyur cig/ dis kyang bkra shis dge legs phel bar gyur cig/

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BICBAS Bulletin of the Institute o f China Border Area Studies.


CAJ Central Asiatic Journal.
HJAS Harvard Journal Of Asian Studies.
JAH Journal o f Asian History.
JAS Journal of Asian Studies.
JTS The Journal of the Tibet Society.
NG National Geographic.
SPS Shata pitaka series.
TJ The Tibet Journal/
TP Toung Pao.

175

:

:
, . -145
, . 36

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180
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181
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182
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187
Summary
The monograph speaks about the history o f spreading o f Buddhism among
Oyirats in XIII-X VII centuries. The author used the original Tibetan, Oyirat,
as w ell as Chinese, M ongolian sources, and a big score o f literature.
Oyirats were the West-Mongolian tribes o f Khoshouts, Torgouts, Der-
bets and Jungars. They played important role in Chinggis Khans Khanate, in
Iran (Persia, X III-X IV centuries), besieged Beijing (X V century), conquered
Tibet (XV II-X V III centuries). The Oyirat distant migrations led to establish
ment o f three independent Oyirat khanates in the midddle o f XVII century
Jungar Khanate in Central A sia, Khoshout Khanate in Tibet and Torgout
(Kalmyk) Khanate in Russia.
The Oyirats lived at the cross roads o f different nations and cultures,
and due to their migrations they became familiar to customs, way o f life, world
outlook o f many nations in Central Asia. At the beginning o f second m illeni-
um Oyirats were shamans, then they follow ed Nestorian Christianity and later
became the adherents o f Buddhism. From XIII century Oyirats adopted Tibet
an Buddhism as their religion. Dharma had been spread on three occasions to
Oyirats. The first influence came from the Uighurs. The second influence
strengthening Tibetan Buddhism was Chinggis Khan and his successors. Among
Oyirats the most powerful was not the Sa-skya-pa, but in fact the Bri-gung-
pa, Tshal-pa, Kar-ma-pa and other subschools o f bKa-brgyud-pa. The third
introduction o f the Buddhas teaching began around the X V century, when the
dGe-lugs-pa preachers went to the nomads o f Amdo and to the North to
Oyirats. Very soon the West M ongolians became the strong followers o f the
new doctrine.
The author mentions the names o f people o f that process, the important
events, studies the international relations in Central Asia o f that period. Oyirats
became known as Kalmyks (that means the traitor, the piece), because
they accepted Buddhism, while majority o f Oyirats, who lived in Persia, adopted
Islam. The monograph also speaks about tantrism, the role o f Altai lamas in
history o f Buddhism among Kalmyks, the relations between Oyirats and Mus
lims, etc. Many famous persons were involved into the history o f Buddhism
among Oyirats; Dalai Lama III, Dalai Lama V, Chinese emperors, and others.
For Oyirats Buddhism was mainly the ideology, than religion.

188

...........................................................................................................................5
1.
................................................................................... 16
1.1. , ,
............................................................................................. 16
.............................................................................. 16
.......................................................24
.............................................................................. 28
1.2.
32
2.
................................................................................................. 51
2.1. ........................................ 51
2.2. .
..............................................................................57
2.3.

................................................................................................................ 64
3.
X V - XVII ..................................................................... 75
3.1. XV
...........................................................................................................................75
3.2.
................................................................................. 84
3.3.
............................................................... 90
4.
........................................................................................................................ 103
4.1. .............................. 104
4.2. ........................................................... 117
4.3. .................................................... 130
............................................................................................................. 147
.................................................................................................... 152
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189


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Summary................................................................................................................... 188
....... ..................................................................................................... 189

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