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expression of complex power, we have to first consider a single phase

network that's voltage and current can be represented in complex form as

V.ej and I.ej. Where and are angles that voltage vector and current

vector subtend with respect to some reference axis respectively. The active

power and reactive power can be calculated by finding the product of voltage

This ( ) is nothing but the

angle between voltage and current, hence that is phase difference between

voltage and current which is normally denoted as .

Where, P = VIcos and Q = VIsin. This quantity S is called the complex

power. The magnitude of complex power i.e. |S| = (P2 + Q2) is known as

the apparent power and its unit is volt-ampere. This quantity is a product

of absolute value of voltage and current. Again absolute value of current is

directly related to heating effect as per Joule's law of heating. Hence, rating

of an electrical machine is normally determined by its apparent power

carrying capability within allowable temperature limit. It is noted that in the

equation of complex power, the term Q [ = VIsin ] is positive when [=

( )] is positive that is, current lags the voltage which means the load is

inductive in nature. Again Q is negative when is negative; that is current

leads the voltage that means the load is capacitive.

Single Phase Power

A single phase electrical transmission system is practically not available, but

still we should know the basic concept of single phase power first before

going through modern three phase power system. Before going to details

about single phase power, let's try to understand different parameters of

electrical power system. Three basic parameters of electrical power system

are electrical resistance, inductance and capacitance.

Resistance

The resistance is an inherent property of any material, due to which it resists

the flow of current by obstructing the movement of electrons through it due

to collision with stationary atoms. The heat generated due to this process is

dissipated and known as ohmic power loss. While current flows through a

resistor, there will not be any phase difference between the voltage and

current, which means current and voltage are in same phase; the phase

angle between them is zero. If I current flows through an electrical

resistance R for t seconds, then total energy consumed by the resistor is

I2.R.t. This energy is known as active energy and corresponding power is

known as active power.

Inductance

Inductance is the property by virtue of which an inductor stores energy in

magnetic field during positive half cycle and gives away this energy during

negative half cycle of single phase power supply. If a current 'I' flows

through a coil of inductance L Henry, the energy stored in the coil in form of

reactive power.

Capacitance

Capacitance is the property by virtue of which a capacitor stores energy in

static electric field during positive half cycle and give away during negative

half cycle of supply. The energy stored between two parallel metallic plates

of electric potential difference V and capacitance across them C, is expressed

associated with a capacitor is also reactive power.

Active Power and Reactive Power

Let us consider a single phase power circuit in which current lags behind

the voltage by an angle . Let the instantaneous electric potential difference

v = Vm.sint Then the instantaneous current can be expressed as i = I m.

sin(t - ). Where, Vm and Im are the maximum values of sinusoidally

varying electric potential difference and

Active Power

Resistive Power

Let's take the condition first where the single phase power circuit is fully resistive in nature, that

means the phase angle between voltage and current i.e. = 0 and hence,

equation it is clear that, whatever may be the value of t the value of cos2t cannot be greater

than 1; hence the value of p cannot be negative. The value of p is always positive irrespective of

the instantaneous direction of voltage v and current i, that means the energy is flowing in its

conventional direction, i.e. from source to load and p is the rate of energy consumption by the

load and this is called active power. As this power is consumed due to resistive effect of an

electrical circuit, hence sometimes it is also called resistive power.

Reactive Power

Inductive Power

Now consider a situation when the single phase power circuit is fully inductive, that means the

current lags behind the voltage by an angle = + 90. Putting = + 90

In the above

expression, it is found that the power is flowing in alternative directions. From 0 to 90 it will

have negative half cycle, from 90 to 180 it will have positive half cycle, from 180 to 270 it

will have again negative half cycle and from 270 to 360 it will have again positive half cycle.

Therefore this power is alternative in nature with a frequency, double of supply frequency. As the

power is flowing in alternating direction i.e. from source to load in one half cycle and from load

to source in next half cycle, the average value of this power is zero. Therefore this power does

not do any useful work. This power is known as reactive power. As the above explained

reactive power expression is related to fully inductive circuit, this power is also called

inductive power.

This can be concluded as if the circuit is purely inductive, energy will be

stored as magnetic field energy during positive half cycle and give away

during negative half cycle and rate at which this energy changes, expressed

as reactive power of inductor or simply inductive power and this power

will have equal positive and negative cycle and the net value will be zero.

Capacitive Power

Let us now consider the single phase power circuit is fully capacitive, that is the current leads the

voltage by 90, therefore = - 90.

Hence in the

expression of capacitive power, it is also found that the power is flowing in alternative

directions. From 0 to 90 it will have positive half cycle, from 90 to 180 it will have negative

half cycle, from 180 to 270 it will have again positive half cycle and from 270 to 360 it will

have again negative half cycle. So this power is also alternative in nature with a frequency,

double of supply frequency. Therefore, as inductive power, the capacitive power does not do any

useful work. This power is also a reactive power.

Active Component and Reactive Component of Power

The power equation can be re-written as

consonants; first one is Vm. Im.cos(1 cos2t) which never goes negative as because value of

(1 cos2t) always greater or equal zero but cannot have a negative value.

This portion of

the single phase power equation represents the expression of reactive power which is

alternatively known as real power or true power. The average of this power will obviously have

some non zero value means, the power physically does some useful work and that is why this

power is also called real power or sometimes it is referred as true power. This portion of the

power equation represents the reactive power which is alternatively known as real power or true

power. Second term is Vm. Im.sinsin2t which will have negative and positive cycles. Hence,

average of this component is zero. This component is known as reactive component as it travels

back and forth on the line without doing any useful work. Both active power and

reactive power have same dimensions of watts but to emphasize the fact that reactive

component represents a non-active power, it is measured in terms of volt-amperes reactive or in

short VAR. Single phase power refers to the distribution system in which; all the voltages vary in

unison. It can be generated simply by rotating a moving coil in a magnetic field or by moving

field around a stationary coil. The alternating voltage and alternating current so produced, thus

referred to as single phase voltage and current. Different types of circuits show different

response to the application of sinusoidal input. We will consider all type of circuits one by one

that include electrical resistance only, capacitance only and inductor only, and a

combination of these three and try to establish single phase power equation.

Single Phase Power Equation for Purely

Resistive Circuit

Let's examine single phase power calculation for purely resistive circuit. Circuit

consisting of pure ohmic resistance is across a voltage source of voltage V, is shown below in

the figure. Where, V(t) = instantaneous voltage. Vm =

maximum value of voltage. = angular velocity in radians/seconds.

Ohms law ,

From equations (1.1) and (1.5) it is clear that V(t) and IR are in phase. Thus

in case of pure ohmic resistance, there is no phase difference between

voltages and current, i.e. they are in phase as shown in figure (b).

Instanta

power equation (1.8) it is clear that power consist of two terms, one

constant part i.e. and another a fluctuating part i.e. That's

value is zero for the full cycle. Thus power through pure ohmic resistor is

Inductive Circuit

Inductor is a passive component. Whenever AC passes through inductor, it

opposes the flow of current through it by generating back emf. So, applied

voltage rather than causing drop across it needs to balance the back emf

produced. Circuit consisting of pure inductor across sinusoidal voltage source

We know that voltage across inductor is given as,

Thus from above single

phase power equation it is clear that I lags V by /2 or in other words V

leads I by /2 , when AC pass through inductor i.e. I and V are out of phase

as shown in fig (e).

Instanta

neous power is given by,

Here,

single phase power formula consists of only fluctuating term and the

value of power for full cycle is zero.

Single Phase Power Equation for Purely

Capacitive Circuit

When AC passes through capacitor, it charges first to its maximum value and

then it discharges. The voltage across capacitor is given as,

above single phase power calculation of I(t) and V(t) that in case of

capacitor current leads voltage by angle of /2.

Power through

capacitor consists of only fluctuating term and the value of power for full

cycle is zero.

A pure ohmic resistor and inductor are connected in series below as shown

in fig (g) across a voltage source V. Then drop across R will be V R = IR and

across L will be VL = IXL.

of a voltage triangle as shown in fig (i). Vector OA represents drop across R= IR, vector AD

represents drop across L = IXL and vector OD represents the resultant of VR and VL.

is the impedance of

RL circuit. From vector diagram it is clear that V leads I and phase angle is given by,

Thus power consist of two terms,

one constant term 0.5 VmImcos and other a fluctuating term 0.5 VmImcos(t - ) that's value is

zero for the whole cycle. Thus its the only constant part that contributes to actual power

consumption. Thus power, p = VI cos = ( rms voltage rms current cos) watts Where cos

rectangular components Icos along V and Isin perpendicular to V. Only Icos contributes to

real power. Thus, only VIcos is called wattfull component or active component and VIsin is

called wattless component or reactive component.

Single Phase Power Equation for RC Circuit

We know that current in pure capacitance, leads voltage and in pure ohmic resistance it is in

phase. Thus, net current leads voltage by angle of in RC circuit. If V = Vmsint and I will be

Imsin(t + ).

Power is

same as in the case of R-L circuit. Unlike R-L circuit electrical power factor is leading in

R-C circuit.

Three Phase Power Definition

It is found that generation of three phase power is more economical than generation of

single phase power. In three phase electric power system, the three voltage and current

waveform are 120 offset in time in each cycle of power. That means; each voltage waveform

has phase difference of 120 to other voltage waveform and each current waveform has phase

difference of 120 to other current waveform. Three phase power definition states

that in an electrical system, three individual single phase powers are carried out by three separate

power circuits. The voltages of these three powers are ideally 120 apart from each other in time-

phase. Similarly, the currents of these three powers are also ideally 120 apart from each other.

Ideal three phase power system implies balanced system.

A three phase system is said to be unbalanced when either at least one of

the three phase voltage is not equal to other or the phase angle between

these phases is not exactly equal to 120.

Advantages of Three Phase System

There are many reasons due to which this power is more preferable than single phase power.

1. The single phase power equation is Which is

time dependent function. Whereas three phase power equation is

Hence the single phase power is pulsating. This generally does not effect

the low rating motor but in larger rated motor, it produces excessive

vibration. So three phase power is more preferable for high tension

power load.

2. The rating of a three phase machine 1.5 times greater than that of

same size single phase machine.

3. Single phase induction motor has no starting torque, so we have to

provide some auxiliary means of starting, but three phase induction

motor is self starting-does not require any auxiliary means.

4. Power factor and efficiency, both are greater in case of three phase

system.

Three Phase Power Equation

For determination, the expression of three phase power equation i.e. for three

phase power calculation we have to first consider an ideal situation where the three

phase system is balanced. That means voltage and currents in each phase differ from their

adjacent phase by 120 as well as the amplitude of each current wave is same and similarly

amplitude of each voltage wave is same. Now, the angular difference between voltage and

current in each phase of three phase power system is .

Then the voltage and current of red phase will be VR = Vmsint and IR =

Imsin(t ) respectively. The voltage and >current of yellow phase will

be- VY = Vmsin(t 120) and IY = Imsin(t 120) respectively. And

the voltage and current of blue phase will be- VB = Vmsin(t + 120) and IB

= Imsin(t + 120) respectively.

Therefore, the expression instantaneous power in red phase is - V R. IR = Vm.

Imsint.sin(t )

Similarly the expression instantaneous power in yellow phase is -

VY. IY = Vm.Imsin(t. 120)sin(t 120)

Similarly the expression instantaneous power in blue phase is -

VB.IB = Vm.Imsin(t + 120)sin(t + 120)

The total three phase power of the system is summation of the individual

power in each phase-

P = VR.IR + VY. IY + VB. IB

= Vm.Imsint.sin(t ) + Vm.Imsin(t 120)sin(t 120) +

Vm.Imsin(t + 120)sin(t + 120)

= Vm.Im[sint.sin(t ) + sin(t )sin(t 120) + sin(t +

120)sin(t + 120)]

= Vm.Im.(1/2)[2.sint.sin(t ) + 2.sin(t 120)sin(t 120)

+ 2.sin(t + 120)sin(t + 120)]

= Vm.Im.(1/2)[cos(t t + ) cos(t + t ) + cos(t. 120

t. + 120 + ) cos(t 120 + t 120 )

+ cos(t + 120 t 120t + ) cos(t + 120 + t + 120

)]

= Vm.Im.(1/2)[cos cos(2.t ) + cos cos(2.t 240 ) +

cos cos(2.t + 240 )]

= Vm.Im.(1/2)[3.cos cos(2.t ) cos(2.t 240 )

cos(2.t + 240 )]

= Vm.Im.(1/2)[3.cos cos(2.t ) 2.cos(2.t ).cos(240)]

= Vm.Im.(1/2)[3.cos cos(2.t ) 2.cos(2.t ).{1/2}]

= Vm.Im.(1/2)[3.cos cos(2.t ) + cos(2.t )]

= 3.(Vm/2).(Im/2).cos

= 3VIcos This is three phase power equation The above expression

of power shows that the total instantaneous power is constant and equal to

three times of the real power per phase. In case of single phase power

expression we found that there are both reactive power and active power

components, but in case of three phase power expression, the instantaneous

power is constant. Actually in three phase system, the reactive power in

each individual phase is not zero but sum of them at any instant is zero.

Reactive power is the form of magnetic energy, flowing per unit time in an

electric circuit. Its unit is VAR (Volt Ampere Reactive). This power can never

be used in an AC circuit. However, in an electrical DC circuit it can be

converted into heat as when a charged capacitor or inductor is connected

across a resistor, the energy stored in the element get converted to heat.

Our power system operates on AC system and most of the loads used in our

daily life, are inductive or capacitive, therefore reactive power is a very

important concept from electrical perspective.

The electrical power factor of any equipment determines the amount of

reactive power it requires. It is the ratio of real or true power to the total

apparent power required by an electrical appliance. These powers can be

defined as,

Apparent Power(P) = V(Voltage) I(Current)

Real Power (P) = V(Voltage) I(Current) cos

Where, is the phase difference between voltage and current and cos is

electrical power factor of the load.

Reactive Power (Q) = V(Voltage) I(Current) sin

Reactive power is always present in a circuit where there is a phase

difference between voltage and current in that circuit, such as all our

domestic loads are inductive. So, there is a phase difference between

voltage and current, and the current lags behind the voltage by certain angle

in time domain. An inductive component takes the lagging reactive power

and a capacitive component absorbs the leading reactive power, here lagging

reactive power refers to magnetic energy and leading reactive power refers

to electrostatic energy.

In a typical AC circuit, such as RL circuit (Resistive + Inductive) or RC circuit

(Resistive + Capacitive), the reactive power is taken from the supply for a

half cycle and returned to the supply for next half cycle. For example power

consumed for an RL load is derived as:

V = Vmsint , I = Imsin(t )

Here, Q1sin2t is reactive power that's average value is zero, this shows that

reactive power is never utilized.

Use of Reactive Power

In an electrical machine, the energy conversion needs a magnetic domain to

convert its form. In an electrical motor, the required magnetic domain is

produced by reactive power which it takes from the supply.Today almost

every electrical load needs reactive power to run in spite of real power. Even

in an electrical transformer which is the basic unit of power system, primary

input current is lagging as it takes lagging VAR to magnetize its core and

transfer the power through mutual induction.

Reactive Power in Transmission Lines

In an electrical power transmission line, the flow of reactive power in the line

decides the receiving end voltage. Managing voltage level at the receiving

end is very important, as higher voltage can damage the consumer's

equipment and there will be a great loss. In many cases, we see sudden

voltage rise or fall due to lightning or due to any fault on the healthy phases

and in any case damage to the equipment occurs. Let us see how voltage

depends on reactive power. The receiving end reactive power is given by,

to stability reasons, Xl is the reactance of the transmission line, Vs is the

sending end voltage and Vr is the receiving end voltage. So, Qr becomes,

reactive power Note: We did not take negative sign as then Vr will become

zero when Qr is zero which is not possible. Let Q1 be the reactive power

demanded by the load at the receiving end and Q2 be the reactive power

supply from the generating or sending end. Then Qr is (Q1 - Q2).

Case - 1

When supply Q2 is equal to demand Q1 then Vs = Vr, the receiving end

voltage will be equal to sending end voltage, which is desirable.

Case - 2

When demand is more and supply is less, Qr becomes negative. And so the

receiving end voltage becomes less than sending end voltage.

Case - 3

When demand is less, supply is high, Qr becomes positive. Thus, the

receiving end voltage becomes greater than sending end voltage which is

very dangerous. In this way, we saw how voltage (and its level

management) which is very basic requirement of any electrical load;

depends on reactive power. During the daytime, the demand for reactive

power increases, therefore voltage dip occurs. On the other hand, during

morning time, demand for reactive power is less, so rise in voltage level

occurs. To maintain the voltage level we need to make Q1 = Q2.

Reactive Power Compensation

As already discussed excess of reactive power as well as its scarcity should

be monitored. For this purpose, compensation is done by using various

devices. Here the reactor absorbs excess reactive power whereas the

capacitor supplies for makeup of reactive power in cases of high demand.

For low electrical power factor loads, the reactive power demand is very

high. Therefore, we need to increase the power factor using capacitor bank.

This reduces the var demand by supplying the appropriate amount of

reactive power to the load. Other methods include use of shunt capacitor,

synchronous phase modifiers, on-load tap changing transformer and shunt

reactor. An overexcited synchronous motor is used in shunt with the load. It

serves as a capacitor and is also called synchronous condenser. A shunt

reactor is used for the reduction of electrical power factor. In the on-load tap

changing transformers, turns ratio is adjusted accordingly to maintain the

desirable voltage level as the voltage difference between the sending and

receiving end determines the reactive power. Mathematically, the expression

given for the reactive power(Q) needed to increase the electrical power

factor from cos1 to cos2 is given as, Where, P is real

power demand of the load (in watts). In case the electrical power factor is to

be decreased from cos2 to cos1, the reactive power which must be

absorbed by the shunt reactor at the load end is given by,

The values of capacitance or inductor thus required

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