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ISHIK UNIVERSITY

HAYDROLIC STRUCTURE

DESIGM OF CONCRET DAM

NAME STUDENT : banaz


kamal

GROUP A

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Given Data :
Water Elevation (HI)=42 M
Type Of Reservoir : Full
Direction Of Earthquake Force :
Upward

Trial -01-

1. Preliminary Design :
A.BASE :
H
B
n ( SsC )

Assuming:

1. = 0.75
2. Ss (Concrete Specific Weight) =
2.4 T/m3
3.Type Of Dam Bed : Rocky With
Fine Cracks
4. C (Coefficient Of Uplift Pressure)
= 0.7
2
H H
B B
n ( SsC ) ( SsC )

42 42
B= B=
0.75(2.40.7) (2.40.7)

B=32.9 m B=32.21 m
Take B1= 35

B) FREE BOARD :

* Free Board = (0.04:0.05) H
(Choosing 0.05)
(Height) = 0.05 x42

= 2.1 2.5 m
Free board top width required
(a)
a=
H
=
42
3.28 3.28
=3.5 m3.8

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C) THE HEIGHT OF THE LOW
GRAVITY DAM :
F
H=
W ( Ss+10.7) > Height of dam
300
H=
1(2.4+10.7) = 111.11 m > 42 m OK

F (stress of concrete ) = 300 T/m2


W ( weight density of water ) = 1
tons / m3
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H of low dam > H of designed
dam ( designed dam is low
dam )
2. DESIGN ANALYSIS :
A) FORCES TO BE CONSIDERED :
1. Hydrostatic Pressure (P)
(negative)
2. Hydrodynamic pressure (PE)
(negative)
3. Uplift force (Pu) (negative)
4. Weight of the dam (w) (positive)
+
5. Upward earthquake Forces (Pwv)
(positive) +
6. Horizontal acceleration of
earthquake Forces toward D/S of
dam (Pwh) (negative)

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B) DETERMINATION OF FORCES,
THEIR POSITION &MOMENTS :
1. Hydrostatic Pressure (P)
MagnitudePosition Moment
P=0.5 w H 2 H/3=42/3=
MP=882
P=0.5x1x2.42 14m from
tonsx14m
p=882 tons base Mp =
12348 t.m

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2. Hydrodynamic pressure (Pe)
MagnitudePosition Moment
4H 4 42
PE =0.726 xPxH =
3 3 X = 17.82

ME=0.412xPeXH

Pe=Cm X Kh XWX from base


ME

Cm=0.735x( /90) 0.412 x 3.087
x 42
*
=90
ME = 53.417 T.m
Cm=0.735 x (90/90)
Cm=0.735
Pe=CmxKhXWXH

* Kh=0.1 (related to earthquake from water )

Pe=0.7355X0.1X1X42
Pe=3.087

PE=0.726XPeXH
PE=0.726X4.263X42
PE=94.12 Tons 7
3. Uplift force (pu)
MagnitudePosition Moment
2 B 2 X 35
Pu=0.5 xcxwxHx B Pu = = MPu=-735tx23.33m
3 3

Pu=0.5 x 0.7 x 1 x 42 x 35 Pu=23.33 m MPu=-17147 T.M

Pu=514.5Tons Toe

4. Weight of the dam (w)


MagnitudePosition Moment
W1= CXVolume1 P1=
Mw1=+373.8t x 34.8 m
32.9+(0.5X3.8)
Assuming : = 34.8 m
Mw1=+13008t.m
C=2.4 T/m2

Depth of dam = 1m from toe

W1=2.4X3.5X44.5

W1=373.8
2
W2= P2= 3 X32.9= Mw2=+1558.67T X

21.9 m

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2.4x0.5x32.9x39.48mx1 21.9 from toe
Mw2=+34134.873 t.m

W2=1558.67 Tons

5. Upward earthquake Forces (Pwv)


MagnitudePosition Moment
PwV1=0.05Xw1 P1=-34.8
MpwV1=-18.69t8x-34.8

PwV1=0.05X373.8 from toe


MpwV1=-650.412t.m

PwV1=-18.69 tons (same as w1)

PwV2=0.05XW2 P2=-21.9MpwV1=-
1558.67tX21.9m

PwV2=0.05X1558.67tons from toe


MpwV2=-34134.8t.m

PwV2=-77.9 tons (same as w1)

6. Horizontal acceleration of
earthquake Forces toward D/S of
dam (Pwh) (negative)
MagnitudePosition Moment
pwh1=0.1xw1 p1=44.5/2
Mpwh1=-373.8tx22.25m

pwh1=0.1x373.8 =22.25m from toe


Mpwh1=-8317.05 t.m

pwh1= 373.8

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1
pwh2=0.1XW2 P2= 2 X39.48

Mpwh2=-558.67X13.16m

pwh2=0.1X1558.67 =13.16 m from base


Mpwh2=-20512.09 t.m

pwh2=-155.867 tons

Name Of Design Magnitude Of Lev Moments


Force ation if Forces in er About toe in
any tons Ar (t.m)
Vertic Horizo m Anticlockwis
al ntal in e +ve
Force Forces m Clockwise
s -ve
Hydrosta p -882 14 -2348
tic m
Pressure
Hydrody PE -3.087 17. -53.417
namic 82
Pressure
Uplift Pu - 23. -17147.55
Force 514.5 33
Weight W1 +373. 34. +13008.24
of Dam W2 8 8 +34134.8
+155 21.
8.67 8
+193
2.47 +34785.21
2

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Vertical PwV1 - 34. -650.412
Earthqua PwV2 18.69 8 -34134.8
ke force -77.9 21.
of the - 9 -34785.212
dam 96.62
Horizont Pwh1 -373.8 22. -8317.05
al Pwh2 - 25 -20512.09
Earthqua 1558. 13.
ke force 67 16
of the
dam -
1932. -28829.14
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V = h= -M=-
+132 - 83162.319
1.35 2817.

557 +M=+4714
3.113
M=

-36020.206

3. STABILITY ANALYSIS
M=36020.206 T . M

V =+ 1321.35
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x
Centroid of the dam ( )=
M 36020.206
= =27.2 M
V 1321.35

B 35
X e= 22.1=|4.6|=4.6 m
e= 2 2

e: Eccentricity of resultant force from


the center of the base of the dam

1. Stability against overturning


(rotation) about the toe
+



Fs= M
M

2. Stability against crushing (or


comoression)
V 6e
(1 )
PMAX/MIN = B B

1321.35 6 x 4.6
PV max(at toe)= 35
(1+
35
)

=67.52t/m2< 300 t/m2 (safe)


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1321.35 6 x 4.6
PV min(at heel)= 35
(1
35
)

=7.9 t/m2< 300 t/m2 (safe)


3.stability against development of
tension
(causes ultimate failure by
crushing )
B 35
e 4.6
6 6

4.6<5.8 (Safe)

4. Stability against shear failure


(sliding)
Factor of safety against sliding
(F.S.S)
V 0.75 X 1321.35
F.S.S= H
=
2817.557

=0.351> 1 (Just not safe)


Shear friction factor (S.F.F):

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V + BXq
S.F.F= H

0.75 X 1321.35+35 x 140


=2.09>3 (unSafe)
2817.557

*q: Average shear strength at join (assuming poor rocks q


= 140 t/m2)

5. Stability of stresses
V 1321.35
Average vertical stress= = B
=
35

37.7t/m2< 300 t/m2 (safe)


Principle stress at
' 2
omax = Pv sec2 P tan

=67.52(1+0.8332) zero (no tail


water)
=114.37 t/m2< 300 t/m2 (safe)
Principle stress at heel:
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No principle stress at heel because
there is no additional part
shear stress toe :
(toe)=( pv p' )tan

=(67.52-0)x0.833
=56.24 t/m2< 140 t/m2 safe)
shear stress at heel : .

No shear stressat heel because


there is no additional part. 1 1b

Trial -02-
1. SECONDARY DESIGN:
- Increase of concrete at upstream
force of dam

Try 4m base
Hi: 2a ( Ss c)

Hi= 2x3.8 2.40.7

Hi=9.909m from maximum water


level to 10m
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the crest of additional part of the
dam

2. DESIGN ANALYSIS:
A) FORCES TO BE CONSIDERED:
1. Hydrostatic Pressure (P)
(negative)
2. Hydrodynamic pressure (Pe)
(negative)
3. Uplift force (Pu) (negative)
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4. Weight of the dam (w) (positive)
+
5. Weight of water supported (w)
(positive) +
6. Upward earthquake Forces(PwV)
(negative)_
7. Horizontal acceleration of
earthquake Forces toward D/S of
dam (Pwh) (negative)

DETERMINATION OF FORCES THEIR


POSITION & MOMENTS:
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1. Hydrostatic Pressure (P)
Magnitude Position
Moment
p=882 tons p=14m
Mp=12348t.m
(same as trial 01)
2. Hydrodynamic pressure (Pe)
Magnitude Position
Moment
cm: 0.735x( /90) p=17.82
Me = 0.412xPexH
a2+b2=c2

c=32.24(same as trial 01)


0.412x82.3x42
adj
cos = hyp

=1424.1t.m
0.4
cos = 32.24 = 82.8


Cm =0.735x(82.2 /90)
Cm=0.66
Pe=CmxKhxwxH
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Pe=0.66x0.1x1x42
Pe=2.7
Pe=0.726x Pex H
Pe=0.726X2.7X42
Pe=82.3 tons

3. Uplift force (Pu)


Magnitude Position Moment
2B 2 x 39
pu=0.5xcxwxHxB Pu= 3 = 3

Mpu=573.3tx26m
26 m
pu=0.5x0.7x1x42x39 Pu=
Mpu=14905.8 t.m
pu=-573.3 tonsfrom toe

4. Weight of the dam (w)


*W1&W2 same as trial 01.
W3
Magnitude Position Moment
1

W3= c x volume3 P3=35+ 3 x4=
Mw3=153.6tx36.3m
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triangle here !!! 36.3m from toe
Mw3=+5575.68t.m

W3=2.4X0.5X4X32X1
W3=+153.6 Tons
5. Weight of water supported (w)
W4
Magnitude Position Moment
2

W4= c x volume4 P3=35+ 3 x4
Mw4=64tx37.66m
W4=1x0.5x4x32x1 p=37.66m
Mw4=+2410.24t.m
W4=+64 Tons from toe

W5
Magnitude Position Moment
1

W5= c x volume5 P=35+( 2 x4)
Mw5=4tx37.66m
W4=1x4x10x1 p=37 m
Mw4=+148 t.m 20
W4=+84 Tons from toe

6. Upward earthquake Forces(PwV)


*PwV1&PwV2 same as trial 01.
PwV 3
Magnitude Position Moment
PwV3=0.05XW3 P3=36.3m
Mpw3=7.68tx36.3m

PwV3=0.05X153.6 from toe


Mpw3=+278.78t.m

PwV3=+7.68 tons (same as W3)

7. Horizontal acceleration of
earthquake Forces toward D/S of
dam (Pwh)
*Pwh1&Pwh2 same as trial 01.
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Pwh3
MagnitudePosition Moment
Pwh3=0.1XW3 P3=32x2/3
Mpwh3=

Pwh3=0.1X153.6 =21.33m
+15.36tx21.33m

Pwh3=+15.36 tons from base


Mpwh3=-1185.1t.m

Name Of Designa Magnitude Of Lev Moments


Force tion if Forces in tons er About toe
any Vertic Horizon Arm in (t.m)
al 22 tal in Anticlockwi
Forces Forces m se +ve
Clockwise
-ve
Hydrostati P -882 14 -2348
c Pressure
Hydrodyn PE - 17. -2242.44
amic 129.59 82
Pressure 1
Uplift Pu -573.3 26 -14905.8
Force
Weight of W1 +373. 34. +13008.2
Dam W2 8 8 4
W3 +1558 21. +4134.87
.67 9 +5575.68
+153. 36.
6 3
+2086
.07
Weight of W4 +64 37. +2410.24
water W5 +40 66 +1480
supporte 37
+104
d
Vertical PwV1 -18.69 34. -650412
Earth- PwV2 -77.9 8 -34134.8
quake PwV3 -7.68 21. -278.78
force of -88.91 9
the dam 36.
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Pw - 22. -8317.05
Horizon
h1 373.3 25 -20512.09
tal
Pw 8 13. -327.6
earthqu
h2 - 16
ake
Pw 1558. 21.
force of
h3 67 33
the dam
-
15.36
-
1937.
83
v=+152 h =- +M=2660
7.86 93.72 8.86
-M=-
733478.47
M=-
46869.61

3. STABILITY ANALYSIS
M=46869.61T . M

V =+ 1527.86

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x
Centroid of the dam ( )=
M 46869.61
= =30.6 M
V 1527.86

B 39
X e= 30.6=|11.1|=11.1 m
e= 2 2

e: Eccentricity of resultant force from


the center of the base of the dam

1. Stability against overturning


(rotation) about the toe
+



Fs= M
M

2. Stability against crushing (or


compression)
V 6e
pmax/min= B
(1
B
)

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1527.86 6 X 11.1
pv max (at toe) = 39
(1+
39
)

= 45.8 t/m2< 300 t/m2 (safe)


1527.86 6 X 11.1
Pvmin(at heel) 39
(1
39
)

= 32.5 t/m2< 300 t/m2 (safe)

3. Stability against development of


tension (Causes ultimate failure by
crushing)
B 39
11.1
6 6 6

6.1 <6.5 (safe)

4. Stability against shear failure


(sliding)
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Factor of safety against sliding
(F.S.S):
F . S . S=
H
= |
V 0.75 x 1527.86
93.72 |
= 11.8 > 1 (safe)
Shear friction factor (S.F.F):
V +BXq
S.F.F
H
=

| ( 0.75 x 1527.86 ) +39 x 140


93.72 |
= 70.4 > 3 (safe)
*q: Average shear strength at join
(assuming poor rocks q = 140 t/m2)

5. Stability of stresses
V 1527.86
Average vertical stress= B
=
39

= 39.17 t/m2< 300 t/m2 (safe)

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Principle stress at toe:

O max = Pvsec2 P' tan2
=45.8 (1+0.8332)zero (no tail
water)
=168.48t/m2< 300 t/m2 (safe)
Principlestress at heel:
O-min =pv(heel) xsec2 (P+PE)) tan2
=35.5x(1+0.1252)-(1x42+129.591) x
(0.1252)
=33.3t/m2< 42 t/m2 (safe)
Shear stress at toe:

(toe) = (Pv(toe)- P) tan

= (45.8-0) x 0.8332
= 31.7t/m2< 140 t/m2 (safe)

Shear stress at toe:

(heel) = (-)(Pv(- P+PE)) tan


= (-) (35.5-(42+129.591)) x 0.1252
=2.1 t/m2< 140 t/m2 (safe)
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