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K. V.

Petrides

Trait emotional intelligence

K.V. Petrides
London Psychometric Laboratory
Department of Psychology, University College London, UK

E-mail: k.petrides@ucl.ac.uk
www.psychometriclab.com
Google: trait EI

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K. V. Petrides

Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911)


Sir Francis Galton was one of the
greatest polymaths of all time.
His credits include:
Father of individual differences.
Pioneer of correlation and regression.
Discoverer of regression to the mean
effect.
Pioneer of fingerprint identification and
classification.
Inventor of the weather map.
Inventor of the Galton whistle (produces
sounds into the ultrasonic range).
Founder (with Pearson and Weldon) of
Biometrika.
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Individual differences
Cognitive ability (intelligence) is about what you can
do. Measured via maximum-performance tests.
Personality is about how you like to do things.
Measured primarily via self-report questionnaires.
This distinction mirrors Cronbachs (1949)
differentiation between tests of maximal and typical
performance.
Cognitive ability and personality are uncorrelated,
meaning that having knowledge of someones IQ
score does not tell us anything about their personality
and vice versa.

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K. V. Petrides

Background & milestones


Thornikes social intelligence.
Gardners (1983) multiple intelligences.
Intrapersonal intelligence
Interpersonal intelligence
Emotional intelligence as a term appears in
Greenspan (1989), Leuner (1966), Payne
(1986).
Salovey & Mayer (1990)
Goleman (1995)
Petrides and colleagues (2000-)
Trait EI versus Ability EI
Trait emotional intelligence research programme
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Operationalization of EI
Two crucial issues are involved in the operationalization of
EI (and of any other construct):
What is the sampling domain of construct?
How do we measure the various components of the
sampling domain?
Until recently and even now the first question was
resolved by having as many sampling domains and EI
definitions as researchers in the field.
Until recently and even now the second question was
not even considered, with researchers assuming that the
use of self-report or maximum-performance tests has no
implications for operationalization.
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Trait EI vs ability EI

Ability EI (or cognitive-emotional ability) in theory


encompasses emotion-related cognitive abilities and
should be measured via maximum-performance tests
(although this has not proved possible).
Trait EI (or trait emotional self-efficacy)
encompasses emotion-related dispositions and self-
perceptions and should be measured via self-report
questionnaires.
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Trait EI vs ability EI II

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K. V. Petrides

Operationalization of ability EI
If ability EI is a new cognitive ability, then items
or tasks with emotional content need to be
developed such that they can be scored according
to truly veridical criteria.
In other words, the construct in its entirety ought
to be assessed through items that can be responded
to correctly or incorrectly.
Is it possible to develop EI items along cognitive
ability lines?
NO: emotional experience is inherently subjective
(Brody, 2004; Locke, 2005; Prez, Petrides, &
Furnham, 2005; Watson, 2000).
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Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional
Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)

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MSCEIT II
Brody, N. (2004). What cognitive intelligence is and what emotional
intelligence is not. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 234-238.
Conte, J. M. (2005). A review and critique of emotional intelligence measures.
Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 433-440.
Keele, S. M. & Bell, R. C. (2008). The factorial validity of emotional
intelligence: An unresolved issue. Personality and individual differences, 44,
487-500.
Ortony, A., Revelle, W., & Zinbarg, R. (2007). Why emotional intelligence
needs a fluid component. In G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.),
The science of emotional intelligence. Knowns and unknowns - Series in
Affective Science (pp.288-304). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
OSullivan, M., & Ekman, P. (2005). Facial expression recognition and
emotional intelligence. In G. Geher, (Ed.). Measuring emotional intelligence:
Common ground and controversy. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishing.
Rossen, E., Kranzler, J. H., & Algina, J. (2008). Confirmatory factor analysis
of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test V2.0 (MSCEIT).
Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1258-1269.
Wilhelm, O. (2005). Measures of emotional intelligence: practice and
standards. In R. Schulze, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), International handbook of
emotional intelligence (pp. 131-154). Seattle, WA: Hogrefe & Huber.July 2009, Athens GREECE
K. V. Petrides

Trait emotional intelligence

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K. V. Petrides

Trait EI
Trait emotional intelligence is a constellation of
emotion-related self-perceptions located at the
lower levels of personality hierarchies (Petrides,
Pita, & Kokkinaki, 2007).
The trait EI sampling domain aims to provide
comprehensive coverage of the emotion-related
aspects of personality.
Trait EI rejects the notion that emotions can be
artificially objectified in order to be made
amenable to veridical scoring, along IQ lines.
An alternative label for the construct is trait
emotional self-efficacy.

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The sampling domain of trait EI


Petrides & Furnham (2001; EJP):

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Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire


(TEIQue , TEIQue-SF, TEIQue-ASF, TEIQue-CF,TEIQue 360o)

TEIQue translations
153 items, 15 subscales, 4 factors,
global trait EI score. Greek
French
Theory-based
Spanish
Chinese Research-based
Portuguese Peer-reviewed
Dutch
Open-access
Norwegian
Croatian
Serbian
Italian
TEIQue-SF
30 items, global trait EI score
Adolescent TEIQue-ASF
TEIQue 360o
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Trait EI factor structure

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Trait EI: Experimental studies


Petrides & Furnham, 2003; EJP

Tension & Depression Anger & Vigour Confusion & Total POMS

N = 30; Residualized Trait EI scores July 2009, Athens GREECE


K. V. Petrides

Trait EI and academic performance

Petrides, Frederickson, &


Furnham, 2004; N = 650; PAID

November,
July 2009,
2007,
Athens
UCLan,
GREECE
UK

K.
KV V.Petrides
Petrides
Petrides, Frederickson, & Furnham, 2004; PAID

Trait EI and behaviour at school


Pupils with high trait EI scores tend to have fewer unauthorised
absences (truancy).
Pupils with high trait EI scores are less likely have been expelled from
their school for serious breaches of discipline (exclusions).

<.05 <.05

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Petrides, Sangareau, Furnham, & Frederickson,
K.
KV 2006; 10.8 years; Soc Dev
V.Petrides
Petrides

Mavroveli, Petrides, Rieffe, & Bakker, 2007; BJDP

Self- and other-ratings of trait EI

Petrides et al., Psicothema, 2006 ; N = 35 ballet students

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Trait EI in children I

Mavroveli, Petrides, Shove, & Whitehead, 2008; ECAP


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Trait EI in children II

Mavroveli, Petrides, Shove, & Whitehead, 2008; ECAP July 2009, Athens GREECE

K. V. Petrides

Trait EI in children III

Mavroveli, Petrides, Sangareau, & Furnham, 2009; BJEP July 2009, Athens GREECE
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Trait EI and teen self-harm

Mikolajczak, Petrides, & Hurry 2009; BJHP

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Trait EI and communicative anxiety

L1; N = 425 L2; N = 406

Dewaele, Petrides, & Furnham, in press; Language Learning July 2009, Athens GREECE
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Trait EI in Aspergers Syndrome

July 2009, Athens GREECE

K.&V.Shermer,
Vernon, Petrides, Bratko, Petrides J. A. (2008); Emotion

Behavioral genetics of trait EI

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Trait EI and big five Genetic analysis


N E O A C

Vernon, Villani, Aitken Schermer, & Petrides, 2008; TRHG July 2009, Athens GREECE

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Trait EI and humor styles Genetic analysis


Vernon et al., 2009; JID

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Petrides, Furnham, & Martin (2004); N = 224; JSP Gender differences in trait EI
Overall, small or non-existent gender differences in global trait EI scores.

TEIQue data; N = 351; p = ns Modified EQ-i data; N = 166; p < .01

TEIQue-SF data; N = 668; p < .01 Schutte et al. scale data; N = 260; p = ns

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Incremental validity of trait EI


N = 200
Petrides, Prez, & Furnham, 2007; C & E

N = 212; Spain

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The trait emotional intelligence


research programme
Research divisions International links
Psychometric UK, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Croatia,
Educational Cyprus, Greece, The Netherlands, Norway,
Industrial/Organizational Poland, Spain.
Child/Human Development
Behavioural Genetic
Students Current & past funding bodies
ESRC
PhD: E. Cole, S. Mavroveli
Nuffield Foundation
BA, BSc, MA, MSc, MPhil
British Academy
University of London

www
www.psychometriclab.com
Google: trait EI
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K. V. Petrides

July 2009, Athens GREECE


K. V. Petrides

Correlates of the TEIQue


Correlates of the TEIQue
Positive
Conscientiousness, mental health, job satisfaction,
organizational commitment, seniority, pro-social behaviour,
popularity, sensitivity and susceptibility to affect, over-prediction
of affective reactions in decision-making, social desirability,
hubris.
Negative
Anxiety, introversion, psychopathology, turnover, maladaptive
coping, truancy, job stress, rumination, humility.
The TEIQue provides comprehensive emotionality profiles
and can be recommended for the reliable assessment of
emotion-related individual differences in a variety of
contexts (occupational, educational, clinical, etc.).
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Points to remember in report interpretation


Trait EI is about self-perceptions NOT about
abilities, or competencies, or skills.
High scores are not necessarily adaptive (good)
and low scores are not necessarily maladaptive
(bad). Adaptive value depends on context and
situational demands.
The same facet score may be considered as too
high in a particular situation (over-supply) , but
too low (under-supply) in another.
Trait EI self-perceptions are generally stable
during adulthood.
TEIQue scores are highly reliable, but are affected
by severe moods on the day of testing.
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TEIQue interpretations I
Detailed descriptions of the 15 subscales and 4
factors of the TEIQue are in the handout.
Decimal scores indicate absolute positions on the
Likert scales (min. score = 1, max. score = 7).

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TEIQue interpretations II
Percentage scores represent relative percentiles. For
example, a score of 27% on emotion management, indicates
the respondent has scored higher than 27% of the normative
sample (or lower than 73% of the normative sample).

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K. V. Petrides

TEIQue interpretations III


Trait EI is NOT a cognitive ability, it is
NOT a skill, and it is NOT a competency.
It is invalid (indeed nonsensical) to argue
that cognitive abilities, or competencies or
skills can somehow be measured through
self-report questionnaires.
In the next three slides, we present potential
and possible negative effects of high scores
on the 15 TEIQue subscales.
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TEIQue interpretations IV
Emotion regulation
May be perceived as aloof and unapproachable
May be perceived as too laid-back
Empathy
Excessive preoccupation with other peoples viewpoints
Barrier to leadership
Social awareness
May socialize at the expense of getting work done
May be perceived as overly gregarious or frivolous
May have difficulty completing tasks in relative isolation
Low impulsivity
Analysis paralysis
Inability to handle emergencies
Emotion perception
Excessive preoccupation with feelings and moods July 2009, Athens GREECE
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TEIQue interpretations V
Stress management
Indifference and reduced drive
Emotion management
May be perceived as manipulative
May be perceived as intrusive
Optimism
May be seen as unrealistic
May be caught unawares
Relationships
May be overly reliant on loved ones
Relationships may take priority over work
Adaptability
May dislike and under-perform in routine tasks
May unreasonably expect similar levels of flexibility from others
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TEIQue interpretations VI
Assertiveness
May be perceived as too forthright or even aggressive
Happiness
May be perceived as happy-go-lucky
Motivation
Poor work-life balance
Teamwork inhibitor
Emotion expression
May be perceived as overly emotional
Transparency issues
Self-esteem
May be perceived as arrogant
May become defensive in the face of criticism
Difficulty accepting and acting on feedback
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Trait EI at work I
There has been tremendous interest in EI
applications at work.
There are countless journalistic articles and
several pop-psychology books on the subject:
Cooper and Sawaf (1997)
Goleman (1998)
Weisinger (1998)
In contrast, there is a severe dearth of empirical
studies. Most claims about the power of EQ
are false, untested, or severely inflated.

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K.
KV V.Petrides
Petrides
Inter- and intra-organizational variation Interpreting correlations
0.0 - 0.2 low
Trait EI at work II 0.2 - 0.3 medium
0.3 - 1.00 high

Petrides & Furnham, 2006; N = 167; JASP


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Trait EI at work III
K. V. Petrides

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Location of trait EI in personality factor space

Trait EI

Altruism - selfishness

Factorially complex constructs


factorially complex primaries
Petrides, Jackson, Furnham, &
Levine (2003); JPA
Petrides, Pita, & Kokkinaki, BJP, 2007
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