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# CHAPTER FOURTEEN

AXONOMETRIC

PROJECTION

OBJECTIVES
After studying the material in this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Describe the differences between multiview projection,
axonometric projection, oblique projection, and perspective.
2. Sketch examples of an isometric cube, a dimetric cube, and a
trimetric cube.
3. List the advantages of multiview projection, axonometric

## 4. Create an isometric drawing given a multiview drawing.

S. Use the isometric axes to locate drawing points.
6. Draw inclined and oblique surfaces in isometric.
7. Draw angles, ellipses, and irregular curves in isometric.

## Refer to the following standard :

ASME Y1 4.4M -1989 Pictorial Drawing
I AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION S13

A Portion of a Sales Brochure Showing General Dimensions in Pictorial Drawings. Courtesy of Oynojet Research, Inc.

OVERVIEW
Multiview drawing makes it possible to accurately drawing view, approximately as they appear to an
represent the complex forms of a design by showing a observer. These projections are often called pictorial
series of views and sections, but reading and interpret drawings because they look more like a picture than
ing this type of representation requires a thorough un multiview drawings do. Since a pictorial drawing shows
derstanding of the principles of multiview projection. only the appearance of an object, it is not usually
Although multiview drawings are commonly used to suitable for completely describing and dimensioning
communicate information to a technical audience, complex or detailed forms.
they do not show length, width, and height in a Pictorial drawings are also useful in developing
single view and are hard for a layperson to visualize. design concepts. They can help you picture the rela
It is often necessary to communicate designs to tionships hetween design elements and quickly
people who do not have the technical training to inter generate several solutions to a design problem.
pret multiview projections. Axonometric projections
show all three principal dimensions using a single
514 CHAPTER 14 AXONOMETRIC PRO JECTION

Axonometric

14.1 Sketches for a Wooden Shelf using Axonometric, Orthographic, and Perspective Drawing Techniques- The
Axonometric Projections in this Sketch are Drawn in Isometric. Courtesy of Douglos Wintin.

UNDERSTANDING AXONOMETRIC
DRAWINGS
Various types of pictorial drawings are used extensively in cat isometric, the axes are equally spaced (120 0 apart). Though
alogs , sale s literature, and technical work. They are often used not as realistic as perspective drawings. isometric drawings
in patent drawings: piping diagrams: machine, structural, are much easier to draw. CAD software often displays the
architectural design, and furniture design: and for ideation results of 3D models on the screen as isometric projections.
sketching. The sketches for a wooden shelf in Figure 14.1 are Some CAD software allows you to choose between isometric,
examples ofaxonometric, orthographic, and perspective dimetric, trimetric. or perspective representation of your 3D
sketches. models on the 2D computer screen. In sketching, dimetric and
The most common axonometric projection is isometric, trimetric sometimes produce a better view than isometric but
which means "equal measure." When a cuhe is drawn in take longer to draw and are therefore used less frequently,
FOUNDATIONS FOR AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION 515

## Visual rays parallel to each Visual rays parallel

i i
Plane of other and perpendicular Plane of to each other and
/ pro jection __ !> '0pi,", ~ projection / projection perpendicu lar to
plane of projection

A Object
Object

c c

(a) Multiview projection (b) Axon ometric projecti on (isomet ric shown )

Vanishing poi nt

(plane of prOjectio n~
Picture plane
/ Horizon line
Plane of

/
rolection
p I /
.
Visual rays parallel to
VP
~~~~~ :;~s
/ at
each other and oblique /
observer's
to plane of projectio n
E F eye (station
E E
Line of
sight
F

H
c
G
c

## Projection Methods Reviewed

The four prin cipal types of projecti on are illustrat ed in In oblique projection (Figure 14.2c), the visual rays are
Figure 14,2, A ll except the reg ular mult iview proje ction parallel to each other but at an ang le other than 90 to the plane
(Figure 14.2a) are pictorial types since they show several sides of projecti on (see Chap ter 15).
of the object in a single view. In both multiview projection and In perspective (F igure l4.2d ), the visual rays ex tend from
axonometric projection the visual ray s are para llel to each the obse rver's eye , or station point (SP), to all points of the
other and perp endi cul ar to the plan e of proj ecti on . Both are object to form a "cone of rays" (see Chapt er 16) so that the
types of orthographic projections (Figure l4 .2b). porti on s of the object that are furth er away from the observer
appear smaller than the closer por tions of the obje ct.
516 CHAPTER 14 AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION

Plane of
projection

Axonometric Object

';~~

~~",""m,n"
foreshortened
ar
proportionately

## 14.3 Measurements are Foreshortened Proportionately

based on Amount of Incline

## Types ofAxonometric Projection

The feature that distinguishes axonometric projection from greater the fore shortening. If the degree of foreshortening is
multi view projection is the inclined position of the object with determined for each of the three edges of the cube that meet at
respect to the planes of projection. When a surface or edge of one corner, scales can be easily constructed for measuring along
the object is not parallel to the plane of projection, it appears these edges or any other edges parallel to them (Figure 14.3).
foreshortened. When an angle is not parallel to the plane of pro Use the three edges of the c ube that meet at the corner
jection, it appears either smaller or larg er than the tru e angle. nearest your view as the axonometric axes . In Figure 14.4, the
To create an axonornetric view, the object is tipped to the axonometric axes, or simply the axes, are OA, DB, and DC.
planes of projection so that all of the principal fac es show in a Figure 14.4 shows three axonometric projections.
sing le view. This produces a pictorial drawing that is ea sy to Isometric projection (Figure l4.4a) ha s equal foreshort
visualize. But, since the principal edges and surfaces of the ening along each of the three axis directions.
object are inclined to the plane of projection, the lengths of the Dimetric projection (Figure l4.4b) has equal foreshort
lines are foreshortened . The angles between surfaces and edges ening along two axis directions and a d ifferent amount of fore
appear either larger or sm a ller than the true angle . There are an shortening along the third axis. This is because it is not tipped
infinite variety of ways that the object may be oriented with an equal amount to all of the principal planes of projection .
respect to the plane of proj ection . Trimetric projection (Figure 14.4c) has different foreshort
The degree of foreshortening of any line depends on its ening along all three axis directions. This view is produced by an
angle to the plane of proj ection. The greater the angle, the object that is not equally tipped to any of the planes of projection.

x z

## La=Lb=Lc Y La=Lc Y La,L b &L c unequal

Y OX=OY=OZ ox=OY OX,OY,OZ unequal
(a) Isomerric (b) Dimetric (c) Trimetric

## 14.4 Axonometric Projections

FOUNDATIONS FOR AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION 517

Axonometric Projections and 3D Models creating the 2D view of the object on your co mputer screen.
Most 3D CAD software provides a variety of preset isometric
When you crea te a 3D CAD model, the object is stored so that
viewin g directions to make it easy for you to manipulat e the
vertices, surfaces , and solids are all defined relati ve to a 3D
view. Some CAD software also allows for easy perspective
coordinate system. You can rotate your view of the objec t to
viewin g on screen.
produce a view from any direction. However, yonr co mputer
After rotating the obje ct you may wan t to return to a
screen is a nat surface, like a sheet of paper. The CAD software
preset typical axonometric view like one of the examples
uses similar projection to produc e the view transformati ons,
shown in Figure 14.5. Figure 14.6 shows a 3D CAD model.

s:
(a) (b) (c)
.J...

14.5 (a) Isometric View of a 1 inch Cube Shown in SolidWorks, (b) Dimetric View, (c) Trimetric View. Courtesy of
Solidworks Corporation.

14.6 Complicated 3D CAD Models such as this Dredge from SRS Crisafulli lnc., are Often Viewed on Screen Using
Isometric Display-Notice the Coordinate System Display in the Lower Left. Courtesy of SRS Crisafulli, Inc.
518 CHAPTER 14 AX ONOMETRIC PROJECTION

## 14.1 ISOMETRIC PROJECTION

In an isometric projection, all angles the plane of projection and are therefore
between the axonometric axes are equal. foreshortened equally. Oriented this way,
To produce an isometric projection the edges of a cube would be projected so
(isometric means "equal measur e"), you that they all mea sure the same and make
orient the object so that its principal equal angles with each other (o f 120) as
edges (or ax es ) make equal angles with sho w n in Figure 14.7 .
14.7 Isometric Projection

Creating Isometric Projections revolving the cube nntil the three edges the cube make angles of about 35 16" with
OX, or, and 02 make equal angl es with the front plane of projection. The lengths
Figure 14.8a sho ws a multiview drawing
the front plane of projection and sho w o f their projected edges are equal to
of a cube. Figure 14.8b sho ws the cube
fore shortened equally. Again, a diagonal tbe actual edge length multiplied byv'1
revolved 45 about an im aginary vertical
through the cnbe, in this ca se OT, appears or about 0.816. Thu s the projected lengths
axi s. Now an auxiliary view in the direc
as a point in the isometric view and the are ahout 80 percent of the true lengths
tion of the arrow shows the diagonal of
view produced is a true isometric projec or about three-fourths of the true lengths.
the cube as a point. This creates a true iso
tion . In this projection the 12 edge s of
metric projection. Yon can continue
T

~
'z
Isometric projection

'---I of cube

i :j ,

x~z
X " ~(v

xO:,z 0 /
Diagonal
projects as
0
: Iso~et~ic
projection
of cube

xO:'Y
:Oz I!JI!J
a point Z

w y y y
(a) (b) (c)

## 14.2 ISOMETRIC AXES

The projections of the edges of a cube projection of the cube are either 120 or
mak e angles of 120 with each other. You 60 , and all are projection s 01'90 angles.
can use these as the isometric axes from In an isometric projection of a cube, the Isometric
line
which to make measurements. An y lin e fac es of the cube, and an y planes parallel
parallel to o ne of the se is called an iso to them, are called isometric plan es. See
metric line . Th e angles in the isometric Fi gure 14.9.

## 14.3 NONISOMETRIC LINES

Lines of an isometric drawing that a re not fore shortened. Nonisom etric line s are
parallel to the isometric axe s are called drawn at other angles and are not eqnally
nonisometric lines (Fi gure 14.10 ). fore shortened. Therefore the length s of
Only lines of an object that are drawn features along noni sometric lines cannot
parallel to the isometric axe s are equally be measured directly with the scale.

## 14.10 Nonisometric Edges

14 .4 ISOMETRIC SCALES 519

14.4 ISOMETRIC
SCALES
An isometric scale can be used to draw
correct isometric projections. All dis
tances in this scale are If x true size, or
approximately 80 percent of true size.
Figure 14.11a shows an isometric scale.
More commonly, an isometric sketch or
dr awing is created using a standard scal e,
as in Figure 14.11b. di sregarding the
foreshortening that the tipped surfaces (a) Isometric projection (b) Isometric drawing
would produce in a true projection.
14.11 Isometric and Ordinary Scales

.------ TI P - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
Making an Isometric Scale
You can make an isometric scale from a strip of paper or cardboard as

## equivalent) can be used as an approximation .

14.5 ISOMETRIC
DRAWINGS
When you make a drawing using fore
shortened mea surements, or when the
object is actually projected on a plane of
projection , it is called an isometric pro
jection (Figure 14.11a). When you make
a drawing using the full length mea sure
ments of the actual object, it is an (a) (b) (c) (d )
isometric sketch or isometric drawing
(Figure l4.llb) to indicate that it lacks 14.12 Positions of Isometric Axes
foreshortening.
The isometric drawing is about four different orientations that you might best describes the shape of the object or
25 percent larger than the isometric pro start with to create an isometric drawing bette r yet , both.
jection, but the pictorial value is obvi of the block shown. Each is an isometric If the object is a long part, it will
ously the same in both. Since isometric drawing of the sa me block, but with a look best with the long axis oriented
sketches are quicker, as you can use the different corner facing your view. horizontally.
actual measurements, they are much more The se arc only a few of many possible
commonly drawn. orientations. . - - - TIP - - - - - - - ,
You may orient the axes in any de Some CAD software will notify you
Positions of the Isometric Axes sired position, but the angl e between about the lack of foreshortening in
The first step in making an isometric them must remain 1200 In selecting an isometric drawings when you print
drawing is to decide along which axis di orientation for the axes, choose the posi or save them or allow you to select
rection to show the height, width , and tion from which the obje ct is usually for it.
depth, respectively. Figure 14.12 shows viewed , or determine the position that
520 CH APTER 14 AXO NOM E T R IC PR OJE C TI ON

## 14.6 MAKING AN ISOMETRIC

DRAWING
Rectangul ar o bjects are easy to dra w using box construction , For example, imagine the object shown in the two views in
wh ich consists of imagining the object enclosed in a recta ngu Figure 14.13 enclosed in a co nstruc tion box, then locat e the
lar box whose sides coi ncide with the main faces of the object. irregul ar fea tures along the edges of the box as show n.

I
I-f
-e

1. Lightly draw the overall 2. Draw th e irregular features 3. Darken the final lines
di mensions of the box relative to th e sides of the box

## 14.13 Box Constr uction

Fig ure 14.14 shows how to co nstruc t an isometric drawing of mea surem en t along a nonisornetric line can he measur ed
an object co mposed of all norm al surfaces. No tice that all directl y with the sca le as these lines are not foreshorten ed
measurem ent s are mad e parallel to the main edge s of the eq ually to the normal lines. Start at anyone of the co rners of
enclosi ng box-that is, parallel to the isometric axes . No the bounding box and draw along tbe isometric axis directions.

All measurements
must be parallel to
main edges of box

## 1. Select axes along wh ich to 2. Locate main areas to be

block in heigh t, weight and removed from the overall block
dept h dimensions lightly sketch along isom etric axes
to defin e portio n to be removed

3. Lightly bloc k in any remainin g 4. Lightly block in features to be 5. Darken final lines
major portions to be removed removed from the remaining shape
through the w hole block along isometr ic axes

## 14.14 Steps in Making an Isometric Drawing of Normal Surfaces

1 4. 7 0 F F 5 ET L0 CAT ION MEA 5 U REM EN T 5 521

## 14.7 OFFSET LOCATION MEASUREMENTS

Use the method shown in Figure 14.15a and b to locate points measurements. Since they are parallel to edges of the main
with respect to euch another. First draw the main enclosing block in the multiview drawings. they will be parallel to the
block , then draw the offset lines (CA and SA) in the full size in same edges in the isometric drawings (using the rule of
the isometric drawing to located corner A of the small block or parallelism) .
rectangular recess. These measurements are called offset

c
~B
C

(a) (b)

## HOW TO DRAW NONISOMETRIC LINES

The inclined lines SA and CA are shown true length in the top view (54 mrn), but
they are not true length in the isometric view . To draw these lines in the isometric
drawing use a construction box and offset measurements.

## Directly measure Since the 54 mm dimension is not along an The dimensions

dimensions that are isometric axis. it cannot be used to locate 24 mm and 9 mm
aiong isometric lines (in point A. are parallel to
this case, 44 mrn, 18 mrn, isometric lines and can
Use trigonometry or draw a line parallel to the
and 22 mm) . be measured directly.
isometric axis to determine the distance to point A.
Since this dirneusion is parallel to an isometric
axis . it can be transferred to the isometric.

Transfer distance

...-- T1 P - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- --------------.
To convince yourself that non isometric lines will not be true length in the isometric drawing, use a scrap of paper and
mark the distance BA (II) and then compare it with BA on the given top view in Figure 14 .16a. Do the same for line
CA. You will see that BA is shorter and CA is longer in the isometric than the corresponding lines in the given views.
522 C H A f' T E R 1 4 A X 0 NOM ET RIC f' R0 J E C T ION

## C,"", blade bJ be parallel to main

edges of enclosing box

~ Surface j
o N /)---~

-kiT
(a ) (b) (c)

## Isometric Drawings of Inclined Surfaces

Figure 14.16 shows how to con struct an isometric drawing of an object that has some
inclined surfaces and oblique edges. Notice that inclined surfaces are located by offset
or coordinate measurements along the isometri c lines. For example, dimensions E and
F are measured to locate the inclined surface M. and dimensions A and B are used to
locate surface N.

## HOW TO DRAW OBLIQUE SURFACES IN ISOMETRIC

Find the intersections of the To draw the plane, extend
oblique surfaces with the iso line AB to X and Y. in the
using the rule that parallel
metric planes. Note that for this same isometric plane as C. Use
line s appear parallel in every
example. the oblique plane contains lines XC and YC to locate points E
orthographic or isometric view.
points A. B, and C. and F.

## 14.10 HIDDEN LINES AND CENTERLINES

Hidden lines are omitted unless they are needed to make the drawing clear. Figure 14.17
shows a ease in which hidden lines are needed because a projecting part cannot be
clearly shown without them. Sometimes it is better to include an isometric view from
another direction than to try to show hidden features with hidden line s.
Draw cenrerlines if they are needed to indicate symmetry or if they are needed
for dimensioning, hut in general, use centerlines sparingly in isometric drawings . If
in doubt, leave them out , as too many centerlines will look confusing.

## 14.17 Using Hidden Lines

14 .11 A N G L E S I N I S aM ET RI C 523

## 14.11 ANGLES IN ISOMETRIC

Angles project true size only when the plane co ntaining the angle is parallel to the
pla ne of proj ection . An angle may project to appear larger or smaller than the true
angle dependin g on its positi on.
Since the various surfaces of the object are usu ally inclined to the front plane of
projection. they ge nera lly will not be projected true size in an isom etri c drawin g.

## HOW TO DRAW ANGLES IN ISOMETRIC

~ ~D
Th e mu ltiview drawing at left shows three ,.--- TI P - - - - - - - - - ,
60 angles. None of the three angles will Checking Isometric Angles
I 6 0
be 60 in the isom etri c drawing.
g 60 A To convince yo urself that non e of th e

1~
ang les will be 60, measure each ang le
in the isometric in Figure 14.17 with a
c protractor or scrap of paper and note
th e angle compared to the tru e 60.
C 11.00 A None of the angles shown are the

## g~ E 30 same in the isometric drawing . Two

are smaller and one is larger th an 60.
~-L-..-.J~
Lightl y dra w an enclos
ing bo x using the give n
Estimating 30 angles
dimen sions, exce pt for

## If yo u are sketching on graph paper

di mension X, which is not

given.

## is roug hly a rise of 1 to a run of 2.

x- ----I
To find dim en sion X,

<,

sho wn.

## T ransfe r dim ension X to the

Not 60
isom etri c to complete the
Not 60
enclos ing box. Find dim ensio n

## dim en sion K, as shown. A

regul ar prot ract or cannot be used
to meas ure angle s in isome tric rl .OO--j j
drawin gs. Co nvert angular meas
~ K
urement s to linear measurem ent s

I~.
a
j
B

~bl--

1----r
l

Llli_
(a) (b ) (c)

## 14.18 Irregular Object in Isometric

Sections cut
~

bYPlanes~/
t::: ' .

<,

~
1.Construct sections in isometric. 2. Complete th e obj ect by drawing lines
thr ough the corners of the section s.

## 14.12 IRREGULAR OBJECTS

You can use the construction box method to draw objects that are not rectangular
(Fi gure 14.18 ). Locat e the points of the triang ular base by offsetting a and b along
the edges of the hottom of the constructio n box. Locate thc vertex by offsetting line s
OA and OB using the top of the co nstruc tion box .
You can also draw irregular objects usin g a series of sections. The edge views of
imaginary cutting plan es are shown in the top and front view s of the multiview draw
ing in Figur e 14.19 . In the example, all height dim en sions are taken from the front
view and all depth dim en sions from the top view.

,..--- TI P - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
It is not always necessary to draw the complete construction box as shown in
Figure 14.18b. If only the bottom of the box is drawn, the triangular base can be
constructed as before. The orthographic projection ot the vertex 0' on the base
can be drawn using offsets 0' A and 0'8, as shown, and then the vertical line
0'0 can be drawn, using measurement C.
14 . 1 3 CUR V E SIN ISO MET RIC 525

## 1. Use oHset measurements a and b in the 2. Locat e points B, C, and D, and

isom etric to locate point A on the curve so on

Ct Equal in ~/<3
~~
G
lengt h /

3. Sketch a smooth light freehand 4. Draw a line vertically from po int A to 5. Darken the final lines
curve through the points locate point A', and so on, making all
equal to the height of block (c) then
draw a light curve through the points

## 14.13 CURVES IN ISOMETRIC

You can draw curves in isom etric using a series of offset mea
sureme nts similar to those discu ssed in Section 14.7. Select any
desired numb er of point s at random along the curve in the giv en
top view, such as point s A, B. and C in Figure 14.20. Choose
eno ugh point s to accurately locate the path of the curve (the
more points , the greater the accuracy). Draw offset gr id lines
from each point parallel to the isom etric axes and use them to
locat e each point in the isom etric drawing as in the example
shown in Figur e 14.20.

## Tennis Ball (Factory Reject). Cartoon by Roger Price.

Courtesy of Droodles, " The Classic Collection. "
526 C HAP T E R 1 4 A X 0 N OM E T RIC PRO J E C T I ON

## 14.14 TRUE ELLIPSES IN ISOMETRIC

If a circle lies in a plane that is not parallel to the plan e of projecti on. the circ le pro
jects as an ellipse . The ellipse can he co nstruc ted using offset measurements.

## DRAWING AN ISOMETRIC ELLIPSE BY OFFSET MEASUREMENTS

Random Line Method Eight Point Method

## Draw parall el lines Enclose the given circle in a

space d at ra ndo m
square, and dra w diagonals.
across the circle. Draw anothe r square throu gh the
point s of intersection of the d iagonal s
and the circle as sho wn.

L
1 --+--niI
-;-1-;- Draw this sa me construction
in the iso me tric, tran sferri ng
Tran sfer these
distances a and h. (If more points
lines to the
are de sired , add rando m parallel

## Where the hole ex the isom etr ic are the co nj ugate di

its the bott om of the ameters of the ellipse . Th e 45 di
block , locate points ago nals coincid e with the major
by measuring down and minor axes of the e llipse. The mino r axis is
. . Same depth II -, 1/1\
a distance equ al to equal in len gth to the sides of the insc ribed -
the height d of the square.
1\ / ['\..1/
block from each of the upp er point s. Dra w the Wh en more accuracy is required, divide the ,""
ellipse, part of which will he hidden , through c ircle into 12 equal parts, as shown. I
these point s. Dark en the final dra wing lines. 12 point method
Refer to Append ix 39 for detailed meth od s of
constru ctin g the ellipse .

Nonisometric Lines
If a curv e lies in a non isom etri c plane , not all offset measurement s can be applied dire ctly.
The elliptica l face sho wn in the auxiliary view lies in an inclined noni som etri c plane.

## Draw lines in the Enclose the cy linder in Dark en

orthog raphic view a con struction box and final line s.
to locate points. draw the box in the isom etri c
draw ing. Draw the base
using offset mea surements
and con struct the inclin ed e l
lipse by locat ing point s and
drawing the final cur ve
throu gh them .
Measure di stances parallel

## ing on each side of the cen

terline X-X. Proj ect those not parallel to any isom etri c axis (e.

.r.etc.) to the fro nt view and down to the base, then measur e

along the low er edge of the constru ction box, as sho wn.

14 .15 0 R lEN TIN GEL LIP S E SIN ISO MET RIC D RAW I N G S 527

## 14.15 ORIENTING ELLIPSES IN ISOMETRIC

DRAWINGS
Figure 14.21 shows a four center ellipses constructed on the three visible faces of a
cube. Note that all of the diagonals are horizontal or at 60 with horizontal.
Realizing this makes it easier to draw the shapes.
An approximate ellipse such as this, co nstructed from four arcs, is accurate enough
for most isometric drawings. The four center method can be used only for ellipses in
isometric planes. Earlier versions of CAD software, such as AutoCAD Release 10, used
this method to create the approximate elliptical shapes available in the software.
Current releases use an accurate ellipse.

## DRAWING A FOUR CENTER ELLIPSE

Draw or imagine a
square enclosing the cir
Diamete~ ~D iameter ....-- TIP - - - - - - - - . ,
cle in the multi view drawing. of circle of circle Here is a useful rule. The major axis of
Draw the isometric view of
the square (an equilateral par
~ / the ellipse is always at right angles to
the centerline of the cylinder, and the
I ,
allelogram with sides equal to 30 30 minor axis is at right angles to the
the diameter of the circle). I \ major axis and coincides with the
centerline.

~90~

Create perpendicular bi
sectors to each side.
They will intersect at four
points, which will be centers '"
/, \:
~Minor
for the four circular arcs.
/ ' 0" axis coincides
with centerlines

## Draw the two large arcs,

intersections of the perpendic
ulars in the two closest corners
of the parallelogram.

## Draw the two small arcs, , - - - TI P - - - - - - - - - ,

with radius r, from the As a check on the accurate location of
intersections of the perpendic these centers, you can draw a long
ulars within the parallelogram, diagonal of the parallelogram as
to complete the ellipse. shown in Step 4. The midpoints of the
sides of the parallelogram are points of
tangency for the four arcs .
528 (HAPTER 14 A X ON OME TRI C PR OJE CTI O N

## The four ce nter e llipse deviates consider

ably from a true ellipse . As shown in
1?-_4-""'" ellipse

## somewhat shorter and "fa tter" than a true

ell ipse. When the four ce nter ellipse is
not accurate enough, yo u ca n use a closer
approximation ca lled the Orth four
ce nter ell ipse to produ ce a more acc ura te
drawing.

(a)

## To create a more accurate Enclosing Rectangle Method

app roxim ate e llipse usin g
the Orth meth od , follow the
steps for these methods.
The centerl ine method is Locate center and
co nve nie nt when starti ng block in enclosing
from a hole or cy linder. isometric rectangle.

## Use the midp oint of

the isometr ic rec
Centerline Method tangle (the distance from
/'" Constuction A to B) to locate the foci
Draw the isometr ic A,)I' circle equal
D to diameter on the major axis .
ce nterlines . From the of hole
ce nter, draw a constructi on
circ le equal to the ac tual Draw lines at 60 0
diameter of the hole or cy lin c from horizontal
der. The cir cle will intersect Isometric
center lines through the foc i (po ints
the ce nterline s at four point s B C and D ) to locate the
A, B, C, and D. ce nter of the large arc R.

Horizontal
From the two intersec Draw the two large
tion point s on one ce n D
~---'-t---\-L.....,~C Perpendicular arcs R tang ent to the
terlin e, draw perpendi cul ars isometri c rec tangle. Draw
to the other ce nterline. Then two sma ll arcs r, usin g
draw perp endi culars from foci point s C and D as
the two intersection points ce nters, to comple te the
on the other centerline to the approximate ellipse .
first ce nter line.

Note that these steps are exactly the same as for the
regular fo ur center ellipse. except fo r the use of the
With the intersections
isometric centerlines instead of the enclos ing paral
of the perp end icul ars as
lelogram. (When sketching. it worksfine tojust draw
ce nters, dra w tw o small arcs
the enclosi ng rectangle and sketch the arcs tangent
and two large arcs .
to its side s.)
14 .16 D RAW I N GIS 0 MET R IC C Y LI N D E R S 529

r--- TI P - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
Isometric Templates
Special templates like th is iso metric template
with angled lines and ellipses oriented in
various isometric planes make it easy to draw
isometric sketches.

## The ellipses are provided with markings to

coincide with the isometric centerlines of the
hol es-a convenient feature in isometric
drawing.

## 14.16 DRAWING ISOMETRIC CYLINDERS

A typical drawing with cylindri cal shapes is shown in Figure 14.23. Note that the
ce nters of the larger ellip se cann ot be used for the smaller ellip se, though the ellip ses
represent co ncentric ci rcles. Each ell ipse has its own parallelogram and its own
centers. Notic e that the ce nters of the lower ellipse are drawn by projectin g the
ce nters of the upper large ellipse down a di stance equal to the height of the cylinder.

## Each lower center is obtained

[iJ~ 0B
by dropping down a distance
C fro m the center

( > ' - ~-

Q
I-A-I t-
~/ ~J
'
--rc ,~/<:://
I
..-J-+-+--+-J..., __ ~/'

## 14.17 SCREW THREADS "IN ISOMETRIC

Parallel parti al ellip ses equally spa ced at the symbolic thread pitch are used to repre
sent only the cre sts of a screw thread in isometric (Figure 14.24). The ellipses may
be sketched, drawn by the four ce nter method, or created using an ellipse template.

## 14.24 Screw Threads in Isometric

530 CHAPTER 14 AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION

0", diameter
14.18 ARCS IN ISOMETRICS
R '" radius The four center ellipse construction can be used to sketch or
draw circular arcs in isometric. Figure 14.25a shows the
complete construction. It is not necessary to draw the complete
constructions for arcs, as shown in Figure l4.25b and c.
Measure the radius R from the construction corner; then at each
point, draw perpendiculars to the lines. Their intersection is
()
the center of the arc. Note that the R distances are equal
in Figure l4 .25b and c. but that the actual radii used are quite
different.

## 14.25 Arcs in Isometric

14.19 INTERSECTIONS
To draw the elliptical intersection of a cylindrical hole ill an
oblique plane in isometric (Figure 14.26a). draw the ellipse in the
isometric plane on top of the construction box (Figure 14.26b);
.:.-_-t= _=- then project points down to the oblique plane as shown. Each
-
- - - -- -
-- point forms a trapezoid, which is produced by a slicing plane
parallel to a lateral surface of the block .
To draw the curve of intersection between two cylinders
(Figure 14.27 ), use a series of imaginary cutting planes through
the cylinders parallel to their axe s. Each plane will cut elements
on both cylinders that intersect at points 011 the curve of inter
section (Figure 14.26b). As many points should be plotted as
necessary to assure a smooth curve. For accuracy, draw the
(a) (b) ends of the cylinders using the Orth four center con stru ction,
with ellipse guides, or by one of the true ellipse constructions.
14.26 Oblique Plane and Cylinder

(a) (b)

## 14.27 Intersection of Cylinders

1 4 . 20 S P HER ES IN I S O MET RIC 531

m
A
al-
r---:;;;o-r--.::--+--,; B

## Determining the radius Isometric drawi ng Isometric proj ecti on

1. Draw the the isometric of a great circle 2. The diameter of the 3. The diameter of the circle
parallel to one face of the cube; then circle in the isometric in the isometric projection
determine the radius of the sphere by Jf
draw ing is x the is equal to the tru e
locating points on the diagonal using diameter of the sphere diameter of the sphere
Given views measurement a to establish the ends of the
major axis

## 14.20 SPHERES IN ISOMETRIC

The isometric dr awi ng of any curved surface is the env elope of in a plan e parallel to one face of the cube. Th ere is no need to

,
all lines that can be drawn on that surface. For sph ere s, select draw the ellipse, since only the point s on the d iagonal locat ed
the great circles (circles cut hy an y plan e through the ce nter) as by measurement s a are needed to establish the end s of the
the line s on the surface. Since all great circles, except those that maj or axis and thus to dete rmin e the radiu s of the sphere.
are perp endicular or parallel to (he plane of projecti on , arc In the res ulting isom etri c drawing the diameter of the
shown as ellipses havin g equal major axes, their env elope is a circ le is/f. time s the actual diameter of the sphere. The isomet
circle whose diameter is the major axi s of the ellipse . ric projection is simply a c ircle whose diameter is equal to the
Figure 14.28 sho ws two view s of a sphere enclose d in a true diameter o f the sphe re.
construc tion cube. Next. an isometric of a great circle is drawn

## 14.21 ISOMETRIC SECTIONING

Isometric sectioning is useful in drawing ope n or irregularly Isom etric broken-out sections are also sometimes used.
shaped objects. Figur e 14.29 sho ws an isom etri c full section. It Section lining in isom etri c drawing is similar to that in multi
is usuall y best to draw the cut surface first , then draw tbe view drawing . Section linin g at an angle of 60 with horizontal
portion of the obje ct that lies behind the cutting plane. as shown in Figure s 14.29 and 14.30 is recommend ed, but
To create an isom etric half section, it is usuall y easiest to change the dire ction if 60 would ca use the lines to be parallel
make an isom etri c dr awing of the entire obj ect, then add the cut to a prominent visible line bounding the cut surface. or to other
sur faces as show n in Figure 14.30. Sin ce onl y a quarter of the adjace nt lines o f the drawing .
object is rem oved in a half sec tion. the resulting pict orial
drawing is more useful than a full sec tion.

(a)
Jt.r
(b) (a)

## 14.29 Isometric Full Section 14.30 Isometric Half Section

532 CHAPTER 14 AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION

## 14.31 Numerals and Arrowheads in Isometric (Metric Dimensions)

14.22 ISOMETRIC
DIMENSIONING
Isometric dimensions are similar to or isometric plane of one face of the object pictorials for production purposes. Still,
dinary dimensions used on multi view (Figure 14.31a). The " hor izo ntal" guide the barbs of the arrowheads should line
drawings but should match the pictorial line s for the lettering are drawn parallel up parallel to the extension lines, as in
style. Two methods of dimensioning are to the dimension line, and the "vertical" Figure 14.31a.
approved by ANSI-namely, the guidelines are drawn parallel to the As shown in Figure 14.31c, the
pictorial plane (aligned) system and the extension lines. The barb s of the arrow vertical guidelines for the letters should
un idirectional system (Figure 14.31) . heads should line up parallel to the not be perpendicular to the dimension
Note that vertical lettering is used extension lines . line s. The example in Figure 14.3lc is in
for either system of dim ensioning. In In the unidirectional system the correct because the 64 mm and 32 mrn
clined lett ering is not recommended for extension lines and dimension lines for dimensions are not lettered in the plane
pictorial dimensioning. Figure 14.31a the 64 mrn dimension are drawn in the of corresponding dimension and exten
and b show how to draw numerals and isometric plane of one face of the object sion lines, nor are they in a vertical posi
arrowheads for the two systems. (Figure 14.31b). The lettering for the di tion to read from the hottom of the
In the aligned system, the extension mensions is vertical and reads from the drawing. Note how the 20 mm dimen
lines , dimension lines, and lettering for bottom of the drawing. This simpler sion is awkward to read becau se of its
the 64 rnm dimension are all drawn in the system of dimensioning is often used on position.

## Correct and Incorrect

Isometric Dimensioning
Correct practice in isometric dimension Figure 14.32b show s several incor the dimension does not lie in an isomet
ing using the aligned system of dimen rect practices. The 3.125 dimension runs ric plane. Near the left side. a number of
sioning is shown in Figure 14.32a . to a wrong extension line at the right, so lines cross each other unnecessarily and
terminate on the wrong lines . The upper
.5 drill hole is located from the edge of
the cylinder when it should be dimen
sioned from its centerline. Study these
two drawings carefully to see additional
mistakes in Figure 14.32b.
Isometric dimensioning methods
apply equally to fractional, decimal, and
metric dimensions .
Many examples of isometric dimen
sioning are given in the End of Chapter
Exercises. Study these to find samples
of almo st any special case you may
encounter.
(b)

## 14.32 Correct and Incorrect Isometric Dimensioning (Aligned System)

14 .2 3 EX P L 0 D E D AS S E M B LIE S 533

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14.23 EXPLODED

ASSEMBLIES

(Figure 14.33).

14.24 PIPING

DIAGRAMS

## Isometric and oblique drawings are well

suited for representation of piping lay
outs, as well as for all other struc tural !'tOTES:
1) PIPINGSHOWN IS S01WAf.c
work to be represented pictorially. An ex 2) ALlOw 2' [ AOi SlD Cf 801lER WOOlJL[S fOR: SERW'lCE ACCESS
J ) DONOJ BlOCKR(WOVAl rY ANYJACl(T PIECES VIllli PIPING C~ N (C TlCli S
ample is shown in Figure 14.34 . .4) HEAnNG POUPS AND AIRUIolI NA1M TO S( LOCA TED AS ~
5) PRCMOE C....s COO<S ON EACH BOllER

## 14.34 Portion of an Isometric Piping Diagram .

Courtesy of Associated Construction Engineering.
534 C HAP T E R 1 4 A X 0 NOM ET RIC PRO J EC T ION

## 14.25 DIMETRIC PROJECTION

A dimetric projection is an axonometric projection of an object will show its true size and shape as PO '5 . If regular full-size
where two of its axes make equal angles with the plane of pro scale s are marked along the lines 0 ' P and 0 '5 , and the triangle
jection and the third axis makes either a smaller or a greater an is counterrevolved to its original position , the dimetric scale s
gle (Figure 14.35 ). The two axes making equal angles with the may be divided along the axes OP and OS. as shown .
plane of projection are foreshortened eqnally, while the third You can use an architect's scale to make the measurements
axis is foreshortened in a different proportion. by assuming the scales and calculating the positions of the
Usually the object is oriented so one axis is vertical. How axes, as follows :
ever, you can revolv e the projection to any orientation if you
want that particular view.
cos a =
Do not confuse the angles between the axes in the drawing 2hv
with the angles from the plane projection, The se are two differ
ent, but related things. You can arrange the amount that the where a is one of the two equal angle s between the projections
principal faces are tilted to the plane of projection any way that of the axes, h is one of the two equal scales, and II is the third
two angles between the axes are equal and over 90. scale. Examples are shown in the upper row of Figure 14.35,
The scale s can be determined graphically, as shown in where length measurements could be made using an architect's
Figure 14.36a, in which OP, OL, and OS are the projections of scal e. One of these three positions of the axe s will be found
the axes or converging edges of a cube. If the triangle POS is suitable for almost any practical drawing.
revolved about the axis line PS into the plane of projection, it

## 14.26 APPROXIMATE DIMETRIC DRAWING

Approximate dimetric drawings, which clo sely resemble true obtained with the ordinary triangles ancl compass, as shown in
dirnetrics, can be constructed by substituting for the true angles the lower half of the figure . The resulting drawings will be
shown in the upper half of Figure 14.35 angles that can be accurate enough for all practical purposes.

## ___.75 ->--. --=-.75 _

-- 115244\ ~
t 103
t l
'-
10338' 38'
j 1.0
13125'

-i:
1338'
t
1338'
t
~ t
(a) (b) (c)

Dimettic drawings

/;~
1.0 1.0

~
I >
t
(d) (e) (f)
Approximate dimetric drawings

## 14.35 Undertstanding Angles in Dimetric Projection

14 .26 A P PRO X I MAT E DIM ET RIC D RAW I N G 535

(b) (c)

## HOW TO MAKE DIMETRIC DRAWINGS

7.5 0
1-28-r141

5lJl
~28-1
To make a dimetric draw
28

## The dimensions for Block in the fea

ing for the view s given , the principal face are ture s relati ve to the
draw two intersecting axis line s measured full size. The di surface s of the enclosing
at angles of7 .5 and 45 from mension for the receding hox. Th e offset method of
horizontal. Draw the third axis axis direction will be at drawing a curve is shown
direction vertically through half scale. iu the figure.
them .

INDICATOR

BRACKq

FOR

-j - - - j

## Using whichever angle produces Block in the major

An Approximate a good drawing of your part, features, foreshorten
Dimetric Drawing block in the dimetric axes. An angle of the dimensions along the
20 from horizontal tends to show two receding axes by
Follow these steps to make a di
many part s well. approximately 75 percent.
metric sketch with the position
similar to that in Figure l4.35e Darken the final lines.
where the two angles are equal.
536 CHAPTER 14 AXONOMETRI C PROJECTION

## 14.27 TRIMETRIC PROJECTION

A trimetric projection is an axonometric projection of an
object oriented so that no two axes make equal angles with the
plane of projection. In other words, each of the three axes, and
the lines parallel to them, have different ratios of fore shorten
ing . If the three axes are selected in any position on paper so
that none of the angles is les s than 90 , and they are not an
isometric nor a dirnctric projection, the result will be a
trimetric projection.

## 14.28 TRIMETRIC SCALES

Since the three axes are foreshortened differently, each axis
will use measurement proportions different from the other two.
You can select which scale to use as shown in Figure 14.37.
Any two of the three triangular faces can be revolved into the
plane of projection to show the true lengths of the three axes.
In the revolved position , the regular scale is used to set off
inches or fractions thereof. When the axes have been counter
revolved to their original positions, the scales will be correctly
foreshortened, as shown .

...--- TI P - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
You can make scales from

## 14.29 TRIMETRIC ELLIPSES

The trimetric centerlines of a hole , or the end of a cylinder, 3. The length of the major axis IS equal to the actual
become the conj ugate diameters of an ellipse when drawn in diameter of the cylinder.
trimetric, The ellipse may be drawn on the conjugate diameters The directions of both the major and minor axes, and the
or you can determine the major and minor axes from length of the major axis, will always be known, but not the
the conjugate diameters and construct the ellipse on them with length of the minor axis. Once it is determined, you can con
an ellipse template or by any of the methods shown in struct the ellipse using a template or any of a number of ellipse
Appendix 4.48-4.50. constructions. For sketching you can generally sketch an
One advantage of trimetric projection is the infinite num ellipse that looks correct by eye.
ber of positions of the object available. The angles and scales In Figure 14.38a, locate center 0 as desired, and draw the
can be handled without too much difficulty, as shown in horizontal and vertical construction lines that will contain the
Sections 14.30 anelI4 .31 . However, in drawing any axonornet major and minor axes through O. Note that the major axis will
ric ellipse, keep the following in mind: be on the horizontal line perpendicular to the axi s of the hole,
I. On the drawing, the major axi s is always perpendicular to and the minor axis will be perpendicular to it, or vertical.
the centerline, or axis, of the cylinder. Use the actual radius of the hole and draw the semicircle,
2. The minor axis is always perpendicular to the major axis; as shown , to establish the ends A and B of the major axis. Draw
on the paper it coincides with the axis of the cylinder. AF and BF parallel to the axonomctric edges WX and YX,
1 4 . 29 T RIM ET RI C ELL I P S E S 537

## respectively, to locate F. which lies on the ellipse. Draw a

vertical line through F to intersect the semicircle at F ' and join
F ' to B '. as shown. From D '. where the minor axis, extended,
intersects the semicircle, draw D 'E and ED parallel to F'B and
BF. respect ively. Point D is one end of the minor axis, From
center 0 , strike arc D C to locate C, the other end of the minor
axis. On these axes, a true ellips e can be constru cted, or drawn
with an ell ipse templat e.
See Appendix xx for additional methods for constructing
(a)
ellipses,
, J )
In constructi ons where the enclo sing parallelogram for an
ellipse is avai lable or easily constructed, the major and minor
i-= Dia t Dil to
oscaJe--j/ 5Clll
axes can he determined as shown in Figure 14.38b. The direc
(b)
tions of hath axes and the length of the major axis are known .
Extend the axes to intersect the sides of the parallelogram at L 14.38 Ellipses in Trimetric. Method (b), Courtesy of
and M, and join the points with a straight line. From one end N Professor H. E. Grant.
of the major axis, draw a line NP parallel to LM. The point P is
one end of the minor axis. To find one end T of the minor axis
of the smaller ell ipse, it is only necessary to draw RT parallel .----- TI P - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
to LM or NP. When you are creating a trimetric sketch of an ellipse, it
The method of constructing an ellipse on an oblique works great to block in the trimetric rectangle that would
plane in trirnetric is similar to that shown in the Step hy Step enclose the ellipse and sketch the ellipse tangent to th e
in Secti on 14.17 for drawing an isometric ellipse by offset midpoints of the rectangle .
measurement s.

PRESENTATION DRAWING
The MARGE (Mars Autonomous Rover
for Geoscience Exploration) aeroshell,
shown at right, is part of a NASA
Scout mission proposal developed by
Malin Space Science Systems and the MARGE SUB-ASSY
Raytheon Company in 2005 and
2006. The blunt, conical MARGE WHEEL WELL
aeroshell is an integrated system THRUSTER FUEL BAY
providing safe delivery of its payload,
two small, autonomous rovers, to the
surface of Mars. The aeroshell is about
2.4 meters in diameter.
Shown here is the part of the
system which provides aerobraking
for the spacecraft's initial descent
from orbit, the terminal rocket
descent phase just before landing,
and the final soft touchdown with the
surface. With the protective backshell
(where the parachute is located) and UNFINISHED
rovers removed, you can clearlysee PYRO SEPS
the components of the propulsion HELIUM BAY
and control systems integrated into UNFINISHED ROVER
the rover egress deck, and color MOUNTS AVIONICS BAY
coded for clarity. In addition to
aerobraking and rocket-powered Shaded isometric views of 3D mod els are often used as presentation
descent, the MARGE aeroshell design drawings . This isometric view of a proposed design for the MARGE
incorporates crushable foam layers of Aeroshell was used as a presentation drawing to communicate the
increasing density to cushion the final features of a concept developed by Malin Aerospace. Courtesy of Malin
touchdown with the planet surface. Space Science Systems, Inc.
After the descent and landing phase
is complete, clamps are disengaged
and the rovers drive off the lip of the
aeroshell under their own power,
538 C HAP T E R 1 4 A X 0 NOM ET RIC PRO) E C T ION

z x

z x

z
x

y
y

## 14.30 AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION

USING INTERSECTIONS
Before the advent of CAD engineering scholars devised meth To find the true size and shape of the top view. revolve the
ods to create an axonomctric projection using projections from triangular portion of the horizontal plane AOC, which is in
two orthographic views of the object, This method, called the front of the plane of projection, about its base CA, into the
method of intersections, was developed by Professors L. Eck plane of projection . In this case. the triangle is revolved inward
hart and T. Schmid of the Vienna College of Engineering and to the plane of projection through the smallest angle made with
was published in 1937. it. The triangle would then be shown in its true size and shape,
To understand their method ofaxonometrie projection, and you could draw the top view of the object in the triangle hy
study Figure 14.39 as you read through the following steps. projecting from the axonornetric projection. as shown (since all
Assume that the axonornetric projection of a rectangular object width dimensions remain the same).
is given, and it is necessary to find the three orthographic In the figure . the base CA of the triangle has been moved
projections: the top view, front view, and side view. upward to CA' so that the revolved position of the triangle will
Place the object so that its principal edges coincide with not overlap its projection.
the coordinate axes, and the plane of projection (the plane on The true sizes and shapes of the front view and side view
which the axonornetric projection is drawn) intersects the three can be found similarly, as shown in the figure.
coordinate planes in the triangle ABC. Note that if the three orthographic projections, or in most
From descriptive geometry, we know that lines BC, CA, cases any two of them, are given in their relative positions. as
and AB will be perpendicular, respectively, to axes OX, or, and sho wn in Figure 14.39, the directions of the projections could
Oz. Anyone of the three points A, B, or C may be assumed be reversed so that the intersections of the projecting lines
anywhere on one of the axes in order to draw triangle ABC. would determine the axonometric projection needed .
14.30 A X 0 NOM E T RIC PRO lEe T ION U SIN GIN T E R SEC T ION 5 539

4~-X

z
C

Sketch

## 14.40 Axonometric Projection

Use of an Enclosing Box to Create an Isometric Draw the front view baseline at a convenient location par
allel to A' X. Usc the parallel line you drew (P3 ) as the base and
Sketch using Intersections
draw the front view of the object. Draw the side view baseline
To draw an axonornetric projection nsing intersections, it helps at a convenient location parallel to 0 " C. Use it as the base (P2)
to make a sketch of the desired general appearance of the pro for the side view of the object, as shown. From the corners of
jection as shown in Figure 14.40. Even for complex objects the the front view, draw projecting lines parallel to Oz. From the
sketch need not be complete, just an enclosing box . Draw the corners of the side view, draw projecting lines parallel to Ox.
projections of the coordinate axes OX , or, and OZ parallel to The intersections of these two sets of projecting lines deter
the principal edges of the object, as shown in the sketch, and mine the axonornetric projection. It will be an isometric, a
the three coordinate planes with the plane of projection. dimetric, or a trimetric projection, depending on the form of the
Revolve the triangle ABO about its base AB as the axis into sketch used as the basis for the projections.
the plane of projection. Line OA will revolve to O'A . and this If the angl es formed by the three coordinate axes arc equal,
line , or one parallel to it, must be used as the baseline of the projection is isometric; if two of them arc equal. the projec
the front view of the obje ct. Draw the projecting I ines from the tion is dimetric; and if none of the three angles are equal. the
front view to the axonometric parallel to the projection of the result is a trimetric projection.
unrevolved Z-axis, as indicated in the figure . To place the desired projection on a specific location on
Similarly, revolve the triangle COB about its base CB as the drawing (Figure 14.40), select the desired projection P of
the axis into the plane of projection. Line CO will revolve to point I, for example, and draw two projecting lines PR ands PS
CO". Use this Iinc, or one parallel to it, as the baseline of the to intersect the two baselines and thereby to determine the
side view. Make the direction of the projecting lines parallel to locations of the two views on their baselines.
the projection of the unrevolved X axis , as shown.
540 CHAPTER 14 AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION

## 14.41 Axonometric Projection

Another example of this method ofaxonometric projec positions. You can draw the views on the baselines or even cut
tion is shown in Figure 14.41. In this case, it was onl y nece s them apart from another drawing and fasten them in place with
sary to draw a sketch of the plan or base of the object in the drafting tape.
desired position. To draw the elliptical projection of the circle, use any points,
To understand how the axonometric projection in Figure such as A, on the circle in both front and side views. Note that
14.41 was created, examine the figure while reading through point A is the same altitude, P, above the baseline in both views.
these steps. Draw the axonometric projection of point A by projecting lines
Draw the axes with OX and 02 parallel to the sides of the from the two views. You can project the major and minor axes
sketch plan , and the remaining axi s OY in a vertical position. this way, or by the methods shown in Figure 14.38.
Revolve triangles COB and AOB, and draw the two base True ellipses may be drawn by any of the methods shown
lines parallel to O "C and O'A . in the Appendix or with an ellipse template. An approximate
Choose point P, the lower front corner of the axonometric ellipse is fine for most drawings.
drawing, at a convenient place, and draw projecting lines to
ward the baselines parallel to axes OX and 02 to locate their
14 .31 COM P UT ERG R A P Hi e 5 541

## 14.31 COMPUTER GRAPHICS

Pictorial draw ings of all sorts ca n be created using 3D CAD (Fig ures 14.42, 14.43). To
create pictorials using 20 CA D. use proj ection techniques similar to those presented in
this cha pter. The adva ntage of 3D CAD is that once you make a 3D model of a part or
assembl y, you ca n change the viewin g direction at any time for orthog raphic, isomet
ric, or perspective view s. You can also apply di fferent mater ials to the drawing objects
and shade them to produc e a high degree of realism in tbe pictorial view.

## ITEM NO . PART NAME QTY.

uter Tub e
2 End
3 op
4 nner Tub e
5 Hea t exchanger
6 ssem Sa mp ler
7 Fan
8 a mple Bo ttom
9 HX Mounting Plate
10 o oling Hose
11 Door

View from a 3D Model. Courtesy of
Robert Kincaid.

CAoD at WO R K

## Need a quick isometric sketch? AutoCAD software has

special drafting settings for creating an isometric style grid.
Figure A shows the Drafting Settings dialog box in Au
toCAD. When you check tbe button for Isometric Snap, the
so ftware calculates the spacing needed for an isometric 0 ~.w::onit~j 0 lidOn 1F71
grid . You can use it to make quick pictorial sketches like Sr.ap ,~ing G lid,~ing

the example shown in Figure B. Piping diagrams are often Sn'Q X ,pacing G,idX:poc@:

done this way, although they can also be created using 3D Snap Y ,paing:

tools.
Even though the drawing in Figure B looks 3D, it is
Pol& , pacing G,idboh&vioI
really drawn in a flat 2D plane. You can observe this if you
Pol g. 1"""" o e,d6plive g1id
change the viewpoint so you arc no longer looking stra ight o AVow subdivision below g,id
onto the view. Sr.ap Iype , pacing

## The Ellipse command in AutoCAD has a special @ G!id , nap

o R~tangulal snap o Oitplay gridbeyondl.imil.
Isocircle option that makes drawing isometric ellipses easy .
@ 1' ome1Iic map
The isocircles are oriented in different directions depend
ing on the angle of the snap cursor. Figure C shows isocir Isometric Snap Selection
des and snap cursors for the three different orientations. In
the software, you press CTRL and E simultaneously to tog OPlion,... I OK II Conce! II tlelp
gle the cursor appearance.

## (A) Selecting isometric snap in the AutoCAD drafting

settings dialog box.

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ORfHO POLAR tw> OTAAO. OUCS OYU tW1 J l Center cursor Rightcursor Left cursor
(B) A pictorial sketch created from a flat drawing using (C) Variously oriented isometric circles and the
isometric snap. corresponding snap cursors used to create them .
KEY W 0 R D S 543

KEY WORDS adjacent view s, usually the top , front , and right side view,
ca n all be seen at the same time .
Isometric
Inclined sur faces and oblique surfaces must be determ ined
Pictorial
by plotting the endpoints of eac h edge of the surfac e.
Multiview Proj ection
Angles, irre gular curves, and ellipses require spec ial co n
struc tio n techniques for accurate representation.
Axonornetric Projecti on

## A co mmo n meth od of dra win g an obj ec t in isom et ric is by

Orthographic Projections
crea ting an isometri c box and drawing the features of the
Oblique Projection
object within the bo x.
Persp ect ive
Unlike perspective dr awin g. in whi ch parallel lines co n
verge on a vani shing point, parall el lines are drawn paral
Fo reshortening

## lel in axon ornetric drawings.

Isom etri c Proje ct ion

Dimerric Projection

REVIEW QUESTIONS
Isometri c Axes

## I . Wh y is isom etri c drawing more co m mo n than perspecti ve

Noni som etric Lines
drawing in enginee ring work?
Isom etri c Scale
2. What are the differences between axonome tric projection
Isometri c Projection
and perspecti ve?
Isom etri c Sketch
3. Wh at type of proj ection is used when creating a 3D model
Isometric Dra win g

4 . At what ang les arc the isom etric axes drawn '?
Box Con struction
5 . Wh at are the thre e view s that are typically sho wn in an
Offset M easurem ent s
isom etric drawing '?
6 . Wh ich type of proj ecti on places the observer at a finit e dis
Isometri c Se ctioning

## tance from the object ? Whi ch types place the observer at

Isometric Dimen sion s

## an infinite distance '?

Ex ploded As semblies
7. Why is isometric eas ier to draw than dirn etri c or trim etric?
8. Is the four circle ellipse a true ellipse or an appro ximation ?
9. Is an ellipse in C AD a four circle ellipse or a true co nic
sec tion?
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Axo nome tric proj ection is a method of creating a pictorial
representation of an object. It shows all thre e dim en sions
of length. width, and hei ght in one view.
EXERCISES
Isom etri c is the easie st of the axo no rnetric projections to
draw and is ther efore the most common pictor ial drawing.
Axonometric Problems
Iso metri c drawings created with C AD are often ca lled 3D Exercises 14.1-14.9 are to he drawn axonornctri call y. Th e ear
models . lier isometri c sketches may be dr awn on isometric pap er. and
Th e spaces betw een the axes o f an isom etric drawing eac h later s ketches should be mad e 0 11 plain drawing pap er.
are 120. Isometric axes ar c dr awn at 30 to the hori zont al Since many of the exercises in this cha pter arc of a gen eral
and verti cal. natu re, they can also be solved using CAD. Your instru ctor may
The onl y lines o n an isometric drawing that are to sca le are assign yo u to use CAD for specific problems.
parallel to the thre e isom etri c axes .
An axon om etric drawing is cr eat ed by rot atin g an objec t
about ima ginary verti cal and hori zontal axes unt il three
544 CHAPTER 14 A X O NOMETRI C P ROJECTION

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dimetric drawings. (4) Mak e trimetric drawings with axes chosen to show the objects to best advantage .
EX ERe I 5 E5 545

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Exercise 14.2 ( 1) Ma ke freehand isometric ske tches . (2) Use CA D to make isometri c drawings.
(3) Make dime tric drawings. (4) Make trirnetric drawings with axes chose n to show the objects to bes t
CHAPTER 14 A XONOMETRIC PROJE CTI ON

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(3) Make dim etri c drawin gs. (4) Mak e trim ctri c draw ings with axes chose n to show the objects to best
advantage. Dim ension yo ur drawing only if assigned by yo ur instructor.
EX ERe I S ES 547

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548 C HAP T E R 1 4 A X 0 NO M ET RI C PRO J EC T ION

6 7

8
9

10 11

Exercise J4 .5 ( I) Make freehand isometric sketches . (2) Use CAD to make isometric drawings.
(3) Make dimetric drawings . (4) Make trimetric drawings with axes chosen to show the objects to best
EXERCi SES

## Exercise 14.6 Draw the nylon -

collar nut as follows. (1) Make
an isometric freehand sket ch .
(2) Make an isometric draw ing 1\
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## Exercise 14. 7 Draw the plastic

'l-handle plated steel stud as fol
lows. ( I) Make a diametri c draw I
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an isometric freehand sketch. (2) Make isometric drawing s us metric freehand sketch. (2) Make isometric drawing s using