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rENIKA

To yeVVTlTlKO oucrnuc XPTlOllleuel vto , TTlV cvoncoovovn. To


I ouornuo aUTO napOual(l~el lilaq>op&TIKO 6pyava OTOV cvrpo Kat Olacpo-
peTlKa OTTlvuvotxo, ro ortoto ortorsxouv rc npWT&UOVTa xapaKTIlPIOTIKO
TOU CPUAOU.Ynapxouv cxouo Kat ro li&UT&p&UOVTa xapaKTIlPIOTlKO TOU
CPUAOUnou elver Ol ovcrrruvuevor uoorot OTTlvuvoixc, Tl lOla[TepTl TPlXO-
cute, lO[We:;OTOV cvrpc, Kat Tl lOla[TepTl olall6pcpwaTl TOU ceucroc rooo
OTOV aVTP(l 6ao Kal OTTlvuvctxc.
Or nOAAanMe:; QUTte:; Olacpopte:; ovcueoo OTOV cvrpo Kat OTTlvuvclxo
Ka80p[~OVTat ana Mo rtcpcvovrec:
a) TTlV unap~Tl' X r; y XPwllQTOaWllaToe:; OTa cpuAeTlKa XPwllaToawllaTa
Kal
13) TTl opaOT) TOU ~euyaplou TWV yeVVTlTlKWV aOtvwv (vovcosc) nou elver
, Ol 6pxele:; vie TOV cvrpo Kat Ol w08tiKee:; vie TTl vuvclxc.
H Olacpopono[TlOT) TWV (COpxtyOVWV yovoliwv TOU elll3puou oe
6pxele:; r; w08tiKe~ Ka80p(~eTal veverucc. 0 OXTlllaTlall6e:; 0IlWe:; OTTlouve-
xeto TWV vsvvnrucov opvovev e~apTaTat ana TTlVrtcpouotc TWV yovaowv
oe Xerroupvtn. Mere TTl ytVVTlOT) Ol yovO:oee:; rtapcuevouv oe npeuto
IltXPl TTlV til3Tl ortors Kat evepvortorouvrcn an6 opuovec rnc aoevoOn6-
CPUOT)e:;.Me TTlV evepvonotnon TOUe:;apx[~ouv va rtopcvouv yalJtT&e; (wo-
pia f) an&PlJaTO~wopl(J) Kat va exxplvouv Y&VVIlTIKte; OPIJ6v&e; (avlipo-
y6va Kat T&OTOOT&p6VIl vto TOV ovrpc, oioTpoy6va Kat npoY&OT&p6VIl
vie TTl vuvctxc). Oi vevvnrucsc opuovsc npOKaAOUV Kat TTlV ellcpaV.lOT)
TWV oeuTepeuovTwv xapaKTTlPlOTlKWV TOU CPUAOU.

10.1. To r&VVIlTIKO IUOTlllJa TOU 'AVTpa

To yeVVTlTlKO OUOTTllla OTOV cvrpo (euc. 10-1) crrorexetror ana TOUe:;


ouo 6PX&Ie;, rnv &Kq>0PIlTIKf) oli6 TOU antplJaTOe; Kat TO ntoe; Kat Ol Ael-
roupvlec TOU neplAalll3avouv:
a) TTlV napaywyr; ortepucrouocokov (orteoucroveveon)
13) TTl ouvouotc Kat
y) TOV tAeyxo TWV rtnpcrtcvco an6 TIe:;cpuovec TOU 6PXTl Kat TIe:;vovcoo-
rporttvec TTlC:;aoevoOn6cpuOT)e:;.

10.1A. 01 OPXEII KAI TA InEPMATOZflAPIA

Ka8e 0PXle:; elver ueucroc aotvae:; nou we:; e~wKplVr;e:; ncoover ro


ortepucrouocp; Kat we:; evooKplVr;e:; TIe:;ovrpucec opuovec,
KQTa TTlV elll3puTKr; ~wr; Ol 6pxele:; I3p[oKOVTat ueoo OTTlV KOlAla Kat

428
---- onepucnxoc nopoc
--- Om:p~OToi56XOc; KUOTT)
1 ---- oupoooxoc KUOTT)

_--- exorteoucnxoc rtcpoc


1---------'" npOOTOTT)c;
J;,..------- T)j3IKTJ
OU~<PUOT)
~--- j3oAj3oUpT)9pOiOl oMvec;
L::::;;~'rJJ,rJ:-. OT)poyywiSec; ow~o oUPTJ9poc; .
i.\.-::,------- oUPTJ9po
~~~- OT)poyywiSec; ow~o nsouc
t~~------noo9T)
~:----- cxporrooato
li"fi" ..-----j30AOVOc;

-.r. I -oupTJ9po
. (e~w OTO~IO)
'-------- emiSliSu~iiSo
'-----onep~OTlKO OWAT)VOPIO
~---------~ooxeo
'------------OPXlc;

ElK. 10-1. To vevvnruco OUOTT)~OTOU OVTpO.

tXOUV KOlVr; KaTOYWyr; ue ro oovcvo TOU ouportomrucou ouornucroc.


MtXPl Tll vsvvnon OIlWe; KaTeJ3aivouv Kal TeAlKa eYKaSicrraVTOl KaTW
ana TO rteoc 0' eve iSePllaTlVO OaKO, TO (0)(&0. Av 0 tvae; r; Kal 01 Mo
oPxele; rtopouelvouv OTllV KOLAla,11 rtcsncn MyeTOl KPUllJOPXia KOl rtpertei
va seocneurst tYKOlpa YlaTi 11 IIIllAr; aeouoxocorc Tile; KOlAlae;iSev elver
suvotxn vie ro anePllaTO~Wapla.
KaSe 6pXle; txel axr;lla nenxcruouevou cuvou (sue. 10-2A) KOl uno-
TeAeiTal e~WTePlKa ana Ilia lvwiSll Kallla KOl eocorepucc ana noxucoieuc
nepleAlYlltva OWAllVapla, ro on&ppaTIKo OwA'lvopla. MeTa~u TWV ortsp-
llaTlKWV oWAllvapiwv unapxouv ro lilop&oa KUTTapa nou rrcpcvouv rtc
ovrpucec opuovec. Ana ro KUTTapa TOU TOlxwllaTOe; TWV ottepucnxov
otoxnvopkov rtopcvovrcn rc anePllaTO~Wapla.
H on&ppaToytV&OIl. iSllA. 11 napaywyr; ortepucrozrocpkov, apxi~el
rteplrtou ana rnv llAlKia TWV13 ercov oav cnorcxeouo Tile; iSleyepOlle; TWV
opxewv ana rn SUAaKlOTpono opuovn. Ta rtpoopouc vevvnruco KUTTapa
MyOVTOl ~&ppaToyovla KOl an' aUTO.Sa napaxSouv TeAlKa rc wplila
anePllaTO~WaPla ue rn J3or;Sela KOl Tile; recroorepovnc ueoc ana Illa
nOAUnAoKll iSlaiSlKaoia nou nePlAallJ3aVel IlLTWTlKte;KOl llelwTlKee; iSlOlpe-
os; KOl KUTTaplKr; iSla<l>oponoillOll.
ortepuorucoc nopoc -------- ....

em15l15ull!15a ---------1O'h') ~1J.

Ivw15ne:
xntilvac; PX'l

ElK. 10-2. A 0 6PXlC; oe C5l0TOllrl KogeTl1. B EYKOPOIO C5l0TOllrl ortepucrucou OWAl1-


VOp[OU KQl TO C5l01leOO KUTTOpO.

430
ElK. 10-3. H KOTOOKeur, T.0u oneoucro-
~wopiou.

KaSe ortepucrozrocoto (sue. 10-


3) slvm rtoxunxoxo, KlV11T6 KUTTOPO,
TOU ortolou to DNA elver ouvxevrpeo-
IlEVO OTT'JvKe<l>oAti TOU, evw 11 oupo tH-':::-lllTOX6viSplQ
TOU ~[vel T11v KlV11TlK6T11TOnou elver
onopo[T11T11 YlO T11vovuiortolnon.

oupa

10.1B. TO lnEPMA KAI H


EKCIOPHTIKHTOY oaor
To ortspucnxc OWA11vaPlO ouvs-
VWVOVTOl oe 10-12 usvcxurepo, TO
onolc ue T11ceipc TOUe; 0)(111l0T[~OUV
evov nOAuEAlKTO n6po. a. n6poe;
oUT6e;, nou ov TeVTwSe[ <l>Tavel
IltlKOe; 5-6 uerpo, orrorexet TT'Jv&",61-
6ulJf6a, nou [3p(oKeTQl OTO rtkxo llepOe; KaSe 6PX1l LuvExelo TT'Je;em~l~ull[-'
~oe; etvoi 0 on&PlJaTIK6e; n6pot;. KaSe orrepucnxoc rtopoc urtctvst Ileoo.
OTT'JVKOLAla, 6nou o<l>ou evwge( ue TOV n6po T11e;on&PlJaTo66xou KUOTIle;,
eK[3QMel OTO TI-ltlllO TT'Je;
tluPtl9pOe; nou rtepvcei ueoo ana TOV rtooorcm.
LT11V rtopelo TOUe; TO cmeplloTo~waplO ileoo on6 T11v em~l~UIl(~O KOl
TOV unoxomo oywyo ~EXOVTQl TO eKKp[IlIlOTO TWV on&PlJaTo66X(a)v
KUOT&(I)V KQl aAAWV O~EVWV, crtouoctorspoc ana TOUe; onotouc elvor O
npOOTclTIle;. a npOOTaTT'Je;e(VQl onOKAelOTlKa OVTplKOe; O~EVOe;, oe usvs-
90e; KaOTOVOU KQl [3p[oKeTOl KaTW ana T11[3aOT'JT11e;Oupo~OXOU KUOT11e;.
To cmeplloTo~waplo, 1l0~( ue TO aAAO eKKp(IlIlOTO nou cvceeooue,
onOTeAOUV EVO YOAOKTw~ee; rtusvoppsuoro uyp6, TO ontplJa. To orrepuo
neplExel rtdvto nrto 100 exorouuuoio cmeplloTo~waplO ova Ku[3lK6 eKOTO-
OT6. Ot nvrpec, TWV ortokov 11nepleKTlK6TT'JTO TOU.ortepuoroc oe orrepuc-
TO~WapLQ etvm IllKp6Tep11 orto 25 exorouuuprc/ml, elver npOKTlKa OTe[-
pOl.

10.1r. TO neor
To ntoe; crtorexettm nrto TO Mo 0llpayyw61l OWlJaTa TOU ntoue; KQl
on6 TO 0Ilpayyw6&e; OWlJa Tile; oopI\9pae;, rtou nepl[3aAAOVTQl on6 KOlV6
~epIlOTlK6 nep[[3A111l0, T11V n6091l. To OT'JPoyyw~ee; OWIlO TT'Je;ouPtl9pOe;
KaTaAtlyel oe Eva ~loYKwj.levo aKpo rtou MyeTol !36Aavoe; TOU ntoue;.

431
Mtoa ant> TO OT]payyw~e~ OW\-Ia TT)~ oupnapcc rtepvcei T) UnOAOLnT)
OYTPIKIl OUPIl9pa, nou eKJ3aMel OTT)J3aAavo. Ta OT]payyw~T) OWuaro TOU
nsouc tXOUV reroic xnrcoxeun, nou KaTa TT)vevsrnorc ~ltyepOT] em-
rpsnouv TT)VnAtlPwot'l TOU~ ps otuo, WOTeTO rteoc va vtveroi usvcxure-
po, aepucrepo, OKAT)pOKal aKa\-lmO,KaTaAAT)AO Yla TT) ouvouotc. H
no08T) txel \-IeyaAT)eAaOTIKOTT)TaKat eror urtopel Kat rtcocxoxouaet rtc
aU~O\-lelwOel~TOU\-Ieyt80u~ TOUrteouc, To runuc TT)~no08T)~ nou KaM-
rrrst TT) J3aAavo AtyeTal aKponoCJ8ia. H cxportooetc KaTa TT)VOUpT)OT),
aMa KUp[W~ xnrd TT)OTUOT],TpaJ31tTal rtpoc rc rtloto Kal cnoxcxurrrer TT)
J3aAavo. 'Orov O\-lW~ y[vel noM creve TO aVOlY\-la TT)~,TOTe ~ev urtopsl
va TpaJ3T)XT~{Kal T) crcorcon AtyeTal ~iIJWCJ'l.0epaneueTal xelpoup-
YlKa ue n&pITOIJIl ~T)A.aq>a[peOT]TT)~cxponooatcc.
To neoc e~unT)pen~[ TT)AelToupy(a TT)~ouvoucloc curn neplAa\-lJ3a-
vel TT)CJTlJCJ'l,TT)V&iCJo~oTOU ntouc; CJTOYK6Ano Kal TT)V&KCJn&PIJ{nwCJ'l,
nou cxoxouaet. H ~ltyepOT] TWVuno~oxtwv enaq>tl~, nou J3p[OKOVTatOTO
rteoc, \-IeTaq>tpeTal oe napaou\-lna8T)TlKa KtvTpa TOU vomnlou \-IUeAOU
nou npoxcxouv TT)~laOTOAtl TWVal\-loq>opWv ayye[wv, TWVOT]payyw~wv
OW\-IClTWV TOU rtsouc (OTUOT]).To [~10 cnorexeouo urtopet va npoKAT)8e[
Kell ue l/JUXlKa epe8[o\-laTa, YlaT[ ro vernoto xsvrpc ennpea~ovTal ana
cvdrrspc KtvTpa TOU q>AOlOUTOUt;YKeq>aAou. H exonepucnoon, TtAO~,
etvoi eve vemolo aVTavaKAaOTIKo \-Itow TOU oU\-Ina8T)TlKOU,ue TO ortolo
oUOTtAAOVTaI 01 Ae[e~ \-IU'iKt~ [ve~ nou neplJ3aMouv TT)V eKq>opT)TlKtl
O~O TOU cnepucroc, onpwxvOVTac:; tTQl TO onepuc rtpoc ro t~w.
01 Xerroupvlec TOUyeVVT)TlKOUOUOTtl\-laTO~OTOVcvrpc e~apTwVTat,
oruoc cvcoepcue, an6 ro av~poy6va. Inou~al6Tepo av~poy6vo elver T)
TSOTOOT~pOVT). H eKKplTlKtl ~paOTT)pI6TT)TaTWV~la\-leowv KUTTapwv nou
nopcvouv ro cvepovovo eAtyxeTal an6 TT)VWXPlVOTp6no cpjiovn TT)~
a~evoOn6q>uOT]~. H TeOTOOTepOVT)us TT) oelpa TT)~ avaOTtAAel TT)V
tKKPlOT] TT)~ WXPlVOTponou OP\-l6vT)~ ueoto TOU YVWOTOU\-IT)xaVlO\-lOU
apVT)TlKtl~ ava~paOT]~.

10.2. To r&VVIlTIKO IUOTllpa TIl~ rUvaiKa~


To yeVVTlTlK6 OUOTT)\-IaTT)~ vuvclxcc onorexerrcr (sue. 10-4, 10-5)
ana TIC; ~uo Wo8IlK&C;, TOUC; ~uo waywyouc;, T'l IJIlTpa, TOY K6Ano Kat TO
al~oio. 01 AelToupy[e~ TOU OUOTtl\-laTO~ouvol/J[~ovTal:
a) OTT)Vnponcpcoxeun TOU opvcviouou Yla TT) YOVl\-lOnO[T)OT] Kat TT)V
KUT)OT]Kat
13) OTTlV[~la TT)VKUT)OT]Kat TOVTOKeTo.
To vevvrrnxo OUOTT)\-IaTT)C:;vuvotscc, 0' aVT[8eOT] ~e TOU cvrpc,
napouola~el q>ucnoAoYlKtc:; KUKAlKt~ \-IeTaJ3oAt~ nou elver neplo~IKtc:;
rtpoeroumotec Yla TT)YOVl\-lOno[T)OT]
Kal TT)VKUT)'OT].
~~~---jlt- op96
"""---'>i!<H~t---++ 1..Il'lTpa

:::c--'#'"i-@JIf--I--I- OT61JlOTOU
Tp6X'lAOU
T'l~ IJTJTpa~

K6ATlO~, "
IJUe~ TlUeAIKOU"''--;. ,
eMq>ou~ -:,~
oUPTJ9pa
IJlKp6 xeiA'l alCSoiou
lJey6Aa XeiA'l mCSoiou

ElK. 10:4. npOa910Tlia9la CSlaTOIJTJ


T'l~ IJIKPTJ~AeK6v'l~, revv'lTlK6 ouornuo T'l~
vuvctxcc.

10.2A. 01 n09HKEI - 0 n09HKIKOI KYKJ\OI

H W09T'JKT)elver usucroc oMvoe; rtou we; e~wKplvT'Je; rmpdvsi TO wapla


KOI We;ev~oKplvT'Je; TIe; YUVOlKe(ee; opuovec, TO olCJTpoy6va KOl TT)V npove-
CJT&p6vl'l. Koge W09T'JKT)txel OXT'JIlOOIlUy~OAOU KOI i3pioKeTOl aTO ro.OYLO
TO(XWIlO TT)e;lllKPT'Je;AeKOVT)e;(eLK. 10-6). -
ITO eoorrepuco TT)e; unopxouv 200.000 rteplrtou W09UAOKLO, Ko9tvo
crto TO ortolo nepltxel eve O~lO<l>opono(T)TO WOPLO (eLK. 10-7). An6 TT)V
T'Ji3T)KOI uerc, KOI KQge 28 rteplrrou Iltpee; (W09T)KLK6e; KUKAOe;) (eLK. 10-8),
eve W09UAOKLO cvcrrrucoerci KOL TO O~LO<l>oponO(T)TOWOPlO rtou nepie-
Xel e~eA(ooeTOl 0' eve WPlllO WOPLO uerc on6 llelWTlKte; ~LolptoeLe;. KOTO
TT) 1311 IltXPL 16T) rtsplrtou uepo TOU KUKAOU TO wo9uMKLO ono~eL (wo9u-
AaKloppl'I~ia) KOI eKi3oAAel;Ol TO WOPLO,rtou elver TO usvoxurspo urrcoo
TOU ov9pwmvou OWIlOTO~, opere KOL ue YUIlv6 IlOTI. MeTo TT)V W09UAO-
KlOpPT)~(o TO em9T)ALOKO urrcpo TOU W09UAOK(OU noAAonAOOlo~oVTOl

433
.orouto waywyou
/.
orn IltlTpa
"'-::~1Jf- KW~WVa<;waywyou
W08tlKT\
waywy6<;

N.,...---- CJuv~eCJllo<; IltlTpa<;


-JJ----- eV~OlltlTPIO
~---- IlUOlltlTPIO
~~+-IlT\Tpaia cprnpto

~::
.il npWKT6<;

ElK. 10-5. To ye:VVT\TlKOCJumTlIlQ TT\<;vuvctxoc.

o)(l1llaTl~OVTOe; TO wXp6 OWI,J(lTIO nou EKKP1VEl IlEyOAEe; nOOOTllTEe; rtpo-


YE01EpOVlle; .
H OAll 5la5lKaola Tile; napaywYrle; TWV waplwv ~P10KETQl KOTW ana
TOV tAEYXO TWV vovcoorporuvov Tile; a5EvoOnocpu011e;. H tKKPlOl1 TWV
0PIlOVWV aUTWV E1VQl nEpl05lKrl KQl a' aUTO OCPE1AETQl11m:pl05lKOTllTO
TOU w0811KlKOU KUKAOU. METO rc 50 XPovla rteplrtou, KQl acpou ueooxc-
~rlaEl uio Ev5l0llEOll rtsploooc EAanwlltvlle; napaywYrle; (KAlllaKTrlPlOe;),
11tKKPlOl1 TWV vovcoorpornvcov orcucrcei. 'ETOl 0' OAll rn 5l0pKEla Tile;
~Wrle; Tile; vuvctxcc rtcpcvovror Ilovoxa 400 wpllla wopla neplnou.

10.28. 01 namroi
Ot waywyol, svcc vio Ko8E w08rlKll, E1VQl Ol awAr']vEe; ueoc ana TOUe;
ortolouc y[VETQl 11 uerccooo TOU tocptou 0111 unrpo aAXo KQl 0 auvrl811e;
ronoc onou y[VETQl 11yovljJonoiqoq TOU cocptou.

434
rkJ8Ji1XTl KOl waywy6c,

/
Kwowvac, waywyou
us TOUC,KPOOOOUc,

W08UAOKIO ornv ernccveio TI1C,W08JiKI1C, erouio


va payer (wo8UAaKIOPPI1E;[a)
W08JiKI1

WPIIlO W08UAOKIO
uyp6

wXP6 OWIlOTlO
Il&TO TI')V
W08UAOKIOP-
PI')~[O

ElK. 10-7. 008JiKI1, Op[llavol1 TOU ecctou, wo8uAaKIOPPI1E;[a, vovuronotnon TOU


cocplou KQl eYKaTOmaOI1 TOU vovuionomaevroc ecplou OTO To[xwlla TI1C,IlJiTpac,.

435
orncaroc Ao(36c; un6<1>uOT)C;

LH WXPlVOTp6noc;
FSH 8UAOKlOTp6noc;

WpillOVOT)
OPMONE! W08UAOKiou
000HKH! ororpovovo

5 14 28

I I I ", I I I I

1 .. , 7 14 21 28
OlIlOPPOIKTl nOpOYWYlKn <l>60T) KKplTlKn <l>60T)
<1>6011

ElK. 10-8. 008TlKlK6C; KUKAOC;, IlTo(3oMc; TOU evoounrptou, iSp60T) TWV OPIlOVWV
TTlC; un6<1>uOT)C; KOI TTlC; Ulo8nKTlc;

436
o woywy6c:; (I't oaAmyyo) txel tva KPOOOWTOexpo, TOV KWl5WVO Tr'lC:;
oaAmyyoc:; nou cxouurtosr ornv enl<l>avela Tl1~ W08tiKl1~. To nxpo aUTO
ouM.alll3avel, usrc Tl1V w08UAaKlOppl1~la, TO waplO TO ortolo, ecv vovv-
llonoI118ei(1) lleTa<l>EpeTOlom unrpc. ~e ortoviec rteprrrroceic TO vovuio-
nomuevo waplO rtcpcuever OTOV waywyo KOl TOTe txoulle urc 1l0P<l>ti
&~WJ,lI'tTPIOC:; KUr'lOr'lC:;.Me TO lleyaAwlla OIlW~ TOUelll3puou ana~el 11oaA-
myya, ue anOTEAf:OIla ool3apti ecerrepucn muoppcvtc, nou elver noM
ernxtvouvn Yla Tl1 ~wti T.l1~svxuou (pti~l1 e~wlltiTpla~ KUl1OT')~).

10.2r. H MHTPA KAI 0 EMMHNOPPYIIAKOI KYKAOl:

H IltiTpa elver Eva KOIAo IlUWae~ opvovo nou 5ExeTOl, TpE<I>el,ava-


rrruocei KOl e~w8el xcrc TOVTOKeTOTO EIlI3PUO.Bploxercr cvcueoo OTl1V
oupoooxo KUOTl1KOl OTOooao, IlEOa OTl11l1KPtiAeKaVl1 orrou OTl1pl~eTOl
ue 51a<l>opou~ouvoeououc.
~Tl1V aTOKO vuvctxo txel oxtilla KOl IlEye80~ cvcrrocovupiouevou
axAa510u.
To KaTw runuo Tl1~ IltiTpa~, 0 TpaXr'lAOC:; Tr'lC:;J,lI'tTP0C:;, KaTaAtiyel OTOV
KOAno, 0 ortoloc KOl TOVnepll3aAAel. To TOlxwlla Tl1~ IltiTpa~ crtorexetrcr
e~wTeplKa ana rteprrovoio (n&pIJ,lI'tTPIO), ev51alleoa ana IlU"lKOXlTwva
naxou~ 2 eK. (J,lUOJ,lI'tTPIO), KOl soorrepucc ana I3Aevvoyovo (&Vl50J,lI'tTPIO)
nou neplExel em8tiALO KOl a5tve~.
H nepl051Kti napaywyti TWVOPIlOVWVTl1~ unccuonc KOl TWVw0811-
KWVouvencvercr KUKAlKE~lleTal3oM~ OTl1unrpo (nou 51apKouv 28 rtepl-
nou nuepec), KOl elver yVWOTE~onv &J,lJ,lr'lvOppuoloK6c:; KUKAoc:;. ~uYKeKpl-
IlEVa, 11 EKKPlOT')8uAaKloTponou OPIlOVl1~ ana Tl1V unocuon Exel oav
ouvsnsic Tl1V ropluovcn evoc VEOU w08uAaKlou, TO ortolo exxplvet
oioroovovc nou rtpoxcxouv TOV nOAAanAaOlaollo TWV xu'rrcpcov TOU
I3Aevvoyovou Tl1~ IltiTpa~. Tnv w08uAaKlOppl1~la cxoxouset VEO Kulla
0PIlOVWV, Tl1~ npoveorspovnc TOU WXpou oWJ,loTiou cum Tl1 <popa, nou '
ouvenovercr naxuvOT') TOU I3Aevvoyovou, nxouoic OlllaTwai) TOU KOl
nxounouo TOU ue a<l>80vo uvpo, nou sxxplvouv. 01 a5Eve~ TOU, vsucro
Bpsrrrucd ouorcrucc. 'ETOI 11unrpo elver sroum va un05exn~[ TO vovuio-
rtomusvo waplO. Av TO waplO 5e voviuonomast, 2 rteptrtou e13501la5e~
lleTa Tl1V w08uAaKloppl1~la, uio orroroun rrroon Tl1~ napaywyti~ rtpovs-
orepovnc npoKaAel urtortxcoto KOl rrreon TOU I3Aevvoyovou. Anol3aAAo-
VTOl ETOl, IlEOW TOU KOAnou, 50-150 K. ex. ana clue, I3Mvva KOl KUTTQ-
pIKa urtoxetuucrn, H tvap~l1 Tl1~ anol3oAti~ numc, nou stvcn YVWOTti

(1) H rtepioooc KQTO TT]V onoia unocst va yivet vovuronolnon Ka80pi~eTat nrto TO
xpovo ~wtie; Tu,)Vortepucrotrocpkov, TO xpovo ~wtie; TWV wapiwv Kat TOV aKpt!3ti xpovo
nou vtverci T] pti~T] TOU w08uAaKiou. 0 aKpt!3tie; Ka80ptOIlOe; TT]e; nepiooou aUTtie; 5ev
ctvoi eUKOAOe;Kat unopet va yivet uovo ue TT] OUIl!30UAti vrorpou, rta TOV i5to Myo slvrn
e~ioou avao<l>aAtie; 0 npovpouucmouoc aVTtOuAAT]4JT]e;us !3'OOT]TOV W08T]KtKO KUKAO.

437
aav tIJJ.II1V'1 pUO'1 I'J n&pioCSoC;, unOCSI1Awvel KOI rnv rtpdrrn uepo TOU
euunvoppuotcxou KUKAOU.
oelJlJl1VOppUOlaKOC; KUKAOc; CSevelver naVTO q>UOlOXOY1KOc;oe CSlap-
xem, puauo KTX. E~pea~eTQl ana KX1IJaT1Ktc; lJeTaJ3oMc;, ana ljJUX1Ktc;
CSlaTOpaxtc;, ornoc TO stress TWV e~eTaaeWV vie napaCSelYlJa, coaeverec
KTX. 01 e~wyeve[c; aUTO[ rtopcvovrsc ootveror on CSpOUVusoto TOU TO~OU
q>X010c; eYKeq>aXou-un08aAalJoc;-UnOq>U011.

01 IJETapoAtc; TOU EV~OIJIlTpiou OTOV EIJIJIlVOppUOlaK6 KUKAO


(sue. 10-8). .
a) AIIJOppoiKI'J 400'1: Ano rnv 111 IJtXPI 311-511 usoc. Anoonccn eruec-
VelaKrlC; anJ3aCSac; evoounrptou-curoppcvlc-euunvn PU011. Oq>etXeTal
OTl1v unortxcoto TOU WXpou ooucrtou.
(3) napaywYIKI'J 400'1: MtXPl TI1 1311-1611 uepo (w08uXaKloppl1~[a).
Flpooceurucn ovcvevvnon evCSOIJI1TP[Ou. Oq>e[XeTal OTl1v w[CSpaal1
TWV OIOTPOYovwv.
y) EKKPITIKI'J 400'1 (ncocuropootsn rl npoxunrucn): naXUV011 eVCSOIJI1-
Tp[OU ue aq>80vo yXUKOYOVO, aU~I1011 QllJaTw011c;. Oq>e[XeTQl OTl1v ern-
CSpa011Tl1c; rtpoveorepovnc.

10.2l\. 0 KOAnOI

o KoXnoc; etvm evoc lVOIJUWCSl1c;awAf]vac;, IJrlKOUc; 8-9 ex, rtsptrtou,


nou unoCStxeTQl TO neoc KOI TO onepuc KaTa TI1 cuvouotc. To OTOIJ10TOU
cpoooerci ana uto lJelJJ3pavl1, TOV nap8&VIK6 ulJtva, rtou txel IJOVO eve
TPtlIJa vio va rtepvoei 11tlJlJtlvl1 puon, KOTa rnv rtporrn ouvouoto, 0 nap-
8evlKoc; uusvcc ana~el KOI usvouv eXaX10Ta IJOVO unoxetuucro TOU.
YnaPXouv OIJWc; KOI ortcviec uopoec rtopaevucou uuevo IJtaw TWV
ortokov elver CSUVaTrll1 ouvouolc xwp[c; va ana~ouv.

10.2E. TO AIl\OIO

To QlCSo[o cnorexelrm ana TO ouvoxo TWV e~WTeplKWv vsvvnnxov


opvcvov Tl1c; vuvolxoc. ~laKp(vOUlJe a' aUTO Mo lJeyaXec; e~WTeP1Ka KOI
CSUO1J1Kptc; eaWTeP1Ka CSePlJanVec; muxtc;, rc lJ&yoAa Kal Ta IJIKPO X&fA'l
TOU alCSoiou aVT[OTOlxa, KOI TI1V KA&ITOpiCSa, OTunKO opvovo nou 1J01a~el
ue uucoovoccto rtsouc, ana TI1V oriole OIJWc; CSev rtepvnet 11 YUVQlKe(a
oupnspc. H oupnsoo eKJ3aXAel rtloco ana rnv KXelTop[CSa KOI unpoc ana
TO OT61J10 TOU KOXnou. rupw ana TO OTOIJ10 aUT6 urtdpxouv aCStv&c; 01
onO[OI KaTa TO vevernoio epe81aIJO exxplvouv uvpo nou CSleUKOAUvel rnv
eloooo TOU rtsouc.

438
10.2IT. KYHIH -TOI(ETOI

H KUTlOTl apxi~El ~E TTlV EYKaTOOTaOTl TaU voviuortomuevou ecotou


OTO (3AEVVOYOVO TTlC;~l'lTpac;. KaTO TTl OlopKEla TTlC;KUTlOTlC;,Tl unrpo (3a8-
~laia ~EyaAwvEl KOl avtpXETal usee OTTlV KOLAlO. 'ETOl KaTO TO TtAOC; TTlC;
KUTlOT]C;q>TOVEl OXE06v ~tXPl TO U4JOC; TTlC; ~l\POElOOUC; crtoqiuonc. Aiyo
rtpiv TOV TOKETO TO KEq>OAl TaU E~(3pUOU xa~TlAWVEl ueoo OTTlV nUEAO KOl
eroi Tl unroo KaTE(3a(VEl nOAl.
KOTO TO npWTO OTOOlO TOU TOKETOU Ol ouoncoerc TTlC; ~l'lTpac; (000(-
VEC; TOKETOU) mt~ouv TO KEq>OAl TaU E~(3puou ueoo OTOV TpOXTlAO. L' eve
OEUTEPO OTOOlO Ol ouonocerc TTlC; ~l'lTpac; y(VOVTOl OUXVOTEPEC;, EVW Tl
rtooeanon TaU E~(3pUOU ueoo OTOV KOAno (30Tl8ltTOl ana TTl cuortoon
rcov KOlAiaKWV TOlXoo~OTooV ~E TTl 8tATlOTl TTlC;vuvofxoc. 'ETOl TO VEOYVO
(3ya(VEl OTOV KOO~O. AKOAou8E( eve Tp(TO OTOOlO KaTO TO ortolo OUOTtA-
AETOl Tl unrpo KOl OTa~aTO Tl ciuoppcvtc. npOOOEUTlKO TtAOC; snovepxs-
TOl Tl unrpo OTO ~tYE80c; nou E(XE rtpiv TTlV KUTlOTl

To yeVVIlTlKO ouornuo XPIlOll.leUel yLQrnv cvcncpovevn. napoyel yeVVIlTlKO


Kunapa KOI vevvnnxsc opuovsc Kal napouOlo~el (Sla<!>opeTlKO6pyava orov
cvrpa KOI (Sla<!>opeTlKOmil vuvulxo. H 'AelToupyia TOU oucrrurcroc J3pioKeTOl
KOTWana TOVt'Aeyxo TWVOPI.lOVWVTile; urtoeuonc,
To vevvnnxo ouornuc TOU cvrpo nepLAal.lJ3ovel, l.leTa~U TWV OAAWV,TOUe;
6pxele;, 6nou ncpcvovrci ru onepl.laTO~wopla. Ta crtcpucrououprc I.la~i I.le ro
eKKpil.ll.laTa KOI o'A'AwvaMvwv, onwe; TOUrtpoorcrn, cnorsxouv TO onepuc.
To vevvnruco cuornuc Tile; yuvaiKae; napouOlo~el KUKAl~te; l.leTaJ3oMe; nou
(SlapKouv 28 uepsc. nepl'Aal.lJ3ovel, l.leTa~UTWVo'A'Awv,rtc w09l'lKee;, 6nou rtnpcvo-
VTOl ro wopla KOI TIl unroc, 11onoia <!>1'Ao~eveiKOI Tpt<!>el TO YOVll.l0nOlIlI.lEVO
WOPIOKOIcpvorepc TO EI.lJ3PUO. re rteplrrrcoon nou (Sevlvei voviuonolnon, n unrpo
anoJ3oA'Aeluepoc TOU J3'Aevvoy6vou Tile; (EI.lI.lIlVIl PUOl1).

EpwTrlOIC;

1. rtaTi TO 1.l1TOx6v(Splaoro onepl.laTO~WOplO slvm OUYKeVTpWI.lEVaoro novw


I.lEpOe;TT)<;-
oupoc:
2. Iloic rtopelo aKo'Aougei TO onepucrozroopro ana TOUe;OPxele; I.lEXPlTIlV EVWan
TOU us TO WOPlO; Mrtopelre vc.oseoretre Myoue; Yla TOUe;onolouc 11rtopelc
ourn slvm T600 l.laKpO;
3. An6 rtotsc oPI.l6Vee;.KO!nwe; eMyxeTOlIl 'AelToupyia TOUvsvvnrucou oucrnuc-
TOe;orov OVTpa Kl an6 noiec KOI nwe; mil vuvofxo:
4. nOlOe; KOInwe; MyeTOl 0 I.lllxaVlOl.l6e; aA'AIl'Aeni(SpaOl1e;
TWVOPI.l0VWVnou eKKpi-
vouv 01 yovo(See; KOI OPI.lOVWVtile; urtoouonc:

439