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Pluralul substantivelor in engleza

In general, in limba engleza, pluralul se formeaza adaugand terminatia "-s"


la forma de singular a substantivului.

Exemple: car-cars (masina-masini)


boy-boys (baiat-baieti)
hand-hands (mana-maini)

I. Plurarul substantivelor simple in limba engleza.

a. substantivele din engleza terminate in s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x primesc la


plural terminatia es.
Exemple:
bus-buses, class-classes, sandwich-sandwiches, match-matches, fox-
foxes

b. substantivele din engleza cu terminatia in consoana +y au la plural


terminatia ies
Exemple:
city-cities, lady-ladies

c. substantivele din engleza cu terminatia f, -fe au pluralul in ves


Exemple:
leaf-leaves, wife, wives

Observatie: Exista unele substantive in engleza terminate in f, care


primesc -s la plural
Exemple:
roof-roofs, chief-chiefs

d. substantivele din engleza care se termina la singular in "-o", au doua


variante pentru plural:
- terminatia -es: tomato-tomatoes, potato-potatoes
- terminatia -s: radio-radios, piano-pianos

e. unele substantive in engleza au plural neregulat, schimbandu-si


vocala din ultima silaba
Exemple:
man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, mouse-mice

f. exista substantive in engleza cu aceeasi forma si pentru singular, si


pentru plural
Exemple:
sheep-sheep, means-means, series-series, species-species
g. in cazul substantivelor imprumutate din limbile latina si greaca, la
plural se pastreaza terminatiile din limbile de provenienta.
Exemple:
medium-media, datum-data, crisis-crises, phenomenon-phenomena

h. exista substantive doar cu forma de plural


Exemple:
jeans, pyjamas, scissors, pants, glasses

II. Pluralul substantivelor compuse in limba engleza

In general, substantivele compuse formeaza pluralul prin trecerea ultimului


element component la aceasta forma.

Exemple: toothbrush - toothbrushes


alarm clock - alarm clocks
grown-up - grown-ups
Genul substantivelor in engleza

Genul substantivelor in limba engleza poate fi unul din


urmatoarele genuri: masculin, feminin, neutru si comun.
1. Genul masculin al substantivelor in
engleza desemneaza fiinte si animale de sex masculin.
Acestea se inlocuiesc cu pronumele personal he.
Exemple:
man (barbat), boy (baiat), gentleman (domn) horse (cal),
lion (leu), actor (actor)

2. Genul feminin al substantivelor in


engleza desemneaza fiinte si animale de sex feminine. Sunt
inlocuite cu pronumele personal she.
Exemple:
woman (femeie), girl (fata), lioness (leoaica), lady
(doamna), cat (pisica), actress (actrita)

3. Substantivele neutre in engleza sunt lucrurile,


plantele, animantele sau fiintele al caror sex nu este
cunoscut si pot fi inlocuite de pronumele it/they
Exemple:
house (casa), mouse (soarece), world (lumea)

4. Substantivele de genul comun in engleza sunt specifice limbii engleze,


avand aceeasi forma pentru ambele sexe:
Exemple:

child (copil, copila), cook (bucatar, bucatareasa), teacher (profesor,


profesoara)

Ca si in limba romana, unele substantive au forme diferite pentru genul


masculin si cel feminin:

Exemple:

father - mother (tata, mama), husband - wife (sot, sotie), boy - girl (baiat,
fata), brother - sister (frate, sora), son - daughter (fiu, fica), uncle - aunt
(unchi, matusa), dog - bitch (caine, catea), bull - cow (taur, vaca), king -
queen (rege, regina)
OBSERVATII:
a. Substantivele comune in limba engleza chiar daca
denumesc fiinte, sunt considerate de gen neutru.

Exemple: armata, politia

b. Obiectele care se remarca prin forta, marimea sau violenta lor sunt considerate
de gen masculin.

Exemple: Soare, timp, moarte, vara

c. Obiectele care se remarca prin frumusetea, gingasia si blandetea lor sunt


considerate substantive de gen feminin.

Exemple: luna, primavera, caritate, Pamantul.

Exercitii cu pluralul substantivelor.

Traduceti urmatoarele cuvinte din engleza in romana:

1. domnisoare

2. frunze

3. pisici

4. ipoteze

5. baze

6. femei

7. dinti

8. boi

9. barci
10. vulcani

11. autobuze

Royal Servant : African Stories


Imamu was the king of Kamera in Africa, a proud and stern man, feared by all
his subjects.

One day while sitting in his palace, surrounded by fawning courtiers and
watched by a multitude of people who had come to see him, he was suddenly
overcome by a sense of grandeur and loudly declared that he was master of the
world and that all men were his servants.

You are mistaken," said a frail voice. All men are servants of one another."

A deathly silence followed the remark. The blood froze in the veins of the people
assembled there. Then the king exploded in anger.

Who said that!" he demanded, rising from the royal stool. Who dares suggest
that I am a servant!!"

I do," said a voice in the crowd, and the people parted to reveal a white-haired
old man, leaning heavily on a stout stick.

Who are you?" asked the king.

I am Boubakar," said the man. We have no water in our village. I have come to
ask for a well to be dug there."

So you are a beggar!" roared the king, striding down to where the man stood.
Yet you have the temerity to call me a servant!"
We all serve one another," said Boubakar, showing no fear, and I will prove it to
you before nightfall."

Do that," said the monarch. If you can do that I will have not one but three
wells dug in your village. But if you fail, youll lose your head!"

In our village," said the old man, when we accept a challenge, we touch the
persons feet. Let me touch your feet. Hold my stick."

The king took the stick and the old man bent down and touched the monarchs
feet.

Now you may give it back to me," he said, straightening up. The king gave him
back his stick.

Do you want any more proof?" asked Boubakar.

Proof?" asked the king, bewildered.

You held my stick when I asked you to and gave it back to me when I asked
you for it," said the old man. As I said, all good men are servants of one
another."

The king was so pleased with the Royal Servant Boubakars wit and daring that
he not only had wells dug in his village but also retained him as an adviser.

Answer the following questions


1. What was the name of the king? But the servant?
2. Based on the text, can you describe the king of Kamera?
3. What was Boubakar reason for coming to the court of the King?
Jack's parents ________ and so I am sure they would love to go to the exhibition.

like Picasso's paintings very much

much Picasso's paintings like

much like Picasso's paintings

like very much Picasso's paintings

Did you have any problems ________ our house?

find

to find
finding

for finding

You should read this novel it's been ________ recommended by all the critics.

highly

fully

deeply

truly

Fiona is very angry ________ her boss's decision to sack several members of staff.

against

about

for

by

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Courses available:
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Two hours from (1)
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Writing a (2)

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CALLERS DETAILS
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SCRIPT

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Choose the correct verb. Mind the noun (singular or plural).
( is/are)
1. Ladies and gentlemen. Here the news.

2. Where my jeans.

3. Further information available in the office.

4. The stairs over there, Sir.

5. The furniture in our classroom uncomfortable.

6. The USA a very nice country.

7. Your sunglasses on the table.

8. Homework boring.

9. The scissors on the table mine.

10. Physics not easy.

Finish the sentences with the singular or plural form of the


nouns.
1. he cat is sitting on my . (bed/beds)

2. There are five on my desk.(pencil/pecils)

3. I have two .(sister/sisters)

4. They are riding their .(bike/bikes)

5. We have a .(dog/dogs)

6. How many do you have in your bag?(book/books)

7. My mother has a new .(computer/computers)

8. There are three windows in the .(room/rooms)

9. Susan has four .(poster/posters)

10. There is one on the floor.(pen/pens)