You are on page 1of 8


Edu 543
Reading Notes for Access to Academics
You can work with colleagues as long as you have a deep understanding of the content in each chapter. Use the Key
Issues Chart at the beginning of each chapter to guide your thinking. Read and tab/underline key points in each chapter.
Add descriptions, page numbers, or lists as part of your note keeping. This is the foundation for your study for teaching
English as a second language and is very important that you come to a deep understanding of this material.

Take notes on these key points and add missing points based on the Key Issues Chart at the
beginning of each chapter. Your notes must be sufficient for you to attain and retain the basic
information in each chapter and to effectively lead a class group discussion when asked to do so.
You will be defining, summarizing and/or describing the various key components in each chapter.
Ch. 1: Language of school- distinct multifaceted type of English primarily used in school settings.
Language Social Language- used everyday, casual interactions. (grocery store, on the phone with family, etc)
of School 1. Everyday-I left my lunch on the bus
2. Intercultural- when is your family carving pumpkins
3. Instructional- You may now take out your books

Academic Language- vocab, grammar/syntax, discourse related to a content.

1. vocab- individual words or short phrases
2. grammar- syntax, sentences, paragraph structure
3. discourse- cohesion in text and across genres

linguistic component- involves cultural knowledge about ways of the world, ways of acting, thinking, interacting

BICS- BASIC INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS- the development of conversational language


necessary for school success.
Ch. 2: Language Proficiency multidimensional with linguistic, cognitive and sociocultural factors. Requires
background knowledge, critical thinking and metacognitive skills and cultural nuances.
Teachers are the second person in childs life providing vocabulary.

Language Domains
Requires 4 language domains: listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Receptive coming in received by listening; productive going out.
Understanding the demands of each domain helps teachers assess and plan instruction for each child.

Limited English Proficient (LEP)

English language learner (ELL)
English Language Development (ELD)
English as a second language (ESL)
Culturally and linguistically Diverse (CLD)

Acquisition Cycle

Can Do descriptors
Describe what EL studends can do at different developmental levels of language proficiency. P.29
CELDT CA English Language Development Test\

Elements of Communicative Competence

Role of native languages

Rate of learning is variable.
Use EL Continuum to decide level of EL development

Ch. 3 Techniques for collecting general student info:

1. Survey
2. Conversation
3. Wall write (sign name answering questions)
4. Moving questions (physically move to the answer)
5. Dialogue journals

Activities for assessing language needs:

1. Story retelling- describe what they understood
2. Role playing- act it out
3. Oral reporting- report on topic
4. Brainstorming- generate ideas in a group
5. Playing games- games involving reception and production

Guidelines for understanding students strengths and needs:

1. Model the techniques: model journal writing, etc.
2. Try not to assume: you never really know why until you ask
3. Embrace variety: different methods, strategies, etc.

Ch. 4 Explain- all teachers are language teachers

Each content area has jargon, technical vocab and a genre that is specific to a particular content area. ESL
teachers may not be best equipped to teach these lessons since that may not be their specialty. In this
respect, a teacher teaching class will be the best person to communicate meaning of a particular subject.
They can teach with the support of the ESL teacher.

Objective writing

Statements of an attainable, quantifiable lesson outcomes that guide the activities and assessment of the
lesson. Three parts students will be able to, concrete measureable outcomes and exact content to be
learned and to what degree it should be measured.

Measurable Verbs: Link to Common Core State Standards

These verbs can be used to stat the measureable outcome.

Abstract, activate, adjust, analyze, arrange, assemble, assess, associate, contrast, conduct, construct,
criticize, critique, define, dramatize, employ, introduce recall, recognize, record, relate, reorganize, skim,
solve, state, summarize, survey.

Direct Instruction Overview

Content Objectives
Support the development of facts ideas and process.

Language Objectives
Support the development of language related to the content and process.

Determine the social and academic language needs based on content objectives.

ELD Adaptations

Combining the content and language objectives can aid the ELL in grasping the content specific language

Language Needs
Vocab, language functions, grammar, discourse, language learning strategies.
Receptive comes faster than performance language.

Teaching the Language of the Discipline: Vocabulary lesson model introduced

Derive from the content to be taught.

Consider the strengths and needs of students
Present measurable, achievable outcomes.

General Assessment information across disciplines

Teaching to Language Objectives Guidelines: List and summarize

1 Integrate language and content

teacher to integrate content and language. Makes the lesson more efficient by teaching two objectives at
same time and effective helping students see language and content are related.

2 Use Pedagogically Sound Techniques

Language instruction should be authentic, comes from contexts students actually work
Language is taught both explicitly and implicitly directly and indirectly exposed
Multimodal exposed through different modes graphics, reading and listening.
Relevant Not all students need the instruction. Teacher can choose who lesson should aim.
Based on Social interaction

3 Break down the language students to understand the past, must understand past time tenses.
Instructional approach can go from whole to part to part to whole.

Ch. 5 -all students bring experience and knowledge to school.

-need to connect content and pedagogy to students lives, it makes learning meaningful for students

Understanding Connections
1. Explicitly linking to students background experience
2. Explicitly linking past learning and new concepts

Linking prior knowledge

1. Personal connection- clear connection to students lives outside of school
2. Academic/content connection- connection to previous school learning

Pedagogical/instruction connection- strategies and choices that the teacher makes to address the students needs,
interests, and backgrounds directly.
-preteaching vocab, provide students ways to express themselves

Specific focus-Thanksgiving
General- Feast
Most common- Celebration

Making academic connections

-noting the connection to previous lessons
Ex: history of the state, history of the community, Personal history

Building Background Knowledge

1. Preteach and reinforce vocabulary if it is essential to understanding the next component
2. Cue-do-Review-compare the new concept with something they already know
3. Field trips or hands on experience- if they havent felt trees take a walk outside for the lesson
4. Visitors
5. Visuals- pictures, videos, and other realia

Integrating Connections- once lesson objectives are set, the next step is planning instruction is to create a lesson
introduction or anticipatory set
-What topic might interest the student the most?
-What have they already learned that relates to this topic?
-What additional info do they need before the lesson starts?

Guidelines for making connections

1. Be deliberate
2. Help students transfer connections back to their lives
-connections should be ongoing throughout the lesson
3. Consider culture

Ch. 6 Student Engagement: Explain engagement and tasks

Engagement Does not mean fun but worth doing because it is inherently interesting or meaningful to
students in some way. Includes student involvement and ownership. Persistence in and absorption with
reading, writing, speaking, listening, and thinking.

Tasks Task process and task product Process what the students do and how they do it. Like working in
groups, language they use and what tools they use. Product is the outcome of the process.

Pedagogical Connections

Teachers should think about the backgrounds and interests of their students when designing a task.
Use culturally relevant resources such as minority or first language lit, film and artificats. Pedagogical
connections provide students with both access and reasons to engage.

List/explain elements of task process and product

Task process

Instructional groupings how many students work together and with whom they work.

Modes Method like listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing and representing. Graphics, video, art,
music, storytelling to incorporate student backgrounds.

task structure can be open, partially structured or highly structured. Determines how students get
information and how they express themselves.

time and pacing teachers need to consider how much time different students need while also considering
how to provide enough scaffolding that students can complete their tasks.

Scaffolding modeling, eliciting, probing, restating, clarifying, questioning and praising as appropriate.

resources/texts must be at appropriate levels. Help students meet the objectives and can engage students
in doing so.

teacher/student roles involving students in process. If students involved in discussion they are more
engaged and achieve more.

procedural tools Tools used like books, pencils, visitors, software.

Task product Audience and Mode.

List /explain guidelines for task for connecting instruction to students lives

1 Give students a reason to listen

ask studnets to take notes for a test. Teacher can ask a question in lecture. Teacher can assign a group
task. Giving a task will give them a reason to listen.

2 Do not do what students can do teachers who give students choices and allow them more autonomy in
making instructional decisions will find students more involved in their learning.

Ch. 7 How do you assess before, during and after a lesson?

Before use a component checklist. The checklist must have components and guidelines for the lessons so
if something is missing or does not meet guidelines, adjustments can be made.

During teachers use observations and discussions with students to determine how the lesson is going.

After Teachers can review the lesson and make note of any observations made with specific students or
the whole class. Teachers can have others review the lessons. Students can participate in this so the lesson
can be better suited for their needs.

Assessing student process and product: Explain

Student process and product are an evaluation of what the students are absorbing through the lessons.
There are traditional assessments and alternative assessments. The traditional assessments have a
disadvantage in that it has the idea that all students should be assessed it the same manner. This can be
problematic especially to the ESL student. Involvement in creating the classroom assessments can give the
students the opportunity to engage in their own evaluations as well as getting the opportunity to understand
course objectives. Homework assignments can assess a students understanding of lesson content.

Developing assessments to measure content standard achievement: Explain

Assessment must be transparent and teachers should reconsider grades in the traditional sense. Teachers
need to help students see the relationships among the lesson parts, connections, objectives, tasks and
assessment. This can leave components open for discussion with students to further their understanding.

Teachers can use the results of multiple assessments to determine how well ELLs understand key concepts.
Teachers can score content knowledge separately from language proficiency.

Creating multiple opportunities for students to learn content: How and Why?

The reason is because when children are learning the new language, they may have the concept but they are
not sure how to express it and traditional assessments may not measure this properly.

They can do this through observation, oral or written interviews, demonstrations, role plays, portfolios and

Ch. 8 Language in science tends to:

Describe relationships of taxonomy, comparison, cause and effect, hypothesis and interpretation.
Describe procedures explicitly via the use of language functions observe, measure, calculate,
predict, graph, align and connect.
Connect abstract ideas illustrated by various media.
Use generalized verbs in the present tense to describe phenomena, how something occurs and why.
Appear to be highly objective.
Use many new and big words with new meanings, many of which are nominalizations
condensation, refraction, induction, resonance, reaction, radiation, fusion, erosion and other action

Participation in meaningful science activities enhances the process of learning scientific language.

Language Competencies:

- Science can be grouped into 3 categories: general (used across content areas), specialized
(science) and technical (specific topic in science)
- Effective way of learning is to highlight the different meanings of words.

Grammatical Features
- Some grammatical features are challenging to ells who lack familiarity with usage. Passive voice
is particularly difficult.
- Grammatical metaphor, syntactic ambiguity, complex noun phrases, cause and effect, time order,
compare and contrast, formulas and symbols.
- The action is far removed from the subject so reader has to wait a long time for the point.
- Verbs functions, activates, and expelling are redundant.
- Science books are hard to discern main and supporting ideas.
Strategies for Leaning and Talking Science
- Scientific inquiry allows ELDs to explore aspects of the world around them. Teachers can assist
by having examples of sentence starters.
- Compare and Contrast forces students to evaluate synthesize how two things are alike.
- Cause and Effect a way of teaching students learn cause and effect text structure is teaching
signal words that show cause and effect relationships. Ex. Accordingly, as a result of, because,
consequently, due to, for, for this reason, if.then.
Teaching Greek and Latin Roots
Brainstorming the origin and meaning of technical worlds might unveil potential connections among the meaning
of a word and the students language background.

Ch. 9 ELD: Language of the disciplines: Explain key points in each discipline
Adaptations in disciplines
Integration of PE and content Areas
Language of the discipline applied to VAPA and PE

Language of Mathematics

Other countries, math emphasize calculations, not communication math thinking, many students have never
seen or worked with manipulatives, some countries-periods used instead of commas, metric system, does not
always follow print concepts.
Other countries teach: algorithms, manipulation mathematical expressions and solving recipe-type
problems. In US: calculations, algorithms and teaching rules without reasons.

Specialized Language of Math

Math uses set of meaningful symbols to express ideas using conventional English syntax.
ELLs w prior school experiences in their countries may find that familiar symbols, expressions and methods
differ from US classrooms. Especially difficult with world problems.

Classified in 3 categories: general academic, specialized academic and technical academic
Challenge: different words to refer to the same math operation.
Teaching students to identify key words in problems and displaying them prominently will assist students.
ELL students need to be made aware when their language can be imprecise and when it must be precise.

Grammatical Features
Logical connectors: consequently, however signal a logical relationship between parts of a text, but in math
they signal similarity or contradiction.

Teaching Strategies
Use a variety of instructional formats discussing a graphic organizer, working with a partner, using
manipulatives, use visuals, point to connect terms with a visual representation.
Introduce new vocabulary in a throughtful manner vocab best taught as part of the lesson. Recommended
to limit new vocab words to less than 12 per lesson.
Identify and highlight key words w/ multiple meanings can have difficulty with words that have multiple
meanings like table.
Modify speech enunciate clearly and slowly, pause between sentences/concepts, use genstures and
visuals to enhance meaning, avoid using idioms and slang, use key words frequently, help of teaching
Use preview and review provides a lesson introduction via handout, outline of lesson and list of key words.
After lesson, review the preview.
Search for cognates: validating students languages and cultures cognates related in origin and occur most
often in English, Greek, Latin and German.
Use cooperative learning and promote opportunities for interaction.
Teach organizational and study skills demonstrate how to read a math textbook, point out key sections and
resources in textbook, teach students to organize notebooks and binders and record homework assignments,
teach study and test-taking skills, teach note-taking skills. ELL-copying notes is an effective way to begin
learning writing convos.
Create an atmosphere for risk taking and making mistakes encourage to ask questions and take risks.
Ch. 10 ELD: Language of the disciplines: Explain key points in each discipline
- Vocabulary daily opportunities to practice using newly acquired vocab; target group of words
Ex. root words; word or concept maps

- Grammatical Features sentences, subject/verb agreement, verb tense, verb phrases, plurals, auxiliaries,
articles, word form, fixed expressions, and idioms. Direct instruction

- Reading expand the efforts placed in literacy in the early grades to include acquiring literacy skills that
can serve youth. Direct, explicit comprehension instruction. Diverse texts. Ongoing formative
assessment. Text-based collaborative learning ex. group students heterogeneously to provide language
models and scaffolds for learners

- Writing direct instruction of the writing process including drafting, revision, editing, workshop,
conference, audience, purpose, or genre.
Ex. Collaborative writing- provide opportunities for students to practice oral language to hear and
rehearse models of language they can transfer to writing

Integration of PE and content Areas

Students will benefit in PE from the learning that takes place in language arts. They will be able to better
understand the conversation, reading, writing, listening, etc. in physical education and be better involved.
Language of the discipline applied to VAPA

The VAPA goes hand-in-hand with language arts instruction. Students that understand the disciplines of
language arts will better be able to develop in their VAPA content through the different domains.

Effective listeners, readers, writers, etc. will be able to better apply themselves in physical education because
they will have an easier time understanding teacher instruction. Then, they will get the most benefits out of
physical education
Ch. 11 ELD: Language of the disciplines: Explain key points in each discipline
Adaptations in disciplines
Integration of PE and content Areas
Teachers need to integrate all content areas so students can understand the connection and are more likely to
comprehend the content. For example, teachers can integrate different types of dances (PE) and cultures (social
sciences), and see how these cultural practices changed over time.

Language of the discipline applied to VAPA

Students learn about historical events in the context of visual and performing arts. This allows students to
understand where the language came from and how it applies to the VAPA today. They can use their language
ability to describe and discuss different works of art.

Students in PE develop the language of the discipline while practicing and discussing different locomotor
movements, instruction, rules of sports, etc. For example, students can learn new vocabulary as the teacher
describes the game of football or other sports.
Ch. 12 Every lesson must be accessible to all students.
Creating a new lesson
1. Find and Create the Learning Targets
(to meet content objectives, students need a variety of language skills)
-use SWBAT(Students will be able to.)

Step 2: Make Initial Connections

-the teacher needs to make connections to the students in the anticipatory set so they know why they need to
listen and how they can relate to the lesson
Step 3: Create Engaging Tasks
-Teacher continues to use information she has collected from the students to plan the lesson

Step 4: Assessment
-the teacher can ask questions to get instant feedback if the students are understanding the lesson
-can also make a rubric to assess the student

Adapting Lessons
-It is NOT always necessary or desirable to start making a lesson plan from scratch, use tools around you

Adaption 1:
You might just need to change the layout of a lesson plan, but the content could be reused from a source online

Adaption 2:
Sometimes a lesson plan needs to be adjusted to fit ELL students in the classroom

Adaption 3:
Some people think that ELL students have easier time with arts and PE, but those content areas have jargon too.
Make sure these lesson plans are just as clear for ELL students as your core contents.

GUIDELINES for Creating and Adapting Lessons

Guideline 1: Do NOT reinvent the wheel
-Find standard based lessons from a variety of resources and adapt them for specific content.
Guideline 2: SHARE
-Post lesson successes and failures to the web or share with colleagues in other ways.

Reflection: No lesson is going to perfect and a few lessons work for all students in the class. However, if you
adapt your lesson plans to the unique students in your class then most likely there will be more successes than
failures. Also, dont worry about trying to be the most creative teacher and always think outside the box. Being a
first time teacher is scary and overwhelming. It is ok to use sources online and other teachers lesson as long as
you adapt it to fit you and your classroom.