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Mental Representations and Perkins

Peter St. Onge

Post University

Dr. Mary Mills


Mental Which How instruction can be Using teaching strategies

Representations Perkins Principal changed to motivate students

Logic: Logic is a Playing the Whole Playing the whole game When we look at logic and
way for a learner to game means that we is like the application of how to motivate students to
use reasoning to need to cover all logic in the classroom. In learn. It is important to look
backup an areas as they pertain higher education, many at visual representations to
argument. It is to a specific course students use logic in assist them in the learning
important for that is taught and it many different subject process. An appropriate
someone to use can also help students areas. Logic assists instructional approach to
logic to back up in other subject areas. students in in reasoning promote relational and
their arguments This is important to back up the problem- logical understanding of
because it will give because skills are solving skills. Also in learning arithmetic
the argument more built in one subject higher education, it will operation on integers is
validity. Logic is but it may assist in assist the students in using visual representation
important in the other subject areas. backing up to emphasize specific
application of This can be shown in argumentation. When a relations and promote
higher education the Transfer of student has, proper skills cognitive functions, such as
because it allows Learning Theory. related to critical knowledge construction
students to know Transfer learning is thinking it allows the (Hsin I. Yung, 2015 p.70).
how to back up the improvement of student to back up their This shows that students
their argumentation learning in a new task logic in a positive learn much better visually.
with proper through the transfer manner. In higher When students understand
reasoning. of knowledge from a education, it is important and learn the materials it
related task that has for a professor to allow will assist in the motivation
already been learned the students to use logic of the learner.
(Lisa Torrey, n.d. to back up their
p.1). argumentation with
proper skills that allows
for a positive learning
environment that assists
in playing the whole

Mental Which How instruction can Using teaching strategies to

Representations Perkins Principal be changed motivate students

Rules: In the Work on the Hard Parts Working on the hard When a teacher sets
world, there are this means that as we parts accompanies established rules, it assists the
many rules that progress in our rules in many facets of students in knowing exactly
come in many education that we need education. For what is going to happen in the
different forms. to continue to work and instance, rules are classroom. It is important for a
Rules are grow at what we learn meant to keep order students growth and
important in by continually and will help us work motivation for learning to have
society and in practicing until we on basic skills and a feeling that they belong and
education. They perfect what we need to help develop these are a part of the group. The
assist us in learn. Educators must skills for long term teacher plays one of the most
maintaining order think about how use. When rules are vital roles in making the
and structure. repetition assists the not followed, it will student feel welcome and this
Rules are students. It is much like make the students find in turn will assist in the
important in a game where a out in a negative motivation of the student in the
education because professional athlete manner that they are class. Each class is a group
they help must continually not working to assist engaged in learning, growing
maintain integrity practice to perfect their the educational up in social direction and
and order in a craft. For students to process of working on building a sense of identity and
classroom. Many achieve mastery within the hard parts. It is common purpose. It is
of the rules in a domain, whether important that as the important, therefore, that the
education and narrowly or broadly educators that we are teacher seeks out ways in
society are conceived, they need to assisting the students which the class, as individuals
governed by develop a set of key in implementing and and as a group, can experience
many different component skills, following the rules to a positive learning and social
policies and practice them to the assist in the growth of environment (Rogers, 2011
practices. point where they can be their education. We as p.191). The formation of rules
combined fluently and educators can talk with everyones input will
used with a fair degree about rules in the assist in the class remaining a
automaticity, and know classroom and as a cohesive unit of learning.
when and where to group we need to
apply them collaborate and decide
appropriately how rules should be
(Ambrose, 2010 p.95). set up as a class.

Mental Which How instruction can Using teaching strategies to

Representations Perkins Principal be changed motivate students

Concepts are the Make the Game Worth Make the game worth When we look at teaching
basic unit of Playing means. When playing coincides with strategies that will assist
communication. education is made to concepts because when students learning process as it
When we start be, interesting and we are starting our pertains to concepts we must
learning we have engaging it will assist basic knowledge the look at the instructional design
very minimalistic the student to be understanding of theory. It is absolutely
skills when it motivated. When concepts is basic. necessary to show examples of
comes to educators make the Furthermore, as we the concept which represents
concepts. As we game, worth playing continue to progress in the entire range (McKenzie,
progress with our they are making sure our educational journey 1980 p.666). This is important
education we that the students they we are expanding upon to show the students examples
build upon the are teaching is getting concepts and with this of the instruction that the
basic skills that the most out of the our knowledge is teachers/professors are
we learned in the lessons being taught. growing. It is important teaching in their classes. But
primary schools The educator must that the educators are the instructor must also use
and as we make it worth playing making the game worth examples that contrast to help
progress through by assisting in the playing while they are establish the memorization of
secondary education process by expanding on these the concepts. It is also
education we creating new ways to concepts. This will logically necessary to provide
improve and add learn. This doesnt allow the students carefully selected nonexamples
to the basic necessarily mean knowledge to grow. It to ensure that pupils realize
concepts. As we handbooks full of is at this point that that all critical attributes are
enter into higher practical applications, concepts enhance the necessary, ant to prevent
education we are but it certainly calls overall game and this overgeneralization
now refining the for knowledge that makes the game worth (McKenzie, 1980 p.666). The
skills and relates widely and playing. instructional design model
preparing readily to the many assist students the best in
ourselves for the important dimensions creating a link between what
workforce. of life (Perkins, 2009 they are learning and are able
p.57). When and to better relate them to
eductor makes concepts that will be needed
learning fun and now and in the future.
engaging it assists in
the learning processes
of all of the students.

Mental Which How instruction can be Using teaching strategies

Representations Perkins Principal changed to motivate students

Analogies/Cases When Perkins states Uncovering the hidden The use of teacher directed
are the how Uncover the Hidden game has many analogies is one of the best
objects are related Game, he is stating that similarities of analogies methods to using analogies.
through systems learners understand and cases because as This will assist students in
and they are much of what is being students and educational making relations between
tested through a taught prior to entering professionals it is two objects to promote
system of the concepts. But it is important for us to work higher rationale of thought.
comparison and important for learners to on critical thinking. We A teacher might introduce
contrast. As know that they are just need to look at all the analogies by giving students
humans, we use uncovering some layers that goes with complete content-area
analogies to solve aspects of learning and analogies and cases. examples, such as those in
problems and it is it is up to them to dive What is meant by this Illustration 1.1. The teacher
needed for critical deeper into the subjects for us to think critically might ask students to
thinking skills. to uncover the hidden we need to look at all explain how the relationship
(Stanford aspects of learning. areas and research on between items A and B is
Encyclopedia Of However, getting really the topics. This will then similar to that between
Analogies) good at the games open the layers and items C and D. For
underneath the surface allow us to look at the example, students might be
also, layers, dimensions, hidden game. After we asked to explain how the
and performance peel back the layers it relationship between venom
(Perkins, 2009 p.135). will allow us to draw and snake is similar to the
This shows the conclusions from it and relationship between quill
importantce for the it will help us paint a and porcupine (Robert J.
learners to dive into better picture of what Marzano, 2000 p.22).
learning more deeply the hidden games of Analogies uncover hidden
and it is important for education is and how it links to allow the student to
the educators to make will assist us in looking make associations to objects
sure that the student is deep down into the and allows the student to
peeling back the layers layers of education. quickly make associations
to make sure that they with data. When we make
are gaining the most analogies we can uncover
from their education. hiddden links between two

Mental Which How instruction can Using teaching strategies to

Representations Perkins Principal be changed motivate students

Images are mental Play Out of Town Playing out of town is The area of visuacy is a
representations Perkins is talking about much like images as growing area that will assist
that can be used how it can be difficult Perkins gave the students in the learning
in education in for a student to think example of a baseball process. It is important for an
place of written outside the box. It is team having an educator to create their
words. Images hard for students at advantage at their curriculum using visual means.
can be more times to understand how home field because of visuacy as a democratic visual
helpful to some a related learning event the sight lines of their education concept be
students as is given in a different field it allows them to recognized as a core skill area
written words can form and it is now hard have a distinct and that a visual education
be much more for the students to grasp advantage over the curriculum separated from the
difficult to the knowledge that it is team coming to visit. performing arts and
remember. the same curriculum that (Perkins, 2009). To incorporating visuacy as a
Images help was given before but fully play the game primary goal be developed for
students learn now it is just given in a out of town it is each of the compulsory years
much more different format. One of important that as of schooling (Davis, 2008
effectively the theories that can be instructors that we p.213). It is important that as
through visual looked at as assisting in can assist student instructors that they
means of us playing out of town is through visual means. incorpotate the visual means so
learning. Many the Variation theory It is also important that it can assist all stuents in
students are Variation theory that we allow the learning process. If a
visual learners explains that individuals students the time to student becomes comforatble
and the use of see, understand, and find comfort by with learning from visual
imagery will help experience the world visual means and means it will allow them the
these students from their own with this it will allow freedom of learning from other
retain perspectives. Therefore, them to become more means rather than written
information. students may not learn comfortable with words.
effectively if they are objects that they may
not aware of things in not have been at one
exactly the same way as time.
the teacher (Cheng,
2016 p.285).

In EDU 510 I learned some very important information about how cognitive science

assists us in education. I did have a general knowledge of cognitive science before I started

studying in this course. I did most of my undergraduate work on Health and Human Services and

we used cognitive science a great deal while studying. I really did not have a knowledge of truly

how it works in education. I have found many interesting topics that links the cognitive process

to how we learn. For example, in this current project we are linking mental representations to

Perkins theory this will assist us greatly as we are progressing through our masters program. As

students this will assist us in areas that we can see if an instructor is not following Perkins theory

of teaching. It will also prepare us as leaders in the field to have a greater knowledge to what

assists students in the learning process. It is important that no matter what sector of education

that we work in we are not missing how to make the students learning process whole and an

inviting learning process. I believe that with the information that I previously learned about in

undergraduate studies coupled with the knowledge in this course the it will help me be a better

well rounded student and professional in the field of education.

I still feel as though I still need to put some of the processes that and the newly gained

knowledge into my advising sessions. I know it will take some time to incorporate these new

processes into my daily work environment. I feel that it will take me some time to fully adopt all

the practices that are needed to make sure that I use the cognitive theories that we have learned

about in the proper manner so that I can assist the students properly. I say this because at times

where we are busy at work I may forget to use some of the skills needed to enhance the overall

learning that goes into an academic advising session. In my current role as an Academic Advisor

I need to find the areas of cognitive science that can apply to help students and this may take

some time as I have just learned the concepts. I need to find the areas that I feel that my advising

sessions are lacking using the cognitive science and then I must find a way to apply the learning

principals that studying the Perkins theory will now allow me to have a better grasp on


For me in the future I feel that if I incorporate Perkins theories and mental representations

into my academic advising sessions that I will make sure that I am preparing students to be well

informed and prepared for their educational journey. I feel that if I can better prepare my students

then they will have more academic success. If I am active in collaborating with my colleagues

about how important the Perkins theory in education is important and how it can assist us as

academic advisors and how using his principals, we can better prepare our students for success in

their educational journey. After this class I feel that I am better prepared to see the areas that are

lacking and to make the proper adjustments to what needs to be done for the students that we

serve and teach. This class has made me feel much more confident in the actions of the cognitive

science and how important playing the game is to education not only as a student but as an

educational professional.


Ambrose, S. A. (2010). How Learning Works : Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart

Teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Cheng, E. W. (2016). Learning through the Variation Theory: A Case Study. International

Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 284-292.

Davis, D. (2008). the national review of visual education. australian government department of


Hsin I. Yung, F. P. (2015). effects of computer-based visual representation on mathmatics

learning and cognitive load. journal of educational technology & society, 70-77.

Lisa Torrey, J. S. (n.d.). Transfer Learning. 1-22. Retrieved from


McKenzie, G. R. (1980). improving instruction through instructional design. educational

leadership, 664-668.

Perkins, D. (2009). Making learning whole: how seven principals of teaching can transform

education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Robert J. Marzano, B. B. (2000). what works in classroom instruction. Aurora, CO: Mid-

continent Research for Education and Learning.


Rogers, B. (2011). you know the fair rule: strategies for positive and effective behaviour

management and dicipline in schools. Victoria : Acer .

Stanford Encyclopedia Of Analogies. (n.d.). Retrieved from