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Viscerosomatic Reflexes

System/Organ Sympathetic Parasympathetic

Head and neck T1-T5
Phrenic nerve C3-C5 right
Myocardium T1-T5 left Occiput, C1, C2
Coronary artery C3-C5 (sympathetic?)
Cardiac rate/rhythm T1-T2 C2 left (vagus)
Trigeminal: final common pathway,
Upper respiratory tract T1-T5
temporalis muscles, occiput, C1, C2
Lung T1-T4
Bronchomotor reflex T1-T3 ipsilateral
Asthma reflex T2 left
Occiput, C1, C2
Bronchial mucosa reflex T2-T3 ipsilateral
Lung parenchyma reflex T3-T4 ipsilateral
Parietal pleura T1-T12
Esophagus T3-T6 right
T5-T10 left [cardiac T4 right, fundus T5
left, pylorus T6 left]
Duodenum T6-T8 right Occiput, C1, C2
Small intestine T8-T10 bilateral or right
Appendix and Cecum T9-T12 right
Ascending colon T11-L1 right
Descending / Rectum L1-L3 left S2-S4
Pancreas T5-T9 bilateral or right
Occiput, C1, C2
Liver/Gallbladder T5-T10 right
Spleen T7-T9 left
Urinary Tract
Kidney T9-L1 ipsilateral Occiput, C1, C2
Proximal ureter Occiput, C1, C2
Distal ureter T11-L3 ipsilateral S2-S4
Bladder S2-S4
Urethra T11-L2 ipsilateral
Genital Tract
External Genitalia T12 bilateral
Fallopian tubes
Seminal Vescicles T10-L2 ipsilateral S2-S4
T0-T11 ipsilateral
Uterus T9-L2 bilateral S2-S4
Pituitary C1-C2 (midcervical, upper thoracic) cranial
Thyroid T2 (upper thoracic flexion hump) C2 (vagus)
Adrenal glands T8-T10 ipsilateral

Test Weapon Technologies 2011 COMBANK Medical, Inc. 2012

Viscerosomatic Reflexes
Nelson KE, Glonek T, eds. Viscerosomatic and Somatovisceral Reflexes. In: Somatic Dysfunction in Osteopathic Family Medicine. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott,
Williams & Wilkins; 2007: 33-35.
Ward R, eds. Foundations for Osteopathic Medicine. 2nd Ed. Philadelphia, PA; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003: 508.
Savarese R, Capobianco J, Cox J. OMT Review: A Comprehensive Review in Osteopathic Medicine. 3rd Ed. OMT Publishing; 2003: 104.

Nye Z, Lavelle J, Mayer S, et al. First Aid for the COMLEX: An Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Review. 2nd Ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2009: 151-3.

Test Weapon Technologies 2011 COMBANK Medical, Inc. 2012