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statistik

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DESCRIPTIVE

STATISTICS

Sample

a set of data drawn from the

population.

Population Potentially large, but less than the

the group of all items of interest to a population

statistics practitioner.

frequently very large; sometimes

infinite.

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Statistic

Parameter

SCENARIO

The faculty senate at a major university with 35,000 students is

considering changing the current grading policy from A, B, C, D, F to a

plus and minus systemthat is, B +, B, B - rather than just B. The

faculty is interested in the students opinions concerning this change

and will sample 500 students.

a. What is the population of interest?

b. What is the sample?

c. How could the sample be selected?

d. What type of questions should be included in the questionnaire?

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DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Which Group is Smarter?

102 115 127 162

128 109 131 103

131 89 96 111

98 106 80 109

140 119 93 87

93 97 120 105

110 109

Each individual may be different. If you try to understand a group by remembering the

qualities of each member, you become overwhelmed and fail to understand the group.

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Which group is smarter now?

110.54 110.23

question.

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DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Types of descriptive statistics:

Organize Data

Tables

Graphs

Summarize Data

Central Tendency

Variation

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Organize Data

Tables

Frequency Distribution

Relative Frequency Distribution

Graphs

Bar Chart

Histogram

Stem and Leaf Plot

Frequency Polygon

Pie Chart

Scatter Plot

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FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION

DISTRIBUTION

Relative Frequency Distribution of IQ for Two Classes

80 89 3 12.5 12.5

90 99 5 20.8 33.3

100 109 6 25.0 58.3

110 119 3 12.5 70.8

120 129 3 12.5 83.3

130 139 2 8.3 91.6

140 149 1 4.2 95.8

150 and over 1 4.2 100.0

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HISTOGRAM

BAR GRAPH

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Stem and Leaf Plot of IQ for Two Classes

Stem Leaf

8 279

9 3678

10 235679

11 159

12 078

13 1

14 0

15

16 2

SPSS OUTPUT OF A

FREQUENCY POLYGON

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PIE CHART

SCATTER PLOT

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DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Summarizing Data:

Mean

Median

Mode

Range

Interquartile Range

Variance

Standard Deviation

MEAN

Most commonly called the average.

total number of cases.

n

Y-bar = Yi

n

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MEAN

Whats up with all those symbols, man?

Y-bar = (Y1 + Y2 + . . . + Yn)

n

Y-bar = Y

n

i

Y = your variable (could be X or Q or or even Glitter)

-bar or line over symbol of your variable = mean of that

variable

Y1 = first cases value on variable Y

. . . = ellipsis = continue sequentially

Yn = last cases value on variable Y

n = number of cases in your sample

= Greek letter sigma = sum or add up what follows

= a typical case or each case in the sample (1 through n)

i

MEAN

Class A--IQs of 13 Students Class B--IQs of 13 Students

102 115 127 162

128 109 131 103

131 89 96 111

98 106 80 109

140 119 93 87

93 97 120 105

110 109

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MEAN

The mean is the balance point.

Each persons score is like 1 pound placed at the scores position

on a see-saw. Below, on a 200 cm see-saw, the mean equals 110,

the place on the see-saw where a fulcrum finds balance:

1 lb at 1 lb at 1 lb at

93 cm 106 cm 110 cm 131 cm

17 21

4

units units units

0

below above

below units

17 + 4 on the left = 21 on the right

MEAN

values unlike the rest)

2. Outliers can make the mean a bad measure of central tendency or

common experience

Income in Malaysia.

Syed Al-Bukhary

All of Us

Mean Outlier

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MEDIAN

order; the point that divides a distribution into two equal

halves.

which 50% of the cases are above and 50% below it.

MEDIAN

Class A--IQs of 13 Students

89

93

97

98

102

106

Median = 109

109

110 (six cases above, six below)

115

119

128

131

140

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MEDIAN

If the first student were to drop out of Class A, there would

be a new median:

89

93

97

98

102

106

109

110 Median = 109.5

115 109 + 110 = 219/2 = 109.5

119 (six cases above, six below)

128

131

140

MEDIAN

a better measure of central tendency, better

describing the typical person than the mean

when data are skewed.

outlier

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MEDIAN

2. If the recorded values for a variable form a symmetric

distribution, the median and mean are identical.

3. In skewed data, the mean lies further toward the skew

than the median.

Symmetric Skewed

Mean

Median

Median Mean

MEDIAN

or measurements; the point that divides a distribution into

two equal halves.

50% of the cases are above and 50% below.

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MODE

The most common data point is called the mode.

80 87 89 93 93 96 97 98 102 103 105 106 109 109 109 110 111 115

119 120

127 128 131 131 140 162

A la mode!!

MODE

It may mot be at the center

of a distribution.

right is bimodal (even

statistics can be open-

minded)

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MODE

1. It may give you the most likely experience rather than

the typical or central experience.

2. In symmetric distributions, the mean, median, and mode

are the same.

3. In skewed data, the mean and median lie further

toward the skew than the mode.

Symmetric Skewed

Mean

Median

Mode Mode Median Mean

If you want to know which score occurred most often, then the

mode is the choice.

The median is a better choice to serve as the representative score

because it takes into account all the data in the distribution. However,

it treats all scores alike; differences in magnitude are not taken into

account.

When the mean is calculated, the value of each number is taken into

account.

When the scores in your distribution tend to cluster in one of

the tails (i.e., a cluster of high or low scores) the distribution is

skewed (i.e., a nonsymmetrical distribution). In these instances,

the median may be more appropriate.

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DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Summarizing Data:

Mean

Median

Mode

Range

Interquartile Range

Variance

Standard Deviation

RANGE

The spread, or the distance, between the lowest and

highest values of a variable.

value from its highest value.

Class A--IQs of 13 Students Class B--IQs of 13 Students

102 115 127 162

128 109 131 103

131 89 96 111

98 106 80 109

140 119 93 87

93 97 120 105

110 109

Class A Range = 140 - 89 = 51 Class B Range = 162 - 80 = 82

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INTERQUARTILE RANGE

A quartile is the value that marks one of the divisions that breaks a series of values into

four equal parts.

25th percentile is a quartile that divides the first of cases from the latter .

75th percentile is a quartile that divides the first of cases from the latter .

The interquartile range is the distance or range between the 25th percentile and the 75th

percentile. Below, what is the interquartile range?

25%

of of

cases cases

An observation is a potential outlier if it falls more than

1.5 x IQR below the first quartile or more than 1.5 x

IQR above the third quartile.

Q1-1.5 X IQR *any value less than this number is

considered a low outlier

Cutoff value for HIGH OUTLIERS

Q3+1.5 X IQR *any value greater than this number is

considered a high outlier

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VARIANCE

A measure of the spread of the recorded values on a variable. A

measure of dispersion.

The larger the variance, the further the individual cases are from the

mean.

Mean

The smaller the variance, the closer the individual scores are to the

mean.

Mean

VARIANCE

Variance is a number that at first seems complex to calculate.

Yi Y-bar

If the average persons car costs $20,000,

my deviation from the mean is - $14,000!

6K - 20K = -14K

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VARIANCE

The deviation of 102 from 110.54 is? Deviation of 115?

102 115

128 109

131 89

98 106

140 119

93 97

110

Y-barA = 110.54

VARIANCE

The deviation of 102 from 110.54 is? Deviation of 115 from 110.54?

102 - 110.54 = -8.54 115 - 110.54 = 4.46

102 115

128 109

131 89

98 106

140 119

93 97

110

Y-barA = 110.54

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VARIANCE

We want to add these to get total deviations, but if we

were to do that, we would get zero every time. Why?

We need a way to eliminate negative signs.

A Deviation Squared: (Yi Y-bar)2

A deviation squared for 102 is: of 115:

(102 - 110.54)2 = (-8.54)2 = 72.93 (115 - 110.54)2 = (4.46)2 = 19.89

VARIANCE

If you were to add all the squared deviations together, youd get what we

call the Sum of Squares.

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VARIANCE

Class A--IQs of 13

Class A, sum of squares: Students

(102 110.54)2 + (115 110.54)2 + 102 115

(126 110.54)2 + (109 110.54)2 + 128 109

(131 110.54)2 + (89 110.54)2 + 131 89

(98 110.54)2 + (106 110.54)2 +

98 106

(140 110.54)2 + (119 110.54)2 +

(93 110.54)2 + (97 110.54)2 + 140 119

(110 110.54) = SS = 2825.39 93 97

110

Y-bar = 110.54

VARIANCE

The last step

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VARIANCE

For Class A,Variance = 2825.39 / n - 1

= 2825.39 / 12 = 235.45

STANDARD DEVIATION

To convert variance into something of meaning, lets create

standard deviation.

deviation of the observations from the mean.

n-1

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STANDARD DEVIATION

For Class A, the standard deviation is:

235.45 = 15.34

110.54 is 15.34 IQ points.

Review:

1. Deviation

2. Deviation squared

3. Sum of squares

4.Variance

5. Standard deviation

STANDARD DEVIATION

1. Larger s.d. = greater amounts of variation around the mean.

For example:

19 25 31 13 25 37

Y = 25 Y = 25

s.d. = 3 s.d. = 6

2. s.d. = 0 only when all values are the same (only when you have a constant and

not a variable)

3. If you were to rescale a variable, the s.d. would change by the same

magnitudeif we changed units above so the mean equaled 250, the s.d. on the

left would be 30, and on the right, 60

4. Like the mean, the s.d. will be inflated by an outlier case value.

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STANDARD DEVIATION

Note about computational formulas:

Your book provides a useful short-cut formula for computing the variance

and standard deviation.

This is intended to make hand calculations as quick as possible.

They obscure the conceptual understanding of our statistics.

SPSS and the computer are computational formulas now.

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SYMBOLS IN STATISTICS

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Summarizing Data:

Mean

Median

Mode

Range

Interquartile Range

Variance

Standard Deviation

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BOX-PLOTS

A way to graphically portray almost all the

descriptive statistics at once is the box-plot.

BOX-PLOTS

IQR = 27; There

is no outlier.

162

123.5

M=110.5 106.5

96.5

82

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SHAPE OF DISTRIBUTIONS

Shape of distribution is measured by

Skewness & Kurtosis

When the scores in your distribution tend to cluster in one of the tails

(i.e., a cluster of high scores or a cluster of low scores) the

distribution is skewed.

Positively Skewed Distributions occur when there is cluster of lower

scores, the smaller, more spread-out tail will be on the right (i.e., fewer

high scores).

Negatively Skewed Distributions occur when there is a cluster of higher

scores, the smaller more spread out tail will be on the left (i.e., fewer

small scores).

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to describe the different shapes these

distributions can assume.

Unimodal Distributions have one

prominent category or high point.

prominent categories or high

points.

several prominent categories or

high points.

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Now you are qualified use descriptive statistics!

Questions?

29

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