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BasicsofGNSS

TokyoUniversityofMarineScienceandTechnology
NobuakiKubo

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Contents
CoordinatesSystem
C di t S t 1st period
SatellitePosition

MeasurementsErrors
CalculatingPositionandDOP 2nd period

ImprovedPosition

BasicsofGNSSreceiver
3rd period
FutureGNSS

2
Lecture
Anycommentsandquestionsarewelcome.
Simpleproblem(15min.)isassignedforeach
Simple problem (15min.) is assigned for each
period. Aftersummerschool,pleasesubmitit
to the staff by the end of this school
tothestaffbytheendofthisschool.
Mylectureismainlyforsmoothtransitionto
SDRandRTKLIBinthefollowinglectures.
GPS ismainlyusedinthislecture.
is mainly used in this lecture

3
References
Mypresentationismainlybasedon
My presentation is mainly based on
CompendiumofGPS
http://www.ublox.com/

GlobalPositioningSystem:Signals,
Measurements,andPerformance
Second Edition (2006)
SecondEdition(2006)
ByPratap Misra andPerEnge
http://www.gpstextbook.com/
4
Contents
CoordinatesSystem
C di t S t 1st period
SatellitePosition

MeasurementsErrors
CalculatingPositionandDOP 2nd period

ImprovedPosition

BasicsofGNSSreceiver
3rd period
FutureGNSS

5
Coordinate systems
Coordinatesystems
Asignificantproblemtoovercomewhenusinga
i ifi bl h i
GNSSsystemisthefactthatthereareagreat
numberofdifferingcoordinatesystems
b f diff i di t t
worldwide.
Asaresult,thepositionmeasuredandcalculated
doesnotalwayscorrespondwithonessupposed
position.
ii
InordertounderstandhowGNSSsystems
function,itisnecessarytoexaminesomeofthe
basicsofgeodesy.
6
What is Geoid ?
WhatisGeoid?

TheGeoidrepresentsthetrueshapeoftheearth;
definedasthesurface,where themeansealevel
iszero.However,aGeoidisadifficultshapeto
manipulatewhenconductingcalculations.
7
WorldGeoid

http://principles.ou.edu/earth_figure_gravity/geoid/

Color Scale
Scale, Upper (Red) : 85
85.4
4 meters and higher;
Color Scale, Lower (Magenta) :-107.0 meters and lower
8
Geoid HeightinJapan
Height in Japan
TUMSAT
36.41m
Narita
35.24m
Mt.Fuji
42.50 m
42.50m
Osaka
37.45 m
37.45m

http://surveycalc.gsi.go.jp/sokuchi/geoid/calcgh/calcframe.html
9
What is Ellipsoid ?
WhatisEllipsoid?

long axis and short axis

Asimpler,moredefinableshapeisneededwhen
carryingoutdailysurveyingoperations.Sucha
d l h
substitutesurfaceisknownasanellipsoid.A
spheroidisobtainedliketheabovefigure.
h id i b i d lik h b fi
10
Datum map reference system
Datum,mapreferencesystem

Eachcountryhasdevelopeditsown
customizednongeocentricellipsoidasa
g p
referencesurfaceforcarryingout
surveyingoperations.

Anellipsoidiswellsuitedfordescribing
the positional coordinates of a point
thepositionalcoordinatesofapoint
indegreesoflongitudeandlatitude.

EllipisodalHeight=UndulationN+GeoidHeight
11
WorldwidereferenceellipsoidWGS84
p
(WorldGeodeticSystem1984)

TheWGS84coordinate
system is geocentrically
systemisgeocentrically
positionedwithrespectto
thecenteroftheEarth.Such
a system is called ECEF
asystemiscalledECEF
(EarthCentered,Earth
Fixed)
TheWGS84isathree
dimensional,righthanded,
Cartesiancoordinatesystem
withitsoriginalcoordinate
pointatthecenterofmass
of an ellipsoid.
ofanellipsoid.

12
Ellipsoidal Coordinates
EllipsoidalCoordinates

Ellipsoidalcoordinates(,,h),ratherthanCartesiancoordinates(X,Y,Z)
aregenerallyusedforfurtherprocessing. correspondstolatitude,
correspondstolongitude andhtotheEllipsoidalheight.

13
EllipsoidalHeight(GPS)
=Geoid Height+Orthometric Height
Geoid =36m(MSL)
24m GPSHeight=60m

36m

WGS84Ellipsoid
14
Tokyo Datum
TokyoDatum
JapanhasusedTokyoDatumbasedonVessel
p yy j
ellipsoidalformanyyears.Wehavejust
startedWGS84since2002.
Orthometric Height isstillbasedontheheight
is still based on the height
abovemeansealevelinTokyo.
Inhorizontalplane,therewasabout400m
deviation in Tokyo only due to the difference
deviationinTokyoonlyduetothedifference
betweenWGS84 andTokyoDatum.

15
How about GLO GAL BeiDou ?
HowaboutGLO,GAL,BeiDou
Eachnavigationsystemusesthedifferent
y
coordinatessystem,butthecoordinatesfor
GalileoandBeiDou arequitesimilarto
WGS84.
WGS84
GLONASSadoptsPZ90.02.Weneedto
considerthedifferenceifwecombineGPSand
h ff f b
GLONASS.

16
Contents
CoordinatesSystem
C di t S t 1st period
SatellitePosition

MeasurementsErrors
CalculatingPositionandDOP 2nd period

ImprovedPosition

BasicsofGNSSreceiver
3rd period
FutureGNSS

17
Satellite Position Calculation
SatellitePositionCalculation
Calculatingsatellitepositionismainlybased
ontwomethods.
Oneisbasedonalmanac data. Theanother
one is based on ephemeris data.
oneisbasedonephemeris data
AfterKeplers lawintroduction,brief
explanationaboutalmanacandephemerisare
introduced here.
introducedhere.

18
Keplerian Elements
KeplerianElements
Epochtime
Semimajor
Semi majorAxiskm
Axiskm
Eccentricity
Inclinationradian
RAAN (Right Ascension of Ascending Node)
RAAN(RightAscensionofAscendingNode)
radian
ArgumentofPerigeeradian

MeanAnomalyradian
Mean Anomalyradian
19
Keplerss firstlaw
Kepler first law

TheApogeeexpressesthe
furthest point of an
furthestpointofan
ellipticalorbitfromthe
canter of the Earth
canteroftheEarth.
ThePerigee istheclosest
pointoftheorbitalellipse
f h b l ll
totheEarth.
2
b
Semi major axis and Eccentricity
Semi-major e 1 2
a 20
Keplersssecondlaw
Kepler second law

Thesecondlawstates
that:Alinejoininga
planetandthesunsweeps
outequalareasduring
equalintervalsoftime
Forsatellitesthismeans
leftfigure.

21
Keplerss thirdlaw
Kepler third law
Thislawstatesthat
thesquaresofthe
orbitalperiodsof
planetsaredirectly
proportionaltothe
cubesofthesemi
majoraxisofthe
orbits.

22
Satellite orbits
Satelliteorbits

Thespatialorientation:
Orbital inclination eccentricity
Orbitalinclination,eccentricity,
length,altitude

Theparametersofmotion:
Orbitalperiod

TheEphemeris ofasatelliteisamathematicaldescriptionofits
orbit.Thehighprecisionsatelliteorbitaldataisnecessaryfora
receivertocalculatethesatellitesexactpositioninspaceatany
giventime.
i ti
OrbitaldatawithreducedexactnessisreferredtoasanAlmanac.23
OrbitalPlane
Inclinationtheanglebetweenorbitalplaneand
equatorial plane
equatorialplane
RightAscensionofAscendingNodethegeocentric
R.A.ofasatelliteasitintersectstheEarth's
A f lli i i h h'
equatorialplanetravelingnorthward(ascending)
Perigee

Orbital plane
RAAN
Equatorial plane

Inclination
24
Direction of a semi major axis
Directionofasemimajoraxis
A
ArgumentofPerigeetheanglebetweenthe
t fP i th l b t th
perigeeandtheorbit'sRAAN

Perigee

Orbital plane

RAAN Argument of perigee


Equatorial plane

Inclination
25
Satellite position on orbital plane
Satellitepositiononorbitalplane

Meananomalyrelatingpositionandtime
forabodymovinginaorbitalplane

Perigee

Mean anomaly
Orbital plane
RAAN Argument of perigee
Equatorial plane

Inclination
26
Almanac

The current Almanac Data can be viewed over


the
h internet.
i
Accuracy
Almanac:1001000m1week
Ephemeris:12m2hours 27
Ephemeris
Almanac +Perturbation
16coefficients
16 coefficients
Goodthingisthatephemerisparametersare
similarforeachGNSS.
i il f h GNSS
Calculatingsatellitepositionbasedonseveral
g p
equationsshowninICD isverysimple.
Accuracy:12m,2hourslifeforGPS
A 1 2 2h lif f GPS

28
Perturbation
P
Perturbation
t b ti isthecomplexmotionofa
i th l ti f
massivebodysubjecttoforcesotherthanthe
gravitationalattractionofasingleother
massivebody.y

1.Non
1 Nonspherical
sphericalgravitationalpotentialofearth
gravitational potential of earth
2.Resistancefromatmosphere
3.Attractionfromsunandmoon
4 Solar radiation pressure
4.Solarradiationpressure
29
Image
g ofusingEphemeris
g p
6:00
Space Segment 4:00

2:00
Parameters changes every 2 hours with IODE.

0:00
Broadcast

Ephemeris uplink (prepared several days ago)

User segment
Control Station

30
RealEphemerisErrors
p
(basedonpreciseorbitdata)

P
Preciseorbitdata(1cm)alsocanbeobtainedover
i bi d ( 1 ) l b b i d
theinternet(sp3file).

31
How about GLO GAL BeiDou ?
HowaboutGLO,GAL,BeiDou
GLONASS adoptsthedifferentmethodto
p
estimatesatelliteposition.
Galileo andBeiDou broadcastsameephemeris
parameters as GPS/QZS You can use same
parametersasGPS/QZS.Youcanusesame
sourcecodeforGalileoandBeiDou.
Theonlythingshouldbecarefulissystem
time and GEO (geostationaryearthorbit)for
timeandGEO (geostationary earth orbit) for
BeiDou.

32
Elevation Azimuth
Elevation,Azimuth

The Elevation describes the angle of a satellite rela


tive to the horizontal plane.
p
The Azimuth is the angle between the satellite and
true North.

33
Problem 1
Problem1
Calculatethedistanceinmetertothe
hundredth betweenthefollowingtwo
g
surveyedpositions.
#1
35.6662474
139.7923025
#2
35.6585190
139.7453830 34
Contents
CoordinatesSystem
C di t S t 1st period
SatellitePosition

MeasurementsandErrors
CalculatingPositionandDOP 2nd period

ImprovedPosition

BasicsofGNSSreceiver
3rd period
FutureGNSS

35
Whataremeasurementsand
errors?
MeasurementModels
Control Segment Errors
ControlSegmentErrors
SignalPropagationModelingErrors
MeasurementErrors
g
UserRangeError
EmpiricalData
Combining Code and Carrier Measurement
CombiningCodeandCarrierMeasurement

36
Whywelearnmeasurementsand
errors?
Needlesstosay,position,velocityandtime
are important for users
areimportantforusers.
Theabilitytoimprovefinalperformanceof
theaboveoutputsstronglydependsonhow
p y g
canweestimateorpossiblymitigate
measurementserrors.
Measurementserrorsstronglydependson
M t t l d d
theenvironmentandreceiverperformance.
37
Code Phase Measurement
CodePhaseMeasurement
3 clocks have to be considered.

3 clocks are not synchronized.


S t llit clock
Satellite l k error can b
be corrected
t d using
i navigation
i ti message.
User clock error can be estimated as an unknown parameter in the positioning.
38
Real Pseudorange Measurements
RealPseudorangeMeasurements

The variations of pseudo-range are mainly due to the satellite motion


and earth rotation
rotation. Several gaps in all satellites are due to receiver
clock offset. Receiver usually offset their own clock because the
receiver clock error continues to increase. 39
Carrier Phase Measurement
CarrierPhaseMeasurement
(t ) u (t ) s (t ) N
(t ) f N
r (t , t ) Clock error and measurements
N errors are assumed zero.

u (t) carrier phase in the receiver Carrier phase measurement is
accumulated Doppler frequency.
s (t ) carrier pahse in the satellite Be careful about f. In the
receiver, carrier frequency is
transit time basically converted to IF.

N integer ambiguity

f, Doppler frequency and wavelength

r(t, t ) geometrica l range


40
Real Carrier Phase Measurements
RealCarrierPhaseMeasurements
IF=4
IF 4.123968MHz
123968MHz

equency
Frequenccy (IF)

oppler Fre
Do
Time (ms) Time (ms)

e (time difff)
Phase

5mm
Carrier P

Carrrier Phase

Time (ms) Time (ms) 41


Noise and Bias
NoiseandBias
Measurement errors are often categorized
g as noise
and bias.

#1 Errors in the parameter values broadcast by a


satellite in its navigation message for which the
Control Segment is responsible
#2 Uncertainties associated with the propagation
medium which affect the travel time of the signal
from a satellite to the receiver
#3 Receiver noise which affects the precision of a
measurement and interference from signals
measurement,
reflected from surfaces in the vicinity of the antenna

42
Control Segment Errors
ControlSegmentErrors

43
Satellite clock and ephemeris errors
Satelliteclockandephemeriserrors
Ephemeris/ Accuracy Real-time Update Sample
Clock
Navigation 2m/7ns 2hour

IGS1 0.1m/5ns 4/day 15 min

IGS2 0.05m/0.2ns 3 hours 4/day 15 min

IGS Fast 0.05m/0.1ns 17 hours 1/day


y 15/5 min
IGS Final 0.05m/0.1ns 13 days 1/week

F
From IGS
Signalrefraction,Wavepropagation,
g p p g
andDispersivemedia
Refraction of GPS signals in the earths
atmosphere results in changes to both
speed and direction.

Increase in path length due to bending


of the signal ray is generally insignificant.

The effect
Th ff t off the
th change
h in
i speedd off
propagation, however, can result in
pseudo-range measurement error of
several meters or more
more.

45
Ionospheric delay

The ionosphere is a region of ionized gases.


The state of the ionosphere
p is determined
primarily by the intensity of the solar activity.

The speed of propagation of radio signals in


The ionosphere depends on the number of
free electron in the path of a signal, defined as
the total electron content (TEC): the number
off electrons in a tube off 1 m2 cross section
extending from the receiver to the satellite.

The increased path length is accounted for in terms of a multiplier


of the zenith delay. The multiplier is called Obliquity Factor.
46
Ionospheric delayestimation
delay estimation

Ionospheric
p delayy ((L1)) estimates obtained from code and carrier p
phase
measurements at both L1 and L2. The Code-based estimates are noisy.
the carrier-based estimates are precise and ambiguous.

Be careful the satellite side bias in the code measurements when you use
these estimates for standalone positioning. 47
Broadcast Model
BroadcastModel

The Klobuchar ionospheric


p model. Parameter values A2 and A4 are
selected by the Control Segment to reflect the prevailing ionospheric
conditions and are broadcast by the satellites.

For Galileo, NeQuick model will be used to estimate ionospheric errors.


48
AccuracyevaluationofKlobuchar
modelbasedestimates

49
by Takasu-san
Tropospheric delay
The GPS signals are also reflected by the lower part of
the earths atmosphere composed of gases and water
vapor.
p

The speed of propagation of GPS signals in the


troposphere is lower than that in free space and
and,
therefore, the apparent range to a satellite appears
longer, typically by 2.5-25 m depending on the satellite
elevation
l ti angle.l

Water vapor density caries with the local weather and


can change quickly. Fortunately, most of the
tropospheric delay is due to the more predictable dry
atmosphere.
atmosphere
50
Tropospheric
p p models
Saastamoinen model was derived using gas laws and
simplifying
i lif i assumptions
ti regarding
di changes
h iin
temperature and water vapor with altitude.

Hopfield model is based on a relationship between dry


refractivity at height h to that at the surface. It was derived
empirically on the basis of extensive measurements
measurements.

Obliquity factor is defined same as


ionosphere, but the value is
different because the height is
different.

30 degrees : 2
g
15 degrees :4
10 degrees : 6
5 degrees : 10
MeasurementErrors
ReceiverNoiseandMultipath

The code and carrier measurements are affected by


random measurement noise, called receiver noise. It
depends on the signal strength.
strength
code : deci-meter level
carrier : mm level

52
MeasurementErrors
ReceiverNoiseandMultipath

Multipath refers to the phenomenon of a signal


reaching an antenna via two or more paths.
The range measurement error due to multipath
depends on the strength of the reflected signal and
the delay between direct and reflected signals.
signals
Mitigation of multipath errors : Antenna or Receiver

53
MultipathMitigationTechnique
(Receiverinside)

54
Measurementerrorfortwotypes
ofreceiver

You can change Elevation angle to signal strength


55
Typicalpseudorange
measurementerrorsforL1receiver
ErrorSource RMSRangeError

Satelliteclockandephemeris 3m(SISURE)
parameters
Atmosphericpropagationmodeling 5m
Receivernoiseandmultipath
i i d li h 1m
User rangeerror(URE)
range error (URE) 6m
6m
URE : User Range Error
SIS : Signal-in-Space
56
Measurement Error : Empirical Data
MeasurementError:EmpiricalData

1997 : SA was activated.

57
Whywediscussaboutmeasurement
errors?
Back to bias and noise errors discussion, noise errors of
pseudo-range
p g can be mitigated
g to some degree
g usingg
carrier phase smoothing technique.

On the other hand, you have to estimate bias errors as


accurate as possible by yourself to improve positioning
performance.
performance

All kinds of improved techniques are essentially same in


terms of estimating or eliminating bias or noise errors.

58
CombiningCodeandCarrier
Measurements
Carrier phase measurement can be used to smooth pseudo-range
Measurement.

The code based measurements are noisy. The carrier-based


estimates are precise but ambiguous,
ambiguous and the plot starts
arbitrarily at zero value.
59
Carriersmoothedpseudorangeswith
differentfilterlengths

60
Deactivationtheartificialdistortion
ofthesignal

On September
O S t b 18, 18 2007,
2007 the
th US
US DoD
D D reported
t d that
th t with
ith the
th next t generation
ti of
f GPS
GPS
satellites (GPS III), satellite navigation signals can no longer be artificially distorted
61
GPS Measurement Errors
GPSMeasurementErrors
Source Potentialerror size Errormitigation
g using
g
singlepointpositioning
Satelliteclockmodel 2m(rms)

Satelliteephemeris 2m (rms)alongtheLOS
prediction
p
Ionospheric delay 210m(zenith) 15 m(singlefreq.)
Obliquityfactor3at5 within1m(dualfreq.)
Tropospheric delay 2.32.5m (zenith) 0.11 m
Obliquityfactor10at5
Multipath (open sky)
Multipath(opensky) Code:0.5
Code : 0 511m
m
Carrier:0.51cm
ReceiverNoise Code:0.250.5m(rms)
Carrier:12mm (rms)
62
Contents
CoordinatesSystem
C di t S t 1st period
SatellitePosition

MeasurementsErrors
CalculatingPositionandDOP 2nd period

ImprovedPosition

BasicsofGNSSreceiver
3rd period
FutureGNSS

63
Positioning Performance of GNSS
PositioningPerformanceofGNSS
PositioningPerformance=
f
Measurements Accuracy DOP
MeasurementsAccuracy

Horizontal accuracy =
Measurements accuracy HDOP

64
What is DOP ?
dilution of precision : DOP

If the measurements errors are zero, the calculated


user position is true.
However,
H if th
the measurementst include
i l d some errors, th
the
accuracy depends on measurement errors as well as
the geometry of satellites (=DOP).
(=DOP)

S1 S1

S2
S2
65
All Satellites VS East Visible Satellites
AllSatellitesVS.EastVisibleSatellites
N

Onlyeastside
satellitesareused
inthedarkcolor
plots.
W E (average=4.6)
Allsatellitesare
usedinthelight
colorplots.
(average=8.7)

S
66
SkyViewsintwodifferentplaces
y p
sameconstellationbutdifferentperformance

Propagation Type
GreenDirect
YellowDiffraction
Kaiyodai
y Red Masking Ginza
+Reflection
67
TemporalMeasurementsErrors
Temporal Measurements Errors
andDOPVariation(suburban)

HDOP
10 10

Ionosphere Multipath
Errrors (m)

HDOP
Troposphere
Satellite derived Noise

P
1 1

0
0
0 Time

68
Position Estimation
PositionEstimation
SSatelliteposition
t llit iti inthetransmittedtimet
i th t itt d ti t
.
Pseudorange betweensatelliteanduserin
the received time t
thereceivedtime t
( k ) (t ) r ( k ) (t , t ) ctu (t ) t ( k ) (t ) I ( k ) (t ) T ( k ) (t ) ( k ) (t )

Clock Errors
The reason why we call pseudo-range is from second term.

Satellite clock and Receiver clock are not synchronized.

How many unknown parameter do we have ? 69


x,y,z,receiverclockoffset

Satelliteclockis
correctedusing
navigation data
navigationdata.
Fortunately,receiver
clock offset is same
clockoffsetissame
forallsatellites.
Therefore,unknown
Therefore, unknown
variablesshouldbe
solvedarex,y,zand
receiverclockoffset.

70
Least Square Method
LeastSquareMethod
Core Component of Positioning in LS method

for(i=0;i<SATn;i++){
( ; ; ){
prn = SVn[i];
r2[i] = sqrt((SVx[prn]-init[0])*(SVx[prn]-init[0])
+(SVy[prn]-init[1])*(SVy[prn]-init[1])
+(SVz[prn]-init[2])*(SVz[prn]-init[2]));
r3[i] = Pr1[prn] + SV_corrtime[prn] - Iono[prn] - Tropo[prn] - r2[i];
...............

Init[0],init[1],init[2] are respectively X, Y, Z position.


Af severall iterations,
After i i Init[0],init[1],init[2]
I i [0] i i [1] i i [2] b
become fi
finall solution
l i off positioning.
ii i
Clearly, the accuracy depends on the accuracy of several terms in red color.
Multi-patn/Noise terms can not be estimated. Thats why they are not included.
The more accurate input data we have, the more accurate position we can get.
71
Common Biases are negligible
CommonBiasesarenegligible
Please
Pleaserememberthatthecommonbiasesto
remember that the common biases to
allsatellitesarenegligibleinLSmethod.They
areabsorbedintoclockoffsetterm.
b b di l k ff
Tropospheric Errors (m)
10m

5m

2.7m
0m
12 14 15 18 22 24 25 193 PRN

72
Whatisreceiverclockoffset?
Receiverclockoffsetiscoproduct
i l k ff i d ofsinglepositioning
f i l ii i

500000
u-blox receiver (TCXO)
450000
m)

400000
XO)Error(m

350000

300000
el receiverr Clock(TCX

250000 467535m/86400s = 5.4m/s


5.4m is equal to 18ns
200000
Clock shift 18ns everyy 1sec
150000

100000
NovAte

50000

0
Rubidium
100000 110800 121600 132400 143200 154000 164800 175600 186400 197200
GPSTIME(s)
73
Single Point Positioning
SinglePointPositioning
4unknownvariables(x,y,x,clock)arepresent.
Atleast4visiblesatellitesarerequired.
DOP valuehastobecheckedifitissmall.
With true satellite positions and true range between
Withtruesatellitepositionsandtruerangebetween
satellitesanduserantenna,thecalculatedpositionis
true (only one solution)
true(onlyonesolution).
Itisimpossibleinapracticalsense.
LeastSquaremethod(LSmethod)ismainlyusedfor
theestimationofuserantennaposition.

74
ExampleofIterationsinLSmethod
p
TheuserantennawaslocatedinEtchujima campus.
Ifweset(0,0,0)asainitialx,y,zpositions,
Afterthefirstiteration,theestimatedpositionwas
After the first iteration, the estimated position was
35.156,139.191,1252955m.(ontheseacloseto
Yugawaramachi
Yugawara machi inKanagawapref.)
in Kanagawa pref.)
Secondly,itwas35.624,139.727,42298m(closeto
Gotanda station)
Gotandastation)
Thirdly,itwas35.666166,139.792192,116m(about30m
awayfromantenna)
f t )
Fourth,itwas35.666246,139.792322,63m(within2m
fromantenna)
75
ReferenceStationatMt.Fujij
(6/1/2010)

Height Errors (m)


Horizontal Errors (m)

Blue : Stand Alone Positioning


Red : Stand Alone Positioning without Iono and Tropo Estimation
76
Doppler Effect
DopplerEffect
fs fobs
vs vo

One dimension is assumed. Right direction is positive.


+
Receiverissetinthecar.
cs vo
Received frequency is
Receivedfrequencyis f obs f s
cs vs
csisspeedoflight.
D
Dopplerfrequencyf
l f fDisequaltof
i l t fobs fsource
FLL(frequencylockloop)triestoestimatefD.
OncewecanestimatefD,vocanberesolved.
77
Velocity Estimation
VelocityEstimation
VelocityestimationinGPSisjustsameasshowninthe
previousslide.
Thedifferencesareasfollows.
*3dimensionvelocity(v
3 dimension velocity (vx, x vy,
y vz)havetobeestimated.
) have to be estimated.
*Frequencyinthereceiverisbasedononboardclock.
4unknownvariables(v
4 nkno n ariables ( x,vy,vz,fclk)havetobeestimated
) ha e to be estimated
usingatleast4visiblesatellites.DOPisalsoimportant.
Velocityestimationissameaspositionestimation.

78
Image of Velocity Estimation
ImageofVelocityEstimation

* 4 relative velocities are needed


to estimate car velocity (+fclk).

* The accuracy of car velocity depends


on the accuracy of satellite velocity and
received
i d ffrequency estimation.
i i
(vx, vy, vz)+fclk

79
Performance of GPS based Velocity
PerformanceofGPSbasedVelocity

Accuracy in terms of frequency


GPS L1 wavelength = 19cm
1Hz : 19cm
0.1Hz : 1.9cm

Accuracy in terms of satellite velocity


sv_vel [[t]=(sv
] ( _vel [[t+1]-sv
] _vel [[t-1])/2
])
based on ephemeris parameters
Accuracy is quite good.

std = 1.6 cm/s


80
MovingPlatform
g
50 50 150 250

50
50

(Kotoku Ariake)

Origination : 0,0
150

Velocityy was accumulated.


Data Rate : 5Hz
Period : 650 sec
250

R
Receiver
i : NovAtel
N A l OEM6
Left and right rounds : 6 times
350
End point : 36
36.76m,-62.91m
76m -62 91m
RTK : 35.75m,-65.18m
450
Deviation after 11 minutes velocity
accumulation was about 2-3 m.
550
81
Contents
CoordinatesSystem
C di t S t 1st period
SatellitePosition

MeasurementsErrors
CalculatingPositionandDOP 2nd period

ImprovedPosition

BasicsofGNSSreceiver
3rd period
FutureGNSS

82
Improved GPS
ImprovedGPS
DGPS andRTKarepowerfulmethodforerror
g
mitigation.
DGPSusesthefactthatthemostoferror
sources change slowly inthetimedomainif
sourceschangeslowly in the time domain if
thedistancebetweenreferenceanduseris
approx.within100km.
h k

83
DGPS and RTK Performance
DGPSandRTKPerformance

Latitudinal(m)

SinglePositioning
DGPS
RTK

Rooftop(Lab.)
Rooftop (Lab )
15sinterval
24hours
Reference : Ichikawa
Reference:Ichikawa

Longitudinal (m)
Longitudinal(m)

84
ImageofDGPS
g

Determination of the correc


tion values at the reference
station
i
Transmission of the correcti
on values from the referenc
e station to the GPS user
Compensation for the deter
mined pseudoranges to
correct the calculated
positionoftheGPSuser

Correction [prn] = Pseudo-range[prn] True-range [prn]


85
RealCorrectionData
Correction[prn]=
Pseudo range[prn] Truerange[prn]
Pseudorange[prn] True range [prn]
Correctiondataprovidesthebetterestimationsin
eachsatelliteinLSmethod.
h ll h d
Single point positioning
DGPS
Estimations (m)

10m

5m

0m
PRN
7 16 1 6 19 11 8 3 22 86
DGPS mitigates
DGPSmitigates
Source Potentialerror size Errormitigation
g using
g
DGPS
Satelliteclockmodel 2m(rms) 0.0m

Satelliteephemeris 2m (rms)alongtheLOS 0.1 m(rms)


prediction
p
Ionospheric delay 210m(zenith) 0.2 m(rms)
Obliquityfactor3at5
Tropospheric delay 2.32.5m (zenith) 0.2 m(rms)+altitude
Obliquityfactor10at5 effect
Multipath (open sky)
Multipath(opensky) Code:0.5
Code : 0 511m
m
Carrier:0.51cm
ReceiverNoise Code:0.250.5m(rms)
Carrier:12mm (rms)
87
LimitationofDGPS
13 9
10
8
6 6

Height errror (m)


North error (m)
12 4
2
3 0
-2
-4
-6
0 -8
-10
11 -3
3
14 km 345600 365600 385600 405600 425600
-6 -3 0 3 6 GPSTIME (s)

East error (m)


10 9
10
8
6 6

m)
Height error (m
m)
4

North error (m
9
2
3 0
-2
-4
8 -6
0 -8
-10
7 number name type
-3
131 kkm 345600 365600 385600 405600 425600
GPSTIME (s)
-6 -3 0 3 6
6
East error (m)
5 9
4 10

8
3 6
6

Height error (m)


2
North error (m)

1 4
2
0
3
-2
Reference -4
-6
0
-8
-10
345600 365600 385600 405600 425600
-3
-6 -3 0 3 867 km
6 GPSTIME (s)
88
East error (m)
SBAS

Without the installation of the reference stations, you can use correction data
through the SBAS satellite such as MTSAT in Japan. Under quiet
ionospheric condition,
condition the performance is generally good within 1-2 m .
(Small robot car demo)
89
RTK (Real Time Kinematic)
RTK(RealTimeKinematic)
TheconceptofRTK issameasDGPS.
RTKusescarrierphasemeasurements.DGPS
RTK uses carrier phase measurements. DGPS
usespseudorangemeasurements.
GPSreceiverisabletomeasure1/100of
GPS i i bl 1/100 f
wavelengthofL1frequency (19cm).
Ifyouhavehighendreceiver,youknowyour
position within 12cm accuracy as long as you
positionwithin12cmaccuracyaslongasyou
have5ormoreLOSsatellites.

90
KeyConceptofRTK
y p
(doubledifferencetechnique)

sv1 _ sv 2
Prov _ ref ( P sv1
rov P sv1
ref ) ( P sv 2
rov P sv 2
ref )

rov
sv1
c(dt sv1 dTrov ) ionrov
sv1
troporov
sv1
mprov
sv1
noiserov
sv1


ref
sv1
c(dt sv1 dTref ) ionref
sv1
troporef
sv1
mpref
sv1
noiseref
sv1

sv 2
rov c(dt sv 2 dTrov ) ionrov
sv 2
troporov
sv 2
mprov
sv 2
noiserov
sv 2

sv 2
ref c(dt sv 2 dTref ) ionref
sv 2
troporef
sv 2
mpref
sv 2
noiseref
sv 2

Completely
sv 2 zerosv 2 assumed zero within 10 km
sv1
rov ref rov ref
sv1

(mprov
sv1
noiserov
sv1
) (mpref
sv1
noiseref
sv1
)
( mprov
sv 2
noise sv 2
i rov ) (mpref
sv 2
noise sv 2
i ref )

Generating new observation data !!!


91
Ambiguity Resolution
AmbiguityResolution
sv1 _ sv 2
Prov _ ref r sv1 _ sv 2
rov _ ref sv1 _ sv 2
p , rov _ ref

sv1 _ sv 2
rov _ ref rsv1 _ sv 2
rov _ ref N sv1 _ sv 2
rov _ ref sv1 _ sv 2
, rov _ ref

OnceyoucanresolveintegerNin
carrierphasedoubledifference,
i h d bl diff Combinations Wavelength
youcangetaccurateposition L1 0.19cm
within12cm.
i hi 1 2 L1L2 0.86m

Itcanbeimaginethatthepseudo L2L5 5.86m

rangeaccuracy isimportant.Also
combinationsoffrequencyisvital.

92
DoubleDifferencedObservation
(openskycondition:prn19>prn3:1hour)
Code double difference

Ambiguity = Carrier DD Code DD

Carrier double difference

Average = 11.8
Std = 1.4

93
DGPSErrorsandtheeffectof
frequencycombinations
Ideal 2 dimension is assumed.

L1-L2 True Position


2m

L2 L5
L2-L5
L1

2m

Standard DGPS Errors

94
RTK performance
RTKperformance

Horizontal Accuracy for 1 hour


= 3.6 mm (2)

95
Tide Observation
TideObservation

96
1 Epoch RTK at Pontoon
1EpochRTKatPontoon
(m)
24hoursHeightVariationatPontoon
38.75

38.5

38.25

38

37.75

37.5

37 25
37.25

37

36.75

36.5

36.25 Geoid
36
1/30 1430 1/310000 0600 1200 1430 (
(TIME)
)
1700

97
Problem 2
Problem2
CalculateHDOP,VDOPandGDOPbyhandin
g g y
thefollowingsatellitegeometry.

#1azimuth0/elevation30
#1 i h0/ l i 30
#2azimuth120/elevation30
/
#3azimuth240/elevation30
#4azimuth0/elevation90

98
Contents
CoordinatesSystem
C di t S t 1st period
SatellitePosition

MeasurementsErrors
CalculatingPositionandDOP 2nd period

ImprovedPosition

BasicsofGNSSreceiver
3rd period
FutureGNSS

99
Why we use Software Receiver ?
WhyweuseSoftwareReceiver?
If
Ifyouwanttoimprovesignalprocessinginthe
you want to improve signal processing in the
GNSSreceiver.
developreceiverbyyourself.Allobservation
datafromGNSSreceiverisakindofborrowed
data
integratewithothersensors.
integrate with other sensors
evaluateuniquesystemlikeIMESorearlyphase
newsatellite.
Goodeducationaltoollikethissummerschool.
Good educational tool like this summer school
100
Data Acquisition
DataAcquisition
Front
Frontendisneeded.
end is needed
ThefrontendmanufacturedbyIPsolutions
wasusedinthisdemonstration.
Youjustbringnotebookandfront
You just bring notebook and frontend
end where
where
youwanttoobtaintherawdataforSDR
(software defined radio)
(softwaredefinedradio).
Important parameters for SDR

settings.IF = 4.123968MHz
settings.samplingFreq =16.367667MHz
$
$500 2 bit ((-3,-1,1,3)
3 1 1 3)

101
Brief Structure of SDR
BriefStructureofSDR
Signals

Antenna

Front-end
RF + ADC
-3,1,1,-1-1,3,1,3,-1,-3,1,1,3,3,-1,-1,-1,-3,1,-1

N i ti d
Navigation data
t
Acquisition
Measurement data
Tracking
Positioning

102
Acquisition (FFT based)
Acquisition(FFTbased)
Acquisition istoacquiretheapproximate
p pp q y
codephaseandDopplerfrequencyofGNSS
signals.Tracking isdifficultwithoutacquisition
information.
information

One shot of QZS


103
Correlation
3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

-300m
0 20
0m
40 60
300m
80

104
Tracking
Tracking istocontinuouslytrackthecode
p
phaseandDopplerfrequencyofGNSSsignals.
pp q y g
Loopfilterisusedinthetrackingloop.
Hz Hz
1023003.5
2965
1023003
2960
1023002.5
2955
1023002
2950
1023001.5
2945
1023001
2940
1023000.5
2935
1023000
2930
1022999.5
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Doppler Frequency (ms) Code Frequency (ms)


105
IandQ,Navigationdecode
Q, g
(outputsoftracking)

I and
dQ I phase
In h correlation
l ti value
l ffrom 9
9.5s
5 tto 10
10s
(BPSK in GPS L1 C/A)

106
Demonstration data was obtained at
Demonstrationdatawasobtainedat

Rooftopofourbuilding
Underhigh
Under highrise
risebuildinginToyosu
building in Toyosu
Insidelaboratory

107
Signal Acquisition
SignalAcquisition
PRN Initial CodePhase DopplerFrequency(Hz)
1 8800 1525
8 29 34
11 3781 494
19 10236 302
20 2023 4974
28 9612 4248
32 11444 3593
193 13226 1220

These results are very important for signal tracking.


Without these results, signal tracking is impossible.

108
Image of Initial Code Phase
ImageofInitialCodePhase

First 1ms obtained by FE


First1msobtainedbyFE
C/AcodeforPRN193 C/AcodeforPRN193 C/AcodeforPRN193

Sampling Frequency is 16.36776MHz


It means that the number of sampling is 16367 in every 1ms.
GPS L1 C/A code repeats every 1ms.
Finally, we can synchronize the code timing in tracking.
109
Navigation Decode
NavigationDecode
Atleastabout3040secondsareneededto
p
decodeephemeris.
IfdecodewasOK,youcanuseephemerisdata
of each satellite for navigation
ofeachsatellitefornavigation.
Input_ephemeris.txt isdeducedfromSDR.Itis
similartoRINEXnavigationfile.

110
SignalTracking
g g
demonstration

Youcanseeseveraloutputs.
NavigationDecode
Navigation Decode
Dopplerfrequency
SignalStrength
Correlationvalue
Correlation value

111
DopplerFrequencyCheck
pp q y

112
PositioningandVelocity
g y
demonstration

Singlepointpositioning
Velocityinformation
Velocity information
DGPS

113
Actual Correction Data for DGPS
ActualCorrectionDataforDGPS
6

4
prn1

2 prn11
prn32
prn193
0
547000 547100 547200 547300 547400 547500 547600 547700 547800 prn28
prn20
2 prn19
prn8
p
4

The reference data was obtained near the rover antenna


using
i commerciali l receiver.
i

114
How accuracy can be improved ?
Howaccuracycanbeimproved?

Single Point Positioning DGPS

If you use carrier phase to smooth pseudo-range, accuracy can be


improved dramatically. The power of DGPS is to reduce bias.
115
Strong Multipath Condition in Toyosu
StrongMultipathConditioninToyosu

116
HowdegreemultipathandDOP
affectGPS?

Positioning Velocity

117
Velocity Accumulation
VelocityAccumulation
100

50

0
100 50 0 50 100

50

100

118
Multipath affects Signal Strength
MultipathaffectsSignalStrength
50

48

46

44
prn20
42
prn28
40
prn 193
prn193
38 prn32

36 prn1

34

32

30
120150 120200 120250 120300 120350 120400 120450 120500 120550

Pick up PRN 1 at this epoch

119
Fish Eye View
FishEyeView
7 satellites over 15 degrees
g
5 satellites was OK

G28
E
QZS
G20

G11

G32
G17 G1

120
Multipath Contaminated Data
MultipathContaminatedData
OneshotofcorrelationofPRN1inthecaseoflargemultipath.

About 100 m delay large multipath


About 40 m errors in pseudo-range

121
SameperioddatawithdifferentFE
p
(BW=13MHz,SF=40.96MHz)

STD=35.8m

STD=23.8m

STD=14.1m

STD 4 3m
STD=4.3m

JAVAD receiver
=1.0 m
Fraunhofer

HDOP=9
122
Why can we mitigate large errors ?
Whycanwemitigatelargeerrors?
Asyoualreadylearned,carriersmoothing
q isquiteeffectivetomitigate
technique q g
pseudorangenoiseunderstaticcondition.
Strobecorrelator
Strobe correlator isstillakindofbest
is still a kind of best
correlator tomitigatemultipatherrors.

123
Temporal Signal Strength
TemporalSignalStrength
55

50

prn20
prn28
45
prn193
prn32
prn1

40

35
291100 291150 291200 291250 291300 291350 291400 291450 291500

Pick up PRN 1 at three epoch

124
Principle
p of Strobe Correlator

GPSTIME
=291339.0

125
GPSTIME
=291351.5

126
GPSTIME
=291366.0

127
5 min IMES tracking in Lab
5minIMEStrackinginLab.
IMES

Front-end

128
Contents
CoordinatesSystem
C di t S t 1st period
SatellitePosition

MeasurementsErrors
CalculatingPositionandDOP 2nd period

ImprovedPosition

BasicsofGNSSreceiver
3rd period
FutureGNSS

129
CurrentConstellation
GLOANSShasbeenoperatedfor
p
longtimelikeGPS,howeveritis
alittlehardtousedueto
FDMA.

BEIDOU andGALILEOhavebeen
justavailablenow!

Numberofvisiblesatellite
increases from 12 to 30 if we
increasesfrom12to30ifwe
useallnavigationsatellites.

130
24hournumberofvisiblesatellites
(GPS/GLO/GAL/BEImask=15)

131
24hournumberofvisiblesatellites
(GPS/GLO/GAL/BEImask=60)

What if we have 4 QZS satellites ? 132


24hournumberofvisiblesatellites
(GPSmask=60)

133
Initial Test for GALILEO
InitialTestforGALILEO
Satellitesconstellationatfirstobservation:

Satellites constellation, 2013/07/09 8:41:04 GPSTIME


GPS satellites (left), and Galileo satellites (right)
134
Differential GALILEO
DifferentialGALILEO

Rover coordinates deviations from the reference station coordinates


GPS only (left) and Galileo only (right) 135
RTK & Ambiguity Resolution
RTK&AmbiguityResolution
Linearcombinations
Linear combinations
Enabletocreateanewfrequency,withalonger
wavelength useful for ambiguity resolution
wavelength,usefulforambiguityresolution
Galileofrequencies:
E1:1575.42MHz
E2:1191.795MHz(originalE5altbocfrequency)
E5:1176.45MHz(originalE5afrequency)
Galileolinearcombinations:
Newcarrier name Frequencies Wavelength() Accuracy
Extrawidelane(EWL) E2 E5 19.55 m 43cm
Widelane(WL) E1 E2 78cm 2cm
Narrowlane(NL) E1 19cm 0.3cm 136
Ambiguities for GALILEO
AmbiguitiesforGALILEO

137
Horizontal Test Results
HorizontalTestResults

Rover coordinates deviations from the reference station coordinates


138
Combining the 3 positioning results
GPS+QZS in Akihabara
GPS+QZSinAkihabara
1epochRTKDemonstrationinAkihabara
p g y
comparingonlyGPSwithGPS+QZS

139
MultiGNSSCarTestinTsukishima
(onlyGPS)

9226 epochs

Total : 22934

140
GPS/QZS

11590 epochs

Total : 22934

141
GPS/QZS/GAL/BEI

21040 epochs

Total : 22934

142
Prof.Parkinsonslecture
BradfordParkinsonGPSforHumanityStanford
EngineeringHeroLecture
Ijustwouldlikeyoutocheckthislecturefroma
j y
pointofhistoryandfutureofGNSS.

Core member for initial study of GPS


*Bradford Parkinson,
Parkinson
*Ivan Getting,
*Jim Woodford,
*Hiryoshi
Hiryoshi Nakamura

143
Problem 3
Problem3
AlthoughDopplerfrequencycanbe
y
estimatedinthereceiver,youcanestimateit
byyourselfaslongasyouknowthesatellite
position and your position under static
positionandyourpositionunderstatic
condition.
Pleasedescribemoreindetailshowwecan
l b l h
estimateDopplerfrequency.
Usingmathematicalexpressionisappreciated.

144
Anycommentsandquestions?

145