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# DPWH

Basic
Principles
and
Application
Handbook
Project SCHEDULING
PROJECT Scheduling Technique:
TECHNIQUE:
METHOD
PRECEDENCE
DIAGRAM
METHOD

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................... 2
PRECEDENCE DIAGRAM METHOD (PDM) ................................... 3
DEFINITION OF TERMS............................................................ 3
PDM LOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS ................................................ 6
Finish-to-Start (F-S) relationship ............................................ 6
Start-to-Start (S-S) relationship ............................................. 7
Finish-to-Finish (F-F) relationship ........................................... 8
Start-to-Finish (S-F) relationship ............................................ 8
ANALYZING PDM NETWORK ................................................... 11
Forward Pass Calculation .................................................... 11
For Finish-To-Start Relationship ........................................ 11
For Other Relationships aside from F-S ............................. 15
Backward Pass Calculation .................................................. 17
For Finish-To-Start Relationship ........................................ 17
For Other Relationships aside from F-S ............................. 21
THINGS TO REMEMBER ......................................................... 24
ANNEX .................................................................................. 28
BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................... 31

INTRODUCTION

## In connection with D.O. No. 133, Series of 2015, the adoption of

Precedence Diagram Method as Project Scheduling Technique in
DPWH Projects, this handbook was made to serve as basis in
preparation/evaluation/review of PDM. However, this handbook was
prepared in such a way so that it can be used by DPWH and other
organizations.

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 2|P a g e

PRECEDENCE DIAGRAM METHOD (PDM)

## PDM is a network diagram that shows activities in nodes and usually

represented by rectangular/square boxes which are connected by
arrows showing the relationships between the activities. This network
diagram is also called as Activity on Node (AON) where the nodes are
used to designate the activities.

FINISH
START

ITEM DESCRIPTION

## EARLY START EARLY FINISH

LATE START LATE FINISH
Figure 1. PDM Network Diagram Node

Figure 1 shows the standard layout of PDM and the organization of its
attributes, which will be the standard format to be adopted by DPWH
for PDM.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

## Activity a single work step with a definable scope of work, an

identifiable start and finish requiring time and typically resources to
complete

## Activity number numbers used for unique identification which are

ordered from lower numbers on the left to the higher numbers on the
right to match the logic flow of activities.

## Backward Pass the process of navigating through a network from

finish to start for the purpose of calculating the late start and finish
times for each activity

Bar Chart another term for Gantt chart; chart showing the
construction time schedule of project activities.

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 3|P a g e

Critical Path Method (CPM) a project management technique that
analyzes which activities have the least amount of scheduling flexibility
and predicts project duration schedule based on the activities that fall
along the "critical path." Activities that lie along the critical path
cannot be delayed without delaying the finish time for the entire
project.

## Dummy Activity An activity (represented by a dotted line on the

arrow network diagram) that indicates that any activity following the
dummy cannot be started until the activity or activities preceding the
dummy are completed. The dummy does not require any time.

## Finish to Finish relationship between two activities where the

successor activity cannot finish until the predecessor activity has
finished

## Finish to Start relationship between two activities where the

successor activity cannot start until the predecessor activity has
finished

## Float period by which a task can be delayed, brought forward or

extended without affecting the schedule; a measure of how much an
activity can be delayed without delaying the project completion date.

## Forward Pass the process of navigating through a network from

start to finish and calculating the early start and finish times for each
activity and the minimum time required to complete the project
Free Float the amount of time the start of an activity can be delayed
or its duration extended without delaying the early start of following
activities

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 4|P a g e

Lag period of time that must pass after the finish of one activity
before the following activity may start

Late Finish (LF) latest point in time an activity can finish and not
delay the project

Late Start (LS) latest point in time an activity can start without delay
in the project

Lead period of time that must pass after the start of one activity
before the start of the following activity

## Logical Sequence the sequence of the activities wherein the

preceding activity should be started and/or partially or totally
completed first before the succeeding activities started in a logical
manner

## Node contains the attributes of the activities such as Item Number,

Item Description together with Activity name, duration, early
start/finish, late start/finish and start and finish side of the node

## Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) a graphic

representation of a projects schedule showing the sequence of tasks,
which can be performed simultaneously.

## Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) a method for diagramming

construction activities wherein a single node represents an activity
which is logically connected to other activities

## Predecessor an activity that must be partially finished or finished

before a specified activity can start

## Relationships the logical links between activities used to

demonstrate work sequence which is represented by a

## Scheduling the process of determining the timing and specific

sequence of tasks in order to carry out the planned construction
operations

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 5|P a g e

Start to Finish one activity can only be finished when the next
activity has started

## Total Float the maximum amount of time an activity can be delayed

from its original early start without delaying the duration of the entire
project; calculated by subtracting the early start time and duration
from the activitys late finish time.

## PDM also shows interdependencies among various activities which is

not limited to Finish-to-Start (F-S) relationship as compared to
PERT/CPM. This network diagram also uses four (4) logical
relationships and these are:

## Finish-to-Start relationship is the most common logical relationship

used in PDM. This is also used in PERT/CPM. This kind of
relationship denotes that the succeeding activity cannot start until
the preceding activity has been completed.

## Figure 2 shows two activities, Activity A and Activity B, having a

Finish-to-Start Relationship. This figure shows that right after
Activity A is finished, Activity B can already commence its work.

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 6|P a g e

Start-to-Start (S-S) relationship

## Start-to-Start relationship is a logical relationship that shows two

activities starting simultaneously. In PERT/CPM, Start-to-Start
relationship can be presented by having additional nodes and use of
dummy arrows. Figure 3 shows S-S relationship between activities A
and B in a PERT/CPM Network Diagram.

## In PDM, Start-to-Start relationship is introduced to show the

relationship between two parallel activities that should be started
simultaneously. For example, in Figure 4, both activities A and B can
already start their respective works since both activities are using
Start-to-Start relationship.

## Figure 4. PDM S-S Relationship

Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 7|P a g e
Finish-to-Finish (F-F) relationship

## As with Start-to-Start relationship, Finish-to-Finish relationship is

used to show the completion of activities simultaneously. As shown
in Figure 5, activities A and B are in Finish-to-Finish relationship.
This shows that when Activity A is completed, Activity B should also
be finished.

## Start-to-Finish (S-F) relationship

Start-to-Finish relationship is rarely used since there are less
confusing interdependencies available in PDM. This relationship
indicates that one activity can only be finished when the next
activity has started. Figure 6 shows Start-to-Finish relationship
between activities A and B. In this figure, Activity B can only be
completed as soon as Activity A has started.

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 8|P a g e

Figure 6. PDM S-F Relationship

Lag (+) and Lead (-) times are expressed as part of the immediate
predecessor notation. Lag time is defined as the delay between two
activities, that is, when one activity is completed and there is a waiting
period before the succeeding activity starts. In construction industry,
specifically in concreting, lag is most commonly used in situations that
require material to strengthen before the next activity can be
performed. Lag is also used to simplify the network diagram by
representing other subactivities related to the main activities (i.e.
curing period for concreting, removal of shoring, etc.)

Lead time, on the other hand, is an overlap between the first and
second activity, that is, when the second activity will start prior to the
completion of the first activity. This condition is used in cases which
allow succeeding activities to begin before preceding activities have
been completed.

In F-S relationship, lag and lead times are commonly used. As shown
in Figure 7a, since activities A and B can work subsequently without
any delays, the lag time is equal to zero (0), thus resulting to a total
duration of 8 calendar days (c.d.).

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 9|P a g e

Figure 7a. Activities A and B in F-S Relationship

## Given that there is a delay between two activites, a lag time is

introduced. As shown in Figure 7b, there is a need of 2 days lag
between activities A and B which means that Activity B can only start
2 days after Activity A has finished. In this figure, the lag time is equal
to 2 c.d. resulting to a total duration of 10 c.d.

## In Figure 7c, there is an overlapping between activities A and B where

Activity B can already start 2 days before Activity A finishes. In this
case, lead time is being used, which is equivalent to 2 c.d., resulting
to a total duration of 6 c.d.

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 10 | P a g e

Figure 7c. Activities A and B in F-S Relationship with Lead Time

For S-S, F-F, and S-F relationship, lag time is also used to signify a
delay between two activities. Lead time, on the other hand, may be
used in these interdependencies to finish the project early and on time
but is best to be avoided, if possible, due to difficulties and complexity
in analysis of the logic diagram and computation of backward and
forward pass.

## For Finish-To-Start Relationship

a) General Rule in Calculating Early Start & Early Finish dates based
on Finish-to-Start relationship without lag and lead time

## ES of the Current Activity = EF of Preceding Activity; ES=0 for

starting activity

EF = ES + Duration

## For Multiple Predecessors, use the latest or largest value of EF

of the preceding activity as the ES of the current activity being
considered

STEP 1:

## ESA = 0 (starting activity)

EFA = ESA + durationA = 0 + 5 = 5

STEP 2:

ESB = 5 + 0 = 5

STEP 3:

EFB = 5 + 3 = 8

## b) General Rule in calculating Early Start and Early Finish dates

based on Forward pass calculation for Finish to Start relationship

## For Lag Time (+); ES of the Current Activity = EF of the

Preceding Activity + (Lag Time) and EF of current activity will
be equal to ES of current activity + Duration (See Figure 8b)

## If there is a Lead Time (-) between two activities; ES of the

Current Activity = EF of the Preceding Activity + (- Lead Time)

STEP 1:

## ESA = 0 (starting activity)

EFA = ESA + durationA = 0 + 5 = 5
STEP 2:

ESB = 5 + 2 = 7
STEP 3:

## EFB = ESB + durationB

EFB = 7 + 3 = 10
Figure 8b. Forward Pass Calculation for F-S relationship
with Lag Time

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 14 | P a g e

For Other Relationships aside from F-S

## For F-F relationship, to get the EF of the preceding activity, EF

CURRENT = EFPREVIOUS + (lag or lead). (See Figure 9.)

## If in case that there are other relationships aside from F-F

with the current activity, EFCURRENT can be also determined by
adding ESCURRENT with its duration. Then assess which value for
EFCURRENT is higher or latest.

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 15 | P a g e

STEP 1:

ESA = 0 (starting
activity)

## EFA = ESA + durationA

EFA = 0 + 5 = 5

STEP 2:
ESB = ESA + (Lag or
relationship)

ESB = 0 + 1 = 1

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 16 | P a g e

STEP 3:
To determine EFB
consider the following:
1. EFB = ESB +
durationB
EFB = 1 + 3 = 4

or

relationship)
EFB = 5 + 0 = 5

## *Given there are two

(2) possible values for
EFB, choose the bigger
or later value for EFB

Therefore; EFB = 5

F-F relationship

## For Finish-To-Start Relationship

a) General Rule in Calculating Late Start & Late Finish dates based
on Finish to Start relationship

## Late Finish of the Current Activity = Late Start of Previous

Activity minus lag or lead time; LF of final activity = EF for the
final activity of the project

## Late Start of the current activity = Late Finish of the current

activity its duration
Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 17 | P a g e
For Multiple Predecessors, use the earliest or smallest value of
LS of the preceding activity as LF of the current activity

STEP 1:

LFB = 8

LSB = 8 3 = 5

STEP 2:

LFA = 5 - 0 = 5

## LSA = LFA - durationA

LSA = 5 5 = 0
Figure 10a. Backward Pass Calculation for F-S relationship

b) General Rule in Calculating Late Start & Late Finish dates based
on Backward Pass calculation for Finish to Start relationship with

## For Lag Time (+); LF of the Current Activity = LS of the

Preceding Activity - (Lag Time) and LS of the current activity
will still be equal to LFCURRENT duration. (See Figure 10b)

## If there is a Lead Time (-) between two activities; LF of the

Current Activity = LS of the Preceding Activity - (- Lead Time)

STEP 1:

LFB = 10

LSB = 10 3 = 7

STEP 2:

LFA = 7 - 2 = 5

LSA = 5 5 = 0

with Lag Time

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 20 | P a g e

For Other Relationships aside from F-S

## For S-S relationship, to get the LS of the preceding activity,

LSCURRENT = LSPREVIOUS (lag or lead). (See Figure 11)

## If in case that there are other relationships aside from S-S

with the current activity, LSCURRENT can also be determined by
subtracting LFCURRENT with its duration. Then assess which
value for LSCURRENT is lower or earliest

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 21 | P a g e

STEP 1:
LFB = EFB (final activity)
LFB = 5

## LSB = LFB durationB

LSB = 5 - 3 = 2

STEP 2:
LFA = LFB (Lag or Lead
time); (F-F relationship)

LFA = 5 0 = 5

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 22 | P a g e

STEP 3:
To determine LSA consider
the following:
1. LSA = LSB (Lag or Lead
Time); (S-S relationship)
LSA = 1 0 = 1

or

LSA = 5 5 = 0

## *Given there are two (2)

possible values for LSA,
choose the lower or earlier
value for LSA

Therefore; LSA = 0

with Lag Time

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 23 | P a g e

THINGS TO REMEMBER

## In PDM, the relationship between the current and

previous activities can be better calculated by using two
or more of the four possible logical relationships than by
using only one relationship.

## o In a PERT/CPM diagram, which is only limited with F-S

relationship, additional nodes and dummy can be used to
represent activities that are concurrent. As shown in Figure
12, the activities in the bar chart are presented in PERT/CPM
showing the correct relationships by breaking each activities
into repetitive activities and with the use of dummy.

## o Using PDM, however, can be simplified the calculation of the

same by using two of the four possible relationships together
with lag and lead times, the same correct relationship can be
shown in Figure 13 with only three activities.

## Calculation of the critical path requires consideration of

the logical relationship of each activity.

## o The critical path in PDM is continuous from the beginning to

the end of the diagram. Just like in PERT/CPM, the total float
of an activity must be equal to zero to be considered critical.
Usually activities using F-S relationship without lag are
considered to be critical.

## o In PDM, a scheduler should observe completeness and show

all logical relationships among activities, avoiding any
unnecessary or redundant relationships. Too many arrows will
complicate calculation of task dates during the forward and
backward passes. However, while avoiding redundancies, one
must be careful not to oversimplify the schedule.
Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 24 | P a g e
Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method
25 | P a g e
Figure 12. Bar Chart and PERT/CPM of Subbase Course, Base Course, and PCCP
Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method
26 | P a g e
Figure 13. Bar Chart and PDM of Subbase Course, Base Course, and PCCP
Usually activities with a start-to-start relationship will
also have a finish-to-finish relationship.

## o Failure to show finish-to-finish relationships among activities

that have start-to-start relationships indicated on the logic
diagram may change the logic and the critical path resulting in
inaccurate duration among the activities.

## In a comprehensive schedule all activities except the first

and last nodes should have at least one preceding
activity and at least one succeeding activity.

## o Dangling activity refers to an activity that is open ended

where there are no activities connected either on the left or
right side. This activity also has no activity relationship
originating either left or right side and should be avoided as
this is considered as poor scheduling practice.

## o In a PDM diagram, more dangling activities may prevent a

realistic critical path preventing the schedule from accurately
measuring the delays and any changes in the time frame.

ANNEX

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 28 | P a g e

Figure 14. Sample PERT/CPM of Road Project

## Project Scheduling: Precedence Diagram Method 29 | P a g e

Figure 15. PDM of Sample PERT/CPM from Figure 14

BIBLIOGRAPHY

## Baldwin, A., & Bordoli, D. (2014). Handbook for Construction

Planning and Scheduling. West Sussex: John Wiley &
Sons, Ltd.

## Hildreth, J., & Munoz, B. (2005). An Introduction to the

Management Principles of Scheduling. Virginia:
VirginiaTech College of Engineering.

## Max B. Fajardo, J. (1997). Project Construction Management.

Quezon City, Philippines: 5138 Merchandising.

York: AMACOM.