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Easy Reference for CODES

ASME ASTM API 650 API 620 SAMSS SAES REMARKS


Category
Sec II Sec V Sec VIII Sec IX
Material
1- Base metal spc. Part A
2- Filler metal spc. Part C
3-
4-
5-
Fabrication
1-
2-
3-
4-
5-

Welding
1- TEST
1.1 TYPES OF TEST &EXAM. QW-140
1.2 RT Acc. (welder & oprt) QW-191.2.2
2- WELDER
2.1 Type of test required QW-302
2.2 spc. Rqed mech. test QW-452
2.3 welder variable QW-350

3- W. REQIRE. API TANK SAES-W-017


4-
5-
6-
NDT
1- RT
1.1 procdure requirment T-220
1.2 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL T-230
1.3 IQI SELECTION T-276
1.4 EVALUATION T-280
1.5 DOCUMENTION T-290
2- UT
2.1 Written Procedure T-421
2.2 EQUIPMENT T-430
2.3 EVALUATION T-480
2.4 DOCUMENTION T-490
3- LIQUID PENETRANT
3.1 Written Procedure T-621
3.2 EQUIPMENT T-630
3.3 Interpretation T-676
3.4 EVALUATION T-680
3.5 DOCUMENTION T-690
4- MAGNETIC PARTICLE
4.1 Written Procedure T-721
4.2 EQUIPMENT T-730
4.3 Examination Medium T-731
4.4 Techniqe T-750
4.5 Calibration T-760
4.6 Examination T-770
4.7 Evaluation T-780
4.8 Documention T-790
5- Visual Inspection
5.1 Written Procedure T-921
5.2 Technique T-950
5.3 Documention T-990

6-
general requirment pressure test SAES-A-004
ASME
PART A
Steel Plate, Sheets and Strip
SA-568/SA-568M Steel, Sheet, Carbon and High-Strength, Low-Alloy, Hot-Rolled
and Cold-Rolled
SA-749/SA-749M Steel, Strip, Carbon and High-Strength Low-Alloy, Hot-Rolled
General Requirements for

Steel Pipe
SA-53/SA-53M Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless
SA-106 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
SA-134 Pipe, Steel, Electric-Fusion (Arc)-Welded (Sizes NPS 16 and Over)
SA-135 Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe
SA-312/SA-312M Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes
SA-333/SA-333M Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe for Low-Temperature Service.
SA-335/SA-335M Seamless Ferritic Alloy-Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
SA-358/SA-358M Electric-Fusion-Welded Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Alloy Steel Pipe
for High-Temperature Service
SA-369/SA-369M Carbon and Ferritic Alloy Steel Forged and Bored Pipe for High-
Temperature Service
SA-376/SA-376M Seamless Austenitic Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Central-Station
Service
SA-409/SA-409M Welded Large Diameter Austenitic Steel Pipe for Corrosive or High-
Temperature Service
SA-426 Centrifugally Cast Ferritic Alloy Steel Pipe for High-Temperature
Service
SA-430/SA-430M Austenitic Steel Forged and Bored Pipe for High-Temperature Service.
SA-451 Centrifugally Cast Austenitic Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service.
SA-524 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for Atmospheric and Lower Temperatures
SA-530/SA-530M General Requirements for Specialized Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe.
SA-587 Electric-Resistance-Welded Low-Carbon Steel Pipe for the Chemical
Industry
SA-660 Centrifugally Cast Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
SA-671 Electric-Fusion-Welded Steel Pipe for Atmospheric and Lower
Temperatures
SA-672 Electric-Fusion-Welded Steel Pipe for High-Pressure Service at Moderate
Temperature
SA-691 Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe, Electric-Fusion-Welded for High-
Pressure Service at High Temperature
SA-727/SA-727M Forgings, Carbon Steel, for Piping Components With Inherent Notch
Toughness
SA-731/SA-731M Seamless, Welded Ferritic, and Martensitic Stainless Steel Pipe
SA-790/SA-790M Seamless and Welded Ferritic /Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe
SA-813/SA-813M Single- or Double-Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe.
SA-814/SA-814M Cold-Worked Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe.
SA-941 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, Related Alloys, and
Ferroalloys
SA-961 Common Requirements for Steel, Flanges, Forged Fittings, Valves, and
Parts for Piping Applications
SA-999/SA-999M General Requirements for Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe
Steel Tubes
SA-178/SA-178M Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel and Carbon-Manganese Steel
Boiler and Superheater Tubes.
SA-179/SA-179M Seamless Cold-Drawn Low-Carbon Steel Heat Exchanger and Condenser
Tubes
SA-192/SA-192M Seamless Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes for High-Pressure Service
SA-209/SA-209M Seamless Carbon-Molybdenum Alloy-Steel Boiler and Superheater
Tubes
SA-210/SA-210M Seamless Medium-Carbon Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes
SA-213/SA-213M Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy-Steel Boiler, Superheater, and Heat
Exchanger Tubes
SA-214/SA-214M Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser
Tubes
SA-249/SA-249M Welded Austenitic Steel Boiler, Superheater, Heat-Exchanger, and
Condenser Tubes
SA-250/SA-250M Electric-Resistance-Welded Ferritic Alloy-Steel Boiler and Superheater
Tubes
SA-268/SA-268M Seamless and Welded Ferritic and Martensitic Stainless Steel Tubing for
General Service
SA-334/SA-334M Seamless and Welded Carbon and Alloy Steel Tubes for Low-Temperature
Service
SA-423/SA-423M Seamless and Electric Welded Low-Alloy Steel Tubes
SA-450/SA-450M General Requirements for Carbon, Ferritic Alloy, and Austenitic Alloy
Steel Tubes
SA-513 Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechanical Tubing.
SA-556/SA-556M Seamless Cold-Drawn Carbon Steel Feedwater Heater Tubes
SA-557/SA-557M Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel Feedwater Heater Tubes
SA-688/SA-688M Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Feedwater Heater Tubes
SA-789/SA-789M Seamless and Welded Ferritic /Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for
General Service . .
SA-803/SA-803M Welded Ferritic Stainless Steel Feedwater Heater Tubes .
SA-941 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, Related Alloys, and
Ferroalloys.
SA-1016/SA-1016M General Requirements for Ferritic Alloy Steel, Austenitic Alloy Steel, and

Stainless Steel Tubes Steel Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts


SA-105/SA-105M Carbon Steel Forgings, for Piping Applications
SA-181/SA-181M Carbon Steel Forgings, for General-Purpose Piping
SA-182/SA-182M Forged or Rolled Alloy-Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves
and Parts for High-Temperature Service .
SA-216/SA-216M Steel Castings, Carbon, Suitable for Fusion Welding for High-Temperature
Service
SA-217/SA-217M Steel Castings, Martensitic Stainless and Alloy, for Pressure Containing
Parts Suitable for High-Temperature Service
SA-231/SA-231M Chromium-Vanadium Alloy Steel Spring Wire
SA-232/SA-232M Chromium-Vanadium Alloy Steel Valve Spring Quality Wire
SA-234/SA-234M Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy for Moderate and
High-Temperature Service.
SA-350/SA-350M Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Forgings, Requiring Notch Toughness
Testing for Piping Components
SA-351/SA-351M Castings, Austenitic, Austenitic-Ferritic (Duplex), for Pressure-Containing
Parts
SA-352/SA-352M Steel Castings, Ferritic and Martensitic, for Pressure Containing Parts,
Suitable for Low Temperature Service.
SA-403/SA-403M Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings
SA-420/SA-420M Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Low-
Temperature Service
SA-522/SA-522M Forged or Rolled 8 and 9% Nickel Alloy Steel Flanges, Fittings,
Valves, and Parts for Low-Temperature Service
SA-592/SA-592M High-Strength Quenched and Tempered Low-Alloy Steel Forged
Fittings and Parts for Pressure Vessels.
SA-815/SA-815M Wrought Ferritic, Ferritic /Austenitic, and Martensitic Stainless Steel Piping
Fittings
SA-905 Steel Wire, Pressure Vessel Winding
SA-960 Common Requirements for Wrought Steel Piping Fittings
SA-961 Common Requirements for Steel Flanges, Forged Fittings, Valves and
Parts for Piping Applications
SA-995 Castings, Austenitic-Ferritic (Duplex) Stainless Steel, for Pressure-
Containing Parts.

Steel Plates, Sheets, and Strip for Pressure Vessels


SA-20/SA-20M General Requirements for Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels
SA-202/SA-202M Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Chromium-Manganese-Silicon
SA-203/SA-203M Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Nickel
SA-204/SA-204M Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Molybdenum
SA-225/SA-225M Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Manganese-Vanadium-Nickel
SA-240 Heat-Resisting Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate,
Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels
SA-263 Corrosion-Resisting Chromium Steel-Clad Plate, Sheet, and Strip
SA-264 Stainless Chromium-Nickel Steel Clad Plate, Sheet, and Strip
SA-265 Nickel and Nickel-Base Alloy Clad Steel Plate
SA-285/SA-285M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, Low- and Intermediate-Tensile
Strength
SA-299/SA-299M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, Manganese-Silicon
SA-302/SA-302M Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Manganese-Molybdenum and
Manganese-Molybdenum-Nickel
SA-353/SA-353M Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, 9 Percent Nickel, Double-Normalized
and Tempered.
SA-387/SA-387M Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Chromium-Molybdenum
SA-414/SA-414M Steel, Sheet, Carbon, for Pressure Vessels.
SA-455/SA-455M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, High-Strength Manganese.
SA-480/SA-480M General Requirements for Flat-Rolled Stainless and Heat-Resisting
Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip
SA-515/SA-515M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, for Intermediate- and Higher-
Temperature Service
SA-516/SA-516M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, for Moderate- and Lower-
Temperature Service
SA-517/SA-517M Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, High Strength, Quenched and
Tempered.
SA-533/SA-533M Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Quenched and Tempered,
Manganese-Molybdenum and Manganese-Molybdenum-Nickel.
SA-537/SA-537M Pressure Vessel Plates, Heat-Treated, Carbon-Manganese-Silicon Steel.
SA-542/SA-542M Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Quenched-and-Tempered,
Chromium-Molybdenum and Chromium-Molybdenum-Vanadium
SA-543/SA-543M Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Quenched and Tempered, Nickel-
Chromium-Molybdenum
SA-553/SA-553M Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Quenched and Tempered, 8 and 9
Percent Nickel
SA-562/SA-562M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, Manganese-Titanium for Glass or
Diffused Metallic Coatings
SA-612/SA-612M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, High Strength, for Moderate and
Lower Temperature Service
SA-645/SA-645M Pressure Vessel Plates, Five Percent Nickel Alloy Steel, Specially Heat
Treated
SA-662/SA-662M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon-Manganese, for Moderate and Lower
Temperature Service
SA-666 Annealed or Cold-Worked Austenitic Stainless Steel Sheet, Strip, Plate
and Flat Bar
SA-693 Precipitation-Hardening Stainless and Heat-Resisting Steel Plate, Sheet,
and Strip
SA-724/SA-724M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon-Manganese-Silicon Steel, Quenched and
Tempered, for Welded Layered Pressure Vessels
SA-736/SA-736M Pressure Vessel Plates, Low-Carbon Age-Hardening Nickel-Copper-
Chromium-Molybdenum-Columbium and Nickel-Copper-
Manganese-Molybdenum-Columbium Alloy Steel
SA-737/SA-737M Pressure Vessel Plates, High-Strength, Low-Alloy Steel
SA-738/SA-738M Pressure Vessel Plates, Heat-Treated, Carbon-Manganese-Silicon Steel,
for Moderate and Lower Temperature Service
SA-770/SA-770M Through-Thickness Tension Testing of Steel Plates for Special
Applications
SA-832/SA-832M Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Chromium-Molybdenum-
Vanadium
SA-841/SA-841M Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels, Produced by the Thermo-Mechanical
Control Process (TMCP)
SA-1017/SA-1017M Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy-Steel Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten

Structural Steel
SA-6/SA-6M General Requirements for Rolled Structural Steel Bars, Plates, Shapes,
and Sheet Piling.
SA-36/SA-36M Carbon Structural Steel.
SA-283/SA-283M Low- and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates
SA-572/SA-572M High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Structural Steel.
SA-1008/SA-1008M Steel, Sheet, Cold-Rolled, Carbon, Structural, High-Strength Low-Alloy
and High-Strength Low-Alloy With Improved Formability.
SA-1011/SA-1011M Steel, Sheet and Strip, Hot-Rolled, Carbon, Structural, High-Strength
Low-Alloy and High-Strength Low-Alloy With Improved
Formability

Steel Bars
SA-6/SA-6M General Requirements for Rolled Structural Steel Bars, Plates, Shapes,
and Sheet Piling.
SA-29/SA-29M General Requirements for Steel Bars, Carbon and Alloy, Hot-Wrought
and Cold-Finished
SA-276 Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes
SA-311/SA-311M Cold-Drawn, Stress-Relieved Carbon Steel Bars Subject to Mechanical
Property Requirements
SA-479/SA-479M Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure
Vessels
SA-484/SA-484M General Requirements for Stainless and Steel Bars, Billets, and
Forgings.
SA-564/SA-564M Hot-Rolled and Cold-Finished Age-Hardening Stainless Steel Bars and
Shapes
SA-638/SA-638M Precipitation Hardening Iron Base Superalloy Bars, Forgings, and
Forging Stock for High-Temperature Service
SA-675/SA-675M Steel Bars, Carbon, Hot-Wrought, Special Quality, Mechanical
Properties.
SA-695 Steel Bars, Carbon, Hot-Wrought, Special Quality, for Fluid Power
Applications
SA-696 Steel Bars, Carbon, Hot-Wrought or Cold-Finished, Special Quality,
for Pressure Piping Components
SA-739 Steel Bars, Alloy, Hot-Wrought, for Elevated Temperature or Pressure-
Containing Parts, or Both

Steel Bolting Materials


SA-193/SA-193M Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High-Temperature
Service
SA-194/SA-194M Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High-Pressure and High-
Temperature Service
SA-307 Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60 000 psi Tensile Strength
SA-320/SA-320M Alloy Steel Bolting Materials for Low-Temperature Service
SA-325 Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105 ksi Minimum Tensile
Strength
SA-354 Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts, Studs, and Other Externally
Threaded Fasteners
SA-437/SA-437M Alloy Steel Turbine-Type Bolting Material Specially Heat Treated for
High-Temperature Service. .
SA-449 Quenched and Tempered Steel Bolts and Stud
SA-453/SA-453M High-Temperature Bolting Materials, With Expansion Coefficients
Comparable to Austenitic Steel
SA-540/SA-540M Alloy Steel Bolting Materials for Special Applications
SA-563 Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts
SA-574 Alloy Steel Socket-Head Cap Screws
SA-962/SA-962M Common Requirements for Steel Fasteners or Fastener Materials,
or Both, Intended for Use at Any Temperature from Cryogenic to the
Creep Range
SF-568M Carbon and Alloy Steel Externally Threaded Metric Fasteners

Steel Billets and Forgings


SA-105/SA-105M Carbon Steel Forgings, for Piping Applications
SA-181/SA-181M Carbon Steel Forgings, for General-Purpose Piping
SA-266/SA-266M Carbon Steel Forgings, for Pressure Vessel Components
SA-336/SA-336M Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure and High-Temperature Parts
SA-350/SA-350M Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Forgings, Requiring Notch Toughness
Testing for Piping Components
SA-372/SA-372M Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels
SA-484/SA-484M General Requirements for Stainless Steel Bars, Billets, and Forgings.
SA-508/SA-508M Quenched and Tempered Vacuum-Treated Carbon and Alloy Steel

Forgings for Pressure Vessels


SA-541/SA-541M Quenched and Tempered Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure
Vessel Components.
SA-638/SA-638M Precipitation Hardening Iron Base Superalloy Bars, Forgings, and
Forging Stock for High-Temperature Service
SA-649/SA-649M Forged Steel Rolls, Used for Corrugating Paper Machinery
SA-705/SA-705M Age-Hardening Stainless Steel Forgings.
SA-723/SA-723M Alloy Steel Forgings for High-Strength Pressure Component
Application
SA-745/SA-745M Ultrasonic Examination of Austenitic Steel Forgings
SA-765/SA-765M Carbon Steel and Low-Alloy Steel Pressure-Vessel-Component
Forgings With Mandatory Toughness Requirements.
SA-788 Steel Forgings, General Requirements
SA-836/SA-836M Forgings, Titanium-Stabilized Carbon Steel, for Glass-Lined Piping
and Pressure Vessel Service

Steel Castings
SA-216/SA-216M Steel Castings, Carbon, Suitable for Fusion Welding for High-Temperature
Service
SA-217/SA-217M Steel Castings, Martensitic Stainless and Alloy, for Pressure-Containing
Parts Suitable for High-Temperature Service
SA-351/SA-351M Castings, Austenitic, Austenitic-Ferritic (Duplex), for Pressure-Containing
Parts
SA-352/SA-352M Steel Castings, Ferritic and Martensitic, for Pressure-Containing Parts,
Suitable for Low Temperature Service.
SA-487/SA-487M Steel Castings Suitable for Pressure Service
SA-494/SA-494M Castings, Nickel and Nickel Alloy
SA-609/SA-609M Castings, Carbon, Low-Alloy, and Martensitic Stainless Steel, Ultrasonic
Examination Thereof
SA-667/SA-667M Centrifugally Cast Dual Metal (Gray and White Cast Iron) Cylinders
SA-703/SA-703M Steel Castings, General Requirements, for Pressure-Containing Part
SA-747/SA-747M Steel Castings, Stainless, Precipitation Hardening
SA-781/SA-781M Castings, Steel and Alloy, Common Requirements, for General Industrial
Use
SA-995 Castings, Austenitic-Ferritic (Duplex) Stainless Steel, for Pressure-
Containing Parts

Corrosion-Resisting and Heat-Resisting Steels


SA-182/SA-182M Forged or Rolled Alloy-Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves
and Parts for High-Temperature Service
SA-193/SA-193M Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High-Temperature
Service
SA-194/SA-194M Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High-Pressure or High-
Temperature Service, or Both.
SA-213/SA-213M Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy Steel Boiler, Superheater, and Heat
Exchanger Tubes
SA-216/SA-216M Steel Castings, Carbon, Suitable for Fusion Welding for High-Temperature
Service
SA-217/SA-217M Steel Castings, Martensitic Stainless and Alloy, for Pressure Containing
Parts Suitable for High-Temperature Service
SA-240 Heat-Resisting Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate,
Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels
SA-249/SA-249M Welded Austenitic Steel Boiler, Superheater, Heat Exchanger, and
Condenser Tubes
SA-263 Corrosion-Resisting Chromium Steel Clad Plate, Sheet, and Strip.
SA-264 Stainless Chromium-Nickel Steel Clad Plate, Sheet, and Strip
SA-265 Nickel and Nickel-Base Alloy Clad Steel Plate
SA-268/SA-268M Seamless and Welded Ferritic and Martensitic Stainless Steel Tubing for
General Service
SA-312/SA-312M Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes
SA-320/SA-320M Alloy Steel Bolting Materials for Low-Temperature Service
SA-336/SA-336M Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure and High-Temperature Parts
SA-351/SA-351M Castings, Austenitic, Austenitic-Ferritic (Duplex), for Pressure-Containing
Parts
SA-358/SA-358M Electric-Fusion-Welded Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Alloy Steel Pipe
for High-Temperature Service
SA-369/SA-369M Carbon and Ferritic Alloy Steel Forged and Bored Pipe for High-
Temperature Service
SA-376/SA-376M Seamless Austenitic Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Central-Station
Service
SA-403/SA-403M Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings
SA-409/SA-409M Welded Large Diameter Austenitic Steel Pipe for Corrosive or High-
Temperature Service
SA-426 Centrifugally Cast Ferritic Alloy Steel Pipe for High-Temperature
Service
SA-430/SA-430M Austenitic Steel Forged and Bored Pipe for High-Temperature Service
SA-437/SA-437M Alloy Steel Turbine-Type Bolting Material Specially Heat Treated for
High-Temperature Service.
SA-451 Centrifugally Cast Austenitic Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service.
SA-479/SA-479M Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure
Vessels
SA-484/SA-484M General Requirements for Stainless Steel Bars, Billets, and Forgings.
SA-515/SA-515M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, for Intermediate- and Higher-
Temperature Service
SA-564/SA-564M Hot-Rolled and Cold-Finished Age-Hardening Stainless Steel Bars and
Shapes
SA-638/SA-638M Precipitation Hardening Iron Base Superalloy Bars, Forgings, and
Forging Stock for High-Temperature Service
SA-660 Centrifugally Cast Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
SA-666 Annealed or Cold-Worked Austenitic Stainless Steel Sheet, Strip, Plate
and Flat Bar
SA-691 Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe, Electric-Fusion-Welded for High-
Pressure Service at High Temperatures
SA-705/SA-705M Age-Hardening Stainless and Heat-Resisting Steel Forgings.
SA-789/SA-789M Seamless and Welded Ferritic /Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for
General Service
SA-790/SA-790M Seamless and Welded Ferritic /Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe
SA-814/SA-814M Cold-Worked Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe.
SA-815/SA-815M Wrought Ferritic, Ferritic /Austenitic, and Martensitic Stainless Steel
Piping Fittings

Wrought Iron, Cast Iron, and Malleable Iron


SA-47/SA-47M Ferritic Malleable Iron Castings
SA-278 Gray Iron Castings for Pressure Containing Parts for Temperatures
Up to 650F
SA-395 Ferritic Ductile Iron Pressure-Retaining Castings for Use at Elevated
Temperatures
SA-476/SA-476M Ductile Iron Castings for Paper Mill Dryer Rolls
SA-748/SA-748M Statically Cast Chilled White Iron-Gray Iron Dual Metal Rolls for
Pressure Vessel Use
SA-834 Common Requirements for Iron Castings for General Industrial Use

Methods
SA-275/SA-275M Magnetic Particle Examination of Steel Forgings
SA-370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
SA-388/SA-388M Ultrasonic Examination of Heavy Steel Forgings.
SA-435/SA-435M Straight-Beam Ultrasonic Examination of Steel Plates
SA-577/SA-577M Ultrasonic Angle-Beam Examination of Steel Plates
SA-578/SA-578M Straight-Beam Ultrasonic Examination of Plain and Clad Steel Plates for
Special Applications
SA-745/SA-745M Ultrasonic Examination of Austenitic Steel Forgings
SA-751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemical Analysis of Steel
Products

PART C
FILLER METAL

SFA-5.01 Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines


SFA-5.1 Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding.
SFA-5.2 Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Rods for Oxyfuel Gas Welding
SFA-5.3 Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc
Welding.
SFA-5.4 Stainless Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
SFA-5.5 Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
SFA-5.6 Covered Copper and Copper Alloy Arc Welding Electrodes
SFA-5.7 Copper and Copper Alloy Bare Welding Rods and Electrodes
SFA-5.8 Filler Metals for Brazing and Braze Welding.
SFA-5.9 Bare Stainless Steel Welding Electrodes and Rods
SFA-5.10 Bare Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods
SFA-5.11 Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Welding Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc
Welding.
SFA-5.12 Tungsten and Tungsten-Alloy Electrodes for Arc Welding and
Cutting
SFA-5.13 Surfacing Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding.
SFA-5.14 Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Bare Welding Electrodes and Rods.
SFA-5.15 Welding Electrodes and Rods for Cast Iron
SFA-5.16 Titanium and Titanium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods
SFA-5.17 Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding.
SFA-5.18 Carbon Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding
SFA-5.20 Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding
SFA-5.21 Bare Electrodes and Rods for Surfacing
SFA-5.22 Stainless Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding and Stainless
Steel Flux Cored Rods for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding.
SFA-5.23 Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding
SFA-5.24 Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods.
SFA-5.25 Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Electroslag
Welding.
SFA-5.26 Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Electrogas Welding
SFA-5.28 Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding.
SFA-5.29 Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding.
SFA-5.30 Consumable Inserts .
SFA-5.31 Fluxes for Brazing and Braze Welding
SFA-5.32 Welding Shielding Gases.

GAS
12. Packaging
Gases and gas mixtures shall be packaged in accordance
with Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations
for protection during shipment and normal storage
conditions.6 Cylinder sizes shall be as agreed upon
between purchaser and supplier. Cylinders shall be
labeled in accordance with Sections 13 and 14.
13. Identification
13.1 Individual gas components are identified by the
following codes:
A Argon
C Carbon Dioxide
He Helium
H Hydrogen
N Nitrogen
O Oxygen
The classification system is based on volumetric percentages.
The classification designators remain the same
for both U.S. Customary Units and the SI units. The
shielding gas classification system is composed of the
following designator and number arrangement:
(a) SG Shielding Gas Designator. The letters SG
at the beginning of each classification designation identi-
fies the product as a shielding gas. These letters are followed
by a hyphen.
(b) SG-BBase Gas Designator. Shielding gases are
classified according to chemical composition. The letter
immediately to the right of SG- indicates the singular or
major gas in the shielding gas or mixture (see Fig. 1).
(c) SG-B XYZ Minor Gas Component Designators.
The letter(s) immediately following the base gas indicates
the minor individual gas indicators in decreasing order
of percent. These letters are followed by a hyphen.
(d) SG-B XYZ-%/%/% Percentage Designators. A
slash shall be used to separate the individual minor components
percentages for two or more component mixtures.
See Fig. 2 and Table 4. The percentage designator
shown need not be present on the containers label.
(e) S-B-G Special Gas Mixture. Shielding gases
may be classified as special and carry the G designation.
To compute the minor component range,
multiply the minor component percentage by 0.10 to get
the tolerance figure.
Example:
Ar 25% CO2 SG-AC-25
25 * 0.1 = 2.5
25 2.5 = 22.5
25 + 2.5 = 27.5
Ar with 22.5 to 27.5% CO2
QW-302 Type of Test Required
QW-302.1 Mechanical Tests. Except as may be specified
for special processes (QW-380), the type and number
of test specimens required for mechanical testing shall be
in accordance with QW-452. Groove weld test specimens
shall be removed in a manner similar to that shown in
figures QW-463.2(a) through QW-463.2(h). Fillet weld
test specimens shall be removed in a manner similar to
that shown in figures QW-462.4(a) through QW-462.4(d)
and figure QW-463.2(h).
All mechanical tests shall meet the requirements prescribed
in QW-160 or QW-180, as applicable.
QW-302.2 Radiographic Examination. When the
welder or welding operator is qualified by radiographic
examination, as permitted in QW-304 for welders and
QW-305 for welding operators, the minimum length of
coupon(s) to be examined shall be 6 in. (150 mm) and
shall include the entire weld circumference for pipe(s),
except that for small diameter pipe, multiple coupons
may be required, but the number need not exceed four
consecutively made test coupons. The radiographic technique
and acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with
QW-191.
QW-302.3 Test Coupons in Pipe. For test coupons
made on pipe in position 1G or 2G of figure QW-461.4,
two specimens shall be removed as shown for bend specimens
in figure QW-463.2(d) or figure QW-463.2(e), omitting
the specimens in the upper-right and lower-left
quadrants, and replacing the root-bend specimen in the
upper-left quadrant of figure QW-463.2(d) with a facebend
specimen. For test coupons made on pipe in position
5G or 6G of figure QW-461.4, specimens shall be
removed in accordance with figure QW-463.2(d) or figure
QW-463.2(e) and all four specimens shall pass the test.
For test coupons made in both positions 2G and 5G on
a single pipe test coupon, specimens shall be removed
in accordance with figure QW-463.2(f) or figure
QW-463.2(g).
QW-302.4 Visual Examination. For plate coupons
all surfaces (except areas designated discard) shall be
examined visually per QW-194 before cutting of bend
specimens. Pipe coupons shall be visually examined per
QW-194 over the entire circumference, inside and
outside.

QW-350 WELDING VARIABLES FOR WELDERS

QW-351 General
A welder shall be requalified whenever a change is
made in one or more of the essential variables listed for
each welding process.
Where a combination of welding processes is required
to make a weldment, each welder shall be qualified for
the particular welding process or processes he will be
required to use in production welding. A welder may be
qualified by making tests with each individual welding
process, or with a combination of welding processes in
a single test coupon.
The limits of weld metal thickness for which he will be
qualified are dependent upon the approximate thickness of
the weld metal he deposits with each welding process,
exclusive of any weld reinforcement, this thickness shall
be considered the test coupon thickness as given in
QW-452.
In any given production weldment, welders may not
deposit a thickness greater than that permitted by QW-452
for each welding process in which they are qualified.
QW-140 TYPES AND PURPOSES OF TESTS and EXAMINATIONS

QW-141 Mechanical Tests


Mechanical tests used in procedure or performance
qualification are specified in QW-141.1 through QW-
141.5.
QW-141.1 Tension Tests. Tension tests as described
in QW-150 are used to determine the ultimate strength
of groove-weld joints.
QW-141.2 Guided-Bend Tests. Guided-bend tests as
described in QW-160 are used to determine the degree
of soundness and ductility of groove-weld joints.
QW-141.3 Fillet-Weld Tests. Tests as described in
QW-180 are used to determine the size, contour, and
degree of soundness of fillet welds.
QW-141.4 Notch-Toughness Tests. Tests as
described in QW-171 and QW-172 are used to determine
the notch toughness of the weldment.
QW-141.5 Stud-Weld Test. Deflection bend, hammering,
torque, or tension tests as shown in figures QW-
466.4, QW-466.5, and QW-466.6, and a macro-examination
performed in accordance with QW-202.5, respectively,
are used to determine acceptability of stud welds.
QW-142 Special Examinations for Welders
Radiographic examination may be substituted for
mechanical testing of QW-141 for groove-weld performance
qualification as permitted in QW-304 to prove the
ability of welders to make sound welds.
QW-143 Examination for Welding Operators
An examination of a weld by radiography may be
substituted for mechanical testing of QW-141 for groove
weld performance qualification as permitted in QW-305
to prove the ability of welding operators to make sound
welds.
QW-144 Visual Examination
Visual examination as described in QW-194 is used
to determine that the final weld surfaces meet specified
quality conditions.

RT ACCEPTANCE (WELDER & WELDING OPERATOR)


QW-191.2.2 Acceptance Standards. Welder and
welding operator performance tests by radiography of
welds in test assemblies shall be judged unacceptable
when the radiograph exhibits any imperfections in excess
of the limits specified below.
(a) Linear Indications
(1) any type of crack or zone of incomplete fusion
or penetration
(2) any elongated slag inclusion which has a length
greater than
(a) 18 in. (3 mm) for t up to 38 in. (10 mm),
inclusive
(b) 13t for t over 38 in. (10 mm) to 214 in. (57 mm),
inclusive
(c) 34 in. (19 mm) for t over 214 in. (57 mm)
(3) any group of slag inclusions in line that have
an aggregate length greater than t in a length of 12t, except
when the distance between the successive imperfections
exceeds 6L where L is the length of the longest imperfection
in the group
(b) Rounded Indications
(1) The maximum permissible dimension for
rounded indications shall be 20% of t or 18 in. (3 mm),
whichever is smaller.
(2) For welds in material less than 18 in. (3 mm) in
thickness, the maximum number of acceptable rounded
indications shall not exceed 12 in a 6 in. (150 mm) length
of weld. A proportionately fewer number of rounded
indications shall be permitted in welds less than 6 in.
(150 mm) in length.
(3) For welds in material 18 in. (3 mm) or greater
in thickness, the charts in Appendix I represent the maximum
acceptable types of rounded indications illustrated
in typically clustered, assorted, and randomly dispersed
configurations. Rounded indications less than 132 in
(0.8 mm) in maximum diameter shall not be considered in
the radiographic acceptance tests of welders and welding
operators in these ranges of material thicknesses.
QW-191.2.3 Production Welds. The acceptance
standard for welding operators who qualify on production
welds shall be that specified in the referencing Code
Section. The acceptance standard for welders who qualify
on production welds as permitted by QW-304.1 shall be
per QW-191.2.2.
QW-191.3 Record of Tests. The results of welder
and welding operator performance tests by radiography
shall be recorded in accordance with QW-301.4.
ASME SEC V
RT PROCEDURE REQUIRMENT
T-220 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
T-221 Procedure Requirements
T-221.1 Written Procedure. Radiographic examination
shall be performed in accordance with a written
procedure. Each procedure shall include at least the following
information, as applicable:
(a) material type and thickness range,
(b) isotope or maximum X-ray voltage used,
(c) source-to-object distance (D in T-274.1),
(d) distance from source side of object to film (d in
T-274.1),
(e) source size (F in T-274.1),
(f) film brand and designation, and
(g) screens used.
T-221.2 Procedure Demonstration. Demonstration
of the density and IQI image requirements of the written
procedure on production or technique radiographs shall
be considered satisfactory evidence of compliance with
that procedure.

T-230 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS


T-231 Film
T-231.1 Selection. Radiographs shall be made using
industrial radiographic film.
T-231.2 Processing. Standard Guide for Controlling
the Quality of Industrial Radiographic Film Processing,
SE-999, or paragraphs 23 through 26 of Standard Guide
for Radiographic Examination SE-94 shall be used as a
guide for processing film.
T-232 Intensifying Screens
Intensifying screens may be used when performing
radiographic examination in accordance with this Article.
T-233 Image Quality Indicator (IQI) Design
T-233.1 Standard IQI Design. IQIs shall be either
the hole type or the wire type. Hole-type IQIs shall be
manufactured and identified in accordance with the
requirements or alternates allowed in SE-1025. Wire-type
IQIs shall be manufactured and identified in accordance
with the requirements or alternates allowed in SE-747,
except that the largest wire number or the identity number
may be omitted. ASME standard IQIs shall consist of
those in Table T-233.1 for hole type and those in Table
T-233.2 for wire type.
T-233.2 Alternative IQI Design. IQIs designed and
manufactured in accordance with other national or international
standards may be used provided the requirements
of either (a) or (b) below, and the material requirements
of T-276.1 are met.
(a) Hole Type IQIs. The calculated Equivalent IQI
Sensitivity (EPS), per SE-1025, Appendix X1, is equal
to or better than the required standard hole type IQI.
(b) Wire Type IQIs. The alternative wire IQI essential
wire diameter is equal to or less than the required standard
IQI essential wire.
T-234 Facilities for Viewing of Radiographs
Viewing facilities shall provide subdued background
lighting of an intensity that will not cause troublesome
reflections, shadows, or glare on the radiograph. Equipment
used to view radiographs for interpretation shall
provide a variable light source sufficient for the essential
IQI hole or designated wire to be visible for the specified
density range. The viewing conditions shall be such that
light from around the outer edge of the radiograph or
coming through low-density portions of the radiograph
does not interfere with interpretation.

T-276 IQI Selection


T-276.1 Material. IQIs shall be selected from either
the same alloy material group or grade as identified in
SE-1025, or SE-747, as applicable, or from an alloy material
group or grade with less radiation absorption than
the material being radiographed.
T-276.2 Size. The designated hole IQI or essential
wire shall be as specified in Table T-276. A thinner or
thicker hole-type IQI may be substituted for any section
thickness listed in Table T-276, provided an equivalent
IQI sensitivity is maintained. See T-283.2.
(a) Welds With Reinforcements. The thickness on
which the IQI is based is the nominal single-wall thickness
plus the estimated weld reinforcement not to exceed
the maximum permitted by the referencing Code Section.
Backing rings or strips shall not be considered as part of
the thickness in IQI selection. The actual measurement
of the weld reinforcement is not required.
(b) Welds Without Reinforcements. The thickness on
which the IQI is based is the nominal single-wall thickness.
Backing rings or strips shall not be considered as
part of the weld thickness in IQI selection.
T-280 EVALUATION
T-281 Quality of Radiographs
All radiographs shall be free from mechanical, chemical,
or other blemishes to the extent that they do not mask
and are not confused with the image of any discontinuity
in the area of interest of the object being radiographed.
Such blemishes include, but are not limited to:
(a) fogging;
(b) processing defects such as streaks, watermarks, or
chemical stains;
(c) scratches, finger marks, crimps, dirtiness, static
marks, smudges, or tears;
(d) false indications due to defective screens.
T-282 Radiographic Density
T-282.1 Density Limitations. The transmitted film
density through the radiographic image of the body of
the appropriate hole IQI or adjacent to the designated
wire of a wire IQI and the area of interest shall be 1.8
minimum for single film viewing for radiographs made
with an X-ray source and 2.0 minimum for radiographs
made with a gamma ray source. For composite viewing
of multiple film exposures, each film of the composite
set shall have a minimum density of 1.3. The maximum
density shall be 4.0 for either single or composite viewing.
A tolerance of 0.05 in density is allowed for variations
between densitometer readings.
T-282.2 Density Variation
(a) General. If the density of the radiograph anywhere
through the area of interest varies by more than minus
15% or plus 30% from the density through the body of
the hole IQI or adjacent to the designated wire of a wire
IQI, within the minimum/maximum allowable density
ranges specified in T-282.1, then an additional IQI shall be
used for each exceptional area or areas and the radiograph
retaken. When calculating the allowable variation in density,
the calculation may be rounded to the nearest 0.1
within the range specified in T-282.1.
(b) With Shims. When shims are used with hole-type
IQIs, the plus 30% density restriction of (a) above may
be exceeded, and the minimum density requirements of
T-282.1 do not apply for the IQI, provided the required
IQI sensitivity of T-283.1 is met.
T-283 IQI Sensitivity
T-283.1 Required Sensitivity. Radiography shall be
performed with a technique of sufficient sensitivity to
display the designated hole IQI image and the 2T hole,
or the essential wire of a wire IQI. The radiographs shall
also display the IQI identifying numbers and letters. If
the designated hole IQI image and 2T hole, or essential
wire, do not show on any film in a multiple film technique,
but do show in composite film viewing, interpretation
shall be permitted only by composite film viewing.
T-283.2 Equivalent Hole-Type Sensitivity. A thinner
or thicker hole-type IQI than the required IQI may
be substituted, provided an equivalent or better IQI sensitivity,
as listed in Table T-283, is achieved and all other
requirements for radiography are met. Equivalent IQI
sensitivity is shown in any row of Table T-283, which
contains the required IQI and hole. Better IQI sensitivity
is shown in any row of Table T-283, which is above the
equivalent sensitivity row. If the required IQI and hole
are not represented in the table, the next thinner IQI row
from Table T-283 may be used to establish equivalent
IQI sensitivity.
T-284 Excessive Backscatter
If a light image of the B, as described in T-223,
appears on a darker background of the radiograph, protec-
tion from backscatter is insufficient and the radiograph
shall be considered unacceptable. A dark image of the
B on a lighter background is not cause for rejection.
T-285 Evaluation by Manufacturer
The Manufacturer shall be responsible for the review,
interpretation, evaluation, and acceptance of the completed
radiographs to assure compliance with the requirements
of Article 2 and the referencing Code Section. As
an aid to the review and evaluation, the radiographic
technique documentation required by T-291 shall be completed
prior to the evaluation. The radiograph review
form required by T-292 shall be completed during the
evaluation. The radiographic technique details and the
radiograph review form documentation shall accompany
the radiographs. Acceptance shall be completed prior to
presentation of the radiographs and accompanying documentation
to the Inspector.

T-290 DOCUMENTATION
T-291 Radiographic Technique
Documentation Details
The Manufacturer shall prepare and document the
radiographic technique details. As a minimum, the following
information shall be provided.
(a) identification as required by T-224
(b) the dimensional map (if used) of marker placement
in accordance with T-275.3
(c) number of radiographs (exposures)
(d) X-ray voltage or isotope type used
(e) source size (F in T-274.1)
(f) base material type and thickness, weld thickness,
weld reinforcement thickness, as applicable
(g) source-to-object distance (D in T-274.1)
(h) distance from source side of object to film (d in
T-274.1)
(i) film manufacturer and Manufacturers type/designation
(j) number of film in each film holder/cassette
(k) single- or double-wall exposure
(l) single- or double-wall viewing
T-292 Radiograph Review Form
The Manufacturer shall prepare a radiograph review
form. As a minimum, the following information shall be
provided.
(a) a listing of each radiograph location
(b) the information required in T-291, by inclusion or
by reference
(c) evaluation and disposition of the material(s) or
weld(s) examined
(d) identification (name) of the Manufacturers representative
who performed the final acceptance of the radiographs
(e) date of Manufacturers evaluation
ASME
T-421 Written Procedure Requirements
T-421.1 Requirements. Ultrasonic examination shall
be performed in accordance with a written procedure
which shall, as a minimum, contain the requirements
listed in Table T-421. The written procedure shall establish
a single value, or range of values, for each
requirement.
T-421.2 Procedure Qualification. When procedure
qualification is specified, a change of a requirement in
Table T-421 identified as an essential variable from the
specified value, or range of values, shall require requali-
fication of the written procedure. A change of a requirement
identified as a nonessential variable from the
specified value, or range of values, does not require
requalification of the written procedure. All changes of
essential or nonessential variables from the value, or
range of values, specified by the written procedure shall
require revision of, or an addendum to, the written procedure.

T-430 EQUIPMENT
T-431 Instrument Requirements
A pulse-echo-type of ultrasonic instrument shall be
used. The instrument shall be capable of operation at
frequencies over the range of at least 1 MHz to 5 MHz
and shall be equipped with a stepped gain control in units
of 2.0 dB or less. If the instrument has a damping control,
it may be used if it does not reduce the sensitivity of
the examination. The reject control shall be in the off
position for all examinations, unless it can be demonstrated
that it does not affect the linearity of the examination.
The instrument, when required because of the technique
being used, shall have both send and receive jacks
for operation of dual search units or a single search unit
with send and receive transducers.
T-432 Search Units
T-432.1 General. The nominal frequency shall be
from 1 MHz to 5 MHz unless variables, such as production
material grain structure, require the use of other
frequencies to assure adequate penetration or better resolution.
Search units with contoured contact wedges may
be used to aid ultrasonic coupling.
T-432.2 CladdingSearch Units for Technique
One.1 Dual element search units using an angled pitchcatch
technique shall be used. The included angle between
the beam paths shall be such that the effective focal spot
of the search unit is centered in the area of interest.
T-433 Couplant
T-433.1 General. The couplant, including additives,
shall not be detrimental to the material being examined.
T-433.2 Control of Contaminants
(a) Couplants used on nickel base alloys shall not
contain more than 250 ppm of sulfur.
(b) Couplants used on austenitic stainless steel or titanium
shall not contain more than 250 ppm of halides
(chlorides plus fluorides).
T-434 Calibration Blocks
T-434.1 General
T-434.1.1 Reflectors. Known reflectors (i.e., side
drilled holes, flat bottom holes, notches, etc.) shall be used
to establish primary reference responses of the equipment.
T-434.1.2 Material. The material from which the
block is fabricated shall be of the same product form,
and material specification or equivalent P-Number grouping
as one of the materials being examined. For the purposes
of this paragrpah, P-Nos. 1, 3, 4, and 5 materials
are considered equivalent.
T-434.1.3 Quality. Prior to fabrication, the block
material shall be completely examined with a straight
beam search unit. Areas that contain an indication
exceeding the remaining back-wall reflection shall be
excluded from the beam paths required to reach the various
calibration reflectors.
T-434.1.4 Cladding. When the component material
is clad, the block shall be clad by the same welding
procedure as the production part. It is desirable to have
component materials which have been clad before the
drop outs or prolongations are removed. When the cladding
is deposited using an automatic welding process,
and, if due to block size, the automatic welding process
is impractical, deposition of clad may be by the manual
method.
T-434.1.5 Heat Treatment. The calibration block
shall receive at least the minimum tempering treatment
required by the material specification for the type and
grade. If the calibration block contains welds other than
cladding, and the component weld at the time of the
examination has been heat treated, the block shall receive
the same heat treatment.

T-480 EVALUATION
T-481 General
It is recognized that not all ultrasonic reflectors indicate
flaws, since certain metallurgical discontinuities and geometric
conditions may produce indications that are not
relevant. Included in this category are plate segregates
in the heat-affected zone that become reflective after fabrication.
Under straight beam examination, these may
appear as spot or line indications. Under angle beam
examination, indications that are determined to originate
from surface conditions (such as weld root geometry) or
variations in metallurgical structure in austenitic materials
(such as the automatic-to-manual weld clad interface)
may be classified as geometric indications. The identity,
maximum amplitude, location, and extent of reflector
causing a geometric indication shall be recorded. [For
example: internal attachment, 200% DAC, 1 in. (25 mm)
above weld center line, on the inside surface, from 90
deg to 95 deg.] The following steps shall be taken to
classify an indication as geometric:
(a) Interpret the area containing the reflector in accordance
with the applicable examination procedure.
(b) Plot and verify the reflector coordinates. Prepare
a cross-sectional sketch showing the reflector position
and surface discontinuities such as root and counterbore.
(c) Review fabrication or weld preparation drawings.
Other ultrasonic techniques or nondestructive examination
methods may be helpful in determining a reflectors
true position, size, and orientation.
T-482 Evaluation Level
T-482.1 Distance Amplitude Techniques. All indications
greater than 20% of the reference level shall be
investigated to the extent that they can be evaluated in
terms of the acceptance criteria of the referencing Code
Section.
T-482.2 Non-Distance Amplitude Techniques. All
indications longer than 40% of the rejectable flaw size
shall be investigated to the extent that they can be evaluated
in terms of the acceptance criteria of the referencing
Code Section.
T-483 Evaluation of Laminar Reflectors
Reflectors evaluated as laminar reflectors in base material
which interfere with the scanning of examination
volumes shall require the angle beam examination technique
to be modified such that the maximum feasible
volume is examined, and shall be noted in the record of
the examination (T-493).
T-484 Alternative Evaluations
Reflector dimensions exceeding the referencing Code
Section requirements may be evaluated to any alternative
standards provided by the referencing Code Section.

T-490 DOCUMENTATION
T-491 Recording Indications
T-491.1 Non-Rejectable Indications. Non-rejectable
indications shall be recorded as specified by the referencing
Code Section.
T-491.2 Rejectable Indications. Rejectable indications
shall be recorded. As a minimum, the type of indication
(i.e., crack, non-fusion, slag, etc.), location, and
extent (i.e., length) shall be recorded.
T-492 Examination Records
For each ultrasonic examination, the following information
shall be recorded:
(a) procedure identification and revision;
(b) ultrasonic instrument identification (including
manufacturers serial number);
(c) search unit(s) identification (including manufacturers
serial number, frequency, and size);
(d) beam angle(s) used;
(e) couplant used, brand name or type;
(f) search unit cable(s) used, type and length;
(g) special equipment when used (search units,
wedges, shoes, automatic scanning equipment, recording
equipment, etc.)
(h) computerized program identification and revision
when used;
(i) calibration block identification;
(j) simulation block(s) and electronic simulator(s)
identification when used;
(k) instrument reference level gain and, if used, damping
and reject setting(s);
(l) calibration data [including reference reflector(s),
indication amplitude(s), and distance reading(s)];
(m) data correlating simulation block(s) and electronic
simulator(s), when used, with initial calibration;
(n) identification and location of weld or volume
scanned;
(o) surface(s) from which examination was conducted,
including surface condition;
(p) map or record of rejectable indications detected or
areas cleared;
(q) areas of restricted access or inaccessible welds;
(r) examination personnel identity and, when required
by referencing Code Section, qualification level;
(s) date and time examinations were performed.
Items (b) through (m) may be included in a separate
calibration record provided the calibration record identi-
fication is included in the examination record.
T-621 Written Procedure Requirements
T-621.1 Requirements. Liquid penetrant examination
shall be performed in accordance with a written
procedure which shall as a minimum, contain the requirements
listed in Table T-621. The written procedure shall
establish a single value, or range of values, for each
requirement.
T-621.2 Procedure Qualification. When procedure
qualification is specified, a change of requirement in
Table T-621 identified as an essential variable from the
specified value, or range of values, shall require requali-
fication of the written procedure. A change of a requirement
identified as a nonessential variable from the
specified value, or range of values, does not require
requalification of the written procedure. All changes of
essential or nonessential variables from the value, or
range of values, specified by the written procedure shall
require revision of, or an addendum to, the written procedure.

T-630 EQUIPMENT
The term penetrant materials, as used in this Article,
is intended to include all penetrants, emulsifiers, solvents
or cleaning agents, developers, etc., used in the examination
process. The descriptions of the liquid penetrant
classifications and material types are provided in SE-165
of Article 24

T-676 Interpretation
T-676.1 Final Interpretation. Final interpretation
shall be made within 10 to 60 min after the requirements
of T-675.3 are satisfied. If bleed-out does not alter the
examination results, longer periods are permitted. If the
surface to be examined is large enough to preclude complete
examination within the prescribed or established
time, the examination shall be performed in increments.
T-676.2 Characterizing Indication(s). The type of
discontinuities are difficult to evaluate if the penetrant
diffuses excessively into the developer. If this condition
occurs, close observation of the formation of indication(s)
during application of the developer may assist in characterizing
and determining the extent of the indication(s).
T-676.3 Color Contrast Penetrants. With a color
contrast penetrant, the developer forms a reasonably uniform
white coating. Surface discontinuities are indicated
by bleed-out of the penetrant which is normally a deep
red color that stains the developer. Indications with a light
pink color may indicate excessive cleaning. Inadequate
cleaning may leave an excessive background making
interpretation difficult. A minimum light intensity of 100
fc (1000 Lx) is required on the surface to be examined
to ensure adequate sensitivity during the examination
and evaluation of indications. The light source, technique
used, and light level verification is required to be demonstrated
one time, documented, and maintained on file.
T-676.4 Fluorescent Penetrants. With fluorescent
penetrants, the process is essentially the same as in
T-676.3, with the exception that the examination is performed
using an ultraviolet light, called black light. The
examination shall be performed as follows:
(a) It shall be performed in a darkened area.
(b) The examiner shall be in the darkened area for at
least 5 min prior to performing the examination to enable
his eyes to adapt to dark viewing. If the examiner wears
glasses or lenses, they shall not be photosensitive.
(c) The black light shall be allowed to warm up for a
minimum of 5 min prior to use or measurement of the
intensity of the ultraviolet light emitted. Reflectors and
filters should be checked and cleaned daily when in use.
Cracked or broken filters shall be replaced immediately.
(d) The black light intensity shall be measured with a
black light meter. A minimum of 1000 W/cm2 on the
surface of the part being examined shall be required. The
black light intensity shall be reverified at least once every
8 hr, whenever the work station is changed, or whenever
the bulb is changed.

T-680 EVALUATION
(a) All indications shall be evaluated in terms of the
acceptance standards of the referencing Code Section.
(b) Discontinuities at the surface will be indicated by
bleed-out of penetrant; however, localized surface irregularities
due to machining marks or other surface conditions
may produce false indications.
(c) Broad areas of fluorescence or pigmentation which
could mask indications of discontinuities are unacceptable,
and such areas shall be cleaned and reexamined.
T-690 DOCUMENTATION
T-691 Recording of Indications
T-691.1 Nonrejectable Indications. Nonrejectable
indications shall be recorded as specified by the referencing
Code Section.
T-691.2 Rejectable Indications. Rejectable indications
shall be recorded. As a minimum, the type of indications
(linear or rounded), location and extent (length or
diameter or aligned) shall be recorded.
T-721 Written Procedure Requirements
T-721.1 Requirements. Magnetic particle examination
shall be performed in accordance with a written
procedure, which shall, as a minimum, contain the
requirements listed in Table T-721. The written procedure
shall establish a single value, or range of values, for each
requirement.
T-721.2 Procedure Qualification. When procedure
qualification is specified, a change of a requirement in
Table T-721 identified as an essential variable from the
specified value, or range of values, shall require requali-
fication of the written procedure. A change of a requirement
identified as a nonessential variable from the
specified value, or range of values, does not require
requalification of the written procedure. All changes of
essential or nonessential variables from the value, or
range of values, specified by the written procedure shall
require revision of, or an addendum to, the written procedure.

T-730 EQUIPMENT
A suitable and appropriate means for producing the
necessary magnetic flux in the part shall be employed,
using one or more of the techniques listed in and described
in T-750.

T-731 Examination Medium


The finely divided ferromagnetic particles used for the
examination shall meet the following requirements.
(a) Particle Types. The particles shall be treated to
impart color (fluorescent pigments, nonfluorescent pigments,
or both) in order to make them highly visible
(contrasting) against the background of the surface being
examined.
(b) Particles. Dry and wet particles, including wet
particle suspension vehicles, and particle concentration
shall be in accordance with SE-709.
(c) Temperature Limitations. Particles shall be used
within the temperature range limitations set by the manufacturer
of the particles. Alternatively, particles may be
used outside the particle manufacturers recommendations
providing the procedure is qualified in accordance
with Article 1, T-150 at the proposed temperature.

T-750 TECHNIQUE
T-751 Techniques
One or more of the following five magnetization techniques
shall be used:
(a) prod technique;
(b) longitudinal magnetization technique;
(c) circular magnetization technique;
(d) yoke technique;
(e) multidirectional magnetization technique.

T-752 Prod Technique


T-752.1 Magnetizing Procedure. For the prod technique,
magnetization is accomplished by portable prod
type electrical contacts pressed against the surface in the
area to be examined. To avoid arcing, a remote control
switch, which may be built into the prod handles, shall
be provided to permit the current to be applied after the
prods have been properly positioned.
T-752.2 Magnetizing Current. Direct or rectified
magnetizing current shall be used. The current shall be
100 (minimum) amp/in. (4 amp/mm) to 125 (maximum)
amp/in. (5 amp/mm) of prod spacing for sections 34 in.

T-755 Yoke Technique


T-755.1 Application. This method shall only be
applied to detect discontinuities that are open to the surface
of the part.
T-755.2 Magnetizing Procedure. For this technique,
alternating or direct current electromagnetic yokes, or
permanent magnet yokes, shall be used.
NOTE: For greater materials 14 in. (6 mm) or less in thickness, alternating
current yokes are superior to direct or permanent magnet yokes of
equal lifting power for the detection of surface discontinuities.

T-760 CALIBRATION
T-761 Frequency of Calibration
T-761.1 Magnetizing Equipment
(a) Frequency. Magnetizing equipment with an
ammeter shall be calibrated at least once a year, or whenever
the equipment has been subjected to major electric
repair, periodic overhaul, or damage. If equipment has
not been in use for a year or more, calibration shall be
done prior to first use.
(b) Procedure. The accuracy of the units meter shall
be verified annually by equipment traceable to a national
standard. Comparative readings shall be taken for at least
three different current output levels encompassing the
usable range.
(c) Tolerance. The units meter reading shall not deviate
by more than 10% of full scale, relative to the actual
current value as shown by the test meter.
T-761.2 Light Meters. Light meters, both visible and
fluorescent (black) light meters, shall be calibrated at
least once a year or whenever the meter has been repaired.
If meters have not been in use for one year or more,
calibration shall be done before being used.
T-762 Lifting Power of Yokes
(a) Prior to use, the magnetizing power of electromagnetic
yokes shall have been checked within the past year.
The magnetizing power of permanent magnetic yokes
shall be checked daily prior to use. The magnetizing
power of all yokes shall be checked whenever the yoke
has been damaged or repaired.
(b) Each alternating current electromagnetic yoke
shall have a lifting power of at least 10 lb (4.5 kg) at the
maximum pole spacing that will be used.
(c) Each direct current or permanent magnetic yoke
shall have a lifting power of at least 40 lb (18 kg) at the
maximum pole spacing that will be used.
(d) Each weight shall be weighed with a scale from a
reputable manufacturer and stenciled with the applicable
nominal weight prior to first use. A weight need only be
verified again if damaged in a manner that could have
caused potential loss of material

T-770 EXAMINATION
T-771 Preliminary Examination
Before the magnetic particle examination is conducted,
a check of the examination surface shall be conducted to
locate any discontinuity surface openings which may not
attract and hold magnetic particles because of their width.
T-772 Direction of Magnetization
At least two separate examinations shall be performed
on each area. During the second examination, the lines
of magnetic flux shall be approximately perpendicular
to those used during the first examination. A different
technique for magnetization may be used for the second
examination.
T-773 Method of Examination
The ferromagnetic particles used in an examination
medium can be either wet or dry, and may be either
fluorescent or nonfluorescent. Examination(s) shall be
done by the continuous method.
(a) Dry Particles. The magnetizing current shall
remain on while the examination medium is being applied
and while any excess of the examination medium is
removed.
(b) Wet Particles. The magnetizing current shall be
turned on after the particles have been applied. Flow of
particles shall stop with the application of current. Wet
particles applied from aerosol spray cans may be applied
before and/or after magnetizing current is applied. Wet
particles may be applied during the application of magnetizing
current if they are not applied directly to the
examination area and are allowed to flow over the examination
area or are applied directly to the examination area
with low velocities insufficient to remove accumulated
particles.
T-774 Examination Coverage
All examinations shall be conducted with sufficient
field overlap to ensure 100% coverage at the required
sensitivity (T-764).
T-775 Rectified Current
(a) Whenever direct current is required rectified current
may be used. The rectified current for magnetization
shall be either three-phase (full-wave rectified) current,
or single phase (half-wave rectified) current.
(b) The amperage required with three-phase, full-wave
rectified current shall be verified by measuring the average
current.
(c) The amperage required with single-phase (halfwave
rectified) current shall be verified by measuring
the average current output during the conducting half
cycle only.
(d) When measuring half-wave rectified current with
a direct current test meter, readings shall be multiplied
by two.
T-776 Excess Particle Removal
Accumulations of excess dry particles in examinations
shall be removed with a light air stream from a bulb or
syringe or other source of low pressure dry air. The
examination current or power shall be maintained while
removing the excess particles.

T-777 Interpretation
The interpretation shall identify if an indication as
false, nonrelevant, or relevant. False and nonrelevant indications
shall be proven as false or nonrelevant. Interpretation
shall be carried out to identify the locations of
indications and the character of the indication.
T-777.1 Visible (Color Contrast) Magnetic Particles.
Surface discontinuities are indicated by accumulations
of magnetic particles which should contrast with
the examination surface. The color of the magnetic particles
shall be sufficiently different than the color of the
examination surface. A minimum light intensity of 100
fc (1000 Lx) is required on the surface to be examined
to ensure adequate sensitivity during the examination
and evaluation of indications. The light source, technique
used, and light level verification is required to be demonstrated
one time, documented, and maintained on file.
T-777.2 Fluorescent Magnetic Particles. With fluorescent
magnetic particles, the process is essentially the
same as in T-777.1, with the exception that the examination
is performed using an ultraviolet light, called black
light. The examination shall be performed as follows:
(a) It shall be performed in a darkened area.
(b) The examiner shall be in the darkened area for at
least 5 min prior to performing the examination to enable
their eyes to adapt to dark viewing. If the examiner wears
glasses or lenses, they shall not be photosensitive.
(c) The black light shall be allowed to warm up for a
minimum of 5 min prior to use or measurement of the
intensity of the ultraviolet light emitted. Reflectors and
filters should be checked and cleaned daily when in use.
Cracked or broken filters shall be replaced immediately.
(d) The black light intensity shall be measured with a
black light meter. A minimum of 1000 W/cm2 on the
surface to be examined is required. The black light intensity
shall be verified at least once every 8 hr, whenever
the work station is changed, or whenever the bulb is
changed.

T-780 EVALUATION
(a) All indications shall be evaluated in terms of the
acceptance standards of the referencing Code Section.
(b) Discontinuities on or near the surface are indicated
by retention of the examination medium. However, localized
surface irregularities due to machining marks or
other surface conditions may produce false indications.
(c) Broad areas of particle accumulation, which might
mask indications from discontinuities, are prohibited, and
such areas shall be cleaned and reexamined.

T-790 DOCUMENTATION
T-791 Multidirectional Magnetization
Technique Sketch
A technique sketch shall be prepared for each different
geometry examined, showing the part geometry, cable
arrangement and connections, magnetizing current for
each circuit, and the areas of examination where adequate
field strengths are obtained. Parts with repetitive geometries,
but different dimensions, may be examined using
a single sketch provided that the magnetic field strength is
adequate when demonstrated in accordance with T-755.2.
T-792 Recording of Indications
T-792.1 Nonrejectable Indications. Nonrejectable
indications shall be recorded as specified by the referencing
Code Section.
T-792.2 Rejectable Indications. Rejectable indications
shall be recorded. As a minimum, the type of indications
(linear or rounded), location and extent (length or
diameter or aligned) shall be recorded.
T-920 GENERAL
T-921 Written Procedure Requirements
T-921.1 Requirements. Visual examinations shall be
performed in accordance with a written procedure, which
shall, as a minimum, contain the requirements listed in
Table T-921. The written procedure shall establish a single
value, or range of values, for each requirement.
T-921.2 Procedure Qualification. When procedure
qualification is specified, a change of a requirement in
Table T-921 identified as an essential variable shall
require requalification of the written procedure by demonstration.
A change of a requirement identified as a nonessential
variable does not require requalification of the
written procedure. All changes of essential or nonessential
variables from those specified within the written procedure
shall require revision of, or an addendum to, the
written procedure.
T-921.3 Demonstration. The procedure shall contain
or reference a report of what was used to deomonstrate
that the examination procedure was adequate. In general,
a fine line 132 in. (0.8 mm) or less in width, an artificial
imperfection or a simulated condition, located on the
surface or a similar surface to that to be examined, may
be considered as a method for procedure demonstration.
The condition or artificial imperfection should be in the
least discernable location on the area surface to be examined
to validate the procedure.

T-950 TECHNIQUE
T-951 Applications
Visual examination is generally used to determine such
things as the surface condition of the part, alignment of
mating surfaces, shape, or evidence of leaking. In addition,
visual examination is used to determine a composite
materials (translucent laminate) subsurface conditions.
T-952 Direct Visual Examination
Direct visual examination may usually be made when
access is sufficient to place the eye within 24 in. (600
mm) of the surface to be examined and at an angle not
less than 30 deg. to the surface to be examined. Mirrors
may be used to improve the angle of vision, and aids such
as a magnifying lens may be used to assist examinations.
Illumination (natural or supplemental white light) for the
specific part, component, vessel, or section thereof being
examined is required. The minimum light intensity at the
examination surface/site shall be 100 footcandles (1000
lux). The light source, technique used, and light level
verification is required to be demonstrated one time, documented,
and maintained on file.
T-953 Remote Visual Examination
In some cases, remote visual examination may have
to be substituted for direct examination. Remote visual
examination may use visual aids such as mirrors, telescopes,
borescopes, fiber optics, cameras, or other suitable
instruments. Such systems shall have a resolution capability
at least equivalent to that obtainable by direct visual
observation.
T-954 Translucent Visual Examination
Translucent visual examination is a supplement of
direct visual examination. The method of translucent
visual examination uses the aid of artificial lighting,
which can be contained in an illuminator that produces
directional lighting. The illuminator shall provide light
of an intensity that will illuminate and diffuse the light
evenly through the area or region under examination. The
ambient lighting must be so arranged that there are no
surface glares or reflections from the surface under examination
and shall be less than the light applied through
the area or region under examination. The artificial light
source shall have sufficient intensity to permit candling
any translucent laminate thickness variations.

T-990 DOCUMENTATION
T-991 Report of Examination
T-991.1 A written report of the examination shall
contain the following information:
(a) the date of the examination;
(b) procedure identification and revision used;
(c) technique used;
(d) results of the examination;
(e) examination personnel identity, and, when required
by the referencing Code Section, qualification level;
(f) identification of the part or component examined.
T-991.2 Even though dimensions, etc., were recorded
in the process of visual examination to aid in the evaluation,
there need not be documentation of each viewing
or each dimensional check. Documentation shall include
all observation and dimensional checks specified by the
referencing Code Section.
T-992 Performance Documentation
Documentation of performance demonstration shall be
completed when required by the referencing Code
Section.
T-993 Record Maintenance
Records shall be maintained as required by the referencing
Code Section.
5 General Requirements
5.1 General Instruction GI-0002.102 "Pressure Testing Safely"
5.2 Pneumatic testing
5.2.1 Pneumatic testing is not permitted without written
5.2.2 Pneumatic testing with air of piping systems or equ
5.3 The effect of the static head of the testing liquid shall be co
5.4 Test pressures and test durations shall be based on the appl
5.5 Protection from Overpressure
All systems (piping and equipment) while being pressur
5.5.1 Relief valve(s) of adequate capacity set to relieve a
5.5.2 In addition to the pressure relieving device, a bleed
5.5.3 An isolation valve shall be provided between the p
5.5.4 Before employing the pressure testing manifold in
5.6 Pressure Test Procedure
5.6.1 A pressure test procedure shall be prepared by the
The pressure test procedure shall include all requir
During a pneumatic pressure test a leak test shall b
5.6.2 A request for NDT in lieu of pressure testing shall
Commentary Note:
The plant manager will sign the form for existing
5.7 The requirement for pre start-up leak tests and service tests
5.7.1 New systems after strength tests and prior to initia
5.7.1. For systems with maximum operating pressu
5.7.1. For systems with maximum operating pressu
5.7.2 Existing systems after T&Is:
5.7.2. For systems with maximum operating pressu
5.7.2. A pre start-up leak test with inert gas shall b
5.7.2. The pre start-up leak test shall be followed b
Commentary Note:
A major T&I is defined as either a catalyst chang
5.7.2. For all other systems and pressures, a pre sta
5.7.2. Procedures for both pre start-up leak tests an
5.8 If the drop in ambient temperature may cause the test medi
6 Specific Testing Requirement
This section specifies in details which piping or equipment that shall be pressure tested and provides the
6.1 Plant Piping
Pressure testing of plant piping shall be in accordance with SAES-L-150.
6.2 Cross-Country Pipelines
PressuretestingofcrosscountrypipelinesshallbeinaccordanceofSAESL150.
6.3 Pressure Vessels
6.3.1 Hydrostatic testing for new vessels (shop or field f
ASME Section VIII, D1 to SAMSS-004, Paragraph 16.3.8.1.
ASME Section VIII, D2 to SAMSS-004, Paragraph 16.3.8.2.
6.3.2 Hydrostatic testing for existing vessels shall be con
6.3.3 Pneumatic test, when approved (refer to paragraph
6.4 Heat Transfer Equipment
6.4.1 Hydrostatic tests for existing equipment shall be in
6.4.2 For pneumatic testing, refer to paragraph 6.3.2.
6.4.3 Hydrostatic testing of new, field fabricated boilers
Hydrostatic test for new, field fabricated heater tube assembly shall be in accordance wi
6.4.4 Tube bundles which have been removed from the e
6.4.5 Fin fan exchangers shall be strength tested in-situ
6.4.5. Prior to final acceptance for all new projects
6.4.5. For maintenance purpose if exchanger has b
6.5 Tanks
6.5.1 For new, field fabricated tanks, the hydrostatic test
6.5.2 For existing tanks, the hydrostatic testing shall be
32-SAMSS-005/006 as applicable.
6.6 Fire Protection Systems
Pressure testing of new and existing fire protection systems shall be in accordance with SAES-B
6.7 Refrigerant Piping Systems
Refrigerant piping serving building air conditioning systems shall be tested according to the requ
6.8 Potable Water Systems
Potable water piping inside buildings shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of the
Potable water piping outside of buildings shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of
6.9 Utility Piping Systems
Utility piping systems, including irrigation piping and water distribution mains, shall be tested in
6.1 Industrial Drainage and Sewers
Industrial drainage and sewers shall be tested in accordance with SAES-S-020.
6.11 Sanitary Sewers
Sanitary sewer systems within buildings shall be tested per requirements of the Uniform Plumbi
Sanitary sewer lines outside of buildings shall be tested in accordance with SAES-S-070.
6.12 Storm Water Drainage Systems
Storm water drainage systems shall be tested per SAES-S-030.
6.13 Miscellaneous Building Services Piping
Steam and condensate piping outside the jurisdiction of ASME B31.3, heating and cooling wate
6.14 Gas Cylinders
Gas cylinders shall be tested per Saudi Aramco Bottled Gas Manual.
6.15 Valves
Valves shall be tested in accordance with SAES-L-108.
6.16 Non Metallic Piping
Non metallic piping such as RTR, Thermoplastic, PVC/UPVC and CPVC shall be tested in acco
7 Test Preparation
7.1 Site Preparation
7.1.1 An approved test procedure shall be available at th
7.1.2 New piping systems shall be cleaned in accordanc
7.1.3 Soft seated valves and control valves shall not be i
7.1.4 Components in new piping systems which interfer
7.1.5 Pressure gauges and pressure recorders shall be ca
a) The calibration interval shall not exceed one
b) All gauges shall have a range such that the t
c) A minimum of two pressure gauges are requ
d) When large systems are tested, Inspection pe
e) Recording gauges shall be used where it is n
7.1.6 Expansion joints and spring hangers or spring supp
7.2 Equipment Excluded from Pressure Test
The following list defines the equipment that shall be excluded from the in-situ pressure testing
a) Rotating machinery, such as pumps, turbines and com
b) Strainers and filter elements;
c) Pressure relieving devices, such as rupture disks and
d) Locally mounted indicating pressure gauges, where t
e) Equipment that cannot be drained;
f) Instrument Devices.
7.3 Isolation of Test Sections
Paddle blinds or spectacle blinds shall be used to isolate the test sections. They shall be the sam
When a block valve is used for isolating test sections, the differential pressure across the valve s
7.4 Vents and Drains
7.4.1 Vents shall be provided at all high points in the tes
7.4.2 Excluding scrapable, submarine and buried pipelin
7.4.3 Unless the check valve has a by-pass valve, the dis
7.5 Temporary Connections and Supports
7.5.1 Temporary connections shall be provided for de-pr
7.5.2 Temporary supports shall be installed prior to hydr
8 Test Procedures
8.1 The test procedures shall be conducted in accordance with
8.1.1 Filling and pressurizing shall be done on the upstre
8.1.2 After the test pressure is reached and before comm
8.1.3 During the application of the test pressure, all in-li
8.2 All piping and equipment shall comply with the lay-up pro
SAES-A-007.
8.3 Test Records shall be recorded on Pressure Test Report For
9 After Completion of Pressure Test
After pressure testing has been successfully completed and approved by the Owner's Inspector, the follow
9.1 Draining of Test Fluid
Release of pressure and draining shall be done on the downstream side of check valves. All ven
9.2 Disposal of Test Fluid
The test fluid shall be disposed in accordance with SAEP-327 or as directed by the Owner.
9.3 Test Vents and Drains
Vents and drains used only for the pressure test shall be plugged, seal welded and penetrant teste
9.4 Removal and Reconnection of Components
All temporary items installed for testing purposes (e.g., manifolds, valves, blinds, spacers, suppo
Items that were removed from testing shall be reinstalled.
Items, such as instrument air tubing, check valve discs which were disconnected before testing s
Isolation valves closed for the test purposes and that are required to be in the open position for p
Pressure Testing Safely" shall be followed during pressure testing.

ermitted without written approval of the Manager, Inspection Department, unless specifically allowed by this standard or the
of piping systems or equipment which have been in flammable service shall be concurred by the Manager, Loss Prevention D
testing liquid shall be considered when determining the effective test pressure of any elements within a tested system.
hall be based on the applicable Aramco standards.

ent) while being pressure tested shall be protected from being overpressured by the following:
e capacity set to relieve at 5% above the test pressure shall be installed unless the test pressure is less than 85% SMYS at whi
relieving device, a bleed valve shall be provided to protect the piping and equipment from overpressure. The bleed valve sh
e provided between the pressure testing manifold and the system being tested. The isolation valve shall be rated for the mani
ssure testing manifold in the actual system pressure test, it shall be separately pressure tested to at least 1.2 times the system t

shall be prepared by the responsible engineering group and made available to Inspection prior to conducting the test. The tes
re shall include all required documentation specified in GI-0002.102, paragraph 5.2.
ure test a leak test shall be performed in accordance with ASME SEC V Article 10 and Article 10 Appendix I except the press
of pressure testing shall be submitted for approval as permitted in the specific SAES listed in Section 6 below. A sample form

ill sign the form for existing facilities and the Inspection Department Manager will sign for new construction projects.
eak tests and service tests during initial start-up and T&Is shall be as follows:
h tests and prior to initial start-up:
aximum operating pressures greater than 6.894 MPa (1000 psi), a leak test with inert gas, followed by a service test, shall be
aximum operating pressures less than 6.894 MPa (1000 psi), a pre start-up leak test with inert gas or steam

aximum operating pressures greater than 6.894 MPa (1000 psi) which are in hydrogen service or in sour service with hydroge
est with inert gas shall be conducted after major T&Is. The test pressure shall be determined by the plant Operating Departm
k test shall be followed by a service test at the normal operating pressure of the piping.

d as either a catalyst change or a major disassembly of flanges, gaskets, etc. The local Operation Engineering Unit and Inspection Unit
s and pressures, a pre start-up leak test with inert gas or steam (if designed for steam service) shall be conducted at the availa
pre start-up leak tests and service tests shall address, to the extent possible, the safety precautions provided in GI-0002.102 "
may cause the test medium to freeze during the test, appropriate precautionary measures must be taken to protect the equipm

e tested and provides the specific applicable standard. It also defines any specific exemptions.

w vessels (shop or field fabricated) shall be conducted as follows:


sting vessels shall be conducted per SAES-D-008, Paragraph 10.1.
roved (refer to paragraph 5.2), shall be conducted per UG-100 of ASME SEC VIII D1, or T-4 of ASME SEC VIII D2, whiche

ing equipment shall be in accordance with SAES-D-008.


er to paragraph 6.3.2.
w, field fabricated boilers shall be in accordance with 32-SAMSS-021. For pressure testing after repair or alteration, refer to S
hall be in accordance with 32-SAMSS-029.
been removed from the exchanger shell for maintenance purposes, shall be subjected to an in-situ shell side test per 6.4.1 pri
be strength tested in-situ for the following cases:
ance for all new projects, and
rpose if exchanger has been transported.

anks, the hydrostatic testing shall be in accordance with 32-SAMSS-006 for large, low pressure welded tanks; or 32-SAMSS
drostatic testing shall be in accordance with

accordance with SAES-B-017 and GI-1781.001.

sted according to the requirements of SAES-K-001 and the Uniform Mechanical Code (UMC), Section 1520.

the requirements of the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC). Exceptions to UPC requirements are listed in SAES-S-060.
with the requirements of SAES-S-040.

n mains, shall be tested in accordance with SAES-S-070.

s of the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC). Exceptions to UPC requirements are listed in SAES-S-060.
with SAES-S-070.

heating and cooling water piping, vacuum and compressed air system piping for building services shall be tested per requirem

VC shall be tested in accordance SAES-S-070.

re shall be available at the site prior to commencing any pressure testing activities.
be cleaned in accordance with SAES-L-350.
ntrol valves shall not be installed until after the lines have been thoroughly flushed.
g systems which interfere with filling, venting, draining or flushing shall not be installed until after line flushing and pressure
ure recorders shall be calibrated before the tests.
rval shall not exceed one (1) month. Calibration certificates shall be made available to Inspection personnel prior to commen
ve a range such that the test pressure is within 30 to 80% of the full range.
pressure gauges are required for the test system. One pressure gage shall be on the test manifold and the other(s) on the test s
s are tested, Inspection personnel will determine the need for additional gauges.
hall be used where it is necessary to keep a permanent record, e.g., when the test duration exceeds four hours, or otherwise as
ng hangers or spring supports shall be provided with temporary restraints where needed to prevent excessive travel or deform

e in-situ pressure testing of the tested system. Also, other unlisted sensitive equipment or as designated by Saudi Aramco Insp
pumps, turbines and compressors;

such as rupture disks and pressure relief valves;


pressure gauges, where the test pressure will exceed their scale range;

s. They shall be the same class rating of the system or may be fabricated based on appropriate calculations. When this is not
essure across the valve seat shall not exceed the seat test pressure during pressure testing and shall not exceed the rated seat p

all high points in the tested system as needed.


marine and buried pipelines, drains shall be provided at all low points in the system and immediately above check valves in ve
s a by-pass valve, the disc of the check valve shall be removed, and securely attached to the outside of the check valve prior t

hall be provided for de-pressurizing and draining of the system to the sewer or disposal area.
be installed prior to hydrostatic testing, and flushing of the piping if they were determined to be required per SAES-L-150. T

ucted in accordance with the applicable code. In addition, the following requirements shall apply.
hall be done on the upstream side of check valves in the system. The test fluid shall be injected at the lowest point in the syst
eached and before commencement of inspection of the system, the isolation valve between the temporary test manifold/piping
the test pressure, all in-line valves if not used as test isolation valves shall be in an open position.
mply with the lay-up procedures per

Pressure Test Report Form 2642-ENG and the applicable "Safety Instruction Sheet" per SAES-A-005.

ner's Inspector, the following operations shall be made.

of check valves. All vents shall be opened before draining to facilitate drainage and to prevent formation of a vacuum. No te

cted by the Owner.

elded and penetrant tested.


es, blinds, spacers, supports) shall be removed.

onnected before testing shall be reconnected.


n the open position for process reasons shall be opened. If the valve cavity has a drain, the cavity shall be drained.
llowed by this standard or the referenced Saudi Aramco SAESs or SAMSSs. This test, when conducted, shall be in accordan
he Manager, Loss Prevention Department.
within a tested system.

is less than 85% SMYS at which time it can be set at 10% above the test pressure. Sizing of these relief valves used for testi
erpressure. The bleed valve shall be readily accessible in case immediate depressurization is required.
lve shall be rated for the manifold test pressure when in the closed position.
at least 1.2 times the system test pressure but not less than the discharge pressure of the pump used for the pressure testing.

to conducting the test. The test procedure shall be available on site at all times.

10 Appendix I except the pressure shall be 5 10 psi instead of the design pressure. A calculation sheet indicating adequacy
Section 6 below. A sample form is provided in Appendix I. This form or an equivalent shall be processed prior to NDT.

tion projects.

wed by a service test, shall be conducted at the maximum operating pressure of the piping system. Oil flowlines, trunklines,
gas or steam (if designed for steam service) shall be conducted at the available inert gas or steam system pressure (not exceed

or in sour service with hydrogen sulfide concentrations higher than 0.1 mole %:
y the plant Operating Department. For minor T&Is, the pre start-up leak test shall be conducted per 5.7.2.2.

ineering Unit and Inspection Unit have the responsibility to define when a T&I is considered as major. This definition must be made dur
hall be conducted at the available inert gas or steam system pressure (not exceeding the maximum operating pressure), or at p
ons provided in GI-0002.102 "Pressure Testing Safely".
be taken to protect the equipment or piping systems.
of ASME SEC VIII D2, whichever is applicable.

r repair or alteration, refer to SAES-D-008 and National Board Inspection Code, NB-23. Hydrostatic test during T&Is shall

situ shell side test per 6.4.1 prior to returning to service.

e welded tanks; or 32-SAMSS-005 for atmospheric steel tank.

Section 1520.

listed in SAES-S-060.

es shall be tested per requirements of ASME B31.9, Building Services Piping.


after line flushing and pressure testing are completed. These include orifice plates, flow nozzles, sight glasses, venturies, pos

ion personnel prior to commencement of the pressure test. Stickers shall be applied indicating the latest calibration date.

ld and the other(s) on the test system. Their accuracy shall be within 5% of one another.

eds four hours, or otherwise as required by this standard.


ent excessive travel or deformation under the test loads.

signated by Saudi Aramco Inspector can be added:

calculations. When this is not practical, closed block valves (gate, globe, plug, ball) may be used to isolate equipment or pip
hall not exceed the rated seat pressure during tightness test. Both sides of this valve shall be protected by relief valves during

iately above check valves in vertical lines.


tside of the check valve prior to the pressure test.

e required per SAES-L-150. These supports shall not be removed until after the system has been fully drained. The structura

d at the lowest point in the system to minimize entrapped air. When filling at the lowest point is not practical, the Inspection D
temporary test manifold/piping and the piping/equipment under pressure test shall be closed and the test pump disconnected.

formation of a vacuum. No test fluid shall remain in low spots.


vity shall be drained.
conducted, shall be in accordance with GI-0002.102 for additional safety requirements.

hese relief valves used for testing shall follow the requirements of API RP 520, Part 1. The relief valve(s) shall be tested, date

used for the pressure testing.

ion sheet indicating adequacy of the test Relief Valve shall be included in the procedure.
e processed prior to NDT.

em. Oil flowlines, trunklines, testlines and water injection lines are excluded from this requirement.
m system pressure (not exceeding the maximum operating pressure), or pressure as recommended by responsible Operation E

ed per 5.7.2.2.

This definition must be made during the pre-T&I scope of work to allow Operations sufficient time to have inert gas on-site prior to start-
mum operating pressure), or at pressure as recommended by responsible Operation Engineering Unit, followed by a service tes
rostatic test during T&Is shall be in accordance with the test pressure as specified on boiler's safety instruction sheet.
es, sight glasses, venturies, positive displacement and turbine meters and other in-line equipment.

the latest calibration date.

ed to isolate equipment or piping sections (provided the valves are not passing, otherwise the spectacle plate/blind shall be in
rotected by relief valves during the test.

en fully drained. The structural support system for stacked equipment shall be verified for hydrostatic loads prior to testing.

s not practical, the Inspection Department/ Operations Inspection Engineering Unit shall be consulted. All vents shall be open
nd the test pump disconnected. The isolation valve downstream of the manifold shall be opened after the pump is disconnecte
ef valve(s) shall be tested, dated, and tagged within one week prior to the pressure test for new construction projects, and wit

ded by responsible Operation Engineering Unit, followed by a service test at normal operating pressure of the piping systems

ave inert gas on-site prior to start-up of the facility.


Unit, followed by a service test at normal operating pressure of the piping systems. When inert gas or steam are not availabl
afety instruction sheet.
spectacle plate/blind shall be installed in the closed position). If closed block valves are used in lieu of blinds, provisions sha

rostatic loads prior to testing.

nsulted. All vents shall be open during filling.


d after the pump is disconnected.
construction projects, and within one month for maintenance operations.

pressure of the piping systems. When inert gas or steam are not available, the service test will satisfy the pre start-up leak tes

rt gas or steam are not available, the service test will satisfy the pre start-up leak test requirements.
n lieu of blinds, provisions shall be made to ensure no overpressure can occur in the system that is not being tested, due to po
satisfy the pre start-up leak test requirements.
t is not being tested, due to possible leak through the valves.
General
4.1 AWS A2.4 "Standard Welding Symbols" shall be used for all weld
4.2 AWS A3.0 "Standard Terms and Definitions" shall be used for all
4.3 These requirements apply to all sub-contractors or sub-vendors fo
Approved Welding Processes
The following processes are approved for use with the restrictions and req
5.1 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW).
5.2 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW).
5.2.1 Filler metal shall be added.
5.2.2 For tanks with shells, bottoms, and/or shell nozzles or ma
Commentary Note:
This does not apply for P-No. 8 materials used for intern
5.2.3 The GTAW process shall be used for all passes for butt w
5.2.4 The GTAW process shall be used for the root pass of butt
5.2.5 The GTAW process shall be used for the root pass of sing
5.3 Submerged Arc Welding (SAW).
5.4 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) [including Flux Cored Arc Weld
5.4.1 The short-circuiting (dip) mode shall not be used except f
a) Structural attachments to the outside surface of the
b) Tacking (including continuous tacks) that will be co
5.4.2 Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW). The FCAW process sh
5.4.3 Self-shielded FCAW is only permitted if approved by CSD
5.5 Thermit Welding using a copper alloy is permitted for attaching el
5.6 Stud Welding is permitted for attaching insulation fasteners.
5.7 Electrogas (EG, but formally listed by AWS as GMAW-EG or FCA
5.8 Other processes, including oxyfuel, are not permitted.
Welding Consumables
6.1 Electrodes, filler wires, and fluxes shall conform to ASME SEC II
6.2 All consumables shall be stored and dried in accordance with the r
a) The fabricator shall have a written procedure for storage and
b) Any deviations from Tables 1 or 2 shall be established by te
c) The tests shall consist of coating moisture determination and
6.3 GTAW filler metal shall be clearly identified for each individual le
6.4 Welding consumables shall be selected based on their mechanical
6.4.1 Any dissimilar metal welds (DMW), i.e., any weld joint (e
a) Are not permitted for pressure-containing welds in
b) Are permitted for non-sour hydrocarbon service if m
c) Austenitic stainless steel consumables may be used
i) External structural attachments (e.g., name plates).
ii) Non-sour, non-hydrocarbon (e.g., water) services.
6.4.2 Other than the DMWs listed in paragraph 6.4.2, the select
a) For attaching non-pressure parts to pressure parts, t
b) For other applications, the filler metal shall conform
6.4.3 For welding P-No. 1 carbon steels, the weld deposit shall
6.4.4 Filler metal or deposit chemistries conforming to A-No. 2
6.5 Submerged Arc Welding fluxes
6.5.1 Active type Submerged Arc Welding fluxes shall not be u
6.5.2 Flux fused during welding shall not be reused (i.e., fluxes
6.5.3 SAW fluxes that the flux manufacturer recommends for si
6.6 SMAW electrodes shall be limited as follows:
6.6.1 F-Nos. 2 and 3 electrodes shall not be used on base mater
6.6.2 F-Nos. 1 and 2 electrodes shall not be used for shell weld
Commentary Note:
Structural attachments to the shell, such as wind girders
6.7 Shielding Gases
Shielding gases shall conform to AWS A5.32.
Welding Procedure Qualifications
7.1 Documentation
7.1.1 All welding procedures to be used shall be submitted to S
7.1.2 A Weld Map (with Summary) shall be submitted along wi
With the approval of CSD, a "standardized" set of Weld Maps and welding procedures m
7.1.3 Each Weld Map must be complete and show the Saudi Ar
7.1.4 Welding shall not commence until the Weld Maps and WP
7.1.5 After approval by Saudi Aramco, the fabricator shall mak
7.1.6 Approval of welding procedures shall not be construed as
7.1.7 All WPSs, Weld Maps, and Weld Descriptions shall be av
7.1.8 All Welding Procedure Specifications and Welding Proced
7.1.9 The PQRs shall include certified copies of all test records
7.1.1 Originals of all test records, mill certificates, etc., includin
7.2 General Requirements
7.2.1 All WPSs and PQRs shall conform to the latest edition of
7.2.2 For any new or additional qualification tests that are requi
7.2.3 All information shown on the PQR, such as amperage, vo
7.2.4 Qualification of welding procedures for all shop fabricatio
7.2.5 For In-Kingdom qualifications:
a) The welding of all qualification test coupons shall b
b) All procedure qualification mechanical tests and ex
7.2.6 For all automatic welding and any process with pulsing, th
7.3 Procedure variables
The following additional restrictions shall be considered essential
7.3.1 Any GMAW electrode to be used for procedures with imp
7.3.2 A change in filler metal or deposit chemistry from A-No.
7.3.3 For ASME P-no. 1 materials, all Group 3 or 4 materials sh
7.3.4 Aluminum flake weldable primers (e.g., "Bloxide", "Deox
7.3.5 Position
7.3.5.1 The direction of welding for the vertical position sh
Exceptions:
a) Root passes that are subsequently backgouged.
b) Root and cover passes if there are no hardness limits sp
7.3.5.2 For automatic, semi-automatic, or mechanized weld
7.3.6 Procedures using any consumable with a "G" or "P1" desi
7.3.7 Deletion of a backing strip in a single-sided groove weld
7.3.8 For single-sided groove welds without backing, the proce
7.3.9 For full penetration, double-sided joints, the WPS shall re
a) For production joint geometries substantially differe
b) The supplementary coupons shall be examined by U
7.3.1 Deletion of a backing gas purge or a change in the backin
7.3.1 Any supplementary qualification tests required by this or
7.3.1 Special requirements for procedures requiring impact test
7.3.12.1 The heat input to be recorded on the PQR and used
7.3.12.2 If multiple processes or consumables are used, sepa
7.4 Welding Procedure Qualification Hardness Testing
7.4.1 For applications where hardness testing is specified (see 7
a) Only the Vickers test method (in accordance with A
b) The location of the HAZ indents nearest the fusion
7.4.2 Hardness testing is required for all PQRs for:
a) Sour service tanks of any wall thickness.
b) For tanks requiring PWHT due to service (see 12.5)
Hardness testing is not required for sour service applications (item a above) if the
7.5 Preparation of Test Coupons
For new procedures or procedures that are to be re-qualified (i.e.,
7.5.1 The qualification test shall include all of the required tests
7.5.2 For groove welds, the test coupons shall be radiographed
7.5.3 The procedure qualification test weld shall meet all the re
Welder & Welding Operator Qualification
8.1 All welders, welding operators, brazers, and brazing operators sha
8.2 Current production repair rates of each welder shall be made avail
8.3 Performance qualification tests shall not be performed on producti
Joint Details
9.1 All shell, shell-to-bottom, and shell-to-nozzle welds shall be made
9.2 For any closure welds without internal access after welding, the w
9.3 Permanent backing rings or strips shall not be used, except for but
9.4 Temporary backup strips in weld joints may be used providing the
9.5 Consumable inserts may be used for all applications providing the
9.6 Full penetration groove joint included angles less than 30 degrees
9.7 For set-on nozzles with reinforcing pads (when permitted), the set
Technique And Workmanship
10.1 The maximum allowable SMAW electrode sizes that can be used a
a) Low hydrogen electrodes
5 mm for the 1G/1F position.
4 mm for all other positions.
b) Non-low hydrogen electrodes (not normally used)
6.5 mm for 1F/2F lap fillet welds.
5 mm for all other positions.
Sizes larger than those listed are acceptable only if approved by C
10.2 Welding Environment
10.2. Wind shields or tents shall be required when the wind is s
10.2. Welding shall not be done when surfaces are wet or damp
10.2. Contamination from the environment, such as wind-blown
10.3 Joint Preparation
10.3. Oil, moisture, rust, scale, sand, paint (except weldable pri
10.3. Flame cutting and arc-air gouging
10.3.2.1 Ragged and irregular edges shall be ground or mach
10.3.2.2 Thermally cut or gouged surfaces for all materials,
10.3.2.3 Thermal cut surfaces of stainless steel and non-ferro
10.3. All full penetration joints requiring double sided welding
10.3. Buttering or weld build-up on joints
10.3.4.1 Buttering or weld build-up on the prepared surfaces
1
3 of the base metal thickness or 10 mm without the a
a) The buttering operation shall be witnessed by Saud
b) The buttering shall be inspected by penetrant testing
10.3.4.2 Buttering of joints between dissimilar metal joints r
10.4 Cleaning
10. Each weld pass shall be thoroughly cleaned and all slag
10. All slag, flux, and spatter shall be removed from the com
10. Stainless steel and nonferrous materials shall be cleaned
10.5 Tack welds
10. All tack welds shall be made by qualified welders.
10. All tacks or temporary welds shall be performed with th
10. Tack welds shall be of sufficient size to maintain joint a
10. Tack welds that are to be incorporated into the final wel
10. If the tack welds are to be incorporated into the final roo
10. Bridge tacks (located above the root area) are acceptabl
10.6 Arc strikes, gouges, and other indications of careless workmanshi
10.7 Temporary welded attachments or temporary tack welds shall be r
10.8 If any grinding reduces the base metal to less than the design mini
10.9 If the component thickness exceeds 20 mm or the specified materi
10.1 Temporary attachments, grounding lugs, or supports welded to any
10.11 Coated and clad or overlaid surfaces shall be protected from the w
10.12 Peening
10. Peening shall not be permitted unless approved by CSD
10. When peening is specified, the welding procedure speci
10.13 Adjacent weld beads shall be staggered and not started from the sa
10.14 Back purging
10. An inert backing gas shall be used for GTAW or GMAW
10. For P-No. 8 and higher materials, any back purging sha
10. The back purge shall be sufficient to reduce the oxygen
10. The use of nitrogen as a backing gas for austenitic stain
10.15 Seal welding
10. All joints and faying surfaces, except those specifically
Exceptions:
a) The underside of lap-welded roof plates.
b) The underside of lap-welded bottom plates.
c) The underside of backing strips used for butt-welded bo
10. Sealing compounds or tapes shall not be used on joints
10. Seal welding of threaded connections shall cover all exp
10.16 Details regarding the method and sequence for erecting the shell p
Preheat
11.1 Preheat shall be in accordance with API and this Standard. For m
11.2 The minimum preheat shall not be less than the greater of the follo
a) 10 C.
b) The required or recommended preheat listed in the applicab
c) For field repair of P-No. 1 carbon steel materials, the prehea
11.3 For steels with specified minimum yield strengths above 414 MPa
11.4 If a weld joint is wet or has surface moisture or condensation, it sh
11.5 Temperature-indicating crayons, thermocouples, or contact pyrom
11.6 The preheat temperature shall be established over a minimum dist
11.7 If the wall thickness exceeds 25 mm and preheating is to be done
11.8 Unless specified otherwise, the maximum interpass temperature sh
Postweld Heat Treatment
12.1 Postweld heat treatments (PWHT) shall be in accordance with AS
12.2 Prior to the start of work the contractor or fabricator shall prepare
12.3 The specified PWHT shall be applied over an area extending at lea
12.4 Code exemptions for postweld heat treatment of ferritic materials
12.5 For applications where PWHT is required by the service fluid (as
a) Any reductions in the PWHT temperature or alternative tem
b) The minimum PWHT soak time shall be 1 hour.
12.6 All temperatures within the heated zone for furnace or localized P
12.7 Welding or heating after the final PWHT is not permitted if the tan
12.8 PWHT shall be carried out using one or more of the following typ
a) Permanent or semi-permanent furnaces using gas or oil or e
b) Electrical resistance heaters.
12.9 For tanks completely PWHTed in a furnace, the thermocouple loca
a) The thinnest major component.
b) The thickest member.
c) The top of the tank (as oriented during PWHT).
d) The bottom of the tank (as oriented during PWHT).
12.1 Localized PWHT
12. Localized postweld heat treatment of weld joints is not
Commentary Note:
This restriction on localized PWHT is not intended to pro
12. If localized PWHT of the tank is used, it shall be monito
12. Localized PWHT of nozzle welds shall have the follow
12.11 Thermocouples and a calibrated temperature chart recorder shall b
12.12 Temperature recorders shall be calibrated every three months and
12.13 Thermocouples
12. Only Type K (Chromel-Alumel) or Type J (iron-Consta
a) The junction between the copper-constantan compe
b) The acceptable temperature of the junction between
12. The national standard that the thermocouple conforms t
12. Thermocouples shall be attached to the component by c
12.14 After completion of the PWHT all thermocouples shall be remove
12.15 Prior to the start of the PWHT, components shall be checked to en
12.16 All machined surfaces, such as flange faces, threaded bolt holes, t
12.17 For PWHTs that are not performed in a furnace, insulation shall be
12.18 All PWHT chart records shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco Inspe
Production Weld Hardness Testing
13.1 Hardness testing is required on production welds for the following
a) For all materials in sour service.
b) For tanks PWHTed for service.
The testing shall be in accordance with NACE RP0472 and the req
SAES-A-301 (equivalent hardness conversions shall be in accorda
Commentary Note:
NACE RP0472 exempts welds from hardness testing if they ar
13.2 Testing shall be conducted with portable hardness testers (TeleBri
13.3 The weld reinforcement shall be ground to provide a smooth flat s
13.4 Hardness indentations shall be made at or near the middle of the d
13.5 If any reading exceeds the specified limit by no more than 10 BHN
Inspection Access
14.1 Saudi Aramco representatives shall have free access to the work a
14.2 Saudi Aramco shall have the right to inspect the fabrication at any
14.3 Saudi Aramco reserves the right to inspect all material, fabrication
14.4 All of the rights of Saudi Aramco and their designated representat
14.5 The fabricator shall provide the authorized Saudi Aramco inspecto
14.6 The fabricator shall furnish, install, and maintain in a safe operatin
Weld Identification
15.1 All weld joints shall be marked for identification by a weld symbo
15.2 The fabricator shall establish and submit for approval an identifica
Inspection
16.1 General
16. Nondestructive Testing (NDT) procedures shall be estab
16. Written reports and evaluations of all inspections or exa
16. Additional inspection or examination of any weld joint
16. Inspection at the mill, shop, or fabrication yard shall no
16. All appropriate safety precautions shall be taken for eac
16. All NDT personnel shall be qualified in accordance wit
16. Surface irregularities, including weld reinforcement, inh
16. Inspection of all welds shall include a band of base met
16.2 Radiography
16. Fluorescent intensifying screens shall not be used. Fluo
16. All field radiographic exposures (vendor, shop, and yard
16.3 Ultrasonics
Ultrasonic testing may be substituted for radiography if approved
16.4 Magnetic particle
16. Permanent magnet yokes are not permitted.
16. Magnetic particle testing shall be conducted on any stru
16. Prods are not permitted for use on air hardenable materi
16.5 Liquid penetrant
Liquid penetrant testing shall be conducted on any structural attac
16.6 Nondestructive Testing (NDT) coverage
16. The minimum percent coverage of the specified NDT m
Butt welds - radiography
Other welds (including branch connections such as weldolets, sockolets, and welding
Magnetic particle (MT) for ferromagnetic materials.
Liquid penetrant (PT) for non-ferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials.
Additional or alternative NDT methods may be used at the discretion of the authorized
Commentary Note:
The amount of NDT is specified in API STD 620/API ST
16. General (all applications)
16.6.2.1 All welds shall be visually examined. Visual exami
All branch connection welds made with single-side
Repairs
17.1 Welds may be repaired twice. If the weld is still not acceptable af
17.2 Cracked welds (except for crater cracks) shall be cut-out unless a
17.3 Repair welding shall be performed using a properly qualified and
17.4 All repaired welds shall, as a minimum, be inspected using the ori
17.5 Damage to the base metal or welds, including dimensional change
17.6 Any weld not meeting the acceptance criteria of the applicable cod
Miscellaneous Requirements
18.1 For field welding, remote Current controls shall be used if the wel
18.2 Welding power supplies shall be calibrated in accordance with BS

Revision Summary
36677 Minor revision to paragraphs 6.7, and 7.3.6.
Deleted paragraph 12.5(c).
Revised the "Next Planned Update".
36738 Editorial revision to paragraph 6.6.1.
38441 Editorial revision to replace NACE MR0175 with newly approved SAES-

Table 1 Conditioning, Storage, and Exposure of SMAW Electrode


(Notes 1, 2, 3)

Low Hydrogen Electrodes to A5.1


Drying
Prior to use all electrodes shall be dried at 260-430C for 2 hours minimum. The drying step ma
Storage
After drying, the electrodes shall be stored continuously in ovens at 120 C minimum.
Exposure
Upon removal from the drying or storage oven or hermetically sealed containers, the electrodes
Re-conditioning
Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for less than the permitted time period may be returned to
Low Hydrogen Electrodes to A5.5
Drying
Prior to use all electrodes shall be dried at 370-430C for 2 hours minimum. For E70xx and E80
Storage
After drying, the electrodes shall be stored continuously in ovens at 120C minimum.
Exposure
Upon removal from the drying or storage oven or hermetically sealed containers, the electrodes
Re-conditioning
E70xx and E80xx electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for less than the permitted time period m
Stainless Steel and Non-Ferrous Electrodes
Drying
Prior to use all electrodes shall be dried at 120-250C for 2 hours minimum. The drying step ma
Storage
After drying, the electrodes shall be stored continuously in ovens at 120-200C minimum.
Exposure
Upon removal from the drying or storage oven or hermetically sealed containers, the electrodes
Re-conditioning
Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for less than the permitted time period may be returned to
Non-Low Hydrogen El Non-Low Hydrogen Electrodes to A5.1 or A5.5
The electrodes shall be stored in a dry environment. Any electrodes that have become moist or w
Notes:
1) Storage and rebake ovens shall have a calibrated temperat
2) Portable electrode storage ovens with a minimum tempera
3) Some applications may require higher drying temperature

Table 2 Conditioning, Storage, and

SAW fluxes
All fluxes shall be stored in sealed containers in a dry
SAW, GTAW, GMAW, and FCAW electrodes and wi
All electrodes and wires shall be stored in sealed con
mbols" shall be used for all welding details on all drawings. Alternatively, pictorials of joints indicating all relevant dimension
efinitions" shall be used for all specifications and documents.
b-contractors or sub-vendors for items within the scope of this standard.

use with the restrictions and requirements as listed below:

oms, and/or shell nozzles or manways made of P-No. 8 material, all manual GTAW shall use a high frequency start, post-purg

or P-No. 8 materials used for internal piping or heater coils on tanks made from P-No. 1 materials.
be used for all passes for butt welds in nozzles less than 1 inch nominal diameter.
be used for the root pass of butt welds without backing in nozzles of size NPS 2 or less.
be used for the root pass of single-sided groove welds without backing made with stainless steel or nickel-based consumables

[including Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)].


mode shall not be used except for:
nts to the outside surface of the tank shell, including seal welds.
continuous tacks) that will be completely removed.
FCAW). The FCAW process shall not be used for the root pass on full penetration, groove joints without backing that are we
ly permitted if approved by CSD. Supplementary testing may be required by CSD.
loy is permitted for attaching electrical grounding or cathodic protection cables to structural members. Thermit welding shal
hing insulation fasteners.
d by AWS as GMAW-EG or FCAW-EG) and Electroslag (ESW) may be used only with the approval of CSD and, depending u
, are not permitted.

shall conform to ASME SEC IIC. Other consumables may be used only with the approval of CSD and, depending upon the
d dried in accordance with the requirements of Table 1 for SMAW electrodes and Table 2 for other consumables. Alternative
written procedure for storage and control of welding consumables.
1 or 2 shall be established by tests for each consumable brand, type, and designation.
ting moisture determination and absorbed moisture tests in accordance with the electrode specification and weld metal diffus
identified for each individual length. This shall be either the AWS/ASME identification or the manufacturer's identification
cted based on their mechanical properties, compatibility with the materials to be joined, their suitability for the intended serv
s (DMW), i.e., any weld joint (excluding weld overlays or strip lining) between ferritic steel and either austenitic stainless ste
or pressure-containing welds in sour service (welds in clad systems are acceptable if the DMW interface with the ferritic steel
on-sour hydrocarbon service if made with a nickel-based consumable.
steel consumables may be used only for the following applications and if the maximum design temperature is below 300 C:
ttachments (e.g., name plates).
ocarbon (e.g., water) services.
ed in paragraph 6.4.2, the selection of filler metal compositions for joining base materials of different P-Numbers or composi
ressure parts to pressure parts, the nominal composition of the filler metal shall match the nominal composition of the pressur
ns, the filler metal shall conform to either base metal composition or to an intermediate composition, whichever is the most ap
on steels, the weld deposit shall meet the A-No. 1 analysis classification unless approved by CSD. A-No. 10 consumables for
mistries conforming to A-No. 2 (ASME SEC IX), i.e., carbon-0.5% Mo, shall not be used for sour service applications witho

c Welding fluxes shall not be used without approval. The approval shall be obtained through the welding procedure review p
shall not be reused (i.e., fluxes that use recrushed slag are not acceptable).
manufacturer recommends for single pass welding shall not be used for multiple pass welding, except for 2-pass lap fillet wel
as follows:
shall not be used on base materials requiring impact tests either by Code or job specification.
shall not be used for shell welds (excluding the shell-to-bottom weld) or nozzle-to-shell welds.

s to the shell, such as wind girders or reinforcing pads, are exempt from this requirement.

be used shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco prior to the start of work. All welding procedures to be used shall be submitted
ary) shall be submitted along with the Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) and Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) do
Maps and welding procedures may be submitted by the fabricator for general approval. All of the documentation requiremen
omplete and show the Saudi Aramco equipment tag number and the purchase order number. Identical equipment items may b
nce until the Weld Maps and WPSs have been approved by Saudi Aramco and returned to the fabricator. Any welding prior to
ramco, the fabricator shall make available copies of the approved Weld Maps and WPSs to the Saudi Aramco Inspector at the
edures shall not be construed as authority for deviation from listed specifications or requirements of the relevant codes and st
d Weld Descriptions shall be available at the work site for review at any time by the authorized Saudi Aramco inspector.
ecifications and Welding Procedure Qualification Records shall be written in English.
rtified copies of all test records (for In-Kingdom qualification, the independent testing agency that issued the test record shal
s, mill certificates, etc., including records from the independent test laboratory shall be made available for review by Saudi A

conform to the latest edition of the ASME SEC IX. Procedures that comply to a previous edition but not the current edition o
qualification tests that are required, Saudi Aramco reserves the right to monitor any and all phases of the procedure qualificat
the PQR, such as amperage, voltage, travel speed, postweld heat treatment time and temperature, as applicable, shall be actua
rocedures for all shop fabrication in Saudi Arabia and field erection work shall be performed In-Kingdom unless otherwise a

ualification test coupons shall be monitored by either an approved independent test laboratory, an independent third party app
ication mechanical tests and examinations shall be performed by an approved independent test laboratory unless the fabricato
and any process with pulsing, the welding procedure shall include all applicable equipment and controller parameter settings

ns shall be considered essential variables for procedure qualification:


be used for procedures with impact toughness requirements and any SAW flux or FCAW electrode shall be restricted to the sp
deposit chemistry from A-No. 1 (based on ASME SEC IX) to A-No. 2 and vice-versa is not permitted without approval. The
als, all Group 3 or 4 materials shall be qualified separately for each specific material, unless it is being used in combination w
primers (e.g., "Bloxide", "Deoxaluminite", or other brand approved by CSD) may be used but require qualification with the p

lding for the vertical position shall be an essential variable (i.e., a change from vertical-up to vertical-down or vice-versa shal

subsequently backgouged.
es if there are no hardness limits specified.
-automatic, or mechanized welding, any change in position according to ASME SEC IX, QW-461.9 shall be considered an es
umable with a "G" or "P1" designation (ASME SEC IIC) shall be restricted to the brand and type of electrode used for the PQ
p in a single-sided groove weld shall be considered an essential variable and shall require requalification.
elds without backing, the process and electrode type used for the root pass shall be considered an essential variable. The PQR
e-sided joints, the WPS shall require backgouging (see 10.3.3), except for the EG or automatic SAW processes within the fol
geometries substantially different from the original PQR, supplementary test coupons shall be prepared using the same type
coupons shall be examined by UT or RT, as appropriate for the joint geometry, and shall be sectioned for examination in at le
purge or a change in the backing gas composition for a joint welded or brazed from one side without backing material shall re
ication tests required by this or any other standard or specification (e.g., hardness tests) shall comply with all of the essential a
rocedures requiring impact testing
recorded on the PQR and used as the limiting value for the WPS shall be based on the welding parameters used at the locatio
s or consumables are used, separate impact test specimens shall be conducted for each process or consumable. If the impact t
Hardness Testing
rdness testing is specified (see 7.4.2), the hardness testing shall be in accordance with Standard Drawing AB-036386. The m
t method (in accordance with ASTM E92) is acceptable, with a maximum test load of 10 kg.
HAZ indents nearest the fusion line can be demonstrated (by specification or actual measurement) to be within 0.2 mm of the
ed for all PQRs for:
f any wall thickness.
PWHT due to service (see 12.5).
pplications (item a above) if the weld procedure is to be used on external structural attachments only, and the tank wall at the

that are to be re-qualified (i.e., existing PQRs that are acceptable without any supplementary tests are exempt), the following
include all of the required tests on the same coupon unless size limitations restrict the number and type of specimens that can
coupons shall be radiographed and shall meet the acceptance criteria of ASME SEC VIII, UW-51.
n test weld shall meet all the requirements imposed on production welds.

azers, and brazing operators shall be qualified in accordance with the ASME SEC IX and SAEP-321, SAEP-322, SAEP-323,
each welder shall be made available to Saudi Aramco Inspection upon request.
all not be performed on production joints on Saudi Aramco work for manual and semi-automatic welding processes. For mec

l-to-nozzle welds shall be made with multiple passes except for the EG or ES processes when the component thickness is les
rnal access after welding, the welding and inspection details necessary to ensure proper joint quality shall be submitted to Sau
shall not be used, except for butt welds in annular rings or bottom plates.
oints may be used providing the backing material is of a composition similar to the base metal or weld metal. Under no circu
or all applications providing the composition matches the weld metal composition.
ded angles less than 30 degrees (except for portions of compound bevels) shall not be used without approval. The approval s
g pads (when permitted), the set-on nozzle attachment weld shall be completed and inspected, as required, prior to installing t

lectrode sizes that can be used are given below. The ability of each welder to use the maximum sizes listed in the table shall

es (not normally used)


cceptable only if approved by CSD and only if the PQR was performed using the electrode size and positions to be used in pro

be required when the wind is strong enough to affect arc stability or shielding gas coverage or when deemed necessary by Sa
when surfaces are wet or damp or exposed to rain or snow or when the welders are exposed to inclement conditions.
nvironment, such as wind-blown sand, shall be prevented by the use of adequate shielding.

sand, paint (except weldable primers for approved applications - refer to Paragraph 7.3.4 for restrictions), metallic coatings (e

r edges shall be ground or machined to bright metal. All holes cut for nozzles or bosses shall be ground smooth and true. Un
uged surfaces for all materials, including carbon steels, shall be power brushed or ground prior to welding.
s of stainless steel and non-ferrous materials shall be ground to bright (unoxidized) material prior to welding.
requiring double sided welding shall be ground or gouged to sound metal and inspected by PT or MT prior to welding the rev

uild-up on the prepared surfaces shall not exceed the lesser of


ickness or 10 mm without the approval of CSD. If the buttering or build-up exceeds this, then the following requirements sh
tion shall be witnessed by Saudi Aramco Inspection.
be inspected by penetrant testing (PT) or magnetic particle testing (MT) after completion of the build-up but before final weld
etween dissimilar metal joints requires prior approval by CSD. The approval shall be obtained through the welding procedur

thoroughly cleaned and all slag or other foreign matter removed before the next pass is deposited.
r shall be removed from the completed weld and surrounding areas.
errous materials shall be cleaned with grinding wheels or stainless steel brushes not previously used on other materials.

made by qualified welders.


welds shall be performed with the same care, materials, electrodes, minimum preheat, and procedures that are used for perman
ufficient size to maintain joint alignment.
e incorporated into the final weld shall be thoroughly cleaned, prepared at each end, and inspected for cracks. Any cracked ta
be incorporated into the final root pass weld and are made with a different process or electrode than the root pass, then the tac
ove the root area) are acceptable but such tacks must be made completely within the weld groove and shall be completely rem
cations of careless workmanship (such as surface porosity, uneven weld profiles, and undercut) shall be removed by grinding
temporary tack welds shall be removed by a method that will not cause tearing or bending of the base metal. The method use
etal to less than the design minimum, the ground area shall be rewelded and ground flush with the original base metal surface
s 20 mm or the specified material yield strength exceeds 290 MPa, inspection by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant method
lugs, or supports welded to any component shall be made with a compatible material. Under no circumstances shall rebar or
es shall be protected from the welding arc, associated weld spatter, and damage from ground clamps or other associated equip

mitted unless approved by CSD and specified in the approved welding procedure. Cleaning of slag is not considered peening
ed, the welding procedure specification shall include details of how it will be performed. If peening is specified or performed
gered and not started from the same location.

all be used for GTAW or GMAW root passes on single-sided groove welds for materials of ASME P-No. -8 and higher.
materials, any back purging shall be maintained until at least 10 mm of the weld deposit thickness has been completed.
sufficient to reduce the oxygen level below 1%.
backing gas for austenitic stainless steels is prohibited.

faces, except those specifically designed and designated as removable bolted connections and the exceptions listed below, sh

welded roof plates.


welded bottom plates.
king strips used for butt-welded bottom and annular plates.
apes shall not be used on joints that are to be seal welded.
d connections shall cover all exposed threads and shall have a smooth contour between the two surfaces.
equence for erecting the shell plates and the sequence for welding the bottom plates shall be submitted.

h API and this Standard. For materials not covered in this Standard, the preheat and postweld heat treatment shall be as speci
less than the greater of the following (Note: The listed preheats are minimum requirements. The actual preheat temperature

ed preheat listed in the applicable API standard.


arbon steel materials, the preheat listed in Standard Drawing AE-036451.
yield strengths above 414 MPa, the preheat shall be as specified in the approved welding procedure. Special applications ma
e moisture or condensation, it shall be dried by heating for a distance of 100 mm from the weld joint and shall be warm to the
ermocouples, or contact pyrometers shall be used to measure preheat and interpass temperatures.
stablished over a minimum distance of 75 mm on each side of the weld.
m and preheating is to be done from the same side as the welding, then the heat source shall be removed for 1 minute to allow
ximum interpass temperature shall be 177 C for P-No. 8 materials and 315 C for P-No. 1 steels.

shall be in accordance with ASME SEC VIII. A written procedure describing the general PWHT requirements shall be subm
actor or fabricator shall prepare a data sheet for each tank (or joint for localized PWHT) requiring heat treatment, which shall
ied over an area extending at least 6 times the thickness of the material being welded from each edge of the weld but not less
t treatment of ferritic materials based on the use of austenitic or nickel-based electrodes are not permitted.
equired by the service fluid (as defined by engineering requirements or as specified in the relevant SAMSS) or where hardnes
T temperature or alternative temperatures below the normal holding temperatures listed in the applicable Code are not permitt
ime shall be 1 hour.
zone for furnace or localized PWHT shall exceed the specified minimum holding temperature. The actual temperature range
PWHT is not permitted if the tank is PWHTed for service.
ne or more of the following types of heat sources:
nt furnaces using gas or oil or electric heaters (a tank itself may be considered a furnace if heated internally and externally ins

a furnace, the thermocouple locations shall be attached to the inside of the tank, if possible. For tanks PWHTed from the insi

ted during PWHT).


riented during PWHT).

treatment of weld joints is not permitted except butt welds in nozzles and associated piping or, when approved by CSD, for m

alized PWHT is not intended to prohibit the PWHT of nozzle assemblies prior to their installation into the tank.
e tank is used, it shall be monitored using at least four sets of thermocouples, with each set consisting of one thermocouple ea
zle welds shall have the following minimum number of thermocouples. Nozzles with a diameter of 305 mm or less shall hav
mperature chart recorder shall be used to provide an accurate and legible record of all PWHTs. All charts shall be marked wi
ibrated every three months and a current calibration sticker shall be maintained on the recorder. The calibration frequency ma

Alumel) or Type J (iron-Constantan) thermocouples are permitted. All extension cables, compensating cables, and jumper ca
en the copper-constantan compensating cable and the Type K thermocouple lead shall be a minimum of 0.5 m outside the insu
perature of the junction between the compensating cable and the thermocouple lead is from 0 to + 80 C.
at the thermocouple conforms to shall be indicated in the PWHT procedure. The procedure shall also include a listing of the
attached to the component by capacitive discharge welding only. Other methods of attachment are not permitted. The therm
thermocouples shall be removed and the attachment areas ground smooth to clean, sound metal. The areas shall be examined
mponents shall be checked to ensure that all restraints are removed and the component is free to expand and contract.
nge faces, threaded bolt holes, threads, etc., shall be protected from oxidation during the heat treatment by coating with deoxa
in a furnace, insulation shall be applied a minimum of 300 mm on either side of the weld that is to be PWHTed. The insulat
ubmitted to Saudi Aramco Inspection for review and approval. All records shall be submitted as part of the equipment file fo

oduction welds for the following applications:

with NACE RP0472 and the requirements listed below. All welds, for all welding processes and consumables, shall be tested
conversions shall be in accordance with ASTM E140). Welds for external attachments on tank shells are exempt from hardn

ds from hardness testing if they are made with specific processes and consumables, unless otherwise specified by the user. This parag
rtable hardness testers (TeleBrineller or approved equivalent) that comply with ASTM A833. The Brinell scale shall be used
round to provide a smooth flat surface for testing.
de at or near the middle of the deposited weld bead.
d limit by no more than 10 BHN, then a minimum of three (3) additional indentations shall be made near the original high rea

l have free access to the work at all times.


to inspect the fabrication at any state and to reject material or workmanship which does not conform to the specified requirem
inspect all material, fabrication, coating, and workmanship and any materials, equipment, or tools used or to be used for any
and their designated representatives for access, documentation, inspection, and rejection shall include any work done by sub-c
thorized Saudi Aramco inspector all reasonable facilities to satisfy him that the work is being performed as specified.
, and maintain in a safe operating condition all necessary shoring, scaffolding, ladders, walkways, and lighting for a safe and

identification by a weld symbol and a welder number. These identifications shall be made with a suitable weather-proof mar
ubmit for approval an identification system that shall uniquely identify each member and weld joint. The identification syste

(NDT) procedures shall be established. A written NDT procedure for each NDT method and technique to be employed, inclu
uations of all inspections or examinations performed by vendors, contractors, and fabricators shall be made and submitted to
examination of any weld joint at any stage of the fabrication may be requested by Saudi Aramco Inspection, including re-ins
hop, or fabrication yard shall not release the manufacturer or fabricator from responsibility for repairing or replacing any defe
ecautions shall be taken for each inspection method.
l be qualified in accordance with SAEP-1140 or SAEP-1142, as applicable.
cluding weld reinforcement, inhibiting accurate interpretation of the specified method of NDT shall be ground smooth.
hall include a band of base metal at least one inch wide on each side of the weld.

screens shall not be used. Fluoro-metallic screens shall be approved by Saudi Aramco Inspection prior to use.
xposures (vendor, shop, and yard radiography are exempt) shall be performed using at least two people: a SAEP-1140 or SAE

ed for radiography if approved by Saudi Aramco Inspection. The procedure, equipment, technique, personnel, and acceptanc

s are not permitted.


g shall be conducted on any structural attachment welds on primary components made of ferromagnetic material that are not h
for use on air hardenable materials or on materials with impact testing requirements or on the fluid side surface of component

onducted on any structural attachment welds on primary components made of non-ferromagnetic material that are not hydrote

overage of the specified NDT method shall be defined in the applicable API standard. It may be increased (at any level up to

ldolets, sockolets, and welding bosses) -

magnetic materials.
t the discretion of the authorized Saudi Aramco inspector in order to assist in determining the type or extent of defects.

s specified in API STD 620/API STD 650/API STD 653 as appropriate.

isually examined. Visual examination shall be performed prior to other NDT.


on welds made with single-sided groove welds shall be visually examined from the root side to ensure that proper penetration

he weld is still not acceptable after the second repair, then Saudi Aramco Inspection has the sole authority for the decision to p
racks) shall be cut-out unless a repair is approved by Saudi Aramco. If a repair to a crack is approved, then special repair and
using a properly qualified and approved procedure. In-process repairs (i.e., repairs performed prior to completion of the join
mum, be inspected using the original testing method. Additional test methods may also be required, if deemed necessary by t
, including dimensional changes, caused by external forces (intentional or accidental) requires special repair and inspection p
nce criteria of the applicable code or standard shall be cut out or repaired. Other methods, such as sleeving, shall not be perm

controls shall be used if the welding is more than 30 m from the welding power source or when the welders are working in "r
alibrated in accordance with BS 7570. Calibration records shall be available to Saudi Aramco Inspection upon request.

MR0175 with newly approved SAES-A-301.

Exposure of SMAW Electrodes


s minimum. The drying step may be deleted if the electrodes are supplied in the dried condition in a hermetically sealed meta

at 120 C minimum.

ealed containers, the electrodes may not be exposed to the atmosphere for more than 4 hours. The exposure may be extended

time period may be returned to a holding oven maintained at 120C minimum; after a minimum holding period of four hours

s minimum. For E70xx and E80xx electrodes, the drying step may be deleted if the electrodes are supplied in the dried condi

at 120C minimum.

ealed containers, the electrodes may not be exposed to the atmosphere for more than 2 hours for E70xx or E80xx electrodes a

than the permitted time period may be returned to a holding oven maintained at 120C minimum; after a minimum holding pe

s minimum. The drying step may be deleted if the electrodes are supplied in the dried condition in a hermetically sealed meta

at 120-200C minimum.

ealed containers, the electrodes may not be exposed to the atmosphere for more than 4 hours. The exposure may be extended

time period may be returned to a holding oven maintained at 120C minimum; after a minimum holding period of four hours

des that have become moist or wet shall not be used and shall be discarded.

shall have a calibrated temperature gauge to continuously monitor the temperature.


ovens with a minimum temperature of 120C are considered equivalent to storage ovens. Proper use of the oven (e.g., closed
quire higher drying temperatures and shorter atmospheric exposure times.

Conditioning, Storage, and Exposure of Wires and Fluxes

red in sealed containers in a dry environment. Opened SAW flux containers shall be stored continuously in ovens at 65C m
W, and FCAW electrodes and wires
res shall be stored in sealed containers in a dry environment. Any wires that have visible rusting or contamination shall not b
dicating all relevant dimensions may be used if approved by CSD.

high frequency start, post-purge gas flow for the torch.

l or nickel-based consumables.

nts without backing that are welded from one side only (backing may be used if it is removed after welding).

embers. Thermit welding shall not be used directly on the tank shell. Thermit welding shall not be used on stainless steel ma

roval of CSD and, depending upon the application, may require testing in addition to that specified by the Code.

CSD and, depending upon the process and application proposed, may require testing in addition to that specified by ASME SE
ther consumables. Alternative storage and exposure conditions may be approved by CSD with the following conditions:

ification and weld metal diffusible hydrogen tests in accordance with AWS A4.3. The tests must be conducted for (but not ne
manufacturer's identification marked on each individual rod by the manufacturer with tags ("flags"), stencil, or stamping. A
uitability for the intended service, and consideration of polarity, position, and direction of welding. Welding consumables no
nd either austenitic stainless steel, duplex stainless steel, or nickel-based alloy shall be restricted as follows:
interface with the ferritic steel is not in contact with the sour fluid).

temperature is below 300 C:

fferent P-Numbers or compositions shall be as follows:


inal composition of the pressure part.
sition, whichever is the most appropriate for the application.
D. A-No. 10 consumables for SMAW (i.e., E8018-C1 and E8018-C3 electrodes) are considered acceptable when E80xx stre
our service applications without postweld heat treatment.

he welding procedure review process. The fabricator shall clearly identify the proposed use of active fluxes in their welding

except for 2-pass lap fillet welds of bottom plates.

to be used shall be submitted as a complete package. The package of welding procedures, qualification test records, and wel
Qualification Record (PQR) documents for each piece of equipment (identical equipment can use one combined submittal). T
the documentation requirements, except identification of specific tank numbers, shall be met.
dentical equipment items may be combined on one set of forms.
abricator. Any welding prior to the approval of these welding documents is subject to rejection at the sole option of Saudi Ara
Saudi Aramco Inspector at the fabrication site prior to the start of fabrication.
nts of the relevant codes and standards and shall not relieve the contractor, fabricator, or vendor from correcting any deviation
Saudi Aramco inspector.

that issued the test record shall certify the copies), which will be permanently retained by Saudi Aramco.
vailable for review by Saudi Aramco upon request.

on but not the current edition of the relevant Code are not acceptable, even if the Code permits such procedures. Procedures
ases of the procedure qualification, including welding of the coupons and mechanical testing. Saudi Aramco may assign the m
re, as applicable, shall be actual data as recorded using calibrated instruments.
n-Kingdom unless otherwise approved by CSD. Approval for use of welding procedures qualified Out-of-Kingdom shall be

an independent third party approved by Saudi Aramco, or Saudi Aramco Inspection. The monitoring shall include verificatio
laboratory unless the fabricator is specifically approved by Saudi Aramco Inspection to perform their own tests.
d controller parameter settings.

ode shall be restricted to the specific brand, type, and maximum size as used for the PQR. If so restricted, the brand name an
ermitted without approval. The approval shall be obtained through the welding procedure review process. A change from A-N
s being used in combination with a Group 1 or 2 material and the Group 1 or 2 material strength requirements govern.
require qualification with the primer. The welding procedure specification shall indicate the use of the type and brand of wel

ertical-down or vice-versa shall be considered an essential variable) except for the following cases:
461.9 shall be considered an essential variable.
ype of electrode used for the PQR. The nominal chemistry of the specific brand and type of electrode shall be identified on th

an essential variable. The PQR shall be performed as a single-sided groove weld without backing.
SAW processes within the following limitations:
prepared using the same type of production equipment and joint geometry.
tioned for examination in at least 3 locations. The NDT results and cross-sections shall show complete fusion, complete pen
ithout backing material shall require requalification.
omply with all of the essential and, where applicable, supplementary essential variables of the ASME SEC IX and this standar

g parameters used at the location where the impact specimens are removed. If the PQR heat input varies by pass or layer, then
or consumable. If the impact test specimen size is larger than the deposit thickness of a specific process or consumable, then

Drawing AB-036386. The maximum allowable hardness is VHN 250. Prior hardness test results may be accepted as equiva

ent) to be within 0.2 mm of the fusion line.

s only, and the tank wall at the attachment point is at least 25 mm thick.

ests are exempt), the following additional requirements shall apply:


and type of specimens that can be reasonably removed from a single coupon. If multiple coupons are required and approved

P-321, SAEP-322, SAEP-323, and SAEP-324, as applicable, for all welding, including tack, temporary, and repair welds.

c welding processes. For mechanized and automatic welding systems that cannot be run on test specimens, performance qua

the component thickness is less than 37 mm.


uality shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco for approval.

or weld metal. Under no circumstances shall rebar or galvanized steel be used. Temporary backup shoes made of non-metall

hout approval. The approval shall be obtained through the welding procedure review process.
as required, prior to installing the reinforcing pad.

m sizes listed in the table shall be checked by the Inspector as early as possible during fabrication.
and positions to be used in production. The approval shall be obtained through the welding procedure review process.

when deemed necessary by Saudi Aramco Inspection. Gas-shielded FCAW shall not be used for field or yard fabrication un
inclement conditions.

strictions), metallic coatings (e.g., zinc), or other foreign matter shall be removed from the weld surface and at least 25 mm o

be ground smooth and true. Unless specified otherwise in API, the actual hole diameter shall be + 3.2 mm of the nominal spe
to welding.
ior to welding.
or MT prior to welding the reverse side. The EG, ES, and automatic SAW process are exempt from this requirement if proce

the following requirements shall apply:

build-up but before final welding of the joint.


d through the welding procedure review process.

used on other materials.

edures that are used for permanent welds.

ted for cracks. Any cracked tacks shall be removed before welding the joint.
than the root pass, then the tack weld process and electrode shall have been used as the root pass for an appropriate procedur
ve and shall be completely removed prior to completion of the weld.
) shall be removed by grinding.
he base metal. The method used shall not reduce the thickness of the base metal below the minimum specified thickness.
the original base metal surface or the component shall be replaced. Rewelding shall be done only with the prior approval of
icle or liquid penetrant methods of areas shall be performed where temporary welds have been removed (see 11.7) or weld re
no circumstances shall rebar or galvanized steel be used.
amps or other associated equipment.

slag is not considered peening.


ening is specified or performed, the welding procedure shall be qualified using peening.

ME P-No. -8 and higher.


ess has been completed.
the exceptions listed below, shall be seal welded by a continuous fillet weld (required external weep holes shall be left unweld

heat treatment shall be as specified in the approved welding procedure.


he actual preheat temperature selected and used by the fabricator must be sufficient to prevent cracking and to achieve the req

edure. Special applications may require special weldability tests to evaluate the preheat.
joint and shall be warm to the hand before welding.

removed for 1 minute to allow for temperature equalization prior to measuring the temperature.

HT requirements shall be submitted for review and approval. The PWHT procedure shall include descriptions of the equipme
ng heat treatment, which shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco Inspection for review and approval. The data sheet shall includ
h edge of the weld but not less than 25 mm from each edge of the weld, whichever is greater.
t permitted.
ant SAMSS) or where hardness limits are specified:
pplicable Code are not permitted.

. The actual temperature range for the soak period, as recorded by thermocouples, shall not have a spread of more than 40 C

ed internally and externally insulated).

r tanks PWHTed from the inside, the thermocouple locations shall be attached to the outside of the tank. If thermocouples ar

, when approved by CSD, for maintenance repairs.

nsisting of one thermocouple each on the inside and outside surfaces. Each set shall be placed at 90 degree intervals around th
ter of 305 mm or less shall have at least one thermocouple. At least two equally spaced thermocouples shall be used for circu
All charts shall be marked with the date and sufficient information to uniquely identify the tank (or joint/component for loca
. The calibration frequency may be extended to 12 months with the approval of Saudi Aramco Inspection if the documented c

ensating cables, and jumper cables in the measurement or control circuits shall be the specified thermocouple wire or the mat
imum of 0.5 m outside the insulated area.

all also include a listing of the insulation coloring of each core wire and the overall sheath for both the compensating cable an
t are not permitted. The thermocouples shall not be in direct contact with electrical heating elements or subjected to flame im
l. The areas shall be examined by MT or PT after grinding.
o expand and contract.
eatment by coating with deoxaluminite or other suitable material.
is to be PWHTed. The insulation shall not be removed before the temperature has cooled to below 150 C. Openings shall b
as part of the equipment file for permanent record.

nd consumables, shall be tested. The testing location and frequency shall be in accordance with NACE RP0472. The maxim
k shells are exempt from hardness testing.

specified by the user. This paragraph imposes the hardness testing for all welds (e.g., including E6010, E7018, and ER70S-2), i.e., it d
The Brinell scale shall be used unless another scale is specifically approved by CSD. The hardness of the reference bar shall

made near the original high reading. If all three (3) retests are below the specified limits, then the joint is acceptable. If any o

nform to the specified requirements.


ools used or to be used for any part of the work to be performed. Saudi Aramco may reject the use of any materials, equipmen
nclude any work done by sub-contractors or sub-vendors.
erformed as specified.
ys, and lighting for a safe and thorough inspection which is satisfactory to Saudi Aramco Inspection.

h a suitable weather-proof marking material. The markings shall be placed in a location such that they will remain visible fo
joint. The identification system shall be used to identify all examinations, surveys, inspections, etc.

echnique to be employed, including acceptance criteria, shall be submitted for approval by the Saudi Aramco Inspection Depa
hall be made and submitted to Saudi Aramco Inspection, at a frequency to be determined by Saudi Aramco Inspection.
co Inspection, including re-inspection or re-examination of previously inspected joints. Saudi Aramco Inspection reserves th
epairing or replacing any defective material or workmanship that may be subsequently discovered in the field.
shall be ground smooth.

ion prior to use.


people: a SAEP-1140 or SAEP-1142 qualified Level II radiographer and an assistant who is qualified to operate all of the eq

ique, personnel, and acceptance criteria shall be proposed by the fabricator and shall be approved by Saudi Aramco Inspectio

magnetic material that are not hydrotested after making the attachment weld.
luid side surface of components in sour service. For other applications where prods are permitted, any arc strikes shall be rem

ic material that are not hydrotested after making the attachment weld.

e increased (at any level up to 100%) if, in the opinion of the authorized Saudi Aramco inspector, the welds are of questionab

ype or extent of defects.

ensure that proper penetration and fusion have been achieved.

e authority for the decision to permit additional repair attempts or to require that the entire weld be cut out. The limitation on
proved, then special repair and inspection procedures shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco for review and approval prior to un
prior to completion of the joint using the same welding procedure as for the original fabrication) do not require a separate re
uired, if deemed necessary by the authorized Saudi Aramco inspector.
special repair and inspection procedures be submitted to CSD for review and approval prior to undertaking the repairs.
as sleeving, shall not be permitted.

n the welders are working in "remote" locations (e.g., inside a tank).


Inspection upon request.
n in a hermetically sealed metal can with a positive indication of seal integrity. Electrodes may be re-dried only once.

The exposure may be extended to 8 hours if the electrodes are continuously stored in a portable electrode oven heated to 65C

m holding period of four hours at 120C minimum the electrodes may be reissued.

are supplied in the dried condition in a hermetically sealed metal can with a positive indication of seal integrity. Electrodes m

r E70xx or E80xx electrodes and 30 minutes for any higher strength electrodes. The exposure times may be doubled (to 4 ho

m; after a minimum holding period of four hours at 120C minimum the electrodes may be reissued.

n in a hermetically sealed metal can with a positive indication of seal integrity. Electrodes may be re-dried only once.

The exposure may be extended to 8 hours if the electrodes are continuously stored in a portable electrode oven heated to 65C

m holding period of four hours at 120C minimum the electrodes may be reissued.

per use of the oven (e.g., closed lid, continuously on while in use) and periodic checks of the temperature achieved with each

ntinuously in ovens at 65C minimum or the manufacturer's recommendation, whichever is greater. Any flux that has becom

g or contamination shall not be used and shall be discarded.


fter welding).

ot be used on stainless steel materials.

ified by the Code.

n to that specified by ASME SEC IX. Approval to use other (unlisted to ASME SEC IIC) consumables shall be obtained thro
h the following conditions:

st be conducted for (but not necessarily by) the fabricator using representative samples. Generic tests by the electrode manuf
lags"), stencil, or stamping. Alternatively, the fabricator may color code or otherwise mark the filler metal if the marking sch
ing. Welding consumables not meeting standard industry practice using the above criteria may be rejected by CSD.
d as follows:

ed acceptable when E80xx strength electrodes are required or when impact testing is required.
active fluxes in their welding procedure submissions.

alification test records, and weld maps/tables shall be submitted for approval by CSD.
se one combined submittal). The Weld Map shall be used to provide a simple single-line sketch of the tank (use the form sho

at the sole option of Saudi Aramco.

from correcting any deviations.

such procedures. Procedures no longer conforming to the latest Code edition shall be revised and requalified.
Saudi Aramco may assign the monitoring to an inspection agency.

fied Out-of-Kingdom shall be obtained through the welding procedure review process.

itoring shall include verification of the accuracy of the recorded parameters.


m their own tests.

o restricted, the brand name and type of flux or electrode shall be specified on both the WPS and PQR.
ew process. A change from A-No. 1 to A-No. 2 is not permitted for sour service applications without requalification.
h requirements govern.
se of the type and brand of weldable primer. The maximum coating thickness shall not exceed 0.050 mm. The use of other w
ctrode shall be identified on the WPS.

complete fusion, complete penetration, and freedom from cracks.

ASME SEC IX and this standard.

put varies by pass or layer, then additional impact specimens, in addition to those locations specified by the relevant Code, ma
ic process or consumable, then the impact test specimen shall contain the maximum possible amount of the deposit for that pr

ults may be accepted as equivalent to the Standard Drawing only with the approval of CSD and with the following condition

ons are required and approved by CSD, each of the coupons shall be of the same material and size and shall be welded with i

mporary, and repair welds.

st specimens, performance qualification tests may be done on production joints with the approval of Inspection Department.

ckup shoes made of non-metallic, non-fusing material may be used.


rocedure review process.

for field or yard fabrication unless adequate wind shields are used. The wind velocity in the weld area for GTAW, GMAW, o

d surface and at least 25 mm of adjacent base metal prior to welding, including any such coatings on temporary attachments o

e + 3.2 mm of the nominal specified diameter.

from this requirement if procedure qualification (see 7.3.9) and production results demonstrate that acceptable penetration ca

ss for an appropriate procedure qualification.

imum specified thickness.


nly with the prior approval of Saudi Aramco Inspection.
removed (see 11.7) or weld repairs to ground areas of the base material have been made (see 11.8) or arc strikes after repair
weep holes shall be left unwelded). The following exceptions do not require seal welding unless specifically required by othe

cracking and to achieve the required hardness, if specified):

de descriptions of the equipment, method of heating, location and type of heating elements, temperature measurement, and th
val. The data sheet shall include the following information: wall thicknesses (for shell and nozzles), material, heating rate, co

ve a spread of more than 40 C.

f the tank. If thermocouples are placed on the same side as the heating source, the thermocouples shall be covered with an ins

at 90 degree intervals around the tank circumference. Additional thermocouple sets are required if multiple heat control zone
ocouples shall be used for circumferential welds on nozzle diameters above 305 mm through 610 mm. Nozzles larger than 61
nk (or joint/component for localized PWHT) being heat treated.
Inspection if the documented calibration checks for that particular recorder demonstrate acceptable accuracy for a suitable pe

thermocouple wire or the matching extension wire (i.e., KX or JX, as appropriate). For Type K thermocouples, copper-cons

both the compensating cable and thermocouple. This information is required for site inspectors to verify that the proper wires
ments or subjected to flame impingement by gas or oil burners.

elow 150 C. Openings shall be restricted in order to eliminate drafts or air circulation that could lower the temperature on th

h NACE RP0472. The maximum allowable hardness for P-No. 1 materials is BHN 200. For all other materials, it shall be th

0, E7018, and ER70S-2), i.e., it does not permit the exemptions to be used.
ness of the reference bar shall be within 10% of the maximum specified hardness.

the joint is acceptable. If any of the retest readings are found to exceed the specified limits, then the weld shall be considered

use of any materials, equipment, or tools that do not conform to the specification requirements, jeopardize safety of personne

hat they will remain visible for a time suitable to the authorized Saudi Aramco inspector.

Saudi Aramco Inspection Department or its designated representative. Qualification of the NDT procedure, by the contractor,
udi Aramco Inspection.
Aramco Inspection reserves the right to request or conduct independent NDT of any joint. If such testing should disclose gro
ered in the field.
ualified to operate all of the equipment.

ed by Saudi Aramco Inspection.

ted, any arc strikes shall be removed by grinding.

or, the welds are of questionable workmanship or if NDT indicates an excessive number of defects. NDT shall be applied us

d be cut out. The limitation on the number of repairs does not include adjacent sequential repairs where the length of the area
eview and approval prior to undertaking any repairs, including excavation of the defect. Crater cracks shall be ground out.
on) do not require a separate repair procedure except for cracks (see 17.2).

undertaking the repairs.


be re-dried only once.

electrode oven heated to 65C minimum. Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for less than the permitted time period may

of seal integrity. Electrodes may be re-dried only once.

times may be doubled (to 4 hours and 1 hour, respectively) if the electrodes are continuously stored in a portable electrode ov

be re-dried only once.

electrode oven heated to 65C minimum. Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for less than the permitted time period may

mperature achieved with each portable oven are required.

eater. Any flux that has become moist or wet shall not be used and shall be discarded.
umables shall be obtained through the welding procedure review process. For unlisted consumables, vendor literature, which

ic tests by the electrode manufacturer are not sufficient.


filler metal if the marking scheme is clearly specified in a written procedure approved by CSD.
y be rejected by CSD.
h of the tank (use the form shown in Attachment A or other similar CSD-approved form). All weld types shall be identified o

and requalified.

ithout requalification.

0.050 mm. The use of other weldable primers or coatings is not permitted unless specifically approved by CSD. Additional
cified by the relevant Code, may be required in order to utilize the full range of heat inputs used in the PQR.
mount of the deposit for that process or consumable (a separate set of specimens is still required for the other process or consu

d with the following conditions:

size and shall be welded with identical parameters. Use of supplementary test coupons for additional tests (e.g., Charpy impa

val of Inspection Department.


eld area for GTAW, GMAW, or gas shielded FCAW shall not exceed 8 kph (2.2 m/s).

gs on temporary attachments or supports.

e that acceptable penetration can be reliably achieved.

11.8) or arc strikes after repair by grinding (see 11.6).


ss specifically required by other standards or specifications:

mperature measurement, and thermocouple locations. The review and approval process shall be the same as described for we
zles), material, heating rate, cooling rate, soak temperature, and soak time.

les shall be covered with an insulation patch. The locations of the thermocouples shall include:

d if multiple heat control zones are used when a control zone is not monitored by one of the four primary sets.
10 mm. Nozzles larger than 610 mm diameter shall have at least four thermocouples equally spaced around the circumferenc

table accuracy for a suitable period.

K thermocouples, copper-constantan (Type T) compensating cables may be used with the following conditions:

s to verify that the proper wires have been used and are connected in the proper polarity.

ld lower the temperature on the inside surface of the joint unless the internal surface is also insulated.

ll other materials, it shall be the equivalent hardness as specified in

en the weld shall be considered unacceptable.

, jeopardize safety of personnel, or impose hazard of damage to Saudi Aramco property. Saudi Aramco reserves the right to p

T procedure, by the contractor, may be required as determined by the Saudi Aramco Inspection Department.

uch testing should disclose gross non-conformance to the Code requirements, all repair and NDT costs shall be at the contrac
fects. NDT shall be applied using the following methods:

rs where the length of the area to be repaired is limited by structural strength or other considerations.
r cracks shall be ground out.
he permitted time period may be re-conditioned. Electrodes exposed in excess of the permitted time period must be re-dried.

ored in a portable electrode oven heated to 65C minimum. E70xx and E80xx electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for less

he permitted time period may be re-conditioned. Electrodes exposed in excess of the permitted time period must be re-dried.
mables, vendor literature, which shall include intended use and approximate chemistry and mechanical properties, shall be sub
weld types shall be identified on the Weld Map and described in the Summary. All base materials (by specification and grade

approved by CSD. Additional procedure qualification and/or weldability tests may be required by CSD.
d in the PQR.
d for the other process or consumable).

itional tests (e.g., Charpy impact or hardness) to be combined with existing PQRs is not permitted.
e the same as described for welding procedures (paragraph 7.1).

ur primary sets.
paced around the circumference.

wing conditions:

Aramco reserves the right to photograph and/or videotape all materials and fabricated components that will be delivered to S

Department.

DT costs shall be at the contractor's expense. Subsequent NDT to a previously accepted joint or part does not relieve the fabri
d time period must be re-dried. Electrodes that have become wet or moist shall not be used and shall be discarded.

osed to the atmosphere for less than the permitted time period may be re-conditioned. E70xx and E80xx electrodes exposed i

d time period must be re-dried. Electrodes that have become wet or moist shall not be used and shall be discarded.
hanical properties, shall be submitted with the procedure.
als (by specification and grade) and wall thicknesses to be used shall be listed in the Weld Map or Summary. The typical join
nents that will be delivered to Saudi Aramco.

r part does not relieve the fabricator/contractor of the responsibility for unacceptable workmanship in accordance with the app
d shall be discarded.

nd E80xx electrodes exposed in excess of the permitted time period must be re-dried. Higher strength electrodes (above E80x

d shall be discarded.
or Summary. The typical joint design details to be used for all production welding shall be shown on each WPS or on other
ship in accordance with the applicable code.
trength electrodes (above E80xx) must be re-dried after any atmospheric exposure. Electrodes that have become wet or mois
own on each WPS or on other referenced drawings or Weld Description forms (Attachment B), which shall be included with
that have become wet or moist shall not be used and shall be discarded.
, which shall be included with the WPS submissions. The Weld Map shall be submitted along with WPSs and PQRs. The W
with WPSs and PQRs. The Weld Map alone shall not be reviewed without WPSs and PQRs or vice-versa.