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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)

Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2017,, pp. 841846, Article ID: IJCIET_08_01_099

Available online at &IType=1
ISSN Print: 0976-6308
6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316

IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed


Lakshmi Pujitha V
PG Student, Department of Civil Engineering,
K L University, A. P, India

CH.Hanumantha Rao
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
K L University, A. P, India

Background/Objectives: The main objective of this work is to determine the soil interaction of
a plane building frame underpinned by pile groups which are embedded in cohesive soil (clayey
soil).Methods: The impact of Soil-Structure
Soil Structure Interaction on response of a 4 storey framed Building
underpinned by Pile group is reported in this paper. The four storey frame consists of three bays
and columns of the frame supported by a pile group. The Pile group is presumed
presu to be embedded in
the Cohesive soil mass (clayey soil). The soil mass is represented by equivalent springs. The
displacement of the building frame caused due to the deflection of the foundation with and without
Soil Structure Interaction is analyzed using
usi ANSYS. Findings: Soil non-linearity
non in lateral
direction is indicated by the P-Y
P Y curve developed using Matlock equations. The soil properties
which are used for clay (cohesive soil) are from the Triaxial Consolidated Undrained Compression
Test on soil. Shear Force and Bending Moments at the base of the columns are determined for the
frame which is analyzed with and without consideration of soil structure interaction.
Key words: Building Frame, Cohesive Soil, Soil-Pile-
Soil Structure Interaction, Non Linearity, P-Y
Cite this Article: Lakshmi Pujitha V and CH.Hanumantha Rao, Soil Structure Interaction Study on
Plane Building Frame Supported on Pile Group Embedded In Cohesive Soil.
Soil International Journal
Technology 8(1), 2017, pp. 841846.
of Civil Engineering and Technology,

The flexural rigidity of the super structure results in the soil settlement. In a Conventional Structural
Design, the impact that is caused due to the settlement of the ground surface on the Framed structure
supported by fixed
xed base is ignored. The Structural Stiffness may have impact on the column loads and
Moments distribution which will be imparted to Foundation of Structure. Past reviews are however
specified that interaction impact between soil & the Structure could be remarkable. Soil interaction
IJCIET/index.asp 841
Lakshmi Pujitha V and CH.Hanumantha Rao

analysis are previously described in various research such as Morri, Lee & Harrison [1971], Lee & Brown
[1973], also in Deshmukh and Karmarkar [1991], Noorzaei [1994] Rao [1995], Dasgupta [1998], and
Mandel[1999]. Generally those obtained loads due to foundation from the Analysis of the Structure
without allowing the settlement of foundation leads to uneconomical structure, so it is avoided and the
effect of interaction of Soil is considered in calculating the settlement of the building frame. This implies
that we have to predict how the Structure respond to the deformation & what are the results of that bending
to the functionality of building. In that respect, various analysis works are reported about the framed
structures supported on the Pile groups.
The main aim of the paper is to do the Analysis numerically using Finite element analysis ( Non Linear
FEA) of the plane building Frame of four storey and three bays underpinned by the Pile groups placed in
the cohesive soil (clay) under some Static load ( Centrally Concentrated Load). Here the requirement to the
consideration of the Soil Structure Interaction in the Building Frame analysis is highlighted through
comparing the Behavior of Building Frame acquired from Analysis of frame with and without
consideration of SSI.

1. Deriving p-y curves for cohesive soil by using Matlock equations.
2. Obtained graphs are used for modeling in ANSYS

1. Computing Ultimate Soil Resistance, pu using
pu = [ 3+( '/cu)*z+(J/D)*z]cuD (1)
2. Computing deflection at the one-half of the Ultimate Resistance of Soil, y50using
y50 = 2.5*50*D (2)
3. Developing the P-Y curve by using following expression
p/pu = 0.5* (y/y50) (3)
where y50 -deflection at the one-half of the ultimate resistance of soil.
pu -ultimate resistance of soil
p- Force/load
y -Displacement
cu -un drained Shear strength
D- Diameter of pile
J = 0.5 for clay (soft)
= 0.25 for clay(medium)
' -Effective unit weight of the soil
z -Soil depth
50 - Strain at one half ultimate soil resistance
The soil properties which are used for clay (cohesive soil)are from the Triaxial Consolidated Undrained
Compression Test on soil. The diameter of the pile is assumed as 0.4m, the depth at which the clayey soil
is 6m, undrianed shear strength is 116kN/m2, J is a constant value 0.5 for soft clay, the dry density of the
soil is 1.62 KN/m3, strain at one half Ultimate Soil Resistance is obtained through the graph which is
plotted between strain and deviator stress obtained from the Triaxial test. The curve thus obtained is shown
in figure 1 842

Soil Structure Interaction Study onn Plane Building Frame Supported onn Pile Group Embedded In Cohesive Soil

Figure 1 P-Y Curve


3.2.1Analysis Program using a software ANSYS 12.1

The Analysis of a Modeled Building frame (4*3) is done using a software ANSYS 12.1 for following
The Frame underpinned with the fixed bases for calculating the SF & BM for a column, which was
the general practice used called as Conventional Method.
A Non Linear Analyses to calculate the Lateral and Vertical Displacements, shear forces, &
bendingg moments in the frames.

Figure 2 Modeled plane frame including pile

3.2.2 Finite element modeling and analysis

The non linear Analyses was done for three bay, four storeyed model Plane building frame supported on
pile groups in a clayey soil (figure 2). Columns (C1,C2,C3,C4), beams, and the piles have been modeled
by using 3D Elastic 2-Node
Node Beam elements. Cap of a pile is modeled using 4-Noded
4 Elastic shell
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Lakshmi Pujitha V and CH.Hanumantha Rao

elements. That cohesive Soil which is throughout an individual pile have modeled with Non linear Load
Transfer curves(p-y curves)s) using COMBIN 39 element.
The non linear analysis constitutive Soil Models given by the equation 1,equation 2 and equation 3 are
hired for the present problem. The p-y
p y curve given by equation 1 were from the Matlock(1970) equation
After analyzing the plane
ne frame using ANSYS 12.1 the result is shown in figure 2

Figure 3 Y Component of Displacement


The four storey three bay frame which is assumed to be supported by pile group and embedded in cohesive
soil is analyzed using ANSYS in both the conventional and nonlinear FEA methods. The results for Shear
Force , Bending Moments at base of all the columns are shown in figures 4,5 respectively.

Figure 4 Variation Of Shear Force for the Columns

From the figure 4 it is observed that the variation of Shear Force values from conventional
conve method to
Non linear FEA for the exterior columns of the frame are more when compared with the interior columns.
Therefore, from obtained results, it is to know that the Soil Interaction consideration reduced Shear Force
greatly when the comparison done with Frame Analysis having Fixed bases.
IJCIET/index.asp 844
Soil Structure Interaction Study onn Plane Building Frame Supported onn Pile Group Embedded In Cohesive Soil

Bending Moments in the Frame

rame under Center concentrated load have indicated in the figure 5.

Figure 5 Variation Of Bending Moments for the Columns

From those graphs, s, it can be perceived that the moments caused due to bending obtained by
Conventional Method are always higher. Major difference in bending moment obtained by Conventional
Method analysis and Non linear FEA to the plane Frame was nearly 31%. Here, it is to be noted regarding
the bending moment for the 1st column of a plane frame obtained by various analysis methods although al
ir difference in percentage is not high, they are important because values for Bending
B Moment are the
multiples of the thousands. Therefore this
t represents that there is a need to the consideration for Interaction
of soil for calculating design values in Building frame.

1. It is perceived that the Shear force(SF) and Bending moment(BM) values from the conventional method for
the first column are 18.2%
.2% and 7.83% respectively are more than those from the non linear FEA.
2. It is perceived that the Shear Force(SF) and Bending Moment(BM) values when frame was analyzed without
SSI for the second column are 24.2% and 22.7% respectively are more than those
thos that is analyzed with SSI.
3. The above results shows that the Shear force (SF) and Bending moment (BM) values from the Conventional
Method for the third column are 22.07% and 31.0% respectively are more than those from the non linear
4. It is seen that the Shear force(SF) and Bending moment(BM) values from the Conventional Method for the
fourth column are 29.8% and 19.6% respectively are more than those from the non linear FEA.

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