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Natural ventilation

Ventilation and air flow principles, principles of natural

ventilation - Stack effect due to the thermal forces, air
change, wind flow around buildings and air flow
patterns inside buildings, Local factors in wind
orientation, Flow pattern inside building using wind
Wind velocity wind rose diagram , wind pressure.
What is natural ventilation
The process of supplying and removing air through a
space by natural means

Parameters for Natural Ventilation

Air Flow- occurs mainly due to two driving forces
1. Pressure Gradient Difference in outdoor and indoor pressure (varies with building
shape, size, openings, wind direction, local environmental densities, neighbor buildings
configuration, topography etc.)
2. Temperature Gradient (Buoyancy Forces)- when the inside air temperature is higher
than outside air, the warm air at floor surface starts rising and the cool air starts entering as a
result of vacuum created at floor surface. This effect is called as Stack Effect.
When moving air strikes an obstacle
such as a building, will slow down the
air flow but the air flow will exert a
pressure on the obstructing surface.
This slowing down process effects a
roughly wedge-shaped mass of air on
the windward side of the building,
which in turn diverts the rest of the air
flow upwards and sideways.
A separation layer is formed between
the stagnant air and the building on
the one hand and the laminar air flow
on the other hand.
The laminar air flow itself may be
accelerated at the obstacle, as the area In fact, this is not quite stagnant: a vortex is formed,
available for the flow is narrowed down the movement is light and variable and it is often
by the obstacle, as it were (Figure ). referred to as 'wind shadow'. Consequently vortexes
At the separation layer, due to friction, are formed wherever the laminar flow is separated
the upper surface of the stagnant air is from the surfaces of solid bodies.
moved forward, thus a turbulence or On the windward side such vortexes are at an
vortex is developed. increased pressure and on the leeward side at a
Thus a stagnant mass of air is also reduced pressure. If the building has an opening
formed on the leeward side, but this is facing a high pressure zone and another facing a low
at a reduced pressure. pressure zone, air movement will be generated
through the building.
Air movement

For cross ventilation,

air needs an outlet

For cooling, air needs

to be in the comfort zone
Air flow direction

Location of windows
determines the
direction of air flow
Large cities where wind is forced between buildings -
the gap between the Twin Towers of the original
World Trade Center was an extreme example of the
phenomenon, which made the ground level plaza
notoriously windswept