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# IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

## A Review Paper on Classical Techniques to Solve Optimal Power Flow

Supriya Sinhar1 Megha Panicker2
1,2
Assistant Professor
1,2
Department of Electrical Engineering
1,2
SAL Institute of Technology & Engineering Research, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
Abstract This paper includes various methods to solve Where
Complex Optimal Power Flow method for small and large F t =total cost of generation
power system. From the past decades various research work
is going on to solve the multi objective functions. The NG=set of dispatch able generating units,
various methods are used to solve the optimal power flow a i ,b i , c i are the cost coefficients for unit i
problem can be categorized in two methods. First is The various System Constraints can be given as:
Conventional method which includes Gradient method,
Newton method, Quadratic Programming method, Linear A. Equality Constraints
Programming method and Interior point method. Second It handles the equilibrium between the total system
one is Intelligent method which includes include the Genetic generation and total load system. Equilibrium will be their
Algorithm, Particle swarm optimization, hybrid genetic when total system generation ( Pi ) equals the total system
algorithm, Artificial neural network etc. Every conventional
method has its own merits and demerits and can be load ( Pd ) plus system losses ( Pl )
summarized in this paper. P i Pd Pl
Key words: Optimal Power Flow, Multi-Objectives, Voltage
Constraints, Power Systems The losses can be given as
NG NG

I. INTRODUCTION Pl B ij
Pg i Pg j
i 1 j 1
In the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem various control
variables are to be found and to be optimized. In OPF we Bi j
are the loss coefficients.
consider various objective functions which are to be For the non- linear active power flow equations the equality
minimized or maximized according to the requirement. constraints are given as:
These includes fuel cost, transmission losses and reactive NG

## source allocation. Usually we do the minimization of total Pg i Pd i V i

V j Y i j cos ( i j i j ) 0
production cost of scheduled generating units as mentioned i 1

## in [1]. The other objectives can also be defined as: -

B. Inequality Constraints
A. Active Power Objectives min
Each generating unit has its lower limit ( Pg i ) as well as
Economic dispatch
max
Environmental dispatch higher limit ( Pg i )These limits are directly related to the
Maximum power transfer system in use.
Pg i Pg i
min max
B. Reactive Power Objectives Pg i
MW and MVAr loss minimization Similarly Inequality constraints can also be defined for
C. General Goals Reactive power as mentioned in [2]
Qgi Qgi
min max
Minimum deviation from a target schedule Qgi
Minimum control shifts to deviations Here:
Least shift approximation 1. i 1, 2 ,3, 4 .......... .......... ... NG

II. OPF OBJECTIVE FUNCTION FOR FUEL COST MINIMIZATION III. OPTIMAL POWER FLOW METHODOLOGIES
It can be defined as the process of allocating the allocating There are various Conventional or classical methods to
generation levels to the generating units, so that the solve Optimal Power Flow. These optimization techniques
system load is supplied entirely and most economically. are useful in finding the optimum solution of continuous
Objective of Economic Load Dispatch is to minimize the and differential functions. These methods and make use
overall cost of generation i.e The OPF problem can be of differential calculus in locating the optimal solution.
formulated as mentioned in [2] Study of these classical techniques of optimization from a
NG
basis for developing numerical techniques that have evolved
Ft F i into advanced techniques more suitable to todays practical
i 1
problems. Mathematical models are also referred in which
It establishes the relationship between the power the selection of a best element from some set of available
injected to the system by the generator. The cost generating alternatives is done. In the simplest case, the main purpose
unit is expressed as: of solving problem in which is to minimize or maximize a
Fi a i Pgi bi Pgi c i
2
real function by systematically choosing the values of real or

A Review Paper on Classical Techniques to Solve Optimal Power Flow
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/069)

## integer variables from within an allowed set as mentioned in A. Merits

[2]. The various methods used are: This method can be easily used for highly
Lambda Iteration method Constrained problems
Gradient Method Non linearity can be easily solved by this method
Newton Raphson Method More Reliable and efficient method.
Linear programming
Interior Point Method B. Demerits
If there are inequality constraints then this method
IV. LAMBDA ITERATION METHOD take time to converge
In This method is used to find the optimal Dispatch of the Consideration of equality and inequality constraints
generators This method is based on the iterative method and and penalty factors make the relevant matrices less
the unknown variable is firstly calculated by intuition Sparse and hence it complicates the procedure and
method. lambda is the variable introduced in solving increases computational time
constraint optimization problem and is known as Lagrange
multiplier. Lambda can also be solved by solving different VI. NEWTON RAPHSON METHOD
set of equations. The value of Lambda is calculated as: It is a flexible approach that can be used to solve different
NG
b OPF problems. This method is used for finding the better
Pd i solution from the roots of a real valued function.[2] .
i 1 2 a i
NG

If f y is a given function and its derivative is f ' y and
1
2ai the first guess root is
yo
then the better first approximation
i 1
In this method the losses are not considered, but if is given as:
the losses are considered then the individual generators will f yo
y1 y o
f 'yo
operate at different incremental costs of production.
The main advantage of this method is that it is the
simplest method to solve iteration process but at the same This process is repeated until the accurate value is
time it is time consuming and the whole result depends upon reached.
the initial guess. Sometimes newton method ties to go beyond the
Aravindha babu et al. in their paper calculated simple gradient method and tries to solve the economic
optimal lambda for economic load dispatch using a dispatch by using equation ,as mentioned in [04] [06]
three generator system and also tested his methods y 0
success on thirteen generator system. [3]
A. Merits
V. GRADIENT METHOD The method has the ability to converge fast
This method says that the minimum of the function can be Efficient and robust solutions can be obtained for
found by a series of step that moves in the downward problems of any practical size
o It can handle inequality constraints very well
direction. From starting point, y the direction of the steep
descent can be found by taking the gradient of function.[4] B. Demerits

## f The penalty near the limit is very small by which

y the optimal solution will tend to the variable to
1 float over the limit.
f Convergence characteristics that is sensitive to the
initial conditions
y
2
f ....... VII. LINEAR PROGRAMING
This is a method to determine the a way to achieve the best
........ outcome in a given mathematical model for some list of
........ requirements represented as linear relationships , as
mentioned in [7]The objective function is subjected to linear
f equality and linear inequality constraints. The function f
y
n can be defined as:-
In order to move in the direction of maximum descent from
f x1 , x 2 ....................., x n
y to y we will use y y f
o 1 1 o
b1 x1 b 2 x 2 .......... .b n x n d
Where
The smallest value of this function will give the
is a scalar to allow us to guarantee that the process of
optimized result. Linear programs can also be expressed as
convergence [05],[04].
canonical form
T
max imize B X

A Review Paper on Classical Techniques to Solve Optimal Power Flow
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/069)

## Subject to AX g [5] C.L. Wadhwa, Electrical Power Systems, Wiley

Here :- Eastern India Limited, New Delhi/Meerut 1983
X=Vectors of variable [6] David I. Sun, Bruce Ashley, Brian Brewer, Art Hughes,
B and g =Vector of known coefficients William F. Tinney Optimal Power Flow by Newton
A=Matrix of Coefficients Approach ,IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus
and Systems, vol.PAS-103, no. 10, pp. 2864-2879, Oct
A. Merits 1984
The LP method easily handles Non linearity [7] K. Y. Lee, J. L.Ortiz, Optimal Operation of Large-
constraints scale Power System, ISOR Conference on Power
It is efficient in handling of inequalities. System, vol. 3, no. 2, 2011
Deals effectively with local constraints. [8] Florian A.Potra, Stephen J Wright , Interior Point
Method, Journal of computational and applied
It has ability for incorporation of contingency
constraints mathematics, vol. 124 ,no2,December 2000.

B. Demerits
It suffers lack of accuracy.
Although LP methods are fast and reliable, but
they have some disadvantages associated with
the piecewise linear cost approximations.

## VIII. INTERIOR POINT METHOD

Over the past fifteen years, research on IF' methods has
experienced an awesome expansion, both in theory and
computational practice. The first known IP method is
usually attributed to Frisch which is a logarithmic method
that was later extensively studied by Fiacco and McCormick
to solve nonlinear inequality constrained problems. [8]
The primal-dual method's idea is easy to
demonstrate for constrained nonlinear optimization. For
simplicity consider the all-inequality version of a nonlinear
optimization problem.
Minimize f x ,
Subject to C i x 0 for i=1,2,3n

A. Merits
Computational evidences shows that interior points
methods are promising for this class of power flow
problem
The implementation is robust and the iterations are
fast
B. Demerits
Convergence characteristics are slow in nature

REFERENCES
[1] A.Immanuel &Dr.Ch.Chengaiah , A Comprehensive
Literature Survey on Recent Methods of Optimal
Power Flow in IOSR Journal of Electrical and
Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE), Sep Oct.
2015, Volume 10, Issue 5 , PP 01-12.
[2] Wood, A., Wollenberg, B: Power Generation Operation
and Control. Wiley, New York (1996)
[3] P. Arvindhababu and K.R. Nayer, Economic dispatch
based on optimal lambda using radial basis function
network, International Journal of Computer
Application, vol. 24, no. 7.2002, pp 551-556
[4] B.H. Chowdhury and S. Rahaman, A review of
recent advances in economic dispatch, IEEE
Transaction on Power System, vol. 5, no. 17, 2010, pp.
2451-2456