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# INTRODUCTION

## Lecture 2 : Fundamental Concepts

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Lecture 2,. : Fundamental Concepts

2.1 Objectives:

## 1. To acquire knowledge of the fundamental concepts for basic knowledge in air

conditioning.

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Objectives:

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At the end of this lecture, the student should acquire knowledge of the fundamental
concepts for basic knowledge in air conditioning.

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These concepts include heating, cooling, humidification, dehumidification, etc..

2.2 Introduction

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Introduction

## Fundamentals of Thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer are used.

Thermodynamics: First law of Thermodynamics and its application to energy
balance.
Fluid mechanics: relation between flow rate and pressure loss, emphasis on
complete fluid distribution systems rather than a single element.
Heat transfer: conduction, convection and radiation basics applied in the design
stage.

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The fundamental physical concepts include the fu
undamentals of Thermodynamics,
fluid mechanics and heat transfer.

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2.3 Terminology-Heating
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Terminology-Heating

## Heating is performed in space conditioning to bring a space up to a higher

temperature or to replace energy being lost to colder surroundings, Fig. 2.1.

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Heating is performed in space conditioning to bring a space up to a higher
temperature or to replace energy being lost to colder surroundings.

## Energy transfer to a space or to the air in a space is achieved by:

Natural (free) convection to the space.
Direct heating by forced circulated air
Transfer of heated water to the vicinity of the space and use it to heat
circulated air.

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Energy can be transferred to a space or to the air in a space by, direct
radiation, natural (free) convection, direct heating by forced convection or
transfer of heated water to the vicinity of the space and use it to heat
circulated air.

## This type of heating used to raise or maintain a space temperature is generally

called sensible heating

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Sensible heating is the term used to express the process of heating to raise or
maintain a space temperature.

## The sensible energy is given by equation (2.1) as follows:

Qc
P t e ti P t e ti
qs mc (2.1)

## qs the sensible heat transfer, W or BTU/h

cp Constant specific heat, Btu/lbm.F or J/kgK
m The mass flow rate of air, lbm/h or kg/s
Q Volume of air flow rate
v Specific volume of air flow rate
te exit temperature
ti inlet temperature

Example 2.1
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Example 2.1

Consider a 3000 cfm air-stream passing through a heating coil. Determine the

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rate at which heat must be added in Btu/hr to change its temperature from 70 to 120 F.
Assume an inlet air specific volume of 13.5 ft3/lbm and a specific heat of 0.24
Btu/(lbm-F)

Solution
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Solution

## The heat being added is sensible, as it is contributing to the temperature

change of the air-stream. Equation 2.1 gives:

ft 3 Btu min
3000 0.24 120 70 F 60
min lbm F hr

Qc
qs
p
te ti
v ft 3
13.5
lbm

## qs 160, 000 Btu / hr

2.4 Terminology-Humidification

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Terminology-Humidification

Water vapor transfer to the atmospheric air therefore associated with mass
transfer. (Increasing the concentration of water in air-water vapor mixture).

## Latent heat transfer

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Humidification is the process of increasing the concentration of water in air-water
vapor mixture

## The latent heat rate is given by equation 2.2 as follows:

ql i fg m w (2.2)

## ql the latent heat rate

i fg The enthalpy of vaporization
m w The rate of evaporated water

## How can the process of humidification be conducted? The answer is by:

Spraying water droplets into circulating air stream or

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Using wetted mats or plates

Example 2.2
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Example 2.2

It is desired to add 0.01 Ibm of water vapor to each pound of perfectly dry air flowing
at the rate of 3000 cfm through the use of saturated liquid water in a humidifier.
Assuming a value of 1061 Btu/lbm for the .enthalpy of vaporization of water, estimate
the rate of latent energy input necessary to perform this humidification of the air-
stream.

Solution

Since the rate of water addition is tied to the mass of the air, we must
determine the mass flow rate of the air-stream. Let us assume that the specific volume
of the air given in Example 2.1, 13.5 ft3/Ibm, is a suitable value to use in this case;
then

ft 3
3000
Q min
m air
v ft 3
13.5
lbm

ft 3
3000
Btu min 0.01 lbmw 60 min 141, 000 Btu
q 1061
lbmw ft
3
lbma hr hr
13.5
lbma

2.5 Terminology-Cooling

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Terminology-Cooling

## Ebentewrgeyenttrhaenssfpearcefraonmd athseousrpcaec.e or air in a space by temperature difference

Circulating air through a surface at low T in the space or in a remote
location.
This is done to make up for the energy being gained by that space from
warmer surroundings and sun lights and internal heating sources, Figs.
2.2 and 2.3.

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Energy transfer from the space or air in a space by temperature difference between the
space and a source.
Cooling is achieved by circulating air through a surface at low T in the space or in a
remote location.

## Fig. 2.1 The flow of energy in space heating:Determination of

Cooling may involve only sensible heat transfer with no change in the
moisture content.

Fig. 2.2 Air handler of the draw-through type with cooling and heating coils in
series

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Fig. 2.3 Air handler of the draw-through type with cooling and heating coils in
parallel

2.6 Terminology-Dehumidification
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Terminology-Dehumidification

## Transfer of water vapor from atmospheric air Latent heat transfer is

associated.
Water vapor concentration decreases.
How
Circulating air over a sufficiently cooled surface so that water vapor
condenses on the surface
Spraying cold water into the air stream

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Dehumidification is the transfer of water vapor from atmospheric air Latent heat
transfer is associated.

## In this process, water vapor concentration decreases by:

Circulating air over a sufficiently cooled surface so that water vapor
condenses on the surface or by
Spraying cold water into the air stream

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2.7 Terminology-Cleaning
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Terminology-Cleaning

## Filtering removing contaminant gases.

How:
Solid particles are captured in a porous medium
Electrostatic cleaners are used to remove fine particles.
water sprays

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Filtering or removing contaminant gases is achieved by:

## 1) Solid particles are captured in a porous medium

2) Electrostatic cleaners are used to remove fine particles.
3) water sprays

## 2.8 Terminology-Air Motion

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Terminology-Air motion

Air motion near the occupant should be strong enough to create uniform comfort
condition in the space but gentle enough to be unnoticed.
How
Proper placement of air inlets
Using various air distribution systems

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In general, air motion near the occupant should be strong enough to create
uniform comfort condition in the space but gentle enough to be unnoticed. This
is achieved by:

## 1) Proper placement of air inlets

2) Using various air distribution systems

## 2.9 Terminology-Seasonal Operation

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Terminology-Seasonal operation

## A/C processes are not active all the time.

May have inactive cooling and dehumidification during winter and inactive
heating and humidification in summer.
This requires control devices for temperature and humidity.
Humidification and dehumidification are not always necessary (depends on
weather conditions)
Filtering and cleaning are always required unless the space is not occupied.
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The following should be noted:
Air conditioning processes are not active all the time.
They have inactive cooling and dehumidification during winter and inactive
heating and humidification in summer.
This requires control devices for temperature and humidity.
Humidification and dehumidification are not always necessary. They depend
on weather conditions.
Filtering and cleaning are always required unless the space is not occupied.

Assessment

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Assessment

Q1: Air at 1 atm and 76 F is flowing at the rate of 5000 cfm. At what rate
must energy be removed in Btu/hr to change the temperature to 58 F assuming
that no dehumidification occurs.

. .
q m c p (t2 t1 ) ;
.
M Q x
P / RT 14.7 *144 / 53.35(76 460)
0.074 lbm / ft 3
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m 5000*0.07 *60 22, 208 lbm / hr

## Cp= 0.24 Btu/lbm-F

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q 22, 208*0.24(58 76)
= -95,939 Btu/hr