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In the last decade the use of commercial structural optimization software have increased rapidly. It has been found that there are essentially two stages of the design process that structural optimization can be applied to. In the early stage of concept generation, topology optimization should be used to develop an efficient structure from the beginning. At this level an atomized variation of optimization parameters was proven useful to find the best feasible design possible. In the later stage, shape and size optimization should be used to Ã¯Â¬Âne-tune the structure realized from the topology optimization. Using optimization in this manner gives great possibilities to save time and mass as well as it may produce innovative designs no one would ever think about. Altogether, this makes structural optimization an outstanding tool in the design process. Applying topology optimization in the concept stage requires a close cooperation between the designer and the analysis engineer to create the design domain. Further, a proper formulation of loads and boundary conditions is crucial for a usable solution. Interpreting the results from the topology optimization is a difficult task and requires experience and knowledge of other aspects such as manufacturability. Topology optimization can be applied to existing starter front bracket to ensure that material is distributed throughout the structure in an efficient manner to maximize stiffness, dynamic stability and minimize mass. Maximizing stiffness will result in robust structure which is more stable. Increasing competition by automobile component industry has forced automotive manufacturers towards the development of new products to focus upon more efficient design. Starter manufacturing is a very low margin industry. Even small reductions in mass say 15-20 grams of component can add 2% margin in profit. Suppose a starter is made in mass production say 1 lakh/year and 2% margin added can be huge cost saving. Additionally, Topology optimization can be applied at initial stage for development of starter front bracket for new engine fulfilling all starter static and dynamic requirements. The paper summarized an existing model of starter front bracket is modelled and static analysis is performed to give the boundary conditions for the topology optimization. A simple type dump model of starter front bracket is modelled in CATIA with maximum material condition to perform topology optimization using Altair Optistruct. Considering the boundary conditions from the real model and simplifying the model by giving ideal boundary conditions. The optimized results are validated by building a mathematical model to minimize the compliance of the model and the results are compared. The optimization algorithm used here is simple isotropic material with penalization (SIMP).The Starter front bracket is modelled in CATIA by extracting the Iso-surfaces from the topology optimization results in Altair Optistruct. The comparison for the new model is done by re-running the Static analysis in ANSYS workbench and dynamic analysis in ANSYS APDL and the results are presented. Each of the vehicleÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s systems contributes to its overall efficiency.

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Sameer Soni1 Manish Kumar Verma2

1

M.Tech Scholar 2Assistant Professor

1,2

Department of Mechanical Engineering

1,2

C V Raman University Bilaspur, C.G., India

Abstract In the last decade the use of commercial structural presented. Each of the vehicles systems contributes to its

optimization software have increased rapidly. It has been overall efficiency.

found that there are essentially two stages of the design Key words: Topology Optimization, CATIA, Optistruct,

process that structural optimization can be applied to. In the SIMP, ANSYS

early stage of concept generation, topology optimization

should be used to develop an efficient structure from the I. INTRODUCTION

beginning. At this level an atomized variation of optimization

A. Background:

parameters was proven useful to find the best feasible design

possible. In the later stage, shape and size optimization Starter motor converts electrical energy through a battery into

should be used to ne-tune the structure realized from the mechanical rotating energy. These motors work under heavy

topology optimization. Using optimization in this manner load. They produce big power in a short time and in a small

gives great possibilities to save time and mass as well as it volume. Starter motor conveys its rotating energy with a

may produce innovative designs no one would ever think pinion to the flywheel. For initiating internal combustion

about. Altogether, this makes structural optimization an engine, the rotating moment of starter motors should be

outstanding tool in the design process. Applying topology requested being greater. The starter motor must be rotating

optimization in the concept stage requires a close cooperation the flywheel at a minimum starting speed. It must also

between the designer and the analysis engineer to create the continue support rotation during initial combustion to

design domain. Further, a proper formulation of loads and maintain momentum until the engine can sustain operation.

boundary conditions is crucial for a usable solution. The starter motor turns for approximately 1sec during each

Interpreting the results from the topology optimization is a starting attempt. In each attempt the starter motor gear

difficult task and requires experience and knowledge of other bounces out and meshes with the flywheel attached to the

aspects such as manufacturability. Topology optimization engine crankshaft. During the compression cycle of each

can be applied to existing starter front bracket to ensure that cylinder, the starter motor torque is high, resulting in higher

material is distributed throughout the structure in an efficient forceon the starter gear teeth. These forces are passed on

manner to maximize stiffness, dynamic stability and needle bearing and finally distributed on front bracket on the

minimize mass. Maximizing stiffness will result in robust starter. Engine start is the initial phase, and a very crucial

structure which is more stable. Increasing competition by phase in the operation of automotive engines. The quality of

automobile component industry has forced automotive engine start influences emission and also the drivability of the

manufacturers towards the development of new products to vehicle. The starter motor plays a vital role in this short

focus upon more efficient design. Starter manufacturing is a transient period

very low margin industry. Even small reductions in mass say

15-20 grams of component can add 2% margin in profit.

Suppose a starter is made in mass production say 1 lakh/year

and 2% margin added can be huge cost saving. Additionally,

Topology optimization can be applied at initial stage for

development of starter front bracket for new engine fulfilling

all starter static and dynamic requirements. The paper

summarized an existing model of starter front bracket is

modelled and static analysis is performed to give the

boundary conditions for the topology optimization. A simple

type dump model of starter front bracket is modelled in

CATIA with maximum material condition to perform

topology optimization using Altair Optistruct. Considering

the boundary conditions from the real model and simplifying

the model by giving ideal boundary conditions. The

Fig. 1.1: Component of Starter Assembly

optimized results are validated by building a mathematical

The main function of the starter system is to supply

model to minimize the compliance of the model and the

cranking torque to the crankshaft of the I.C. engine until a

results are compared. The optimization algorithm used here sustainable RPM is achieved due to consecutive robust

is simple isotropic material with penalization (SIMP).The

engine combustion events. Larger size engine will have high

Starter front bracket is modelled in CATIA by extracting the

inertia at the flywheel and crank shaft. It needs starter motor

Iso-surfaces from the topology optimization results in Altair

with higher torque for starting the engine. When high torque

Optistruct. The comparison for the new model is done by re-

motor was used, it is needed to be engage the pinion with the

running the Static analysis in ANSYS workbench and flywheel without any damage to both flywheel and pinion and

dynamic analysis in ANSYS APDL and the results are then it has to develop high torque for starting the engine.

Structural Modeling and Optimization of Starter Front Bracket

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/074)

Starter has forces application on three points. This point are- separated in three different areas: sizing optimization, shape

1) Point of application of the force in the front bearing optimization and topology optimization see Figure 1.8.

2) Contact point between pinion and the ring gear A. Topology Optimization:

3) Point of application of the force in the rear bearing

Topology optimization generates an optimized material

Let m be the module of pinion gear having Z no. of

distribution for a set of loads and constraints within a given

teeth.

design space. The design space can be defined using shell or

Let F be the total applied force on pinion gear and

solid elements, or both. The classical topology optimization

pressure angle is i degree.

set up solving the minimum compliance problem, as well as

1) Case 1: Offset Is Zero:

the dual formulation with multiple constraints are available.

Force in tangential direction = F x sin (i)

Constraints on Von Mises stress and buckling factor

(1)

are available with limitations. Manufacturing constraints can

Force acting in radial direction on pinion= F x cos (i)

be imposed using a minimum member size constraint, draw

(2)

direction constraints, extrusion constraints, symmetry planes,

Force acting in tangential direction is utilised in

pattern grouping, and pattern repetition. A conceptual design

rotation of flywheel.

can be imported in a CAD system using an iso-surface

Force acting in radial direction is passed on the two

generated with OSSmooth, which is part of the Optistruct

bearing that is front bearing and rear bearing.

package. Free-size optimization is available for shell design

Force on contact point between pinion and the ring gear =

spaces. The shell thickness or composite ply-thickness of

T 2 each element is the design variable.

F

Z m cos(i) (3) B. Sizing Optimization:

Force on front bearing + force on rear bearing= General size and shape optimization problems can be solved.

Force on contact point between pinion and the ring gear Variables can also be assigned to properties, which control

Force on front bearing = B x F / (A +B) the thickness, area, moments of inertia, stiffness, and non-

(4) structural mass of elements in the model Allof the variables

Force on rear bearing = A x F /(A + B) supported by Optistruct can be assigned using Hypermesh.

(5) Shape perturbation vectors can be created using Hypermorph.

Where A is distance between front bearing and The reduction of local stress can be accomplished easily

engagement point. using free shape optimization. Shape perturbations are

Where B is distance between rear bearing and automatically determined by Optistruct (based on the stress

engagement point. levels in the design) when using this technique.

2) Case 2: Offset Is Not Zero: The layout of laminated shells can be improved by

When offset is present pressure angle in operation will modifying the ply thickness and ply angle of these materials.

change. See Figure 1.8(a) for an example of size optimization where

Let m be the module of flywheel gear having Z1 no. the diameter of the rods is the design variables.

of teeth.

Let centreline distance between pinion and flywheel

centre be x

Pressure angle in operation =

1 m (Z Z 1) cos(i)

cos ( )

2 x (6)

All calculation will be based on pressure angle in Fig. 1.8 (a): Different types of structural optimization:

operation not on pressure angle in design. Sizing optimization

Structural design tools include topology, topography, and

free-size optimization. Sizing, shape and free shape

optimization are available for structural optimization. In the Fig. 1.8(b): Different types of structural optimization: Shape

formulation of design and optimization problems, the optimization

following responses can be applied as the objective or as

constraints: compliance, frequency, volume, mass, moment

of inertia, centre of gravity, displacement, velocity,

acceleration, buckling factor, stress, strain, composite failure,

force, synthetic response, and external (user defined) Fig. 1.8(c): Different types of structural optimization:

functions. Static, inertia relief, nonlinear quasi-static Topology optimization

(contact), normal modes,buckling, and frequency response C. Shape Optimization:

solutions can be included in a multi-disciplinary optimization Variables can be assigned to perturbation vectors, which

setup. control the shape of the model.As with sizing optimization

Structural Modeling and Optimization of Starter Front Bracket

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/074)

the topology (number of holes, beams, etc.) of the structure is many ways, still active research topics and are being covered

already known when using shape optimization, the shape by future developments of topology optimization. However,

optimization will not result inner holes or split bodies apart. the inclusion of manufacturing constraints into topology and

In shape optimization the design variables can for example be topography optimization is already implemented in

thickness distribution along structural members, diameter of Optistruct.

holes, radii of fillets orany other measure. See Figure 1.8 (b)

E. Generalized Topology Optimization Formulation:

foran example of shape optimization.

Generalized optimization problem formulation

D. Design Process With Topology Optimization: Multiple load cases with different solution sequences in

Topology Optimization is a mathematical technique that combination

produces an optimized shape and material distribution for a Global Von Mises stress constraint for static loads

structure within a given package space. By discretizing the Density method

domain into a finite element mesh, Optistruct calculates 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D elements in the design space

material properties for each element. The Optistruct Non-design space can contain any element type and

algorithm alters the material distribution to optimize the user- response

defined objective under given constraints. Convergence Extensive manufacturing control:

occurs in line with the description provided on the Iterative

Minimum member size control to avoid mesh

Solution page. The following responses are currently

dependent results

available as the objective or as constraint functions:

Maximum member size control to avoid large

Von Mises stress constraints may be defined for

material concentrations

topology and free-size optimization through the stress

Draw direction constraints

optional continuation line on the DTPL or the DSIZE card.

There are a number of restrictions with this constraint: Extrusion constraints

The definition of stress constraints is limited to a single Pattern grouping

von Mises permissible stress. The phenomenon of Pattern repetition

singular topology is pronounced when different Multiple symmetry planes

materials with different permissible stresses exist in a Checkerboard control

structure. Singular topology refers to the problem Discreteness control

associated with the conditional nature of stress Smoothing and geometry generation for 3-D results

constraints, i.e. the stress constraint of an element

disappears when the element vanishes. This creates

another problem in that a huge number of reduced

problems exist with solutions that cannot usually be

found by a gradient- based optimizer in the full design

space

Volume or Mass

Mass Volume

Fraction

Centre of Static

Moment of Inertia

Gravity Compliance

Von Mises

Static Stress on Entire

Natural Frequency

Displacement Model (only as

constraint)

Frequency Fig. 1.10: The design process without and with using

Response, topology optimization

Buckling factor

Displacement,

(special case)

Velocity, III. NUMERICAL METHODOLOGY

Acceleration

Combined A. Introduction:

Weighted Weighted Optimization of starter front bracket involves various stages

Compliance

Compliance Frequency in design, analysing, solving and optimisation with the help

Index

Table 1.1: The objective functions of Topology of three softwares Ansys, Altair Optistruct and CATIA. The

Optimization order of process involved in different stages is shown in

Take the design of a car a high stiffness is necessary Figure 3.1.Firstly, the existing model which is to be optimised

for good driving and handling, and high deformability is is selected. Secondly, FE model of existing starter front

important for the crashworthiness of the design. This shows bracket is generated in Ansys. Thirdly, static and modal

that improving one measure may result in degrading another. analysis is done in Ansys Workbench. The extra material is

Therefore, compromises must go into the formulation of the added around nose and a simpler model is produced. The new

optimization problem. The definition of the design problem model is optimised in Altair Optistruct and new geometry

and of the design target is most important. The solution can model is designed in Catia based on Optistruct output design.

be left to computational means. Multidisciplinary The new model is tested for static and dynamic criteria and

considerations, especially in the conceptual design, are, in

Structural Modeling and Optimization of Starter Front Bracket

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/074)

both the solver Ansys and Optistruct. Finally, the new robust Youngs modulus

2 71000

and weight saving model is sent for production. (MPa)

CATIA is mechanical design software. It is a 3 Poissons ratio 0.33

feature-based, parametric solid modelling design tool that

takes advantage of the easy-to-learn windows graphical user 4 Yield stress (MPa) 350

interface. We can create fully associative 3D solid models, Table 3.1: Material Propoerties

with or without constraints, while using automatic or user Engine Starter can work working with two operating

defined relations to capture the design intent. conditions. They are as follow-

1) Clockwise rotation of the pinion gear

B. Design Intent: 2) Anticlockwise rotation of the pinion gear

Design intent is the plan of how to construct the solid model

of a part, in order to properly convey its visual and functional

aspects. In order to efficiently use a parametric modeller like

CATIA, we must consider the design intent before and while

modelling the part.

The techniques used to create the model will affect

how the model behaves when it is changed during its life

cycle. The manner in which a solid model is built can affect

many aspects, including its flexibility to change its stability

during the change process, and the resources it requires to

compute a new result. Therefore, it is important to take design

intent into account for creating an efficient solid model of the

part.

The following factors contribute to how the design

intent is captured:

Automatic (implicit) relations

Equations

Additional relations

Dimensioning

C. Generation Of Finite Element Model In ANSYS

Workbench:

The existing model of the starter front bracket is imported in

the ANSYS workbench and the model is meshed with three

dimensional tetrahedral mesh with element type solid 187 and

element size 1 mm. The number of elements in the starter

front bracket is 454628 and the number of nodes is 134568.

Figure 3.1 shows the finite element model of the starter front

bracket. The mass of existing starter bracket is 0.510kg.

Engine starter are designed only for one direction

rotation. In other direction it will fail.It has to be specified

before design the direction of rotation of starter. Here in this

case we are taking clockwise rotation of the starter and the

boundary conditions and loads are taken in clockwise

Fig. 3.1: Finite element model starter front bracket direction. An existing model of the starter is taken and the

1) Static Analysis In ANSYS Workbench: supports are given at the hole mounting to engine and

Initially the analysis settings are made according to the compression only support on the front face of model as shown

assembly conditions and the material properties are entered in figure3.3 . Here the material data and the input force are

in the engineering data console in the workbench. The taken from the manufacturer database. The material is

material used for the front bracket is aluminium and the assumed as bi-linear isotropic with the yield stress 350 Mpa.

mechanical properties are given in the Table 3.1. Considering that the new optimized model of the starter front

1 Material Aluminium bracket should not cross the yield limit in the design regions.

Structural Modeling and Optimization of Starter Front Bracket

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/074)

Geometry of the starter front bracket is simplified to get a D. A Simple Model (Maximum Material Condition):

simple box type model. A simple type dump model of maximum material condition

The torque shock bench for bracket (tested on which is created by adding the material using CATIA V5 which is

the starter is mounted) is 140 Nm. A force is converted on the shown in figure 3.5. This model is imported in Ansys

basis of the nominal power of the starter (generic) and the workbench and Altair Optistruct for the topology

geometry of the pinion and the crown (application optimization. At first the model is imported in the Ansys

specific).This effort is defined by direction and intensity as workbench and with same analysis settings applied in the

Pressure force 9103 N simple box model the topology optimization is performed.

Pressure angle 18 Second the simple box model is imported in Altair Optistruct

Max displacement: 1mm and topology optimization is performed.

Maximum stress (Von Mises): 350 MPa

The assembly loads for second model are directly

considered on the part and the contact nonlinearities on the

results are ignored to reduce the complexity of the

optimization problem. The force of 9103N at angle of 18o is

applied to the starter front bracket as specified by the

manufacturer and it is clearly shown in the Figure 3.4. Then

check the units before the running the analysis. Check the

model for any errors in the mesh and the analysis settings and

run the static structural analysis in the Ansys workbench.

E. Topology Optimization Using FEM In Altair Optistruct:

Fig. 3.3: Constraint in Ansys workbench Topology Optimization is a mathematical technique that

produces an optimized shape and material distribution for a

structure within a given package space. By discretizing the

domain into a finite element mesh, Optistruct calculates

material properties for each element. The Optistruct

algorithm alters the material distribution to optimize the user-

defined objective under given constraints. Convergence

occurs in line with the description provided on the Iterative

Solution page. Convergence value is set to 0.005.The trails

are conducted for the simple box model considering the

design and non-design regions. Both finite element models

are shown in the Figure 3.6. The Optistruct ignores the non-

design region during the optimization and it considers the

design region alone to give the optimized results.

The model is processed in Ansys Workbench and

results will be discussed later.

Structural Modeling and Optimization of Starter Front Bracket

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/074)

design & non design region

Elastic

Compone Density Poisson

Material Modulu

nt (T/mm3) s ratio

s (MPa)

Aluminiu 2.41E-

Starter 71000 0.33

m 09

1e-015

(For

CED &

Steel 200000 making 0.3

YOKE

negligibl

e mass)

Table 3.2: Material Data for Modal analysis

with all boundary condition

F. Modal Analysis Of Starter:

After generating new model for starter ,it has to be modelled

to check its is stable to random vibrational.It is required to

apply remote mass of Inductor and CED .The remote mass is

applied on the contact surface of inductor and CED on starter

backet respectively.Figure 3.7 represent position of center of

gravity of inductor and CED in given condition. The mass of

inductor and yoke are as follow:

Masse Inducteur (M1) : 3.285 kg

Masse CED (M2) : 0.51 kg

It is required that new starter should have its first

natural frequency greater than 250 Hertz.

Boundary Condition-On fixing screws between Fig. 3.9: Contact Surface Starter

inductor and front bracket some tension get created boundary

near screw. The element near these area start to move G. Topology Optimization Procedure:

together and exhibit same displacement near all dof. So these The steps performed for topology optimization are:

element need to be rigidly attached. For the given starter 1) Cad file is loaded into Altair Optistruct.

30mm area around the screw circle is chosen to attach as one 2) Attributes of the part groups in non-design domains are

link. Similarly some element are rigidly attached between defined as frozen part that has no contribution in the

CED and front bracket as in Figure 3.8 optimization process.

Starter front bracket is subjected to fixing screws 3) 2D Meshing is done separately of design and non-design

and bearing surfaces boundary conditions while modeling part. Element quality is check to insure good result.

analysis. 4) Proper connectivity between each element is to be

1) Meshed Model For Modal Analysis: maintained.

Solenoid and Yoke regions are represented as hollow cylinder 5) 3D meshing is created from the existing 2d mesh

body. They are only designed to check effect of starter on separately for design and non-design area.

yoke and CED and to given very low density in order of 1e- 6) Objective function is selected as to minimize the volume.

05 to symbolize the hollow cylinder.

Structural Modeling and Optimization of Starter Front Bracket

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/074)

7) Controller based algorithm is used for topology optimization is to find the optimal layout or material

optimization. HyperView is used for the post processing distribution of a structure within a specified region. Two

of topology optimization. algorithmic approaches are often used for solving the

8) Set new part for model analysis condition in Ansys. topology problem, namely, the optimality criterion approach

The following are three main steps in topology and the method of moving asymptotes (MMA). In topology

optimization optimization, the minimization of compliance is often sought,

1) Setting up topology design variable and the draw with relative density as the only design parameter. The

direction constraints in HyperMesh. applied loads, supports and the material volume are normally

2) Setting up the optimization problem in HyperMesh. prescribed. The minimum compliance problem may be

3) Post-processing the results in HyperView. solved using the so-calledpower-law approach. The scalar

compliance c can be written as

1) Setting Up Topology Design Variables And The Draw c f u u Ku

T T

(7)

Direction Constraints In Hypermesh:

Where f is the global force vector, u the global

Launch HyperMesh and set the Optistruct user profile

displacement vector and K the global(structural) stiffness

Retrieve the .hm File matrix of a finite element discretization of a structure. For

Create design variables for topology optimization with linear elasticity, assuming plane stress and after application

draw direction constraints of the principle of virtual work, we obtain the equilibrium

2) Setting Up The Optimization Problem In Hypermesh: equations

Create optimization responses

[K]{u} [f] (8)

Apply design constraints on volume fraction response

with the design variable being the relative density of

Set minimize compliance as objective

the material in element e, the local stiffness matrix of an

Save the database

element with a relative density of one, (viz. a solid element)

Run the Optistruct and p a penalty factor, then the compliance may also be

3) Post-Processing The Results Using Hyper View:

written as

Contour plot of element densities N N

Iso plot of the densities

c ue K eu e (x

T p T

) u e K 0 u e (9)

Plot a contour of displacements and stresses e

e 1 e 1

H. Problem Formulation: Thus, a topology optimization problem formulation,

In a static topology optimization problem, the purpose is to where the objective is to minimize compliance, can be written

determine the material distribution, which optimizes a certain as

objective function (e.g. minimum compliance, maximum Minimize

force and maximum displacement) for a structure with given N N

c u K eu e (x

loads and supports, subject to a prescribed volume. The T p T

e e

) u e K 0u e

distribution of the material is limited to the design domain,

e 1 e 1

, which forms part of a larger domain which can include

areas prescribed to be solid or void. The general topology subject to

optimization problem is depicted in Figure 3.9. In the V (x)

f

problems to follow, the design domain is discretized by finite V0

elements, bi-linearly interpolated linear elastic four node

membrane elements with two degree of freedom per node. [K]{u} [f]

0 x min x x max (10)

Herein, x is the vector of all the densities in the

elements and N is the number of elements. The lower limit,

,is greater than zero to avoid the introduction of singularities

into the stiffness matrix and the upper limit, , is of course

chosen as one. The lower limit, is normally set to a small

number, e.g. , to prevent numerical instabilities. fV0is the

prescribed constraint on volume. The penalty parameter p is

introduced to penalize the intermediate density values by

making their stiffness contribution to global stiffness

uneconomical. Thus, the element densities prefer either of the

bounds. Figure 3.10 illustrates the effect that the penalty

factor has on the element stiffness Ke. A higher penalty

forces the immediate densities to be penalized more.

Fig. 3.10: General Topology Optimization Problem 2) Design Variables for Topology Optimization:

1) Problem Formulation For Minimum Compliance: Optistruct solves topological optimization problems using the

Topology optimization is an optimization technique that density method, also known as the SIMP method in the

seeks an optimal layout discretizing the design domain, research community.

typically using the finite element method (FEM) and Under topology optimization, the material density of

sensitivity analysis. Simply put, the purpose of topology each element should take a value of either 0 or 1, defining the

Structural Modeling and Optimization of Starter Front Bracket

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/074)

element as being either void or solid, respectively. 2) Convergence test; whether or not the convergence is

Unfortunately, optimization of a large number of discrete achieved.

variables is computationally prohibitive. Therefore, 3) Response screening to retain potentially active responses

representation of the material distribution problem in terms for the current iteration.

of continuous variables has to be used. 4) Design sensitivity analysis for retained responses.

With the density method, the material density of 5) Optimization of an explicit approximate problem

each element is directly used as the design variable, and formulated using the sensitivity information.

varies continuously between 0 and 1; these represent the state To achieve a stable convergence, design variable

of void and solid, respectively. Intermediate values of density changes during each iteration are limited to a narrow range

represent fictitious material. The stiffness of the material is within their bounds, called move limits. The biggest design

assumed to be linearly dependent on the density. This variable changes occur within the first few iterations and, due

material formulation is consistent with our understanding of to an advanced formulation and other stabilizing measures,

common materials. For example, steel, which is denser than convergence for practical applications is typically reached

aluminium, is stronger than aluminium. Following this logic, with only a small number of FE analyses.

the representation of fictitious material at intermediate The design sensitivity analysis calculates

densities does reflect engineering intuitions. In general, the derivatives of structural responses with respect to the design

optimal solution of problems involves large gray areas of variables. This is one of the most important ingredients for

intermediate densities in the structural domain. Such taking FEA from a simple design validation tool to an

solutions are not meaningful when we are looking for the automated design optimization framework. The design

topology of a given material, and not meaningful when update is generated by solving the explicit approximate

considering the use of different materials within the design optimization problem, based on sensitivity information.

space. Therefore, techniques need to be introduced to Optistruct has two classes of optimization methods

penalize intermediate densities and to force the final design implemented: dual method and primal method. The dual

to be represented by densities of 0 or 1 for each element. The method solves the optimization problem in the dual space of

penalization technique used is the "power law representation Lagrange multipliers associated with active constraints. It is

of elasticity properties," which can be expressed for any solid highly efficient for design problems involving a very large

3-D or 2-D element as follows number of design variables but much fewer constraints

K ( ) K (11) (common to topology and topography optimization). The

p

Where K and K represent the penalized and the real

variable space. It is used for problems that involve equally as

stiffness matrix of an element, respectively, is the density and

many design constraints as design variables, which is

p the penalization factor which is always greater than 1.

common for size and shape optimizations. The choice of

In Optistruct, the DISCRETE parameter

optimizer is made automatically by Optistruct, based on the

corresponds to (p - 1). DISCRETE can be defined on the

characteristics of the optimization problem.

DOPTPRM bulk data entry. p usually takes a value between

4) Regular Or Soft Convergence:

2.0 and 4.0. For example, compared to the non-penalized

Two convergence tests are used in Optistruct and satisfaction

formulation (which is equivalent to p=1) at =0.3, p=2 reduces

of only one of these tests is required.

the stiffness of the element from 0.3 to 0.09 times the stiffness

Regular convergence

of the fully dense element. The default DISCRETE is 1.0 for

shell dominant structures, and 2.0 for solids dominant Soft convergence

structures (the dominance is defined by the proportion of Regular convergence (design is feasible) is achieved

number of elements). An additional parameter, DISCRT1D, when the convergence criteria are satisfied for two

can also be defined on the DOPTPRM bulk data entry. consecutive iterations. This means that for two consecutive

DISCRT1D allows 1-D elements to use a different iterations, the change in the objective function is less than the

penalization to 2-D or 3-D elements. objective tolerance and constraint violations are less than 1%.

When minimum member size control is used, the At least three analyses are required for regular convergence,

penalty starts at 2 and is increased to 3 for the second and as the convergence is based on the comparison of true

third iterative phases. This is done in order to achieve a more objective values (values obtained from an analysis at the

discrete solution. For other manufacturing constraints such as latest design point). An exception (design is infeasible) is

draw direction, extrusion, pattern repetition, and pattern when the constraints remain violated by more than 1%, and

grouping, the penalty starts at 2 and increases to 3 and 4 for for three consecutive iterations the change in the objective

the second and third iterative phases, respectively. function is less than the objective tolerance and the change in

Obviously, due to the existence of semi-dense elements, the the constraint violations is less than 0.2%. In this case, the

analysis results may change dramatically when the design iterative process will be terminated with a conclusion No

process enters a new phase using a different penalization feasible design can be obtained.

factor. Soft convergence is achieved when there is little or

3) Iterative Solution: no change in the design variables for two consecutive

Optistruct uses an iterative procedure known as the local iterations. It is not necessary to evaluate the objective (or

approximation method to solve the optimization problem. constraints) for the final design point, as the model is

This method determines the solution of the optimization unchanged from the previous iteration. Therefore, soft

problem using the following steps: convergence requires one less iteration than regular

1) Analysis of the physical problem using finite elements. convergence.

Structural Modeling and Optimization of Starter Front Bracket

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/074)

IV. RESULT

A. Introduction:

The static analysis is conducted in the starter front bracket

and the results are shown in section 4.2 Topology

optimization geometry results obtained using Altair

Optistruct are shown in section 4.3 and the geometry

obtained from iso-surface is tested with boundary condition

and checked for static and dynamic analysis criteria .New

optimised geometry is interpretation with help of CATIA

from Optistruct results and tested to static and dynamic

analysis in Altair Hyperworks solver in section 4.4. The

results are compared with Ansys solver in section 4.5.

B. Initial Result Of Static Analysis And Modal Analysis:

(b)

starter front bracket

As we can notice in Figure 4.1 red area is the area of

maximum deformation. This area has been set constraint for

topology optimization, since this is the area of maximum (c)

deformation and we have constraint of deformation up to Fig. 4.2: Starter Design Realisation element for model

maximum of 1mm.From the above Figure 4.1 the maximum The blue ones are the element to be removed. The area red

deformation of the front bracket is 0.101 mm. The equivalent shape is having maximum load and should be strengthen.Non

(von Mises) stress is 224 MPa shown in Figure 4.1. The design areas always show red in colour since its compulsory

results obtained from the above static analysis of the existing to have this area.There are three different categories that are

front bracket are taken as an input parameter for the topology obtained from the results. They are material to be removed,

optimization.The first natural frequency of starter is 338Hz marginal and to keep. The Figure 4.2(a) and (b) shows the

which much greater than required 250Hz. optimized model of the starter front bracket and three

different coloured boxes in the graphic window. The blue

C. Optimization Result In Altair Optistruct:

shows the material to be removed, light grey shows the

marginal and red shows the material to keep. The Figure

4.2(c) shows the model in which all the elements are removed

and by this model we can justify where the material can be

removed from the existing model. The elements which are

shown in the Figure 4.2(c) shows the iso-surface exacted.

These results represent reduction in volume fraction

(objective function) for each iteration-

(a)

Structural Modeling and Optimization of Starter Front Bracket

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/074)

manner than all new feature are in corporate with keeping

basic shape as is.

geometry for bracket

The geometry designed is tested to static and

Fig. 4.3: Starter design volume fraction variation for each dynamic boundary conditions with the help

iteration The optimised geometry obtained has stress

The volume fraction of starter design area fall 265Mpa much below safety limit of 350Mpa and first natural

rapidly in the beginning due to large unwanted area as shown frequency 304Hz above safety limit of 250HZ.Thus fulfilling

in Figure 4.3.The convergence is achieved in 22 iterations. all necessary criteria.

The optimisation process stopped when change in volume Existing Optimized New

fraction is less than 0.5% for consecutive iterations. The Parameter

geometry geometry Geometry

maximum iteration Altair Optistruct run will continue is 80 Mass(g) 510 382 432

by default and can be extended to 160. %change - -25% -15.2%

Mass of the original starter = .510g Displacement

Initial mass of front bracket with maximum material 0.10 0.15 0.127

(mm)

condition= 540g Stress(Mpa) 224 312 265

Total Mass of Design Material: 260g Modal(Hz) 338 310 304

Mass of Non-Design Material: 280g

Table 4.2: Comparison old geometry and new geometry

Total mass front bracket after optimization: 352gm

parameter

which is 75% of original design

The final mass decrease of 15% (78gram) is

Existing Optimisation obtained. The new starter geometry is robust with uniform

Geometry Geometry stress distribution throughout and stable dynamic condition.

Mass(gram) 510 382 The new model designed satisfies the stress and frequency

%change - -25% criteria and will be released for production.

Displacement(mm) 0.10 0.15

Stress(MPa) 224 312 E. Comparison Between Two Software Optistruct Result

%change stress +39.2% Versus Ansys Result:

First

338 310

frequency(Hz)

%change stress -8.2%

Table 4.1: comparison between initial geometry and

optimised geometry parameter

The initial parameter of model is compared with

optimised geometry parameter. The mass of optimised

geometry is reduced by 25% but this is not the final mass.

Some mass has to be added to bring manufacturing

feasibility.

D. Geometry Interpretation:

Being a feasible design proposal, this optimized

configuration was selected to transform into CAD model with

the help of CATIA.

The geometry is interpretation based on the

optimisation result obtained above and old geometry is

modify based on interpretation of optimised geometry as

Structural Modeling and Optimization of Starter Front Bracket

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/074)

static and dynamic requirements.

Finally it can be turned out topology optimization in

Altair Optistruct is stable and more efficient. It is lighter in

weight, have better structural performance under the same

loading conditions. The new design geometry can withstand

greater forces, greater random vibration and is less in weight.

Concurrently, topology optimization is an important tool to

find the optimal design proposals with least possible times,

because it reduces the overall product development cycle

time. In a word, Altair Optistruct has more advantages and

efficient for topology optimization. This amount of weight

saving have huge impact on bracket cost saving in the future.

B. Future Work:

1) Use of various manufacturing constraint to further obtain

optimised model close to new model.

2) Apply the same principle to other part of automobile

component like alternator brackets, engine brackets,

different lock bolt, chassis, etc.

Fig. 4.8: Showing modal AnalysisOptistruct result against

Ansys Result REFERENCES

Differen [1] Bendsoe M.P and Sigmund O. (2003) Topology

New

ce in optimization theory, methods and applications.

New

geomet

two [2] CostiD,Torricelli E, Splendi L and pettazzoni M (2011)

geomet software Optimization methodology for an automotive hood

Existi ry

Parameter

ng

ry

Optistr

results substructure, Proceedings of the world congress on

Ansys percenta engineering, Vol III.

uct

Results ge [3] Erik Andreasen, Anders Clausen, MattiasSchevenels,

Results

variatio BoyanS.Lazarov, Ole Sigmund (2010)Efficient

n (%) topology optimization in Matlab using 88 lines of code,

Mass(g) 510 432 432 0 Structural multidisplinary optimization.

Displacement( [4] Guest J.K, Prevost J.H and Belytschko T

0.10 0.125 0.127 1.2

mm) (2004)Achieving minimum length scale in topology

Stress(Mpa) 224 242 265 8.6 optimization using nodal design variables and projection

Modal(Hz) 338 305 304 0.302 functions, International journal for numerical methods

Table 4.3: Comparing Optistruct result against Ansys Result in engineering,Vol.61, 238-254.

As shown in figure 4.7, on comparing Altair [5] Henry Panganiban, In-GyuAhn, Tae-Jin Chung

Optistruct result with Ansys workbench, the stress (2012)Multi-phase Design Optimization of a Long

distribution is almost identical and much less than maximum Range Aerial Lift Boom Structure, Proceedings of the

permissible limit of 350MPa.The maximum stress differs world congress on engineering ,Vol. III.

slightly on account of different solver and different mesh due [6] Mallika A and RamanaRao.N.V (2011)Topology

to complex geometry. The deformation distribution are optimization of cylindrical shells for various support

comparable same. conditions, International journal of civil and structural

As shown in figure 4.8, on comparing modal engineering, Vol. II, No 1.

analysis Altair Optistruct result with Ansys workbench, the [7] Samuel Amstutz (2010)An interpretation of the SIMP

first natural frequency is identical with 304.6Hz obtained in method based on topological sensitivity analysis,

Optistruct with 305.5Hz obtained in Ansys. version-1.

[8] Sigmund O (2001)A 99 line topology optimization code

V. CONCLUSION written in MATLAB, Structural multidisplinary

optimization 21, 120-127 Springer-Verlag.

A. Conclusions: [9] Sigmund O and Clausen P.M. (2007)Topology

In this project an overview of mathematical modelling and optimization using a mixed formulation: An alternative

pragmatic solutions of topology optimization approached way to solve pressure load problems, computer methods

with structural optimization tools have been presented. An in applied mechanics and engineering.

integrated design environment with topology optimization, [10] Sigmund O and Petersson J (1998)Numerical

CAE (Altair Hyper mesh) and CAD (CATIA V5R19) system instabilities in topology optimization: A survey on

aids in finding the optimal design proposals. Altair Optistruct procedures dealing with checkerboards, mesh-

optimization modules with data smoothing feature and dependencies and local minima, structural

extraction of iso-surface provides a comprehensive approach optimization, 68-75 Springer- Verlag.

to find an optimal design proposal at the early design phase. [11] Wang M.Y, Wang S.Y, Lim K.M. (2001)A Density

The new geometry designed using iso-surface as reference Filtering Approach for Topology Optimization, 7th

Structural Modeling and Optimization of Starter Front Bracket

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/074)

Optimization, COEX Seoul, Korea

[12] Wang S.Y, Lim K.M, Khoo B.C and Wang M.Y

(2007)An extended level set method for shape and

topology optimization, Journal of computational

physics, 395- 421.

[13] WaqasSaleem and Fan Yuqing (2010)Strategy for

optimal configuration design of existing structures by

topology and shape optimization tools, International

journal of aerospace and mechnical engineering tools .

[14] Xianghua Xing and Michael Yu Wang (2011)

Structural topology optimization using finite element

based level set method, Research grants council of

Hong Kong SAR

[15] Xiangyang Zhou and Liping Chen Zhengdong Huang

(2011)The SIMP-SRV method for stiffness topology

optimization of continuum structures, school of

mechanical science & engineering, HuaZhong university

of science and technology, Wuhan.

[16] Tcherniak D and Sigmund O (2001)A web-based

topology optimization program, Structural

multidisciplinary optimization 22, 179-187 Springer-

Verlag.

[17] Ansys user manual, Ansys 13.0

[18] Optistruct user manual, Altair Optistruct 11.0.

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