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Procedure No.

: OPS-PR-RT-011 QP
Revision No. : 00
Issue Date : 20-Feb-2011

TITLE: RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Page 1 of 16

Company Name GLOBAL INSPECTION SERVICES W.L.L.


Mailing Address P. O. Box 22410
DOHA QATAR

Telephone + (974) 4460 4550

Fax + (974) 4460 4054

Email technical.qa@gismea.com

Document Title
RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION
Document Ref. # OPS-PR-RT-011 QP Rev - 00
Client

Contract #

Project Description

M.R. Sarath Babu


Anup Nair
00 20-Feb-11 Revised to incorporate ASNT NDT Level III
Technical Support
client comments (184206)

Revision Date Revision Details Prepared By Reviewed and Approved By

GLOBAL INSPECTION SERVICES


Procedure No. : OPS-PR-RT-011 QP
Revision No. : 00
Issue Date : 20-Feb-2011

TITLE: RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Page 2 of 16

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 SCOPE

2.0 REFERENCED CODES AND/OR STANDARDS

3.0 QUALIFICATION OF PERSONNEL

4.0 RADIATION SOURCES

5.0 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

6.0 IDENTIFICATION OF RADIOGRAPHS

7.0 PENETRAMETERS

8.0 RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES

9.0 DIRECTION OF RADIATION & GEOMETRIC UNSHARPNESS

10.0 SAFETY

11.0 EVALUATION AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

12.0 RECORDS

13.0 ATTACHMENT

13.1 Sketch showing location markers

13.2 Radiation Warning Sign Board

13.3 Sample Radiographic Report

13.4 Technique Sheet

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Procedure No. : OPS-PR-RT-011 QP
Revision No. : 00
Issue Date : 20-Feb-2011

TITLE: RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Page 3 of 16

1.0 SCOPE

This procedure establishes the uniform requirements for radiographic examination of


weldments intended for Installation project of low pressure associated gas compressor
at Halul Island. The material intended are carbon steel, Alloy steel and stainless steel.
This procedure cover radiographic examination of structural piping, vessels, pipeline
butt welds in the thickness range 5mm to 50mm.

Upon instruction from the client, this procedure shall be qualified by submitting
radiographs produced in compliance with this procedure.

2.0 REFERENCED CODES AND/OR STANDARDS


2.1 ASME Sec. V Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code - Non-Destructive
Examination.

2.2 SNT - TC-IA ASNT Recommended Practice for NDT Personnel


Qualification and Certification.

2.3 ASTM-Metal Test Methods and Analytical Procedures Vol:-03.03 Nondestructive testing.

2.3.1 ASTM E-747/87 Controlling Quality of Radiographic Testing (Wire Penetrameters)

2.3.2 ASTM E-94/89 Standard Guide for Radiographic Testing

2.3.3 ASTM E-1032 Standard Test Method for Radiographic Examination of Weldments

2.4 GIS 101-001 Global Inspection Services Radiation Safety Manual

2.5 ES-S-60 QP Specification for the Non Destructive Testing of Welds

2.6 ES-5.14.0010 Specification for the fabrication, Inspection and installation of


Carbon, Carbon Manganese and Low Alloy Ferrite Process
pipework.

2.7 ES-5.14.0020 Specification for the Fabrication, Inspection and Installation of


process pipework in Austenitic Stainless Steel, Copper Base and
Nickel Base Alloys.

3.0 QUALIFICATION OF PERSONNEL

3.1 All radiographic examination personnel shall be qualified and certified to Level II in
accordance with Global Inspection Services (GIS) Written Practice 100-001;
conforming to the latest edition of Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A of ASNT
and with a minimum two years post certification experience.

3.2 The interpretation and evaluation of results shall be performed at least by personnel
qualified to level II.

4.0 RADIATION SOURCES

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Procedure No. : OPS-PR-RT-011 QP
Revision No. : 00
Issue Date : 20-Feb-2011

TITLE: RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Page 4 of 16

4.1 Radiation source shall be X-ray whenever possible. Gamma ray source - Ir-192
shall be used subject to prior approval of QP on case by case basis.

4.2 Ir-192 isotope with course strength not more than 25 Ci shall be used or as
specified by QP, to suit site conditions. In this case the technique shall be
qualified using a source side image quality indicator of the wire type.

4.3 Selection of the appropriate source is dependent upon variables regarding the
weld being examined (material composition and thickness). The suitability of the
source shall be demonstrated by attaining the required Image Quality Indicator
(IQI) sensitivity and complying with all other requirements stipulated herein (film
density and area of interest, density tolerances, etc.).

4.4 If an X-ray machine is used it shall have adequate voltage and radiation output.
The focal spot size shall not exceed 2.5 mm x 2.5 mm.

4.5 The Gamma-Ray Isotopes shall have a source size not over 3 x 2 mm. Only Ir-
192 Isotope not greater than 25 Ci shall be used as a source of Gamma-Ray.

4.6 The minimum permissible thickness for which radioactive isotopes may be used
for any radiographic technique shall achieve the density and IQI image
requirements of this procedure.

5.0 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

5.1 Unless otherwise specified by the applicable job order or contract, radiography shall
be performed prior to and/or after heat treatment.

5.2 Surface Preparation:

The welds shall be prepared only to the extent necessary that the resulting
radiographic image due to any irregularities shall not mask or be confused with
the image of any discontinuity. The finished surface of all butt-welded joints may
be flush with base material or may have reasonably uniform crowns. If the weld is
ground flush with the adjacent base material, arrows or "V's" shall be placed 1/4
inch away from the edge of weld opposite to the film location markers at the
extremities of the film in the area of examination.

5.3 Film & Screen requirements:

5.3.1 Selection of films shall be determined by such factors such as the


required quality level, materials etc. The films selected shall be
capable of demonstrating the required image quality indicator (IQI)
sensitivity. Fine grain high contrast film shall be used in conjunction
with X-ray sources. Ultrafine grain high contrast film shall be used for
gamma radiography and the same may be used with X-Ray
equipment. For Gamma radiography only Type 1 films shall be used
Type 1 : Kodak MX Type 2 : Kodak AX

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Procedure No. : OPS-PR-RT-011 QP
Revision No. : 00
Issue Date : 20-Feb-2011

TITLE: RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Page 5 of 16

5.3.2 Intensifying screens of lead-foil type or cassette screen type shall be


used. The screens shall have a minimum thickness of 0.125 mm
(0.005"). They shall be of the same approximate dimensions as the film
being used and shall be in direct intimate contact with the film during
exposure. The screens used shall handled carefully to avoid dents,
scratches, grease or dirt. Screens rendering non-relevant indications on
radiographs shall be visually examined and discarded if physical
damage is observed. Exception to 5.3.2 is permitted when Ready Pack
or Roll Pack with integral screens is used. The same can be used only
when the thickness does not exceed 40 mm.
Under no circumstances shall screens which emit visible light be used.

5.4 Processing Requirements

5.4.1 The processing facilities at any time, shall be demonstrated that the
film can be processed using the facilities, to have a fog level of not
more than 0.3.

All radiographs shall be free from mechanical, chemical or other


artifacts to be extent that they cannot mask or be confused with the
image of any discontinuity in the object being radiographed. Such
artifacts include but are not limited to:

a. Fogging.
b. Processing defects such as water or chemical marks.
c. Scratches, finger marks, crimps, static smudges or tears.
d. Loss of detail due to poor film contact.
e. False indications due to defective Screens.

5.4.2 Processing-Manual (According to SE-94)

5.4.2.1 Preparation-
No more film should be processed than can be
accommodated with a minimum separation of 1/2
in.(12.7mm). Hangers are loaded and solutions stirred
before starting development.

5.4.2.2 Start of Development-


Start the timer and place the films into the developer
tank. Separate to a minimum distance of 1/2 in. (12.7
mm) and agitate in two directions for about 15 s.

5.4.2.3 Development-
Normal development is 5 to 8 min. at 68F (20C)

5.4.2.4 Agitation-
Shake the film horizontally and vertically, ideally for a few
seconds each minute during development. This will help film
develop evenly.

5.4.2.5 Rinsing-

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Procedure No. : OPS-PR-RT-011 QP
Revision No. : 00
Issue Date : 20-Feb-2011

TITLE: RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Page 6 of 16

Rinse the films with vigorous agitation in clear water.

5.4.2.6 Fixing-
The films must not touch one another in the fixer. Agitate the
hangers vertically for about 10s and again at the end of the
first minute, to ensure uniform and rapid fixation. Keep them in
the fixer until fixation is complete (that is, at least twice the
clearing time), but not more than 15 min. in relatively fresh
fixer. Frequent agitation will shorten the time of fixation.

5.4.2.7 Fixer Neutralizing-


Use a hypo eliminator or fixer neutralizer between fixation and
washing.

5.4.2.8 Washing-
Washing is very slow below 60F (16C). When washing at
temperatures above 85F (30C), care should be exercised not
to leave films in the water too long. The films should be
washed in batches without contamination from new film
brought over from the fixer. If pressed for capacity, as more
films are put in the wash, partially washed film should be
moved in the direction of the inlet.

5.4.2.9 Wetting Agent-


Dip the film for approximately 30s in a wetting agent added
clear water.

5.4.2.10 Drying-
Take precaution to tighten film on hangers, so that it cannot
touch in the dryer. Too hot a drying temperature at low
humidity can result in uneven drying and should be avoided.

5.5 Viewing Facilities for Radiographs:

Viewing facilities shall provide subdued background lighting of an intensity


that will not cause troublesome reflections, shadows, or glare on the
radiograph. Equipment used to view radiographs for interpretation shall
provide a variable light source sufficient for the designated wire to be visible
for the specified density range. The viewing conditions shall be such that light
from around the outer edge of the radiograph or coming through low-density
portions of the radiograph does not interfere with interpretation.

5.6 Density Limitations

The transmitted film density through the radiographic image adjacent to the
designated wire of the wire penetrameter and the area of interest shall be 2.0
minimum and 3.0 maximum. Composite viewing of multiple film exposures is
not permitted. Either a calibrated densitometer or step wedge comparison film
shall be used for determining the film density. The densitometer shall be
calibrated as per para 6 of SE 1079 by using step wedge film traceable to
national standard step tablet. They shall be calibrated at least every 90 days

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Procedure No. : OPS-PR-RT-011 QP
Revision No. : 00
Issue Date : 20-Feb-2011

TITLE: RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Page 7 of 16

during use. Periodic calibration verification checks shall be performed at the


beginning of each shift, after 8 hr of continuous use, or after change of
apertures, whichever comes first. The densitometer shall be acceptable if the
readings are within + 0.05 of the calibration readings.

5.7 Back Scatter

A lead symbol "B" with minimum dimension of 1/2 inch in height and 1/16 inch
in thickness shall be attached to the back of each film holder during each
exposure to determine if back scatter radiation is exposing the film. If a light
image of the "B" appears on a darker back ground of the film, the radiograph
is rejectable and shall be reshot after ensuring adequate back-scatter
protection. The appearance of a dark image of letter B shall be disregarded,
unless the dark image could mask or be confused with rejectable weld defects
and is acceptable.

6.0 IDENTIFICATION OF RADIOGRAPHS

6.1 General

A system of Radiographic identification shall be used to produce a permanent and


traceable record of radiographs to individual welds. The radiograph shall contain the
plant or job number, line or equipment number, weld number, the date on which
the radiograph was shot and welders symbol. Subsequent radiographs made by
reasons of a repaired area shall be identified with a letter R and a number
following the R indicating first, second, etc., sequence of repair radiographs when
the same weld is repaired more than once.

6.2 Location Markers

Location markers shall be placed on the part outside the weld area and as shown
by the sketches given by Attachment 1. The radiographic image of the location
markers for the coordination of the part with the area of interest shall appear on the
film without interfering with the area of interest and with such an arrangement that
it is evident that complete coverage was obtained.

6.2.1 Double-Wall Technique :- When using a double-wall technique and


the welds in both walls are viewed for acceptance, and the entire
image of the object being radiographed is shown on the radiograph,
only one location marker shall be used. The marker used for this type
of technique shall be either numbers or letters. They shall be placed
on the source side.

6.2.2 Series of Radiographs:- For welds that require a series of radiographs


to cover the full length or circumference of the weld, the complete set of
location markers shall be applied at one time, wherever possible. A
reference or zero position for each series shall be identified on the
component. For pipe or tube welds greater than 3 1/2" a number belt
shall be used. The number belt shall consist of lead numbers between
1/4" and 1/2" in height. Number spacing shall be as follows:

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Procedure No. : OPS-PR-RT-011 QP
Revision No. : 00
Issue Date : 20-Feb-2011

TITLE: RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Page 8 of 16

Nominal Pipe Diameter Spacing


Over 3 1/2" through 8" 1" apart
10" and above 3" apart

6.3 Film Over lap: The minimum film overlap shall be 20mm.

7.0 PENETRAMETERS
7.1 General

IQIs shall be selected from either the same alloy material group or grade as
identified in SE-1025, or SE-747, as applicable, or from an alloy material group or
grade with less radiation absorption than the material being radiographed. The
quality of all levels of radiographic testing shall be determined by a set of wire
penetrameters that confirms to the requirements of method E 747, Article 22 of
Section V or as per BS 3971.

The penetrameter selection shall be based on the nominal single-wall thickness


plus the estimated weld reinforcement not to exceed the maximum permitted by
the referencing Code Section. Backing rings or strips shall be disregarded in the
selection of the required Penetrameter wire size.

For welds without reinforcement, the required wire size shall be based on the
nominal single wall thickness. Backing rings or strips shall not be considered as
part of the weld thickness in IQI selection.

7.2 Placement of Penetrameters

The placement of IQI shall be in accordance with ASME Sec V. The


penetrameter(s) shall be placed on source side of the weld so that the length of
the wires is perpendicular to the length of the weld. Where inaccessibility prevents
hand placing the penetrameter(s) on the source side, the IQI(s) shall be placed on
the film side in contact with the part being examined. If the penetrameter is
placed on the film side, it shall always accompany a lead letter "F" at least as high
as the penetrameter identification numbers. The identification numbers and,
when used, the lead letter "F" shall not be in the area of interest.

7.3 Number of Penetrameters

7.3.1 One IQI shall represent an area within which radiographic densities are not
less than 15% from that measured through the body of the IQI. At least one
IQI shall be present on the radiograph except as noted below.

7.3.2 When film density, in the area of interest, varies by more than minus 15% or
plus 30% from the density adjacent to the designated wire of a wire
penetrameter within the maximum/minimum allowable density ranges
specified in para 5.6, then an additional penetrameter shall be used for each
exceptional area or areas and the radiograph shall be retaken.

7.3.3 At least one penetrameter image shall appear on each radiograph except as
outlined below:

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Procedure No. : OPS-PR-RT-011 QP
Revision No. : 00
Issue Date : 20-Feb-2011

TITLE: RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Page 9 of 16

a. If more than one penetrameter is used because of density requirements,


one shall be placed in the lightest area of interest and the other in the
darkest area of interest. The intervening densities on the radiograph
shall be considered as having acceptable density if the required wire is
visible in each penetrameter.

b. For panoramic radiography involving a complete circumferential weld, at


least three (3) penetrameters, spaced approximately 120 deg. apart,
shall be placed.

c. When the source is placed in the axis of the circumference and a portion
of that circumference (four or more continuous locations) is
radiographed during a single exposure, at least three (3) IQIs placed
approximately equidistant apart shall be used.

d. Where portions of longitudinal welds adjoining the circumferential weld


are being radiographed simultaneously with the circumferential weld,
additional IQIs shall be placed on the longitudinal welds at the ends of
sections most remote from the position of the source used to radiograph
the circumferential weld.

8.0 Radiographic Techniques

The following points shall be considered before selecting a technique;

a. Iridium 192 source may be used in lieu of X-Ray, to suit conditions


b. Preference shall always be given to a single wall technique if this is possible.
c. Preference shall be given to source inside/film outside technique if this is
possible.
d. If a double wall technique is necessary, it shall be with X-ray whenever possible.
e. Where there is a choice between gamma-ray source inside/single wall and X-ray
outside/double wall/single image, the former is preferable.

8.1 Single-Wall Technique :- Except as stated below radiography shall be performed


using a single wall exposure technique in which the radiation passes through only
one wall.

8.2 Double-Wall Technique for Circumferential Welds :-

When the double wall exposure technique is unavoidable a minimum of two


exposures for the pipe sizes up to 2 O.D and a minimum of three exposures for pipe
sizes between 3 to 8 O.D. shall be made. Above 8 sufficient exposures shall be
taken to ensure that the weld seam is fully radiographed and that adequate overlap
of film takes place.

8.2.1 For elliptical projections, where the weld is not superimposed, at least two
views separated by 90 shall be taken. If design or access restrictions prevail
from taking 90 separate views, agreement between the contracting parties
shall specify the necessary weld coverage.

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Procedure No. : OPS-PR-RT-011 QP
Revision No. : 00
Issue Date : 20-Feb-2011

TITLE: RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Page 10 of 16

8.2.2 For superimposed projections a minimum of three views shall be taken at


approximately 0, 60, and 120.

9.0 Direction of Radiation & Geometric Unsharpness:

9.1 Direction of central beam of radiation shall be centered perpendicularly toward the
center of the effective area of the film or to a plane tangent to the center of the film,
to the maximum extent possible, except for the double-wall exposure / double-wall
viewing elliptical technique.

9.2 The minimum values of focus to film distance shall be such that the calculated
geometrical unsharpness of the film screen combination, but not in any any case the
unsharpness value exceed 0.2mm for X-ray and 0.4mm for gamma ray radiography.
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable job order or contract, the geometric
unsharpness shall not exceed the following limits:

Ug = Ft/d where Ug = geometric unsharpness


F = maximum projected dimension of radiation source
t = distance from source side of specimen to film
d = source object distance

Final acceptance of radiographs shall be based on the ability to see the designated
penetrameter wire image. The unsharpness may be of less consequence as t/d ratio
increases.

10.0 SAFETY

10.1 General

All classified personnel shall wear a TLD badge and a fully charged pocket dosimeter
whenever in a classified radiation area. In additional they shall always maintain an
operatable survey meter in the radiation area and use it to verify that the area is
safe. They shall perform Radiography in complete accordance with the GIS Radiation
Safety Manual 101-001. Copies of this procedure will be maintained at all sites where
radiography is being performed and where radiographic isotopes are stored.

10.2 Radiation Area

The area where radiography is being performed shall be cordoned off (or otherwise
barricaded) and signposted in Arabic and English to prevent accidental entry by
unauthorized personnel (See Attachment 2). An operator shall remain in view of the
cranking unit of the exposure device at a safe distance while the exposure is being
made, in order to retract the source in the event of unauthorized entry into the radiation
area.

10.3 Collimators

Collimators shall always be used when practical.

10.4 Safety Procedures

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Procedure No. : OPS-PR-RT-011 QP
Revision No. : 00
Issue Date : 20-Feb-2011

TITLE: RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Page 11 of 16

Detailed safety procedures for the use, handling and storage of radioactive
materials are given in the GIS Radiation Safety manual (Document No. 101-001).
Radiography personnel shall be familiar with this document.

11.0 EVALUATION AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

11.1 Radiographic Film Quality:- All radiographs shall be free of mechanical, chemical,
handling-related or other blemishes which could mask or be confused with the
image of any discontinuity in the area of interest on the radiograph. If any doubt
exists as to the true nature of an indication exhibited by the film, the radiograph
shall be rejected and reshot. The required radiographic film sensitivity shall be 2%
and less.

11.2 Radiographs shall be interpreted only in those areas in which penetrameter(s) have
established that a suitable radiographic technique has been used. Acceptance or
rejection of a weld or part shall be below table

12.0 RECORDS

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Procedure No. : OPS-PR-RT-011 QP
Revision No. : 00
Issue Date : 20-Feb-2011

TITLE: RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Page 12 of 16

As an aid to the review and evaluation, the radiographic technique documentation as


required by 12.1 shall be completed prior to the evaluation. The radiograph review form
required by 12.2 shall be completed during the evaluation. The radiographic technique
details and the radiograph review form documentation shall accompany the radiographs.

12.1 A radiographic technique documentation providing the following information, as a


minimum, shall be prepared.

12.1.1 Identification, eg., job/contract number


12.1.2 Number of radiographs (exposures)
12.1.3 X-ray voltage or isotope type used
12.1.4 X-ray machine focal spot size or isotope physical sources size
12.1.5 Base material type and thickness, weld thickness, weld reinforcement
thickness, as applicable
12.1.6 Minimum source-to-object distance
12.1.7 Distance from source side of object to the film at the minimum source-
to-object distance
12.1.8 Film manufacturer and manufacturers type/designation
12.1.9 Number of film in each film holder/cassette
12.1.10 Single or double wall exposure
12.1.11 Single or double wall viewing

12.2 A radiograph review form providing the following information, as a minimum, shall
be prepared

12.2.1 A listing or each radiograph location


12.2.2 The information required in T-291, by inclusion or by reference
12.2.3 Density
12.2.4 Evaluation and disposition of the material(s) or weld(s) examined
12.2.5 Identification (name) and signature of the film interpreter
12.2.6 Date of film interpreters evaluation

13.0 ATTACHMENT

13.1 Sketch showing location markers

13.2 Radiation Warning Sign Board

13.3 Sample Radiographic Report

13.4 Technique Sheet

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Procedure No. : OPS-PR-RT-011 QP
Revision No. : 00
Issue Date : 20-Feb-2011

TITLE: RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Page 13 of 16

13.1 Sketch showing Location Markers

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Prrocedure No
o. : OPS
S-PR-RT-011
1 QP
Reevision No. : 00
Iss
sue Date : 20-F
Feb-2011

TITL
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OGRAPHIC
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13.2
2 Radiation Warning Sig
gn Board
Procedure No. : OPS-PR-RT-011 QP
Revision No. : 00
Issue Date : 20-Feb-2011

TITLE: RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Page 15 of 16

13.3 Sample Radiographic Report

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Procedure No. : OPS-PR-RT-011 QPH
Revision No. : 00
Issue Date : 28-Nov-2010

TITLE: RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Page 16 of 16

13.4 Technique Sheet

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