1 to a
The Calculation or the Temperature Rise point of interference
D = diameter, inches
D= inside of annular conductor
and Load Capability of Cable Systems Dc=outside of conductor
D= outside of insulation
Ds=outside of sheath
D.= mean diameter of sheath
J. H. NEHER M. H. McGRATH D= outside of jacket
MEMBER AIEE MEMBER AIEE DJ'= effective (circumscribing circle) of
several cables in contact
D= inside of duct wall, pipe or conduit
IN 1932 D. M. Simmons' published a sideration as being the most consistent De= diameter at start of the earth portion
of the thermal circuit
series of articles entitled, "Calculation and most readily handled over the full Dz=fictitious diameter at which the effect
of the Electrical Problems of Underground scope of the problem. of loss factor commences
Cables." Over the intervening 25 years All losses will be developed on the basis E=line to neutral voltage, kilovolts (kv)
this work has achieved the status of a of watts per conductor foot. The heat *e=coefficient of surface emissivity
e =specific inductive capacitance of insula
handbook on the subject. During this flows and temperature rises due to dielec tion
period, however, there have been numer tric loss and to currentproduced losseswill f=frequency, cycles per second
ous developments in the cable art, and be treated separately, and, in the latter F, Fin1 = products of ratios of distances
much theoretical and experimental work case, all heat flows will be expressed in F(x)=derived Bessel function of x (Table
III and Fig. 1)
has been done with a view to obtaining terms of the current produced loss originat G =geometric factor
more accurate methods of evaluating the ing in one foot of conductor by means of GI =applying to insulation resistance (Fig. 2
parameters involved. The advent of the multiplying factors which take into ac of reference 1)
pipetype cable system has emphasized count the added losses in the sheath and C2 = applying to dielectric loss (Fig. 2 of
the desirability of a more rational method conduit. reference 1)
Gb =applying to a duct bank (Fig. 2)
of calculating the performance of cables In general, all thermal resistances will I=conductor current, kiloamperes
in duct in order that a realistic comparison be developed on the basis of the per con k,=skin effect correction factor for annular
may be made between the two systems. ductor heat flow through them. In the and segmental conductors
In this paper the authors have en case of underground cable systems, it is kp=relative transverse conductivity factor
for calculating conductor proximity
deavored to extend the work of Simmons convenient to utilize an effective thermal effect
by presenting under one cover the basic resistance for the earth portion of the I= lay of a shielding tape or skid wire, inches
principles involved, together with more thermal circuit which includes the effect L=depth of reference cable below earth's
recently developed procedures for han of the loading cycle and the mutual heat surface, inches
ing effect of the other cable of the system. Lb = depth to center of a duct bank (or
dling such problems as the effect of the backfill), inches
loading cycle and the temperature rise All cables in the system will be considered (If)=load factor, per unit
of cables in various types of duct struc to carry the same load currents and to be (LF) =loss factor, per unit
tures. Included as well are expressions operating under the same load cycle. n=number of conductors per cable
required in the evaluation of the basic The system of nomenclature employed n'=number of conductors within a stated
diameter
parameters for certain specialized allied is in accordance wvith that adopted by the N=number of cables or cable groups in a
procedures. It is thought that a work of Insulated Conductor Committee as stand system
this type will be useful not only as a guide ard, and differs appreciably from that used P=perinmeter of a duct bank or backfill,
to engineers entering the field and as a in many of the references. This system inches
reference to the more experienced, but represents an attempt to utilize in so far cos4=power factor of the insulation
as possible the various symbols appearing q,=ratio of the sum of the losses in the
particularly as a basis for setting up com conductors and sheaths to the losses
putation methods for the preparation of in the American Standards Association in the conductors
industry load capability and ac/dc ratio Standards for Electrical Quantities, Me q,= ratio of the sum of the losses in the
compilations. chanics, Heat and ThermoDynamics, conductors, sheath and conduit to
the losses in the conductors
The calculation of the temperature rise and Hydraulics, when these symbols can R =electrical resistance, ohms
of cable systems under essentially steady be used without ambiguity. Certain Rd dc resistance of conductor
state conditions, which includes the effect symbols which have long been used by Rae= total ac resistance per conductor
of operation under a repetitive load cycle, cable engineers have been retained, even R, = dc resistance of sheath or of the
though they are in direct conflict with parallel paths in a shieldskid wire
as opposed to transient temperature rises assembly
due to the sudden application of large the abovementioned standards. Rthermal resistance (per conductor losses)
amounts of load, is a relatively simple thermal ohmfeet
procedure and involves only the applica Nomenclature = of insulation
752 Neher, McGrathTemperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems OcToiBE:R 1957
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0.09
0.07
1.2
t. i 2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.
   .
ILL ~~~~~~~~~0.06 e00 2.5
t1 ~~~~~~~~0.05 2.0
<21.0
0.03
~ 04~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~0\000
1.0_X _L22r 7 .
6
: Fk0 0[ T 1Mi~ ~ o, 01
1
:, .0
1)
cr
s
la
40 e
z w
t F(p025
i.
0.2 K m_ 9iN
OcToBim 1957 Neher, McGrathTemperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems 753
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is the thermal resistance between the A TC Wc(Rg+qsRsa+qe[Rx+(LF) X Table 1. Electrical Resistivity oF Various
conduit and ambient. (fRxaM+N1)fRPaD (S) Materials
In practice, the load carried by a cable = Wc(Ri+qeRsa+qsR,')
is rarely constant and varies according to degrees centigrade (SA) p
Circular Mil
a daily load cycle having a load factor where the term in parentheses is indicated Ohms per Foot
(f). Hence, the losses in the cable will by the effective thermal resistance R/. Material at 20 C t, C
vary according to the corresponding The temperature rise due to dielectric
daily loss cycle having a loss factor (LF). loss is a relatively small part of the total Copper (100% IACS*) ........ 10.371 ... 234.6
Aluminum (61% IACS) ....... 17.002... 228.1
From an examination of a large number of temperature rise of cable systems op Commercial Bronze (43.6% ... 23.8 .....564
IACS)
load cycles and their corresponding load erating at the lower voltages, but at (90 Cu10 Zn)
and loss factors, the following general rela higher voltages it constitutes an appre Brass (27.3% IACS) .......... 38.0 .....912
(70 Cu30 Zn)
tionship between load factor and loss ciable part and must be considered. Al Lead (7.84% IACS) ........... 132.3 ..... 236
factor has been found to exist.I though the dielectric losses are dis * International Annealed Copper Standard.
tributed throughout the insulation, it may
(LF)=Q.3 (lf)+0.7 (If)2 per unit (3) be shown that for single conductor cable Calculation of Losses and
In order to determine the maximum and multiconductor shielded cable with Associated Parameters
temperature rise attained by a buried round conductors the correct temperature
cable system under a repeated daily load rise is obtained by considering for tran CALCULATION OF DC RESISTANCES
cycle, the losses and resultant heat flows sient and steady state that all of the
dielectric loss Wd occurs at the middle The resistance of the conductor may be
are calculated on the basis of the maxi determined from the following expressions
mum load (usually taken as the average of the thermal resistance between conduc
tor and sheath or alternately for steady which include a lay factor of 2%; see
current for that hour of the daily load Table I.
cycle during which the average current is state conditions alone that the tempera
the highest, i.e. the daily maximum one ture rise between conductor and sheath for
hour average load) on which the loss factor a given loss in the dielectric is half as Rdc C
C1
microhms per foot at 20 C
is based and the heat flow in the last part much as if that loss were in the conductor. (10)
of the earth portion of the thermal circuit In the case of multiconductor belted 12.9 cpe
cables, however, the conductors are taken =Cl for 100% IACS copper
is reduced by the factor (LF). If this CI
reduction is considered to start at a point as the source of the dielectric loss.' conductor at 75 C (IOA)
in the earth corresponding to the diameter The resulting temperature rise due to 21.2
Dz,s equation 2 becomes dielectric loss ATd may be expressed for 61% IACS
754 Neher, McGrathTemperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems OCTOBER 1957
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tape or skid wire and I is its lay. The '
Table Ii. Recommended Values of kc, and kp
overall resilstance of the shield and cskid
wire assembly, particularly for noniniter Conductor Construction Coating on Strands Treatment k k
calated shields, should be determinedI by
electrical measurement when possiblile. Concentric round........None ..........None........1.0 ....... 1.0
Concentric round ........Tin or alloy. None . 1.0........1.0
Concentric round ........None..........Yes.........1.0........0.80o
CALCULATION o1? Lossus Compact round .........None..........Yes.........1.0 ........0.6
Compact segmental .......None..........None ........0.435........0. 6
It is convenient to develop express'ions Compact segmental .......Tin or alloy .......None ........0. 5........0.7
for the losses in the conductor, sheath and Compact segmental .......None ..........Yes.........0.435........0.37
Compact sector .........None ..........Yes.........1.0........(see note)
pipe or condu'it in terms of the componLents
of the ac/dc ratio of the cable syl,; ;tm NOTBS:
1. The term "treated" denotes a completed conductor which has been subjected to a drying and impregnat
which may be expressed as follows4 Ing process similar to that employed on paper power cable.
Rac/Rdcl1+ ye+ y,+ Yv Proximity effect on compact sector conductors may be taken as onehalt of that for compact round
(14) 2.having the same crosssectional area and insulation thickness.
The ac/dc ratio at conductor is 1 + Ye 3. Proximity effect on annular conductors may be approximated by using the value for a concentricannular
round conductor of the same crosssectional area and spacing. The Increased diameter of the
and at sheath or shield is 1+ Yc+ Ys type and the removal of metal from the center decreases the skin effect but, for a given axial spacing, tends
to result in an increase in Proximity.
and at pipe or conduit is 1+ Y,+ Ye5+ Y, 4. The values listed above for compact segmental refer to four segment constructions. The "uncosted
treated" values may also be taken as applicable to four segm'ent comnpact segmental with hollow core (ap
proximately 0.75 inch clear). For "uncoatedtreated" six segment hollow core compact segmental limited
The corresponding losses phys'ically gen test data indicates ks and kV vialues of 0.39 and 0.33 respectively.
erated in the conductor, sheath, and pipe
are
Wc =I'RdC(1 +YC) Table Ill. Skin Effect in
watts per conductor,foot %/ in Solid Round Conductor and in Conventional Round Concentric
(15) Strand Conductors
100 F(x), Skin Effect %7
W, = I'Rde Y7 watts per conductor foot (16)
5 8
Wp, =IPR& Yp watts per conductor foot (17) r 0 1 2 3 4 6 7 9
This permits a ready determination of~tnte 0.3... 0.00... 0.00o... 0.01... 0.01 ... 0.01.. 0.01 ... 0.01... 0.01 ... 0.01... 0.01
losses if the segregated ac/dc ratios ae ae 0.4 ... 0.01 ... 0.01... 0.02 ... 0.02... 0.02... 0.02 ... 0.02... 0.03... 0.03... 0.03
0.5 ... 0.03 ... 0.04 ... 0.04 ... 0.04 ... 0.05 ... 0.05... 0.05... 0.06... 0.08... 0.08
known, and conversely, the ac/dc tmatio 0.8... 0.07... 0.07 ...
0.12... 0.13 ... 0.14... 0.15 ... 0.18... 0.17 ... 0.18... 0.19... 0.19... 0.20
0.08 ... 0.08 ... 0.09 ... 0.10... 0.10... 0.11 ... 0.11 ... 0.12
is readily obtailned after the values ol f C, 0.7...
0.8... 0.21 ... 0.22... 0.24... 0.25 ... 0.26... 0.28 ... 0.29 ... 0.30... 0.31... 0.33
C
Y7, and 17, have been calculated. 0.9... 0.34... 0.38 ... 0.38... 0.39 ... 0.41 ... 0.43... 0.45 ... 0.47... 0.48... 0.50
It follows from the definitions of q8 ad 1n1.1.0... 0.52... 0.54 ...
... 0.76... 0.79...
0.58... 0.58 ... 0.81... 0.83... 0.65 ... 0.68 ... 0.70 ... 0.73
0.81... 0.84... 0.87 ... 0.90... 0.94... 0.97 ... 1.00 ... 1.03
q. that 1.2 ... 1 07... 11.. 1.14 ... 1.18... 1.22 ... 1.26... 1.30:.. 1.34 ... 1.38 ... 1.42
1.3 ... 1.47... 1.52... 1.56..... 1... .6... 1.71... 1.76... 1.81... 1.86... 1.92
1.4... 1.97... 2.02... 2.08 ... 2.14 ... 2.20 ... 2.26 ... 2.32... 2.39 ... 2.45... 2.52
=1+ (18) 1.51... ... 2.58... 2.65... 2.72... 2.79 ... 2.88... 2.93 ... 3.01... 3.08 ... 3.16... 3.24
qs 3.32... 3.40... 3.49... 3.57... 3.66... 3.75 ... 3.83... 3.92 ... 4.02... 4.11
1... 4.21 ... 4.30... 4.40... 4.50... 4.80... 4.70... 4.81 ... 4.91 ... 5.02 ... 5.13
we 1+Y 1.8 ... 5.24 ... 5.35... 5.47... 5.58... 5.70... 5.82... 5.94 ... 6.08.. 61... 6.31
1.9... 6.44
(19) 2.0... ... 8.57... 6.70... 6.83... 8.97... 7.11... 7.24... 7.38 ... 7.53 ... 7.67
7.82... 7.98... 8.11 ... 8.26... 8.42... 8 57... 8.73... 8 89 ... 9.05... 9.21
2.1 ... 9.38... 9.54... 9.71... 9.88... 10.05... 10.22 ... 10.40... 10.58... 10.76... 10.94
2.2... 11.13... 11.31 ... 11.50... 11.69 ... 11.88... 12.07... 12.27... 12.47... 12.67... 12.87
The factor Y, is the sum of two coiinpo 2.3... 13.07 ... 13.27 ... 13.48 ... 13.68 ... 13.90 ... 14.11... 14.33... 14.54... 14.76... 14.98
nents, Ya, due to skin effect and Yp, due 2.4... 15.21 ... 15.43 ... 15.66 ... 15.89 ... 16.12 ... 16.35... 18.58... 16.82 ... 17.16 ... 17.30
2.5.., 17.54... 17.78 ... 18.03 ... 18.27 ... 18.52 ... 18.78... 19.03 ... 19.28 ... 19.54 ... 19.80
proxuimity effect. 2.6... 20.08... 20.32... 20.58... 20.85 ... 21.12 ... 21.38... 21.65 ... 21.93 ... 22.20... 22.48
2.7... 22.75... 23.03 ... 23.31 ... 23.60 ... 23.88... 24.17... 24.45... 24.74... 25.03 ... 25.33
2.8... 25.62... 25.92 ... 26.21 ... 26.51... 26.81 ... 27.11... 27.42... 27.72... 28.03 ... 28.34
watts per conductor foot (2) 2.9... 28.65... 28.96 ... 29.27 ... 29.58... 29.90 ... 30.21 ... 30.53 ... 30.85... 31.17 ... 31.49
(2) 3.0 ... 31.81... 32.13 ... 32.45... 32.78... 33.11 ... 33.44 ... 33.77 ... 34.10 ... 34.43... 34.77
3.1 ... 35.10... 35.44... 35.78... 36.11 .. 36.45 ... 36.79... 37.13 ... 37.47 ... 37.82... 38.16
The skin effect may be determined from 3.2... 38.50... 38.85... 39.20... 39.55... 39.89 ... 40.24... 40.59 ... 40.94 ... 41.29... 41.65
the skin effect functilon F(x) 3.3... 42.00... 42.35... 42.71... 43.08... 43.42 ... 43.78... 44.14 ... 44.49... 44.85... 45.21
3.4... 45.57... 45.93 ... 46.29 ... 46.66... 47.02 ... 47.38... 47.74... 48.11... 48.47... 48.84
3.5... 49.20... 49.57 ... 49.94 ... 50.30... 50.67.. 51.04... 51.40... 51.77... 52.14 ... 52.51
YCs= F(xs) (21) 3.8 ... 52..88 ... 53.25... 53.62... 53.99... 54.36 ... 54.73... 55.10... 55.48... 55.85 ... 58.22
3.7 ... 56.59 ... 56.96... 57.33... 57.71 .. 58.08... 58.45... 58.82.... 59.20 ... 59.57... 59.94
Ifk 6.80 3.8 ... 60.31 ... 60.69... 81.08... 61.44 ... 61.81 ... 82.18... 82.56... 62.93 ... 63.30 ... 63.68
x8j=0.8'175.t  at 60 cyclc es 3.9 ... 84.05 ... 64.42 ... 64.80... 65.17 ... 65.55 ... 65.92... 88.29... 66.67... 67.04 ... 67.41
4.0... 67.79 ... 68.18 ... 68.53.;.. 68.91 ... 69.28... 69.65... 70.03... 70.40... 70.77 ... 71.14
(22) 4.24.1 ... 71.52 ... 71.89 ... 72.26... 72.63 ... 73.00... 73.38... 73.75... 74.12... 74.49... 74.86
... 75.23 ... 75.60. 75.97... 76.34... 76.71 ... 77.08 ... 77.45... 77.82 ... 78.19... 78.56
4.3 ... 78.93... 79.30... '79.67... 80.04... 80.41 ... 80.78 ... 81.14... 81.51 ... 81.88... 82.25
in which the factor k, depends upo: nte 4.the 82.61... 82.98... 83.35... 83.61... 84.08 ... 84.45 ... 84.81 ... 85.18 ... 85.55 ... 85.91
..
conductor construction. For soIliid or 4.6 4.5.. 86.28 ... 86.64... 87.01... 87.37... 87.73... 88.10 ... 88.46 ... 88.82... 89.19 ... 89.55
.. 89.91 ... 90.28... 90.64 ... 91.00... 91.37... 91.73... 92.09 ... 92.45 ... 92.81... 93.17
conventional conductors approlpriate 4.7 ... 93.53... 93.89... 94.25 ... 94.61... 94.97... 95.33 ... 95.69... 98.05 ... 96.41 ... 96.77
values of k8 will be found in Table II. The 4.8 ... 97.13... 97.49 ... 97.85... 98.21... 98.57 ... 98.92 ... 99.28 ... 99.64... .100.00... .100.35
4.9.. .100.71.. .101.07... .101.42... .101.78... .102.14... .102.49 ... 102.85... .103.21.. .103.56.. .103.92
function F(x) may be obtained from.iFable
III or from the curves of Fig. 1 in Iterms
of the ratio Rd,,/k at 60 cycles.
For annual conductors and inner diameters of the annular con annular conductor when computed by
ductor. In comparison wi'th the rigorous equation 23 will not be in error by more
k, D..D(lc+2Do)2 (23) Bessel function solution for the skin effect than 0.01 in absolute magnitude for
in an isolated tubular conductor, it has copper or aluminum IPCEA (Insulated
in which D, and D0, represent the outer been found that the 60cycle ski'n effect of Power Cable Engineers Association) filled
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Table IV. Mutual Reactance at 60 Cycles, Conductor to Sheath (or Shield) (2 SiDsm) as in the case of lead sheaths.
Dam/2S 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 396 D,m 5 Ds", 2
RsRds 2S 22
0.4. 21.1 ... 20.5 .... 19.9 . 10 18.3. 17.8. 17.4.16.9. 16.4 approximately at 60 cycles (30A)
0.3. 27.7 ... 26.9 ... 26.2. 25.5 . 24.8. 24.1 . 23.5. 22.9...22.2 . 21.6
0.2. 37 0 ... 359.. ..34.8..33.8..32.8..31.9. 31.0.....30.1 . 29.3. 28.4
O.1. 52.9 ... 50.7.. .48.7 . 46.9. 45.2 . 43.6..4'.42.1 . 40.7.. 39.4. 38.2 When the sheaths are shortcircuited, the
sheath eddy loss will be reduced and may
be approximated by multiplying equations
core conductors up through 5.0 CI and for 30 or 30(A) by the ratio
also be estimated from equation 24 and
hollow core concentrically stranded copper 24(A). In such cases, S should be taken R82/(Ra2+Xm2)
or alumninum oilfilled cable conductors as the axial spacing between adjacent
up through 4.0 CI. conductors. In computing average eddy current for
For values of xp below 3.5, a range The factor Ys is the sum of two factors, cradled configuration, S should be taken
which appear to cover most cases of prac Ys, due to circulating current effect and equal to the axial spacing and not to the
tical interest at power frequencies, the Y. due to eddy current effects. geometricmean spacing. Equations 30
conductor proximity effect for cables in and 30(A) may be used to compute the
equilateral triangular formation in the WS=I'Rdc( Yu + Y8,) eddycurrent effect for singleconductor
watts per conductor foot (26) cables installed in separate ducts.
same or in separate ducts may be cal
culated from the following equation based Because of the large sheath losses which Strictly speaking, these equations apply
on an approximate expression given by result from shortcircuited sheath opera only to three cables in eqwulateral con
Arnold' (equation 7) for a system of tion with appreciable separation between figuration but can be used to estimate
three homogeneous, straight, parallel, metallic sheathed single conductor cables, losses in large cable groups when latter are
solid conductors of circular cross section this mode of operation is usually restricted so oriented as to approximate a regular
arranged in equilateral formation and to triplex cable or three singleconductor polygon.
carrying balanced 3phase current remote cables contained in the same duct. The The eddycurrent effect for a 3conduc
from all other conductors or conducting circulating current effect in three metallic tor cable is given by Arnold.6
material. The empirical transverse con sheathed singleconductor cables arranged 3RM (2s/Dsm)2 (2s/Dam)4
ductance factor k, is introduced to make in equilateral configuration is given by Yae8 Rdc
5.2R8\s
+
52,
+
the expression applicable to stranded f +1 411+1
conductors. Experimental results sug
y R,JRdc (27)
1 +(R8/Xm)' (2s/Dsm )"
gest the values of kp shown in Table IT. (31)
Ycp F(xp)( DC 2~
)X
When (Rs/Xm)2 is large with respect to
unity as usually is the case of shielded non
leaded cables, equation 27 reduces to
( 5.2Rf) +1
I
When (5.2R,/f)2 is large with respect to
[F(x:; +.27 +0.312(S ) ]2 (24) Yc=R approximately (27A) unity,
6.80 396 ( 2s\
XV
V\Rd
~~at 60 cycles (25) Xm 0.882f log 2S/Dsm RsRdc (5Dam)
c/kp microhms per foot (28) approximately at 60 cycles (31A)
When the second term in the brackets =52.9 log 2S/Dsm
is small with respect to the first tern as it microhms per foot at 60 cycles (28A) s=1.155T+0.6OXthe V gauge depth for
usually is, equation 24 may be written compact sectors
where S is the axial spacing of adjacent 1.155T+0.58 D, for round conductors
F'x [ 0.295(Dc/S)S1 cables. For a cradled configuration Xm (32)
Y=p4
CY, 4F(Xt)F(x,) +0.27.] may be approximated from
and T is the insulation thickness, includ
=4( S F(xp') (24A) 2.52SI IS\ ing thickness of shielding tapes, if any.
Xm=52.9 log D 1I I
While equation 31(A) will suffice for lead
where the function F(xp) is shown in microhms per foot at 60 cycles (29) sheath cables, equation 31 should be used
Fig. 1. = 52.9 log 2.3 S/Dsm for aluminum sheaths.
The average proximity effect for con approximately (29A) On 3conductor shielded paper lead
ductors in cradle configuration in the cable it is customary to employ a 3 or 5
same duct or in separate ducts in a forma Table IV provides a convenient means for mil copper tape or bronze tape inter
tion approximating a regular polygon may determining Xm for cables in equilateral calated with a paper tape for shielding and
configuration. binder purposes. The lineal dc resist
The eddycurrent effect for single ance of a copper tape 5 mils by 0.75 inch
Table V. SpeciRc Inductive Capacitance of conductor cables in equilateral configura is about 2,200 microhms per foot of tape
Insulations tion with opencircuited sheaths is at 20 C. The dc resistance per foot
y _ 3Rs/Rdc X of cable will be equal to the lineal resist
Matera e
ance of the tape multiplied by the lay
so ( 2S
correction factor as given by the expres
Polyethylene ................. 2.3
Paper insulation (solid type) ... 3.7 (IPCEA value)
5 (2Rs 2
sion under the squareroot sign in equation
Paper Insulation (other types).. 3.34.2
Rubber and rubberlike com
pounds .................... 5 (IPCXA value)
2S )212 DS) 5
(30) 13. In practice the lay correction factor
may vary from 4 to 12 or more resulting
Varnished cambric ............5 (IPCEA value) when (5.2 Rl/f)2 is large in respect to 1/5 in shielding and binder assembly resist
756 Neher, McGrathTemperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems OcrOBER 1957
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ances of approximately 10,000 or more and for 3conductor belted cable by' Table VI. Thermal Resistivity of Veriouns
microhms per foot of cable. Even on Materils
0.Ol9E2er cos 0'
the assumption that the assembly resist Wd= watts per
ance is halved because of contact with ad G2 Material ,o, C Cm/Watt
jacent conductors and the lead sheath conductor foot at 60 cycles (37)
computations made using equations 27 where E is the phase to neutral voltage Paper insulation (solid type). ..700 (IPCEA value)
Varnished cambric ............ 600 (IPCEA value)
and 30 show that the resulting circulating in kilovolts, er is the specific inductive Paper insulation (other types). . 500550
and eddy current losses are a fraction of capacitance of the insulation (Table V) T Rubber and rubberlike ........ 500 (IPCEA value)
Jute and textile protective
1% on sizes of practical interest. For this is its thickness and cos 4 is its power factor. covering ................... 50
reason it is customary to assume that the The geometric factor G2 may be found Fiber duct ................... 480
Polyethylene ................. 450
losses in the shielding and binder tapes from Fig. 2 of reference 1. Transite duct ................ 200
of 3conductor shielded paper lead cable For compact sector conductors the di Somastic................. 100
Concrete ..................... 85
are negligible. In cases of nonleaded rub electric loss may be taken equal to that for
ber power cables where lapped metallic a concentric round conductor having the
tapes are frequently employed, tube same crosssectional area and insulation
effects may be present and may materially thickness. THERMAL RESISTANCE OF JACKETS, DucT
lower the resistance of the shielding assem WALLS, AND SOMASTIC COATINGS
bly and hence increase the losses to a Calculation of Thermal Resistance The equivalent thermal resistance of
point where they are of practical signifi relatively thin cylindrical sections such as
cance. THERMAL RESISTANCE OF THE INSULATION
An exact determination of the pipe loss jackets and fiber duct walls may be
For a single conductor cable, determined from the expression
effect Yp in the case of singleconductor
cables installed in nonmagnetic conduit Ri = 0.012pi log D,/D, thermal ohmfeet
or pipe is a rather involved procedure (38) R=0.0104fin'(D ) thermal ohmfeet
as indicated in reference 7. Equation 31 where At is the thermal resistivity of the (40)
may be used to obtain a rough estimate insulation (Table VI) and Di is its
of Yp for cables in cradled formation on with appropriate subscripts applied to
diameter. In multiconductor cables A, pi, and D in which D represents the
the bottom of a nonmagnetic pipe, how there is a multipath heat flow between the
ever by taking the average of the results outside diameter of the section and t its
conductor and sheath. The following ex thickness. n' is the number of conductors
obtained for wide triangular spacing pression1 represents an equivalent value
with s=(DpD,)/2 and for close tri contained with the section contributing
angle spacing at the center of the pipe which, when multiplied by the heat flow to the heat flow through it.
from one conductor, will produce the
with s=0.578 D. The mean diameter of actual temperature elevation of the
the pipe and its resistance per foot should THERMAL RESISTANCE BETWEEN CABLE
conductor above the sheath. SURFACE AND SURROUNDING PIPE,
be substituted for Dam and R8 respectively.
For magnetic pipes or conduit the Rj =0.00522A,G, thermal ohmfeet (39) CONDUIT, OR DUCT WALL
following empirical relationships8 may be Theoretical expressions for the thermal
employed Values of the geometric factor G, for 3
conductor belted and shielded cables are resistance between a cable surface and a
1.54s0.115D, (3conductor cable) given in Fig. 2 and Table VIII respec surrounding enclosure are given in refer
Rdc tively of reference 1. On large size sec ence 10. As indicated in Appendix I,
(33) tor conductors with relatively thin in these have been simplified to the general
sulation walls (i.e. ratios of insulation form
Y= 0.89S 0.11D(singleconductor, thickness to conductor diameter of the
Rdc
close triangular) (34) order of 0.2 or less); values of GI for 3
conductor shielded cable as determined
Rd =I +(B + CTm)Ds' thermal ohmfeet
(41)
Y= 0.34S+0.175D
Rdc
(singleconductor, by back calculation, on the basis of an
assumed insulation resistivity, from lab in which A, B, and C are constants, D,'
cradled) (35) oratory heatrun temperaturerise data, represents the equivalent diameter of the
These expressions apply to steel pipe8 have not always confirmed theoretical cable or group of cables and n' the number
and should be multiplied by 0.8 for iron values, and, in some cases, have yielded of conductors contained within D/'. Tm
conduit." GI values which approach those for a is the mean temperature of the interven
The expressions given for Y, and Y. nonshielded, nonbelted construction. ing medium. The constants A, B, and C
above should be multiplied by 1.7 to find
the corresponding inpipe effects for mag Table VIL Constants for Use in Equations 41 and 41(A)
netic pipe or conduit for both triangular
and cradled configurations. Condition A B C A' B'
CALCuLATION OF DIELECTic Loss In metallic conduit ................... 17 ... ...... 3.6 ........ 0.029 .... ............... 0.19
In fiber duct in air ................... 17 ......... 2.1 ......... 0.016 ......... 5.6 . 0.33
The dielectric loss Wd for 3conductor In fiber duct in concrete .............. 17 ... ...... 2.3 ........ 0.024 ......... 4.6 . 0.27
In transite duct in air ................ 17 ......... 3.0 ......... 0.014 ......... 4.4 . 0.26
shieldedsdand singleconductor cable is In transite duct in concrete ........... 17 ......... 2.9 ......... 0.029 ......... 3.7 . 0.22
given by the expression Gasfilled pipe cable at 200 psi ......... 3.1 ......... 0...... ..0.0053 . ..2.1 . 0.68
Oilfilled pipe cable . 0. 84
......... . ......... 0.0065...... 2.1 . 2.45
= 0.00276E'er cos qb watts per D'1 .00 X diameter of cable for one cable
1 .65 X diameter of cable for two cables
log (2T+Dc)/Dc 2.15 Xdiameter of cable for three cables
conductor foot at 60 cycles (36) 2.50 X diameter of cable for four cables
OMrOBriR 1957 Neher, McGrathTemperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems 757
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given in Table VII have been determined heating effects of the other cables of the mum. N refers to the number of cables or
from the experimental data given in refer system. In the case of cables in a con pipes, and F is equal to unity when N= 1.
ences 10 and 11. crete duct bank, it is desirable to further When the cable system is contained
If representative values of Tm =60 C recognize a difference between the thermal within a concrete envelope such as a
are assumed, equation 41 reduces to resistivity of the concrete Pc and the duct bank, the effect of the differing
"'A
thermal resistivity of the surrounding thermal resistivity of the concrete en
A,u  thermal ohmfeet (41A) earth Ae. velope is conveniently handled by first as
The thermal resistance between any suming that the thermal resistivity of the
It should be noted that in the case of point in the earth surrounding a buried medium is that of concrete pc through
ducts, A. is calculated to the inside of the cable and ambient earth is given by the out and then correcting that portion ly
duct wall and the thermal resistance of expression1l ing beyond the concrete envelope to the
the duct wall should be added to obtain thermal resistivity of the earth A.. Thus
Rpa =0.012p. log d'/d thermal ohmfeet
A,.. (43) R0 = 0.012pcnI X
THERMAL RESISTANCE FROM CABLES,
CONDUITS, OR Duc'rs SUSPENDED IN
in which As is the thermal resistivity of the
earth, d' is the distance from the image
D+(LF) log [(D F +
AmR of the cable to the point P, and d is the 0.012(A,6 
Ac)n'N(LF)Gb
The thermal resistance R. between distance from the cable center to P. thermal ohmfeet (44A)
cables, conduits, or ducts suspended in still From this equation and the principles The geometric factor Gb, as developed
air may be determined from the following discussed in references 3, 12, and 13, the in Appendix II is a function of the depth
expression which is developed in Ap following expressions may be developed, to the center of the concrete enclosure
pendix I. applicable to directly buried cables and Lb and its perimeter P, and may be found
to pipetype cables. conveniently from Fig. 2 in terms of the
15.6n'
Ds' [(AT/D.')""4+1.6f(1 +0.0167Tm)I R,' =0.012Asn'X ratio Lb/P and the ratio of the longest to
thermal ohmfeet (42) short dimension of the enclosure.
[log Dx+(LF) log [() F]] For buried cable systems Ta should be
In this equation AT represents the differ taken as the ambient temperature at the
ence between the cable surface tempera thermal ohmfeet (44)
depth of the hottest cable. As indicated
ture T, and ambient air temperature Ta in in reference 12, the expressions used
iti which Ds is the diameter at which the
degrees centigrade, Tm the average of earth portion of the thermal circuit com throughout this paper for the thermal
these temperatures and e the coefficient of mences and n' is the number of conduc resistance and temperature rise of buried
emissivity of the cable surface. Assum tors contained within De. The fictitious cable systems are based on the hypothe
ing representative values of TJ=60 and diameter D. at which the effect of loss sis suggested by Kennelly applied in
Ta=30 C, and a range in D.' of from 2 factor commences is a function of the accordance with the principle of super
to 10 inches, equation 42 may be simplified diffusivity of the medium a and the length position. According to this hypothesis,
to of the loss cycle.3 the isothermalheat flow field and tem
9.5n' perature rise at any point in the soil sur
R.5='
1+1.7D.'(e+0.41) thermal ohmfeet
D,= 1.02\/a(length of cycle in hours) rounding a buried cable can be represented
(42A) inches (45) by the steadystate solution for the heat
flow between two parallel cylinders
The value of e may be taken as equal The empirical development of this equa (constituting a heat source and sink)
to 0.95 for pipes, conduits or ducts, and tion is discussed in Appendix III. For a located in a vertical plane in an infinite
painted or braided surfaces, and from 0.2 daily loss cycle and a representative value medium of uniform temperature and
to 0.5 for lead and aluminum sheaths, of a = 2.75 square inches per hour for thermal resistivity with an axial separa
depending upon whether the surface is earth, Dx is equal to 8.3 inches. It should tion between cylinders of twice the actual
bright or corroded. It is interesting to be noted that the value of Dx obtained depth of burial and with source and sink
note that equation 42(A) checks the from equation 45 is applicable for pipe respectively generating and absorbing
IPCEA method of determining R. very diameters exceeding D, in which case the heat at identical rates, thereby resulting
closely with e=0.41 for diameters up to first term of equation 44 is negative. in the temperature of the horizontal mid
3.5 inches. In the IPCEA method R,= The factor F accounts for the mutual plane between cylinders (i.e., correspond
0.00411 n'B/Ds' where B=650+314 Ds' heating effect of the other cables of the ing to the surface of the earth) remaining,
for cable system, and consists of the product by symmetry, undisturbed.
of the ratios of the distance from the The principle of superposition, as
Ds'=01.75 inches and B 1,200 for larger reference cable to the image of each
values of Ds' applied to the case at hand, can be stated
of the other cables to the distance to that in thermal terms as follows: If the ther
EFFECTIVE THERMAL RESISTANCE cable. Thus, mal network has more than one source of
BETWEEN CABLES, DUCTS, OR PIPES, temperature rise, the heat that flows at
AND AMBIENT EARTH Fd12 (d13'\(dIN'\terms
(d12 )ld13 ) d,NI) any point, or the temperature drop be
As previously indicated, an effective (46) tween any two points, is the sum of the
thermal resistance A,' may be employed to heat flows and temperature drops at
represent the earth portion of the thermal It will be noted that the value of F will these points which would exist if each
circui't in the case of buried cable systems. vary depending upon which cable is source of temperature rise were considered
This effective thermal resistance includes selected as the reference, and the maxi separately. In the case at hand, the
the effect of loss factor and, in the case of mum conductor temperature will occur sources of heat flow and temperature rise
a multicable installation, also the mutual in the cable for which 4LF/D. is a maxi to be superimposed are, namely, the heat
758 Neher, McGrathTemperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems OCTOIBER 1957
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from the cable, the outward flow of heat
from the core of the earth, and the in
I iTC' RdRdc(l+Yc)(1c+'Y)(Ta+' Td) kiloamperes (47)
ward heat flow solar radiation, and, when z ~~~RdA8l Yc)Rc s'
present, the heat flow from interfering in which R,c' is the effective transient
sources. By employing as the ambient thermal resistance of the cable system for where R4. is the thermal resistance be
temperature in the calculations the tem the stated period of time. Procedures tween the steam pipe and ambient earth.
perature at the depth of burial of the for calculating RAt' for times up to several
hottest cable, the combined heat flow hours are given in reference 14, and for AERIL CABLES
from earth core and solarradiation sources longer times in references 1517. In the case of aerial cables it may be
is superimposed upon that produced at desirable to consider both the effects of
the surface of the hottest cable by the THE EFFECT OF EXTRANEOUS HEAT
SOURCES solar radiation which increases the tem
heat flow from that cable and interfering perature rise and the effect of the wind
sources which are calculated separately In the case of multicable installations which decreases it.24 Under maximum
with all other heat flows absent. The the assumption has been made that all sunlight conditions, a leadsheathed cable
combined heat flow from earth core and cables are of the same size and are sim will absorb about 4.3 watts per foot per
solar sources results in an earth tempera ilarly loaded. When this is not the case inch of profile"8 which must be returned
ture which decreaseswith depth in summer; the temperature rise or load capability to the atmosphere through the thermal
increases with depth in winter; remains of one particular equal cable group may be resistance Rc/n'. This effect is con
about constant at any given depth on the determined by treating the heating effect veniently treated as an interference
average over a year; approximates con of other cable groups separately, intro temperature rise according to the rela
stancy at all depths at midseason, and ducing an interference temperature rise tionship
in turn results in flow of heat from cable ATint in equations I and 9. Thus
sources to earth's surface, directly to sur T Ta=, ATc+Ta+AThnt
A Ting =4.3DJ'Re/n'
face in midseason and winter and in degrees centigrade (47A)
degrees centigrade (1A)
directly to surface in summer. For black surfaces this value should be
Factors which tend to invalidate the = Tc(Ta+ATd+ATfnt) increased about 75%.
combined Kennellysuperposition princi Rdc(l + Yc)R?ca' As indicated in Appendix II, the follow
ple method are departure of the tempera kiloamperes (9A) ing expression for R. may be used where
ture of the surface of earth from a true V,O is the velocity of the wind in miles per
isothermal (as evidenced by melting of in which ATin, represents the sum of a
number of interference effects, for each hour
snow in winter directly over a buried
steam main) and nonuniformity of of which 3.5n'
thermal resistivity (due to such phe A Tn [Wcq.(LF) + WdJR in D,'( V/ V, /DK' +0.62e)
nomena as radial and vertical migration degrees centigrade (48) thermal ohmfeet (42B)
of moisture). The extent to which the fn '=0.012p,n' log Fj.g thermal ohmfeet
Kennellysuperposition principle method USE OF LowREsisTIVTy BACKFLL
(49)
is invalidated, however, is not of practical In cases where the thermal resistivity
importance provided that an overall or
effective thermal resistivity is employed in
Fn =(d1j')(d2i')(daj1).
(dF (d2i)(d3j) d
(d ...
.dNi' (N term)
..
(N
of the earth is excessively high, the value
of R.' may be reduced by backfilling the
the Kennelly equation. (50) trench with soil or sand having a lower
where the parameters apply to each sys value of thermal resistivity. Equation
Special Conditions tem which may be considered as a unit. 44(A) may be used for this case if of, the
For cables in duct thermal resistivity of the backfill is sub
Although the majority of cable tem stituted for fi. and Gb applies to the
perature calculations may be made by Rint = 0.012n'I[c log Fint+N(f3AC)GX] zone having the backfill in place of the
the foregoing procedure, conditions fre thermal ohmfeet (49A) zone occupied by the concrete.
quently arise which require somewhat Because of the mutual heating between
specialized treatment. Some of these cable groups, the temperature rise of the SINGLECONDUCrOR CABLES IN DUcr
are covered herein. interfering groups should be rechecked. wITH SOLIDLY BONDED SHEATHS
If all the cable groups are to be given The relatively large and unequal sheath
EMERGENCY RATINGS mutually compatible ratings, it is neces losses in the three phases which may result
Under emergency conditions it is fre sary to evaluate Wc for each group by from this type of operation may be deter
quently necessary to exceed the stated successive approximations, or by setting mined from Table VI of reference 1. It
normal temperature limit of the conductor up a system of simultaneous equations, will be noted that
TC and to set an emergency temperature substituting for W, its value by equation
limit T6'. If the duration of the emer 15 and solving for I. R
In case AT,nt or a component of it is RdcJ121 DC; =
Rft
)(1
12/
gency is long enough for steadystate con
ditions to obtain, then the emergency produced by an adjacent steam main, the Ysa (;) I (52)
rating I' may be found by equation 9 temperature of the steam T, rather than
substituting Tc' for TC and correcting Rd, the heat flow from it is usually given. where expressions for I,,2/I2 etc., appear
for the increased conductor temperature. Thus in the table. The resulting unequal values
If the duration of the emergency is less ATtnt of YC in the three phases will yield unequal
than that required for steadystate con [TyTa } values of q., and equation 5 becomes for
ditions to obtain, the emergency rating e c. ti d ( phase no. 1, the instance given as equa
of the line may be determined from degrees centigrade (51 ) tion 5(A) on the following page.
OCTOBER 1957 Neher, McGrathTemperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems 759
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ATec Wc[RA+qa,IRas+R,,+(LF)RspI + Table VIII. Constants For Use in Equation 53
Nq,.(LF)Rp.] thermal ohmfeet (SA)
Average
where qsa is the average of q,,, q4s, and q,3. Condition a b c AT
ARNOREI) CABLES Cable in metallic conduit ...................0.07 .. 0.121 ... 0.0017 ......,.20
Cable in fiber duct In air. ................. 0.07 .. 0.036 .. 0,.,.O..0009. 20
In multiconductor armored cables a Cable In fiber duct in concrete ........ ..... 0.0 7 ..0.043 . ..0.0014 . , 20
loss occurs in the armor which may be Cable in transte duct in air ................0.07 . .. ,0.086 .0.0008 .. .. 20
Cable in transite duct In concrete ........... 0.07 .. 0.079.0.0016 .... 20
considered as an alternate to the conduit Gasfilled pipetype cable at 200 psi ......... 0.07 .. 0.121 .0.0017 .... 10
or pipe loss. If the armor is nonmag
netic, the component of armor loss Y.
to be used instead of Y, in equations 14 based upon all of the data available and and a range of 150350 for D,'Tm, equation
and 19 may be calculated by the equa including the effect of the temperature of 54 reduces to equation 41 with the values
tions for sheath loss substituting the the intervening medium. of A, B, and C given in Table VII .
resistance and mean diameter of the The theoretical expression for the case In the case of cables or pipes suspended
where the intervening medium is air or gas in still air, the heat loss by radiation may
armor for those of the sheath. In cal be determined by the StefanBolzmann
as presented in reference 10 may be general
culating the armor resistance, account ized in the following form: formula
should be taken of the spiralling effect for
which equation 13 suitably modified n'W (radiation)
may be used. If the armor is mag Rsd r ATPS 1/ (53) 0.139Ds'e[( T +273)4'( Ta +273)4 10'6
netic, one would expect an increase in DJ' [a( D,7) +b+cTm] watts per foot (55)
the factors Y, and Y. in equation 14 where where e is the coefficient of emissivity
since this occurs in the case of magnetic of the cable or pipe surface. Over the
conduit. Unfortunately, no simple pro A.d = the effective thermal resistance be limited temperature. range in whch we are
cedure is available for calculating these tween cable and enclosure in thermal interested, equation 55 may be simplified
ohmfeet to'0
effects. A rough estimate of the induc D,J'=the cable diameter or equivalent
tive effects may be made by using the pro diameter of three cables in inches n'W (radiation) 0.102D,'ATeX
cedure given above for magnetic conduit. AT= the temperature differential in degrees (1 +0.0167Tm) watts per foot (55A)
A simple method of approximating the centigrade
P=the pressure in atmospheres Over the same temperature range the
losses in single conductor cables with steel Tm=mean temperature of the medium in heat loss by conveetion from hoizontal
wire armor at spacings ordinarily em degrees centigrade cables or pipes is given with sufficient
ployed in submarine installations is to as n'=number of conductors involved accuracy by the expression
sume that the combined sheath and armor n'W(convection) 0.064 Ds'AT(AT/ID').14
current is equal to the conductor current.1 The constants a, b, and c in this equation
have been established empirically as follows: watts per foot (56)
The effective ac resistance of the armor Considering b+cT, as a constant for the
may be taken as 30 to 60% greater than moment, the analysis given in reference in which the numerical constant 0.064
its dc resistance corrected for lay as in 10 results in a value of a = 0.07. With a has been selected for the best fit with the
dicated above. If more accurate calcula thus established, the data given in reference carefully determined test results reported
10 for cable in pipe, and in reference 11 by Heilman2' on 1.3, 3.5 and 10.8inch
tions are desired references 19 and 20 for cable in fiber and transite ducts were diameter black pipes ( = 0.95). Inci
will be found useful. analyzed in similar manner to give the dentally, this value also represents the
values of b and c which are shown in Table best fit with the test data on 1.94.5 inch
EFFECT OF FORCED COOLING VIII. diameter black pipes reported by Rosch."
In order to avoid a reiterative calculation For vertical cables or pipes the value of
The temperature rise of cables in pipes procedure, it is desirable to assume a value this numerical constant may be increased
or tunnels may be reduced by forcing air for AT since its actual value will depend by 22%."2
axially along the system. Similarly, in upon A.d and the heat flow. Fortunately, Combining equations 55(A) and 56 we
as AT occurs to the 1/4 power in equation obtain the relationship
the case of oilfilled pipe cable, oil may 53, the use of an average value as indicated
be circulated through the pipe. Under in Table VIII will not introduce a serious n'WAT
(total)
these conditions, the temperature rise is error.
not uniform along the cable and increases By further restricting the range of
in the direction of flow of the cooling D,' to 14 inches for cable in duct or 15.6n'
conduit and to 35 inches for pipetype Ds'1(AT/Ds')"/'+1.6e(l +0.0167Tm)]
medium. The solution of this problem is cables, equation 53 is reduced to equation
discussed in reference 21. 41. thermal ohmfeet (42)
If the cable is subjected to wind having
Appendix I 1_8_
1+(B+CTm)Da' thermal ohmfeet
+(B; a velocity of V. miles per hour, the follow
ing expression derived from the work of
(41) Schurig and Frick'4 should be substituted
Development of Equations 41, 42, in which the values of the constants A, for the convection component.
and Table VII B, and C appear in Table VII. n'W (convection) =0.286Ds'AT1Vw1/D8'
In the case of oilfilled pipe cable, the
Theoretical and semiempirical expressions analysis given in reference 10 gives the watts per foot (56A)
for the thermal resistance between cables following expression
and an enclosing pipe or duct wall are Combining equations 55(A) and 56(A)
given in reference 10. Further data on the n' with Tm=45 C
thermal resistance between cables and 0.d0.60+0.025(Da'?TmSAT)114
fiber and transite ducts are given in ref AT 3.5n'
erence 11. For purposes of cable rating, thermal ohmfeet (54) 6tn'W(total) Dhe(maVlohDmt+4.62B)
it is desirable to develop standardized
expressions for these thermal resistances Assuming an average value of AT= 7 C thermal ohmfeet (42B)
760 Neher, McGrathTemperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems OCTOBER 1 957
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Appendix 11 Table IX. Comparison of Values of % (AF) D =8.3 inches. As indicated in the third
for Sinusokial Los Cycles at 30% paper of reference 3, however, theoretically
Determination of the Geometric Los Factor Dr should vary as the square root of the
Factor Gb for Duct Bank product of the diffusivity and the time
% (AM) length of the loading cycle. Hence as the
Considerimg the surface of the duct System
Description, diffusivity was taken as 2.76 square inches
bank to act as an isothermal circle of Inches Neher Shankln Wiseman per hour in the above,
radius ra, the thermal resistance between
the duct bank and the earth's surface will I. 4. 5 pipe ..... 63/63 ...61/62 ... 63/65 Ds i.02X
be a logarithmic function of rb and Lb the II . 6.0 pipe.....56/56 ... 60/57 .... 53/60
III . 8.6 pipe.....56/56... 59/58 .. 54/63 Va#Xlength of cycle in hours inches
distance of the center of the bank below IV . 10.6 pipe .....58/58 ... 61/59 ... 65/53 (45)
the surface. Using the long form of the V . . 5 cable ..... 80/80
Kennelly Formula's we may define the VI . 1.5 cable.... 77/76.. .77/76 ... 77/77 Table IX presents a comparison of the
geometric factor Gb as Vii. 1. 9 cable....71/71 values of per cent attainment factor for
VIII.... 2.0 cable ..... 63/62 sinusoidal loss cycles at 30% loss factor as
IX . 2.0 cable ..... 75/74 calculated by equations 45, 8, 62(A), and 63
Ga log La'+VLbS a
X . 3.4 cable ..... 77/78
Xa* . 3.4 cable... .83/80.. 83/81 and as they appear in Table II of the first
rb XI . 3.7 cable....76/74.. 74/73 paper of reference 3.
XII . 4.2 cable....70/66.. .70/67
log [La/ra+N/(Lb/rt)211 (57) XIII.... 4.5 cable.... 69/64.. .65/64....61/63
In order to evaluate rb in terms of the
dimensions of a rectangular duct bank, let
* Diffuslvity 4.7 square Inches per hour.
Appendix IV. Calculations For
the smaller dimension of the bank be x
and the larger dimension by y. The radius
Representative Cable Systems
portion of the thermal circuit is reduced
of a circle inscribed within the duct bank by a factor equal to the loss factor of the 15Kv 350MCM3Conductor
touching the sides is cyclic load. The point at which this Shielded Compact Sector Paper and
r x/2 (58)
reduction commences may be conveniently Lead Cable Suspended in Air
expressed in terms of a fictitious diameter
and the radius of a larger circle embracing Dr. Thus D O0.616 (equivalent round); Vgauge
the four cowers is depth =0.539 inch
Artea =A+(LF)Ara thermal ohmfeet (62)
D. 2.129; T=0.175 inch; t =0.120 inch
r2 =\/X2+y2 (59) For greater accuracy, it is desirable to
2 establish the value of Dz empirically rather 12.9 1234.5+81~
Let us assume that the circle of radius rb
than to assume that Ds is equal to the
diameter D, at which the earth portion of Tc~81 C; R1c 0.350 234.5+75,
lies between these circles and the magnitude the thermal circuit commences. 37.8 microhms per foot (Eq. IOA)
of ra is such that it divides the thermal Equation 62 may be written in the form
resistance between ri and rs in direct D,,,2.1290.1202.009 inches (Eq. 12)
relation to the portions of the heat field Aa'Re.+A6x+(LF)(42 R&2) 37.9
between ri and r2 occupied and unoccupied thermal ohmfeet (62A) R. _ =717mcom
157 m*crhm
by the duct bank. Thus
In terms of the attainment factor (A F), one
R,2.009(0.120)per foot at 50 C (Eq. 11A)
7rr,2/log 2 may write
log rb = xy(r or k, 1.0; k,=0.6 (equivalent round)
RcA< (A F)Rca (A F)(ce+Rea) (Table II)
r2 Trrf5X7 /
logm lowgt thermal ohmfeet (63) Rdc/ke =37.8; Ycs =0.008
ta \ 71 w(t,'71ri) Equating equations 62(A) and 63 obtains (Eq. 21 and Fig. 1)
from which the relationship S0.616 +2(0.175+0.008) =0.982 inches
A.u (1x),R.xAc, thermal ohmfeet (64)
log rb  _) log (1+ ) +log Rd,/kp62.6; F(x,')=0.003 (Fig. 1)
where
(60)
It is desirable to derive ra in terms of the I1(AF) 14(0o192
YCP 2[ 0]0 0)30.002
1(LF) (65) (Eq. 24A, and note to Table II)
perimeter P of the duct bank. Thus
P =2(x+y) 4 ( +y/x)
x
Since 1 + Yc1 +0.008+0.002  1.010
2
A=0.012n', log D2/D. s = 1.155(0.175+0.008)+0.60(0.539)
and therefore thermal ohmfeet (66) 0.534 inch (Eq. 32)
p(1
log 2 log 4(1+y/x) (61) log Dz/D  , [(1x)*a.xR cS] (67)
=
396
157(37.6)1
2(0.534))2
2.009 .1
The curves of Fig. 2 have been developed The first paper of reference 3 presents (Eq. 31A)
from equations 57, 60, and 61 for several the results of a study in which a number
values of the ratio y/x. It should be of typical daily loss cycles and also sinu Rac/R410 1.010+0.019 = 1.029 (Eq. 14)
noted in passing that the value of rb  soidal loss cycles of the same loss factor
were applied to a number of typical buried 0.019
0.112P used in reference 13 applies to a
cable systems. The results indicated that
q,2=qg =1+ j1 19 (Eqs. 1819)
y/x ratio of about 2/1 only.
in all cases the sinusoidal loss cycle of the
same loss factor adequately expressed the , = 3.7 (Table V); E = 15// 8.7;
maximum temperature rise which was cos 0.022
Appendix III obtained with any of the actual loss cycles
considered. Wd d 0.00276 (8.7)'[3.7(0.022)]
Empirical Evaluation of D2 An analysis by equations 65 and 67 of
the calculated values of attainment factors
g2(0.175)+0.681
g 0.681
In order to evaluate the effect of a cyclic for sinusoidal loss cycles given in Table II 0.094 watt per conductor foot
load upon the maximum temperature rise and the corresponding cable system param
of a cable system simply, it is customary to eters given in Table I of the first paper of (Eq. 36 and text)
assume that the heat flow in the final reference 3 yields a most probable value of (Note: In computing dielectric loss on
OCTrOBE,R1957 Neher, McGrathTemperature and Load Capability of Cabk Systems 761
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sector conductors, the equivalent diameter
of the conductor is taken equal to that of a %0 .
I= 81(40+0.8)
37.6[1.010(8.96)]
= 0.344 kiloampere (Eq. 9)
If the cable is outdoors in sunlight and
subjected to an 0.84 mile per hour wind
3.5(3)
2.129 VO.84/2.129+0.62(0.41)1
=5.59 thermal ohmfeet (Eq. 42B)
Rca'= 1.64+1.019(5.59) = 7.34
thermal ohmfeet (Eq. 8)
A Ttn g = (4.3)(2.129)  = 17.1 C
(Eq. 47A) Lb ' 43.5"
Ta 30 C (assumed)

181 (30+0.6+17.1)
I
(37.6)(1.010)(7.34)
=0.346 kiloampere (Eq. 9)
In this particular case the net effect of
solar radiation and an 0.84 mile per hour
wind is to effectively raise the ambient
temperature by 10 degrees, which is a
rough estimating value commonly used.
It should be noted, however, that this
will not always be true, and the procedure
outlined above is preferable.
69Kv 1,500MCMSingle'
Conductor Oil"Filled Cable in Duct
Two identical cable circuits will be 18"
considered in a 2 by 3 fiber and concrete
duct structure having the dimensions Fig. 3. Assumed duct bank confAguration for typical calculations on 69kv 1,500MCM
shown in Fig. 3.
oilAiled cable (Appendix IV)
Do=0.600; Dc=1.543; Di=2.113;
T=0.285; D8 =2.373; t =0.130 inches
12.9 Rde/k 11.9; Yc1= 0.075
=
5/2.243
Tc 75 C; Rdc1=5 8.60 \'01 0 (q 3A
T0=75C;
=
762 Neher, McGrathTemperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems OC,rOBIER 1957
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p=550 (Table VI) ATd=0.57(0.45+1.75+0.24+4.63)=4.0 C ( 1.632\'2(0.035)(1.7)=0.083
YC P = 4 ( 2.76/
2 )
(Eq. 6)
R2=0.0 12 (550 log 1543 Wc,(II 2)(8.60)( 1.082) =9.3 1 I, 2 (Eq. 24A and text)
=0.90 thermal ohmfoot (Eq. 38) watts per conductor foot (Eq. 15) 1 + YC = 1+0.088+0.083 = 1.171
A Tint = (9.31121( 1.006)(0.80) +0.571)3.81
n'=1; R =2.370.2 =174
=2.17+28.5j12 degrees centigrade in XmXm=529 log (2.3)(2.76)
= 52.9 log
2.66
thermal ohmfeet (Eq. 41A) circuit no. 2 (Eq. 48)
=20.0 microhms per foot (Eq. 29A)
Pd = 480 (Table VI); t = 0.25; Similar calculations for the second circuit
De=5.0+0.5=5.50 for fiber duct yield the following values. (20.0)2(1.7) =0.011
YS = YSC (9.435)(6.35)
 0.0104(480)(0.25) = 0.24 Rca'= 7.18; ATd =3.4; Wc2 = 17.44122; (Eq. 27A and text)
5.500.25 ATint=1.71+53.2122 in circuit no. 1
thermal ohmfoot (Eq. 40) 75 (25 +4.0 + 1.71 +53.2I22)
(0.34)(2.76)+(0.175)(8. 13)0.372
2 Vp 6.35
p.= 120 (asu med); 1.= 85 (Table VI); (9.31)(6.65) (Eq. 35)
L=L&=43.5 inches (Fig. 3) =0.7150.85912' (Eq. 9A)
Rac/Rdc 1.171+0.011+0.372 = 1.554
N=6; (LF) 0.80 (assumed); I275 (25 + 3.4 + 2.17 +28.5I, 2)X (Eq. 14)
96.5 (87.5)(78.5) ( (17.44)(7.18)
\9,I9 12.7\ 9 /12.7) 0.011 0.011+0.372
=0.3550.228I12 (Eq. 9A) =1.009; q
qs = 1 + 1.171117 1.171
=42,200 (Fig. 3 and Eq. 46)
Solving simultaneously I,=0.714; I2= = 1.327 (Eqs. 1819)
Lbp
43.5
2(18+27)
048;2718 =15 0.487 kiloampere.
, =3.5 (Table V); E = 138/F3= 80;
138Kv 2,000MCM HighPressure cos +=0.005
Gb=0.87 (Fig. 2)
OilFilled PipeType Cable 8.625 0.00276(80)2(3.5)(0.005)
Re' (at 80% loss factor) =(0.012)(85)(1) X InchOutsideDiameter Pipe
2.642
8
The cable shielding will consist of an log
(log 3+0.80
5.5 log ~~~8.3 (42,200)])
+
intercalated 7/8(0.003)inch bronze tape = 1.48 watts per conductor foot (Eq. 36)
0.012(120 85)(1)(6)(0.80)(0.87) 1inch lay, and a single 0.1(0.2)inch D
=6.79 thermal ohmfeet (Eq. 44A) shaped brass skid wire1.5inch lay. The P3t=550 (Table VI); Rj=0.012X
cables will lie in cradled configuration.
R8 (at unity loss factor)=8.44 (550 log 1.38 thermal
thermal ohmfeet (Eq. 44A) DC=1.632; Dj=2.642; T=0.505;
DJ=2.661; Dp=8.125 ohmfeet (Eq. 38)
Rca' =0.90+1.006 (1.74+0.24+6.79)
=9.72 thermal ohmfeet (Eq. 8) T12.9\ 1234.5+70 n'=3; DJ'=2.15(2.66)5.72;
T7C ; RdC k234.5+75 /
2.00,0\
3(2.1)
ATd=0.57( +1.74+0.24+8.44) 6.35 microhms per foot (Eq. IOA) Rad = 5.72 +2.45 = 0.77 thermal
=6.2 C (Eq. 6) For shielding tape As = 7/8(0.003) 0.00263; ohmfoot (Eq. 41A)
1=1.0; p=23.8; r=564 (Table I)
pd=100 (Table VI); t=0.50;
Ta =25 C (assumed);
1 75(25+6.2) 23.8w /.6i\ De = 8.63 + 1.0 =9.63 for 1/2inch
wall of asphalt mastic
8.60(1.082)(9.72) 4(0.00263) ( 1)
kiloampere (Eq. 9)= 0.696 0.0104(100)(3)(0.50)
4 ++2
(S64
r56 50)=62,900 microhms 9.630.50
To illustrate the case where the cable
circuits are not identical, consider the per foot at 50 C (Eq. 13) thermal ohmfoot (Eq. 40)
= 0.17
second circuit to have 750MCM con Assume p.=80, L=36 inches, (LF)=0.85;
ductors. For the first circuit, For skid wire AJ =22 ir(0.1)' = 0.0157; N=1, F=1
N=3; (LF)=0.80 (assumed); 1 = 1.5; p =38; T 912 (Table I) R,' (at 85% loss factor) =0.012(80)(3)X
983 +0.85 log 1~~4(36)
(6)(78) =92.4 (Eq. 46)
F [ 8.3
8.3 1)1
log 9.63 (
Rc' =0.012(85)(1)X 4(0j0157) I(1 65r) =2.85 thermal ohmfeet (Eq. 44)
lo
8.3 +0 o
[o5.5 o
(4(43.5)
8.3
92.4\1J (912 +50\
912+20/ =11,100 microhms
per foot at 50 C (Eq. 13)
1' (at unity loss factor) =3.38
thermal ohmfeet (Eq. 44)
0.012(120  85)(1)(3)(0.80)(0.87)
3.74 thermal ohmfeet (Eq. 44A) Rea' = 1.38+1.009(0.77) +
(net)[(62.9)(111 1]1,000 1.327(0.17+2.85)
F~(96.4V87.5\ 4
(78.5 R8
=6.17 thermal ohmfeet (Eq. 8)
9 /(12.7) =9,435 microhms per foot at 50 C
ATd= 1.48(0.69+0.77+0.17+3.38) =7.4 C
(Eq. 50) k,=0.435; kp=0.37 (Table II) (Eq. 6)
Ring 0.012(1)X
[85 log 456 +3(120 85)(0.87)] Rd,ks = 14.6; Ycs =0.052(1.7) = 0.088 Ta=25 C (assumed);
= 3.81 thermal ohmfeet (Eq. 49) (Eq. 21, Fig. 1, and text)
I_  70(25+7.4)
Ra' = 0.90 +1.006(l.74+0.24 +3.74) S=2.66+0.10=2.76; Rde/kp=17.2; (6.35)(1.171)(6.17)
=6.65 thermal ohmfeet (Eq. 8) F(xp')=0.035 (Fig. 1) 0.905 kiloampere (Eq. 9)
OCToBm 1957 Neher, McGrathTemperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems 763
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A SIMPLIFIxD MATHEMATICAL PROCBDURB
References WITU SBEMENTAL CONDUCTORS, AIRE Committee
Report. Ibid., vol. 71, pt. III, Jan. 1952, pp. 393
17.
POR DETERUINING THE TRANSIENT TEMPERATURE
414. RISEsOF CABLE SYSTEMS, J. H. Neher. Ibid., vol.
72, pt. III, Aug. 1953, pp. 71218.
1. CALCULATION OP TEE ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS 9. AC RESISTANCS OF CONVBNTIONAL STRAND
OJ UNDEROROUND CABLES, D. M. Simmons. Thw POWER CABLBS IN NONMBTALLIC DUCT AND IN 18. THs HBATING OP CABLES EXPOSED TO THE
Electric Journal, East Pittsburgh, Pa., May IRON CONDUIT, R. W. Burrell, M. Morris. Ibid., SUN IN RACIKS, B. B. Wedmore. Jourxal, Institu
Nov. 1932. vol. 74, pt. III, Oct. 1955, pp. 101423. tion of Electrical Engineers, vol. 75, 1934, pp.
10. THE THERMAL RHSISTANCH BETWEEN CABLES 73748.
2. LOAD FACTOR AND EQUIVALENT HoURS
COMPARED, P. H. Buller, C. A. Woodrow. Elec AND A SURROUNDING PIPE OR DUCT WALL, F. H. 19. LossE IN ARMORED SINGLECONDUCTOR,
trical World, New York, N. Y., vol. 92, no. 2, 1928, Buller, J. H. Neher. Ibid., vol. 69, pt. 1, 1950, LEADCOVERED AC CABLBS, 0. R. Schurig, H. P.
pp. 5960. pp. 34249. Kuehni, F. H. Buller. AIRE Transaction:, vol.
48, Apr. 1929, pp. 41735.
3. SYMPOSIUm ON TBMPERATURE RISE OP CABLES, 11. HEAT TRANSFER STUDY ON POWER CABLS
AIRE Committee Report. AIEE Traxsactions, DUCTS AND DUCT AssBMBLIES, Paul Greebler, Guy 20. CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF Lossss AND
vol. 72, pt. III, June 1953, pp. 53062. F. Barnett. Ibid., vol. 69, pt. I, 1950, pp. 357 OF SELPINDUCTION OF SINGLE'CONDUCTOR AR
67. MORBD CABLECs, L. Bosone. Elettrotecxica, Milan,
4. AC RESISTANCE OF SSGMBNTAL CABLBS IN Italy, 1931, p. 2.
STEEL PIPE, L. Meyerhoff, G. S. Eager, Jr. Ibid., 12. THE TEMPBRATURB RISE OF BURIBD CABLES
vol. 68, pt. II, 1949, pp. 81634. AND PIPES, J. H. Meher. Ibid., vol. 68, pt. I, 1949, 21. ARTIFICIAL COOLING OP POWER CABLB, F. H.
pp. 921. BuUer. AIEE Transactions, vol. 71, pt. III, Aug.
S. PROXIMITY EFFBCT IN SOLID AND HOLLOW 1952, pp. 63441.
ROUND CONDUCTORS, A. R. M. Arnold. Journal, 13. THE TEMPERATURB RISE OF CABLES IN A
Institution of Electrical Engineers, London. DucT BANIC, J. H. Neher. Ibid., pp. 54049. 22. SURFACE HEAT TRANSMISSON, R. H. Hettman.
England, vol. 88, pt. It, Aug. 1941, pp. 34959. 14. OI. FLOW AND PRESSURE CALCULATIONS FOR Transactions, American Society of Mechanical
6. EDDYCURRENT LOSsRS MULTICORB PAPER SELFCONTAINBD OILFILLBD CABLB SYSTEMS, Engineers, New York, N. Y., vol. 51, pt. 1, 1929,
INSULATBD LEADCOVBRBD CABLES, ARMORBD
IN
764 Neher, McGrathTemperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems OCTOBER 1957
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