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dit' etc. =from image of cable no.

1 to a
The Calculation or the Temperature Rise point of interference
D = diameter, inches
D= inside of annular conductor
and Load Capability of Cable Systems Dc=outside of conductor
D= outside of insulation
Ds=outside of sheath
D.= mean diameter of sheath
J. H. NEHER M. H. McGRATH D= outside of jacket
MEMBER AIEE MEMBER AIEE DJ'= effective (circumscribing circle) of
several cables in contact
D= inside of duct wall, pipe or conduit
IN 1932 D. M. Simmons' published a sideration as being the most consistent De= diameter at start of the earth portion
of the thermal circuit
series of articles entitled, "Calculation and most readily handled over the full Dz=fictitious diameter at which the effect
of the Electrical Problems of Underground scope of the problem. of loss factor commences
Cables." Over the intervening 25 years All losses will be developed on the basis E=line to neutral voltage, kilovolts (kv)
this work has achieved the status of a of watts per conductor foot. The heat *e=coefficient of surface emissivity
e =specific inductive capacitance of insula-
handbook on the subject. During this flows and temperature rises due to dielec- tion
period, however, there have been numer- tric loss and to current-produced losseswill f=frequency, cycles per second
ous developments in the cable art, and be treated separately, and, in the latter F, Fin1 = products of ratios of distances
much theoretical and experimental work case, all heat flows will be expressed in F(x)=derived Bessel function of x (Table
III and Fig. 1)
has been done with a view to obtaining terms of the current produced loss originat- G =geometric factor
more accurate methods of evaluating the ing in one foot of conductor by means of GI =applying to insulation resistance (Fig. 2
parameters involved. The advent of the multiplying factors which take into ac- of reference 1)
pipe-type cable system has emphasized count the added losses in the sheath and C2 = applying to dielectric loss (Fig. 2 of
the desirability of a more rational method conduit. reference 1)
Gb =applying to a duct bank (Fig. 2)
of calculating the performance of cables In general, all thermal resistances will I=conductor current, kiloamperes
in duct in order that a realistic comparison be developed on the basis of the per con- k,=skin effect correction factor for annular
may be made between the two systems. ductor heat flow through them. In the and segmental conductors
In this paper the authors have en- case of underground cable systems, it is kp=relative transverse conductivity factor
for calculating conductor proximity
deavored to extend the work of Simmons convenient to utilize an effective thermal effect
by presenting under one cover the basic resistance for the earth portion of the I= lay of a shielding tape or skid wire, inches
principles involved, together with more thermal circuit which includes the effect L=depth of reference cable below earth's
recently developed procedures for han- of the loading cycle and the mutual heat- surface, inches
ing effect of the other cable of the system. Lb = depth to center of a duct bank (or
dling such problems as the effect of the backfill), inches
loading cycle and the temperature rise All cables in the system will be considered (If)=load factor, per unit
of cables in various types of duct struc- to carry the same load currents and to be (LF) =loss factor, per unit
tures. Included as well are expressions operating under the same load cycle. n=number of conductors per cable
required in the evaluation of the basic The system of nomenclature employed n'=number of conductors within a stated
parameters for certain specialized allied is in accordance wvith that adopted by the N=number of cables or cable groups in a
procedures. It is thought that a work of Insulated Conductor Committee as stand- system
this type will be useful not only as a guide ard, and differs appreciably from that used P=perinmeter of a duct bank or backfill,
to engineers entering the field and as a in many of the references. This system inches
reference to the more experienced, but represents an attempt to utilize in so far cos4-=power factor of the insulation
as possible the various symbols appearing q,=ratio of the sum of the losses in the
particularly as a basis for setting up com- conductors and sheaths to the losses
putation methods for the preparation of in the American Standards Association in the conductors
industry load capability and a-c/d-c ratio Standards for Electrical Quantities, Me- q,= ratio of the sum of the losses in the
compilations. chanics, Heat and Thermo-Dynamics, conductors, sheath and conduit to
the losses in the conductors
The calculation of the temperature rise and Hydraulics, when these symbols can R =electrical resistance, ohms
of cable systems under essentially steady- be used without ambiguity. Certain Rd d-c resistance of conductor
state conditions, which includes the effect symbols which have long been used by Rae= total a-c resistance per conductor
of operation under a repetitive load cycle, cable engineers have been retained, even R, = d-c resistance of sheath or of the
though they are in direct conflict with parallel paths in a shield-skid wire
as opposed to transient temperature rises assembly
due to the sudden application of large the above-mentioned standards. R-thermal resistance (per conductor losses)
amounts of load, is a relatively simple thermal ohm-feet
procedure and involves only the applica- Nomenclature = of insulation

tion of the thermal equivalents of Ohm's RI=ofbetween

(A F) = attainment factor, per unit (pu) =ad cable surface and surrounding
and Kirchoff's Laws to a relatively simple A, = cross-section area of a shielding tape enclosure
thermal circuit. Because this circuit or skid wire, square inches
usually has a number of parallel paths a = thermal diffusivity, square inches per
hour Paper 57-660, recommended by the AIEE Insulated
with heat flows entering at several points, CI= conductor area, circular inches Conductors Committee and approved by the AIEE
Technical Operations Department for presentation
however, care must be exercised in the d = distance, inches at the AIEE Summer General Meeting, Montreal,
method used of expressing the heat flows d,2 etc.= from center of cable no. 1 to center Que., Canada, June 24-28, 1957. Manuscript
submitted March 20, 1957; made available for
and thermal resistances involved, and of cable no. 2 etc. printing April 18, 1957.
differing methods are used by various en- d,2' etc. = from center of cable no. 1 to J. H. NisaBR 15 with the Philadelphia Electric
image of cable no. 2 etc. Company, Philadelphia, Pa.. and M. H. MCGRATH
gineers. The method employed in this d1j etc. =from center of cable no. 1 to a is with the General Cable Corporation, Perth
paper has been selected after careful con- point of interference Amboy, N. J.

752 Neher, McGrath-Temperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems OcToiBE:R 1957

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t. -i 2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.
- - - -.
ILL ~~~~~~~~~0.06 e-00 2.5

t1 ~~~~~~~~0-.05 2.0


~ 04~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~0\000
1.0-_X _L-22r 7 .

: Fk0 0[ T 1Mi~ ~ o, 01

0.25 lit %sl i __ _ t ~~~~0.002 1.

:, .0

40 e
z w
t F(p025
0.2 K m_ 9iN

0.10 0.02 .5 - -T-

2 2.5 3 4 5 6 7689 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 o010
R dc/k

Fig. I (above). F(x) and F(xp') as functions oF Rd/k

Fig. 2 (right). Gb For a duct bank
.3 .l .2 .
.5 .?
.7 ._.
Rd= of duct wall or asphalt mastic covering
R,. = total between sheath and diameter
De including Ad and Rd A,, RATIO Lb/P
R,=between conduit and ambient
R'=effective between diameter De and
ambient earth including the effects
of loss factor and mutual heating by W-portioP a developed in the conductor Thus
other cables W,=ortiorn developed im the sheath or
Rea effective between conductor and shieldd TC Ta = AT. +A Td degrees centigrade
ambient for conductor loss W =portioiIn developed in the pipe or con- (1)
Rcg'- effective transient thermal resistance duit
of cable system Wd portlol in developed in the dielectric Each of these component temperature
Rd I=effective between conductor and am- Xm =mutuaJ1 reactance, conductor to sheath rises may be considered the result of a
or sbhield, microhms per foot
bient for dielectric loss rate of heat flow expressed in watts per
An= of the interference effect Y- the inci rement of a-c/d-c ratio, pu
Ra= between a steam pipe and ambient YC=due losses originating in the con-
to foot through a thermal resistance ex-
earth ;or, having components Yc. due
duct pressed in thermal ohm feet (degrees centi-
p electrical resistivity, circular mil ohms to si kdn effect and Ycp due to prox- grade feet per watt); in other words, the
per foot imnit y effect
p-thermal resistivity, degrees centigrade Y7 =due to losses originating in the sheath radial rise in degrees centigrade for a heat
centimeters per watt or sshield, having components YJC flow of one watt uniformly distributed
s=distance in a 3-conductor cable between due to circulating current effect and over a conductor length of one foot.
y due to eddy current effect
the effective current center of the
Yp =due tco losses originating in the pipe Since the losses occur at several posi-
conductor and the axis of the cable,
inches or cconduit tions in the cable system, the heat flow in
S=axial spacing between adjacent cables, Ya due to losses originating in the armor
= the thermal circuit will increase in steps.
inches It is convenient to express all heat flows in
1, T=thickness (as indicated), inches terms of the loss per foot of conductor, and
T=temperature, degrees centigrade
General (
Considerations of the
Therm dI Circuit thus
Ta of ambient air or earth
T =of conductor
Tm = temperature of medium
+ qsRs+qAR)
AT=temperature rise, degrees centigrade RISE degrees centigrade (2)
ATC=of conductor due to current produced
losses The tem perature rise of the conductor in which W, represents the losses in one
A Td = of conductor due to dielectric loss conductor and R, is the thermal resistance
of a
tbove ambient temperature may
cable a

=T nIof a cable due to extraneous heat be conside

b osdered as being composed of a of the insulation, qs is the ratio of the
temperature of zero resistance,
r= inferred temperatwre rise due to its own losses, sum of the losses in the conductors and
degrees centigrade (C) (used in which mayy be divided into a rise due to sheath to the losses in the conductors,
correcting Rdc and R, to tempera- current pr(oduced (I2R) losses (hereinafter is the total thermal resistance between
tures other than 20 C) referred to merely as losses) in the conduc- sheath and conduit, qo is the ratio of the
Vw= wind velocity, miles per hour sum of the losses in conductors, sheath and
tor, sheat h and conduit AT: and the rise
refer to
W=losses developed in a cable, watts per
conductor foot produced by its dielectric loss ATd. conduit, to the conductor losses, and A.

OcToBim 1957 Neher, McGrath-Temperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems 753

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is the thermal resistance between the A TC Wc(Rg+qsRsa+qe[Rx+(LF) X Table 1. Electrical Resistivity oF Various
conduit and ambient. (fRxaM+N-1)fRPaD (S) Materials
In practice, the load carried by a cable = Wc(Ri+qeRsa+qsR,')
is rarely constant and varies according to degrees centigrade (SA) p
Circular Mil
a daily load cycle having a load factor where the term in parentheses is indicated Ohms per Foot
(f). Hence, the losses in the cable will by the effective thermal resistance R/. Material at 20 C t, C
vary according to the corresponding The temperature rise due to dielectric
daily loss cycle having a loss factor (LF). loss is a relatively small part of the total Copper (100% IACS*) ........ 10.371 ... 234.6
Aluminum (61% IACS) ....... 17.002... 228.1
From an examination of a large number of temperature rise of cable systems op- Commercial Bronze (43.6% ... 23.8 .....564
load cycles and their corresponding load erating at the lower voltages, but at (90 Cu-10 Zn)
and loss factors, the following general rela- higher voltages it constitutes an appre- Brass (27.3% IACS) .......... 38.0 .....912
(70 Cu-30 Zn)
tionship between load factor and loss ciable part and must be considered. Al- Lead (7.84% IACS) ........... 132.3 ..... 236
factor has been found to exist.I though the dielectric losses are dis- * International Annealed Copper Standard.
tributed throughout the insulation, it may
(LF)=Q.3 (lf)+0.7 (If)2 per unit (3) be shown that for single conductor cable Calculation of Losses and
In order to determine the maximum and multiconductor shielded cable with Associated Parameters
temperature rise attained by a buried round conductors the correct temperature
cable system under a repeated daily load rise is obtained by considering for tran- CALCULATION OF D-C RESISTANCES
cycle, the losses and resultant heat flows sient and steady state that all of the
dielectric loss Wd occurs at the middle The resistance of the conductor may be
are calculated on the basis of the maxi- determined from the following expressions
mum load (usually taken as the average of the thermal resistance between conduc-
tor and sheath or alternately for steady- which include a lay factor of 2%; see
current for that hour of the daily load Table I.
cycle during which the average current is state conditions alone that the tempera-
the highest, i.e. the daily maximum one- ture rise between conductor and sheath for
hour average load) on which the loss factor a given loss in the dielectric is half as Rdc -C
microhms per foot at 20 C
is based and the heat flow in the last part much as if that loss were in the conductor. (10)
of the earth portion of the thermal circuit In the case of multiconductor belted 12.9 cpe
cables, however, the conductors are taken =Cl for 100% IACS copper
is reduced by the factor (LF). If this CI
reduction is considered to start at a point as the source of the dielectric loss.' conductor at 75 C (IOA)
in the earth corresponding to the diameter The resulting temperature rise due to 21.2
Dz,s equation 2 becomes dielectric loss ATd may be expressed for 61% IACS

A T- WC [Rj+q,Rse+ qc(Rez + (LF)Rraa)J

ATd = WdRda' degrees centigrade (6) aluminum at 75 C (lOB)
degrees centigrade (4) in which the effective thermal resistance where CI represents the conductor size in
Rdar is based upon Ri, Rk5, and R,'(at unity circular inches and where Pr represents
In effect this means that the tempera- loss factor) according to the particular
ture rise from conductor to DA is made to the electrical resistivity in circular mil
case. The temperature rise at points in ohms per foot. To determine the value of
depend on the heat loss corresponding to the cable system other than at the con- resistance at temperature T multiply the
the maximum load whereas the tempera- ductor may be determined readily from
ture rise from diameter D. to ambient is resistance at 20 C by (r+T)/(r+20)
the foregoing relationships. where r is the inferred temperature of
made to depend on the average loss over a
24-hour period. Studies indicate that the THE CALCULATION OF LOAD CAPABILITr zero resistance.
procedure of assuming a fictitious critical The resistance of the sheath is given
In many cases the permissible maxi- by the expressions
diameter D, at which an abrupt change mum temperature of the conductor is
occurs in loss factor from 100% to actual fixed and the magnitude of the conductor Ps
1Amicrohms per foot at 20 C (II)
will give results which very closely R, =
current (load capability) required to 4Dsmt
approximate those obtained by rigorous produce this temperature is desired.
transient analysis. For cables or duct Equation 5(A) may be written in the form Rs =37-9
for lead at 50 C (IIA)
in air where the thermal storage capacity ATc =I2Rdc(l + Yc)Aca'
of the system is relatively small, the maxi- degrees centigrade (7) =4.75
mum temperature rise is based upon the for 61% aluminum at 50 C
heat flow dorresponding to maximum load in which the quantity Rdc (1+ Ye) which (hIB)
without reduction of any part of the will be evaluated later represents the
thermal circuit. effective electrical resistance of the con- where Dsm is the mean diameter of the
When a number of cables are installed ductor in microhms per foot, and which sheath and I is its thickness, both in
close together in the earth or in a duct when multiplied by I2 (I in kiloamperes) inches
bank, each cable will have a heating effect will equal the loss Wc in watts per conduc- D,.m D,-t inches (12)
upon all of the others. In calculating tor foot actually generated in the conduc-
the temperature rise of any one cable, it is tor; and Rca' is the effective thermal The resistance of intercalated shields
convenient to handle the heating effects of resistance of the thermal circuit. or skid wires may be determined from the
the other cables of the system by suitably ca R t + q8Rxe +qcR,' thermal ohm-feet
modifying the last term of equation 4. (8)
This is permissible since it is assumed From equation 1 it follows that Rs (per pathi)-4As 1h+( TDI )m
that all the cables are carrying equal cur- microhms per foot at 20 C (13)
rents, and are operating on the same load J=.i -(Ta+ATd) kiloamperes (9)
cycle. Thus for an N-cable system IRde(l1+ Yc)R?ca where A. is the cross-section area of the

754 Neher, McGrath-Temperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems OCTOBER 1957

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tape or skid wire and I is its lay. The '
Table Ii. Recommended Values of kc, and kp
over-all resilstance of the shield and cskid
wire assembly, particularly for noniniter- Conductor Construction Coating on Strands Treatment k k
calated shields, should be determinedI by
electrical measurement when possiblile. Concentric round........None ..........None........1.0 ....... 1.0
Concentric round ........Tin or alloy. None . 1.0........1.0
Concentric round ........None..........Yes.........1.0........0.80o
CALCULATION o1? Lossus Compact round .........None..........Yes.........1.0 ........0.6
Compact segmental .......None..........None ........0.435........0. 6
It is convenient to develop express'ions Compact segmental .......Tin or alloy .......None ........0. 5........0.7
for the losses in the conductor, sheath and Compact segmental .......None ..........Yes.........0.435........0.37
Compact sector .........None ..........Yes.........1.0........(see note)
pipe or condu'it in terms of the componLents
of the a-c/d-c ratio of the cable syl,; ;tm NOTBS:
1. The term "treated" denotes a completed conductor which has been subjected to a drying and impregnat-
which may be expressed as follows4 Ing process similar to that employed on paper power cable.
Rac/Rdcl1+ ye+ y,+ Yv Proximity effect on compact sector conductors may be taken as one-halt of that for compact round
(14) 2.having the same cross-sectional area and insulation thickness.
The a-c/d-c ratio at conductor is 1 + Ye 3. Proximity effect on annular conductors may be approximated by using the value for a concentricannular
round conductor of the same cross-sectional area and spacing. The Increased diameter of the
and at sheath or shield is 1+ Yc+ Ys type and the removal of metal from the center decreases the skin effect but, for a given axial spacing, tends
to result in an increase in Proximity.
and at pipe or conduit is 1+ Y,+ Ye5+ Y, 4. The values listed above for compact segmental refer to four segment constructions. The "uncosted-
treated" values may also be taken as applicable to four segm'ent comnpact segmental with hollow core (ap-
proximately 0.75 inch clear). For "uncoated-treated" six segment hollow core compact segmental limited
The corresponding losses phys'ically gen- test data indicates ks and kV vialues of 0.39 and 0.33 respectively.
erated in the conductor, sheath, and pipe-
Wc =I'RdC(1 +YC) Table Ill. Skin Effect in
watts per conductor,foot %/ in Solid Round Conductor and in Conventional Round Concentric
(15) Strand Conductors
100 F(x), Skin Effect %7
W, = I'Rde Y7 watts per conductor foot (16)
5 8
Wp, =IPR& Yp watts per conductor foot (17) r 0 1 2 3 4 6 7 9

This permits a ready determination of~tnte 0.3... 0.00... 0.00o... 0.01... 0.01 ... 0.01.. 0.01 ... 0.01... 0.01 ... 0.01... 0.01
losses if the segregated a-c/d-c ratios ae ae 0.4 ... 0.01 ... 0.01... 0.02 ... 0.02... 0.02... 0.02 ... 0.02... 0.03... 0.03... 0.03
0.5 ... 0.03 ... 0.04 ... 0.04 ... 0.04 ... 0.05 ... 0.05... 0.05... 0.06... 0.08... 0.08
known, and conversely, the a-c/d-c tmatio 0.8... 0.07... 0.07 ...
0.12... 0.13 ... 0.14... 0.15 ... 0.18... 0.17 ... 0.18... 0.19... 0.19... 0.20
0.08 ... 0.08 ... 0.09 ... 0.10... 0.10... 0.11 ... 0.11 ... 0.12
is readily obtailned after the values ol f C, 0.7...
0.8... 0.21 ... 0.22... 0.24... 0.25 ... 0.26... 0.28 ... 0.29 ... 0.30... 0.31... 0.33

Y7, and 17, have been calculated. 0.9... 0.34... 0.38 ... 0.38... 0.39 ... 0.41 ... 0.43... 0.45 ... 0.47... 0.48... 0.50
It follows from the definitions of q8 ad 1n1.1.0... 0.52... 0.54 ...
... 0.76... 0.79...
0.58... 0.58 ... 0.81... 0.83... 0.65 ... 0.68 ... 0.70 ... 0.73
0.81... 0.84... 0.87 ... 0.90... 0.94... 0.97 ... 1.00 ... 1.03
q. that 1.2 ... 1 07... 11.. 1.14 ... 1.18... 1.22 ... 1.26... 1.30:.. 1.34 ... 1.38 ... 1.42
1.3 ... 1.47... 1.52... 1.56..... 1... .6... 1.71... 1.76... 1.81... 1.86... 1.92
1.4... 1.97... 2.02... 2.08 ... 2.14 ... 2.20 ... 2.26 ... 2.32... 2.39 ... 2.45... 2.52
=1+- (18) 1.51... ... 2.58... 2.65... 2.72... 2.79 ... 2.88... 2.93 ... 3.01... 3.08 ... 3.16... 3.24
qs 3.32... 3.40... 3.49... 3.57... 3.66... 3.75 ... 3.83... 3.92 ... 4.02... 4.11
1... 4.21 ... 4.30... 4.40... 4.50... 4.80... 4.70... 4.81 ... 4.91 ... 5.02 ... 5.13
we 1+Y 1.8 ... 5.24 ... 5.35... 5.47... 5.58... 5.70... 5.82... 5.94 ... 6.08.. 61... 6.31
1.9... 6.44
(19) 2.0... ... 8.57... 6.70... 6.83... 8.97... 7.11... 7.24... 7.38 ... 7.53 ... 7.67
7.82... 7.98... 8.11 ... 8.26... 8.42... 8 57... 8.73... 8 89 ... 9.05... 9.21
2.1 ... 9.38... 9.54... 9.71... 9.88... 10.05... 10.22 ... 10.40... 10.58... 10.76... 10.94
2.2... 11.13... 11.31 ... 11.50... 11.69 ... 11.88... 12.07... 12.27... 12.47... 12.67... 12.87
The factor Y, is the sum of two coiinpo- 2.3... 13.07 ... 13.27 ... 13.48 ... 13.68 ... 13.90 ... 14.11... 14.33... 14.54... 14.76... 14.98
nents, Ya, due to skin effect and Yp, due 2.4... 15.21 ... 15.43 ... 15.66 ... 15.89 ... 16.12 ... 16.35... 18.58... 16.82 ... 17.16 ... 17.30
2.5.., 17.54... 17.78 ... 18.03 ... 18.27 ... 18.52 ... 18.78... 19.03 ... 19.28 ... 19.54 ... 19.80
proxuimity effect. 2.6... 20.08... 20.32... 20.58... 20.85 ... 21.12 ... 21.38... 21.65 ... 21.93 ... 22.20... 22.48
2.7... 22.75... 23.03 ... 23.31 ... 23.60 ... 23.88... 24.17... 24.45... 24.74... 25.03 ... 25.33
2.8... 25.62... 25.92 ... 26.21 ... 26.51... 26.81 ... 27.11... 27.42... 27.72... 28.03 ... 28.34
watts per conductor foot (2) 2.9... 28.65... 28.96 ... 29.27 ... 29.58... 29.90 ... 30.21 ... 30.53 ... 30.85... 31.17 ... 31.49
(2) 3.0 ... 31.81... 32.13 ... 32.45... 32.78... 33.11 ... 33.44 ... 33.77 ... 34.10 ... 34.43... 34.77
3.1 ... 35.10... 35.44... 35.78... 36.11 .. 36.45 ... 36.79... 37.13 ... 37.47 ... 37.82... 38.16
The skin effect may be determined from 3.2... 38.50... 38.85... 39.20... 39.55... 39.89 ... 40.24... 40.59 ... 40.94 ... 41.29... 41.65
the skin effect functilon F(x) 3.3... 42.00... 42.35... 42.71... 43.08... 43.42 ... 43.78... 44.14 ... 44.49... 44.85... 45.21
3.4... 45.57... 45.93 ... 46.29 ... 46.66... 47.02 ... 47.38... 47.74... 48.11... 48.47... 48.84
3.5... 49.20... 49.57 ... 49.94 ... 50.30... 50.67.. 51.04... 51.40... 51.77... 52.14 ... 52.51
YCs= F(xs) (21) 3.8 ... 52..88 ... 53.25... 53.62... 53.99... 54.36 ... 54.73... 55.10... 55.48... 55.85 ... 58.22
3.7 ... 56.59 ... 56.96... 57.33... 57.71 .. 58.08... 58.45... 58.82.... 59.20 ... 59.57... 59.94
Ifk 6.80 3.8 ... 60.31 ... 60.69... 81.08... 61.44 ... 61.81 ... 82.18... 82.56... 62.93 ... 63.30 ... 63.68
x8j=0.8'175.t - at 60 cyclc es 3.9 ... 84.05 ... 64.42 ... 64.80... 65.17 ... 65.55 ... 65.92... 88.29... 66.67... 67.04 ... 67.41
4.0... 67.79 ... 68.18 ... 68.53.;.. 68.91 ... 69.28... 69.65... 70.03... 70.40... 70.77 ... 71.14
(22) 4.24.1 ... 71.52 ... 71.89 ... 72.26... 72.63 ... 73.00... 73.38... 73.75... 74.12... 74.49... 74.86
... 75.23 ... 75.60. 75.97... 76.34... 76.71 ... 77.08 ... 77.45... 77.82 ... 78.19... 78.56
4.3 ... 78.93... 79.30... '79.67... 80.04... 80.41 ... 80.78 ... 81.14... 81.51 ... 81.88... 82.25
in which the factor k, depends upo: nte 4.the 82.61... 82.98... 83.35... 83.61... 84.08 ... 84.45 ... 84.81 ... 85.18 ... 85.55 ... 85.91

conductor construction. For soIliid or 4.6 4.5.-. 86.28 ... 86.64... 87.01... 87.37... 87.73... 88.10 ... 88.46 ... 88.82... 89.19 ... 89.55
.. 89.91 ... 90.28... 90.64 ... 91.00... 91.37... 91.73... 92.09 ... 92.45 ... 92.81... 93.17
conventional conductors approlpriate 4.7 ... 93.53... 93.89... 94.25 ... 94.61... 94.97... 95.33 ... 95.69... 98.05 ... 96.41 ... 96.77
values of k8 will be found in Table II. The 4.8 ... 97.13... 97.49 ... 97.85... 98.21... 98.57 ... 98.92 ... 99.28 ... 99.64... .100.00... .100.35
4.9.. .100.71.. .101.07... .101.42... .101.78... .102.14... .102.49 ... 102.85... .103.21.. .103.56.. .103.92
function F(x) may be obtained from.iFable
III or from the curves of Fig. 1 in Iterms
of the ratio Rd,,/k at 60 cycles.
For annual conductors and inner diameters of the annular con- annular conductor when computed by
ductor. In comparison wi'th the rigorous equation 23 will not be in error by more
k, D..D(lc+2Do)2 (23) Bessel function solution for the skin effect than 0.01 in absolute magnitude for
in an isolated tubular conductor, it has copper or aluminum IPCEA (Insulated
in which D, and D0, represent the outer been found that the 60-cycle ski'n effect of Power Cable Engineers Association) filled

C)CTLOBBR1957OCTOBER 1957Neher, McGrath-TemPerature and Load Capability of Cable Systems75 755

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Table IV. Mutual Reactance at 60 Cycles, Conductor to Sheath (or Shield) (2 SiDsm) as in the case of lead sheaths.
Dam/2S 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 396 D,m 5 Ds", 2
RsRds 2S 22
0.4. 21.1 ... 20.5 .... 19.9 . 10 18.3. 17.8. 16.4 approximately at 60 cycles (30A)
0.3. 27.7 ... 26.9 ... 26.2. 25.5 . 24.8. 24.1 . 23.5. 22.9...22.2 . 21.6
0.2. 37 0 ... 359.. ..34.8..33.8..32.8..31.9. 31.0.....30.1 . 29.3. 28.4
O.1. 52.9 ... 50.7.. .48.7 . 46.9. 45.2 . 43.6..4'.42.1 . 40.7.. 39.4. 38.2 When the sheaths are short-circuited, the
sheath eddy loss will be reduced and may
be approximated by multiplying equations
core conductors up through 5.0 CI and for 30 or 30(A) by the ratio
also be estimated from equation 24 and
hollow core concentrically stranded copper 24(A). In such cases, S should be taken R82/(Ra2+Xm2)
or alumninum oil-filled cable conductors as the axial spacing between adjacent
up through 4.0 CI. conductors. In computing average eddy current for
For values of xp below 3.5, a range The factor Ys is the sum of two factors, cradled configuration, S should be taken
which appear to cover most cases of prac- Ys, due to circulating current effect and equal to the axial spacing and not to the
tical interest at power frequencies, the Y. due to eddy current effects. geometric-mean spacing. Equations 30
conductor proximity effect for cables in and 30(A) may be used to compute the
equilateral triangular formation in the WS=I'Rdc( Yu + Y8,) eddy-current effect for single-conductor
watts per conductor foot (26) cables installed in separate ducts.
same or in separate ducts may be cal-
culated from the following equation based Because of the large sheath losses which Strictly speaking, these equations apply
on an approximate expression given by result from short-circuited sheath opera- only to three cables in eqwulateral con-
Arnold' (equation 7) for a system of tion with appreciable separation between figuration but can be used to estimate
three homogeneous, straight, parallel, metallic sheathed single conductor cables, losses in large cable groups when latter are
solid conductors of circular cross section this mode of operation is usually restricted so oriented as to approximate a regular
arranged in equilateral formation and to triplex cable or three single-conductor polygon.
carrying balanced 3-phase current remote cables contained in the same duct. The The eddy-current effect for a 3-conduc-
from all other conductors or conducting circulating current effect in three metallic tor cable is given by Arnold.6
material. The empirical transverse con- sheathed single-conductor cables arranged 3RM (2s/Dsm)2 (2s/Dam)4
ductance factor k, is introduced to make in equilateral configuration is given by Yae8 Rdc
the expression applicable to stranded f +1 41-1+1
conductors. Experimental results sug-
y R,JRdc (27)
1 +(R8/Xm)' (2s/Dsm )"
gest the values of kp shown in Table IT. (31)
Ycp F(xp)( DC 2~
When (Rs/Xm)2 is large with respect to
unity as usually is the case of shielded non-
leaded cables, equation 27 reduces to
( 5.2Rf) +1
When (5.2R,/f)2 is large with respect to
[F(x:; +.27 +0.312(S ) ]2 (24) Yc=R approximately (27A) unity,
6.80 396 ( 2s\
~~at 60 cycles (25) Xm 0.882f log 2S/Dsm RsRdc (5Dam)
c/kp microhms per foot (28) approximately at 60 cycles (31A)
When the second term in the brackets =52.9 log 2S/Dsm
is small with respect to the first tern as it microhms per foot at 60 cycles (28A) s=1.155T+0.6OXthe V gauge depth for
usually is, equation 24 may be written compact sectors
where S is the axial spacing of adjacent 1.155T+0.58 D, for round conductors
F'x [ 0.295(Dc/S)S1 cables. For a cradled configuration Xm (32)
CY, 4F(Xt)F(x,) +0.27.] may be approximated from
and T is the insulation thickness, includ-
=4( S F(xp') (24A) 2.52SI IS\ ing thickness of shielding tapes, if any.
Xm=52.9 log -D 1-I I
While equation 31(A) will suffice for lead
where the function F(xp) is shown in microhms per foot at 60 cycles (29) sheath cables, equation 31 should be used
Fig. 1. = 52.9 log 2.3 S/Dsm for aluminum sheaths.
The average proximity effect for con- approximately (29A) On 3-conductor shielded paper lead
ductors in cradle configuration in the cable it is customary to employ a 3- or 5-
same duct or in separate ducts in a forma- Table IV provides a convenient means for mil copper tape or bronze tape inter-
tion approximating a regular polygon may determining Xm for cables in equilateral calated with a paper tape for shielding and
configuration. binder purposes. The lineal d-c resist-
The eddy-current effect for single- ance of a copper tape 5 mils by 0.75 inch
Table V. SpeciRc Inductive Capacitance of conductor cables in equilateral configura- is about 2,200 microhms per foot of tape
Insulations tion with open-circuited sheaths is at 20 C. The d-c resistance per foot
y _- 3Rs/Rdc X of cable will be equal to the lineal resist-
Matera e
ance of the tape multiplied by the lay
so ( 2S
correction factor as given by the expres-
Polyethylene ................. 2.3
Paper insulation (solid type) ... 3.7 (IPCEA value)
5 (2Rs 2
sion under the square-root sign in equation
Paper Insulation (other types).. 3.3-4.2
Rubber and rubber-like com-
pounds .................... 5 (IPCXA value)
2S )212 DS) 5
(30) 13. In practice the lay correction factor
may vary from 4 to 12 or more resulting
Varnished cambric ............5 (IPCEA value) when (5.2 Rl/f)2 is large in respect to 1/5 in shielding and binder assembly resist-

756 Neher, McGrath-Temperature a-nd Load Capability of Cable Systems OcrOBER 1957

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ances of approximately 10,000 or more and for 3-conductor belted cable by' Table VI. Thermal Resistivity of Veriouns
microhms per foot of cable. Even on Materils
0.Ol9E2er cos 0'
the assumption that the assembly resist- Wd= watts per
ance is halved because of contact with ad- G2 Material ,o, C Cm/Watt
jacent conductors and the lead sheath conductor foot at 60 cycles (37)
computations made using equations 27 where E is the phase to neutral voltage Paper insulation (solid type). ..700 (IPCEA value)
Varnished cambric ............ 600 (IPCEA value)
and 30 show that the resulting circulating in kilovolts, er is the specific inductive Paper insulation (other types). . 500-550
and eddy current losses are a fraction of capacitance of the insulation (Table V) T Rubber and rubber-like ........ 500 (IPCEA value)
Jute and textile protective
1% on sizes of practical interest. For this is its thickness and cos 4 is its power factor. covering ................... 50
reason it is customary to assume that the The geometric factor G2 may be found Fiber duct ................... 480
Polyethylene ................. 450
losses in the shielding and binder tapes from Fig. 2 of reference 1. Transite duct ................ 200
of 3-conductor shielded paper lead cable For compact sector conductors the di- Somastic................. 100
Concrete ..................... 85
are negligible. In cases of nonleaded rub- electric loss may be taken equal to that for
ber power cables where lapped metallic a concentric round conductor having the
tapes are frequently employed, tube same cross-sectional area and insulation
effects may be present and may materially thickness. THERMAL RESISTANCE OF JACKETS, DucT
lower the resistance of the shielding assem- WALLS, AND SOMASTIC COATINGS
bly and hence increase the losses to a Calculation of Thermal Resistance The equivalent thermal resistance of
point where they are of practical signifi- relatively thin cylindrical sections such as
An exact determination of the pipe loss jackets and fiber duct walls may be
For a single conductor cable, determined from the expression
effect Yp in the case of single-conductor
cables installed in nonmagnetic conduit Ri = 0.012pi log D,/D, thermal ohm-feet
or pipe is a rather involved procedure (38) R=0.0104fin'(D ) thermal ohm-feet
as indicated in reference 7. Equation 31 where At is the thermal resistivity of the (40)
may be used to obtain a rough estimate insulation (Table VI) and Di is its
of Yp for cables in cradled formation on with appropriate subscripts applied to
diameter. In multiconductor cables A, pi, and D in which D represents the
the bottom of a nonmagnetic pipe, how- there is a multipath heat flow between the
ever by taking the average of the results outside diameter of the section and t its
conductor and sheath. The following ex- thickness. n' is the number of conductors
obtained for wide triangular spacing pression1 represents an equivalent value
with s=(Dp-D,)/2 and for close tri- contained with the section contributing
angle spacing at the center of the pipe which, when multiplied by the heat flow to the heat flow through it.
from one conductor, will produce the
with s=0.578 D. The mean diameter of actual temperature elevation of the
the pipe and its resistance per foot should THERMAL RESISTANCE BETWEEN CABLE
conductor above the sheath. SURFACE AND SURROUNDING PIPE,
be substituted for Dam and R8 respectively.
For magnetic pipes or conduit the Rj =0.00522A,G, thermal ohm-feet (39) CONDUIT, OR DUCT WALL
following empirical relationships8 may be Theoretical expressions for the thermal
employed Values of the geometric factor G, for 3-
conductor belted and shielded cables are resistance between a cable surface and a
1.54s-0.115D, (3-conductor cable) given in Fig. 2 and Table VIII respec- surrounding enclosure are given in refer-
Rdc tively of reference 1. On large size sec- ence 10. As indicated in Appendix I,
(33) tor conductors with relatively thin in- these have been simplified to the general
sulation walls (i.e. ratios of insulation form
Y= 0.89S -0.11D(single-conductor, thickness to conductor diameter of the
close triangular) (34) order of 0.2 or less); values of GI for 3-
conductor shielded cable as determined
Rd =I +(B + CTm)Ds' thermal ohm-feet
Y= 0.34S+0.175D
(single-conductor, by back calculation, on the basis of an
assumed insulation resistivity, from lab- in which A, B, and C are constants, D,'
cradled) (35) oratory heat-run temperature-rise data, represents the equivalent diameter of the
These expressions apply to steel pipe8 have not always confirmed theoretical cable or group of cables and n' the number
and should be multiplied by 0.8 for iron values, and, in some cases, have yielded of conductors contained within D/'. Tm
conduit." GI values which approach those for a is the mean temperature of the interven-
The expressions given for Y, and Y. nonshielded, nonbelted construction. ing medium. The constants A, B, and C
above should be multiplied by 1.7 to find
the corresponding in-pipe effects for mag- Table VIL Constants for Use in Equations 41 and 41(A)
netic pipe or conduit for both triangular
and cradled configurations. Condition A B C A' B'

CALCuLATION OF DIELECTic Loss In metallic conduit ................... 17 ... ...... 3.6 ........ 0.029 .... ............... 0.19
In fiber duct in air ................... 17 ......... 2.1 ......... 0.016 ......... 5.6 . 0.33
The dielectric loss Wd for 3-conductor In fiber duct in concrete .............. 17 ... ...... 2.3 ........ 0.024 ......... 4.6 . 0.27
In transite duct in air ................ 17 ......... 3.0 ......... 0.014 ......... 4.4 . 0.26
shieldedsdand single-conductor cable is In transite duct in concrete ........... 17 ......... 2.9 ......... 0.029 ......... 3.7 . 0.22
given by the expression Gas-filled pipe cable at 200 psi ......... 3.1 ......... 0...... ..0.0053 . ..2.1 . 0.68
Oil-filled pipe cable . 0. 84
......... . ......... 0.0065...... 2.1 . 2.45

= 0.00276E'er cos qb watts per D-'1 .00 X diameter of cable for one cable
1 .65 X diameter of cable for two cables
log (2T+Dc)/Dc 2.15 Xdiameter of cable for three cables
conductor foot at 60 cycles (36) 2.50 X diameter of cable for four cables

OMrOBriR 1957 Neher, McGrath-Temperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems 757

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given in Table VII have been determined heating effects of the other cables of the mum. N refers to the number of cables or
from the experimental data given in refer- system. In the case of cables in a con- pipes, and F is equal to unity when N= 1.
ences 10 and 11. crete duct bank, it is desirable to further When the cable system is contained
If representative values of Tm =60 C recognize a difference between the thermal within a concrete envelope such as a
are assumed, equation 41 reduces to resistivity of the concrete Pc and the duct bank, the effect of the differing
thermal resistivity of the surrounding thermal resistivity of the concrete en-
A,u - thermal ohm-feet (41A) earth Ae. velope is conveniently handled by first as-
The thermal resistance between any suming that the thermal resistivity of the
It should be noted that in the case of point in the earth surrounding a buried medium is that of concrete pc through-
ducts, A. is calculated to the inside of the cable and ambient earth is given by the out and then correcting that portion ly-
duct wall and the thermal resistance of expression1l ing beyond the concrete envelope to the
the duct wall should be added to obtain thermal resistivity of the earth A.. Thus
Rpa =0.012p. log d'/d thermal ohm-feet
A,.. (43) R0 = 0.012pcnI X
in which As is the thermal resistivity of the
earth, d' is the distance from the image
-D+(LF) log [(D F +
AmR of the cable to the point P, and d is the 0.012(A,6 -
The thermal resistance R. between distance from the cable center to P. thermal ohm-feet (44A)
cables, conduits, or ducts suspended in still From this equation and the principles The geometric factor Gb, as developed
air may be determined from the following discussed in references 3, 12, and 13, the in Appendix II is a function of the depth
expression which is developed in Ap- following expressions may be developed, to the center of the concrete enclosure
pendix I. applicable to directly buried cables and Lb and its perimeter P, and may be found
to pipe-type cables. conveniently from Fig. 2 in terms of the
Ds' [(AT/D.')""4+1.6f(1 +0.0167Tm)I R,' =0.012Asn'X ratio Lb/P and the ratio of the longest to
thermal ohm-feet (42) short dimension of the enclosure.
[log Dx+(LF) log [() F]] For buried cable systems Ta should be
In this equation AT represents the differ- taken as the ambient temperature at the
ence between the cable surface tempera- thermal ohm-feet (44)
depth of the hottest cable. As indicated
ture T, and ambient air temperature Ta in in reference 12, the expressions used
iti which Ds is the diameter at which the
degrees centigrade, Tm the average of earth portion of the thermal circuit com- throughout this paper for the thermal
these temperatures and e the coefficient of mences and n' is the number of conduc- resistance and temperature rise of buried
emissivity of the cable surface. Assum- tors contained within De. The fictitious cable systems are based on the hypothe-
ing representative values of TJ=60 and diameter D. at which the effect of loss sis suggested by Kennelly applied in
Ta=30 C, and a range in D.' of from 2 factor commences is a function of the accordance with the principle of super-
to 10 inches, equation 42 may be simplified diffusivity of the medium a and the length position. According to this hypothesis,
to of the loss cycle.3 the isothermal-heat flow field and tem-
9.5n' perature rise at any point in the soil sur-
1+1.7D.'(e+0.41) thermal ohm-feet
D,= 1.02-\/a(length of cycle in hours) rounding a buried cable can be represented
(42A) inches (45) by the steady-state solution for the heat
flow between two parallel cylinders
The value of e may be taken as equal The empirical development of this equa- (constituting a heat source and sink)
to 0.95 for pipes, conduits or ducts, and tion is discussed in Appendix III. For a located in a vertical plane in an infinite
painted or braided surfaces, and from 0.2 daily loss cycle and a representative value medium of uniform temperature and
to 0.5 for lead and aluminum sheaths, of a = 2.75 square inches per hour for thermal resistivity with an axial separa-
depending upon whether the surface is earth, Dx is equal to 8.3 inches. It should tion between cylinders of twice the actual
bright or corroded. It is interesting to be noted that the value of Dx obtained depth of burial and with source and sink
note that equation 42(A) checks the from equation 45 is applicable for pipe respectively generating and absorbing
IPCEA method of determining R. very diameters exceeding D-, in which case the heat at identical rates, thereby resulting
closely with e=0.41 for diameters up to first term of equation 44 is negative. in the temperature of the horizontal mid-
3.5 inches. In the IPCEA method R,= The factor F accounts for the mutual plane between cylinders (i.e., correspond-
0.00411 n'B/Ds' where B=650+314 Ds' heating effect of the other cables of the ing to the surface of the earth) remaining,
for cable system, and consists of the product by symmetry, undisturbed.
of the ratios of the distance from the The principle of superposition, as
Ds'=0-1.75 inches and B 1,200 for larger reference cable to the image of each
values of Ds' applied to the case at hand, can be stated
of the other cables to the distance to that in thermal terms as follows: If the ther-
EFFECTIVE THERMAL RESISTANCE cable. Thus, mal network has more than one source of
BETWEEN CABLES, DUCTS, OR PIPES, temperature rise, the heat that flows at
AND AMBIENT EARTH F-d12 (d13'\(dIN'\terms
(d12 )ld13 ) d,NI) any point, or the temperature drop be-
As previously indicated, an effective (46) tween any two points, is the sum of the
thermal resistance A,' may be employed to heat flows and temperature drops at
represent the earth portion of the thermal It will be noted that the value of F will these points which would exist if each
circui't in the case of buried cable systems. vary depending upon which cable is source of temperature rise were considered
This effective thermal resistance includes selected as the reference, and the maxi- separately. In the case at hand, the
the effect of loss factor and, in the case of mum conductor temperature will occur sources of heat flow and temperature rise
a multicable installation, also the mutual in the cable for which 4LF/D. is a maxi- to be superimposed are, namely, the heat

758 Neher, McGrath-Temperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems OCTOIBER 1957

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from the cable, the outward flow of heat
from the core of the earth, and the in-
I iTC'- RdRdc(l+Yc)(1c+'-Y-)-(Ta+' Td) kiloamperes (47)
ward heat flow solar radiation, and, when z ~~~RdA8l Yc)Rc s'
present, the heat flow from interfering in which R,c' is the effective transient
sources. By employing as the ambient thermal resistance of the cable system for where R4. is the thermal resistance be-
temperature in the calculations the tem- the stated period of time. Procedures tween the steam pipe and ambient earth.
perature at the depth of burial of the for calculating RAt' for times up to several
hottest cable, the combined heat flow hours are given in reference 14, and for AERIL CABLES
from earth core and solarradiation sources longer times in references 15-17. In the case of aerial cables it may be
is superimposed upon that produced at desirable to consider both the effects of
the surface of the hottest cable by the THE EFFECT OF EXTRANEOUS HEAT
SOURCES solar radiation which increases the tem-
heat flow from that cable and interfering perature rise and the effect of the wind
sources which are calculated separately In the case of multicable installations which decreases it.24 Under maximum
with all other heat flows absent. The the assumption has been made that all sunlight conditions, a lead-sheathed cable
combined heat flow from earth core and cables are of the same size and are sim- will absorb about 4.3 watts per foot per
solar sources results in an earth tempera- ilarly loaded. When this is not the case inch of profile"8 which must be returned
ture which decreaseswith depth in summer; the temperature rise or load capability to the atmosphere through the thermal
increases with depth in winter; remains of one particular equal cable group may be resistance Rc/n'. This effect is con-
about constant at any given depth on the determined by treating the heating effect veniently treated as an interference
average over a year; approximates con- of other cable groups separately, intro- temperature rise according to the rela-
stancy at all depths at midseason, and ducing an interference temperature rise tionship
in turn results in flow of heat from cable ATint in equations I and 9. Thus
sources to earth's surface, directly to sur- T- Ta=, ATc+Ta+AThnt
A Ting =4.3DJ'Re/n'
face in midseason and winter and in- degrees centigrade (47A)
degrees centigrade (1A)
directly to surface in summer. For black surfaces this value should be
Factors which tend to invalidate the = Tc-(Ta+ATd+ATfnt) increased about 75%.
combined Kennelly-superposition princi- Rdc(l + Yc)R?ca' As indicated in Appendix II, the follow-
ple method are departure of the tempera- kiloamperes (9A) ing expression for R. may be used where
ture of the surface of earth from a true V,O is the velocity of the wind in miles per
isothermal (as evidenced by melting of in which ATin, represents the sum of a
number of interference effects, for each hour
snow in winter directly over a buried
steam main) and nonuniformity of of which 3.5n'
thermal resistivity (due to such phe- A Tn [Wcq.(LF) + WdJR in D,'( V/ V, /DK' +0.62e)
nomena as radial and vertical migration degrees centigrade (48) thermal ohm-feet (42B)
of moisture). The extent to which the fn '=0.012p,n' log Fj.g thermal ohm-feet
Kennelly-superposition principle method USE OF Low-REsisTIVTy BACKFLL
is invalidated, however, is not of practical In cases where the thermal resistivity
importance provided that an over-all or
effective thermal resistivity is employed in
Fn =(d1j')(d2i')(daj1).
(dF (d2i)(d3j) d
(d ...
.dNi' (N term)
of the earth is excessively high, the value
of R.' may be reduced by backfilling the
the Kennelly equation. (50) trench with soil or sand having a lower
where the parameters apply to each sys- value of thermal resistivity. Equation
Special Conditions tem which may be considered as a unit. 44(A) may be used for this case if of, the
For cables in duct thermal resistivity of the backfill is sub-
Although the majority of cable tem- stituted for fi. and Gb applies to the
perature calculations may be made by Rint = 0.012n'I[c log Fint+N(f3-AC)GX] zone having the backfill in place of the
the foregoing procedure, conditions fre- thermal ohm-feet (49A) zone occupied by the concrete.
quently arise which require somewhat Because of the mutual heating between
specialized treatment. Some of these cable groups, the temperature rise of the SINGLE-CONDUCrOR CABLES IN DUcr
are covered herein. interfering groups should be rechecked. wITH SOLIDLY BONDED SHEATHS
If all the cable groups are to be given The relatively large and unequal sheath
EMERGENCY RATINGS mutually compatible ratings, it is neces- losses in the three phases which may result
Under emergency conditions it is fre- sary to evaluate Wc for each group by from this type of operation may be deter-
quently necessary to exceed the stated successive approximations, or by setting mined from Table VI of reference 1. It
normal temperature limit of the conductor up a system of simultaneous equations, will be noted that
TC and to set an emergency temperature substituting for W, its value by equation
limit T6'. If the duration of the emer- 15 and solving for I. R
In case AT,nt or a component of it is RdcJ121 DC; =
gency is long enough for steady-state con-
ditions to obtain, then the emergency produced by an adjacent steam main, the Ysa (;) I (52)
rating I' may be found by equation 9 temperature of the steam T, rather than
substituting Tc' for TC and correcting Rd, the heat flow from it is usually given. where expressions for I,,2/I2 etc., appear
for the increased conductor temperature. Thus in the table. The resulting unequal values
If the duration of the emergency is less ATtnt of YC in the three phases will yield unequal
than that required for steady-state con- [Ty-Ta } values of q., and equation 5 becomes for
ditions to obtain, the emergency rating e c. ti d ( phase no. 1, the instance given as equa-
of the line may be determined from degrees centigrade (51 ) tion 5(A) on the following page.
OCTOBER 1957 Neher, McGrath-Temperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems 759

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ATec Wc[RA+qa,IRas+R,,+(LF)RspI + Table VIII. Constants For Use in Equation 53
Nq,.(LF)Rp.] thermal ohm-feet (SA)
where qsa is the average of q,,, q4s, and q,3. Condition a b c AT

ARNOREI) CABLES Cable in metallic conduit ...................0.07 .. 0.121 ... 0.0017 ......,.20
Cable in fiber duct In air. ................. 0.07 .. 0.036 .. 0,.,.O..0009. 20
In multiconductor armored cables a Cable In fiber duct in concrete ........ ..... 0.0 7 ..0.043 . ..0.0014 . , 20
loss occurs in the armor which may be Cable in transte duct in air ................0.07 . .. ,0.086 .0.0008 .. .. 20
Cable in transite duct In concrete ........... 0.07 .. .... 20
considered as an alternate to the conduit Gas-filled pipe-type cable at 200 psi ......... 0.07 .. 0.121 .0.0017 .... 10
or pipe loss. If the armor is nonmag-
netic, the component of armor loss Y.
to be used instead of Y, in equations 14 based upon all of the data available and and a range of 150-350 for D,'Tm, equation
and 19 may be calculated by the equa- including the effect of the temperature of 54 reduces to equation 41 with the values
tions for sheath loss substituting the the intervening medium. of A, B, and C given in Table VII .
resistance and mean diameter of the The theoretical expression for the case In the case of cables or pipes suspended
where the intervening medium is air or gas in still air, the heat loss by radiation may
armor for those of the sheath. In cal- be determined by the Stefan-Bolzmann
as presented in reference 10 may be general-
culating the armor resistance, account ized in the following form: formula
should be taken of the spiralling effect for
which equation 13 suitably modified n'W (radiation)
may be used. If the armor is mag- Rsd r ATPS 1/ (53) 0.139Ds'e[( T +273)4'-( Ta +273)4 10'6
netic, one would expect an increase in DJ' [a( D,7) +b+cTm] watts per foot (55)
the factors Y, and Y. in equation 14 where where e is the coefficient of emissivity
since this occurs in the case of magnetic of the cable or pipe surface. Over the
conduit. Unfortunately, no simple pro- A.d = the effective thermal resistance be- limited temperature. range in whch we are
cedure is available for calculating these tween cable and enclosure in thermal interested, equation 55 may be simplified
ohm-feet to'0
effects. A rough estimate of the induc- D,J'=the cable diameter or equivalent
tive effects may be made by using the pro- diameter of three cables in inches n'W (radiation) -0.102D,'ATeX
cedure given above for magnetic conduit. AT= the temperature differential in degrees (1 +0.0167Tm) watts per foot (55A)
A simple method of approximating the centigrade
P=the pressure in atmospheres Over the same temperature range the
losses in single conductor cables with steel- Tm=mean temperature of the medium in heat loss by conveetion from hoizontal
wire armor at spacings ordinarily em- degrees centigrade cables or pipes is given with sufficient
ployed in submarine installations is to as- n'=number of conductors involved accuracy by the expression
sume that the combined sheath and armor n'W(convection) -0.064 Ds'AT(AT/ID').14
current is equal to the conductor current.1 The constants a, b, and c in this equation
have been established empirically as follows: watts per foot (56)
The effective a-c resistance of the armor Considering b+cT, as a constant for the
may be taken as 30 to 60% greater than moment, the analysis given in reference in which the numerical constant 0.064
its d-c resistance corrected for lay as in- 10 results in a value of a = 0.07. With a has been selected for the best fit with the
dicated above. If more accurate calcula- thus established, the data given in reference carefully determined test results reported
10 for cable in pipe, and in reference 11 by Heilman2' on 1.3, 3.5 and 10.8-inch
tions are desired references 19 and 20 for cable in fiber and transite ducts were diameter black pipes ( = 0.95). Inci-
will be found useful. analyzed in similar manner to give the dentally, this value also represents the
values of b and c which are shown in Table best fit with the test data on 1.9-4.5 inch
EFFECT OF FORCED COOLING VIII. diameter black pipes reported by Rosch."
In order to avoid a reiterative calculation For vertical cables or pipes the value of
The temperature rise of cables in pipes procedure, it is desirable to assume a value this numerical constant may be increased
or tunnels may be reduced by forcing air for AT since its actual value will depend by 22%."2
axially along the system. Similarly, in upon A.d and the heat flow. Fortunately, Combining equations 55(A) and 56 we
as AT occurs to the 1/4 power in equation obtain the relationship
the case of oil-filled pipe cable, oil may 53, the use of an average value as indicated
be circulated through the pipe. Under in Table VIII will not introduce a serious n'WAT
these conditions, the temperature rise is error.
not uniform along the cable and increases By further restricting the range of
in the direction of flow of the cooling D,' to 1-4 inches for cable in duct or 15.6n'
conduit and to 3-5 inches for pipe-type Ds'1(AT/Ds')"/'+1.6e(l +0.0167Tm)]
medium. The solution of this problem is cables, equation 53 is reduced to equation
discussed in reference 21. 41. thermal ohm-feet (42)
If the cable is subjected to wind having
Appendix I 1_8_
1+(B+CTm)Da' thermal ohm-feet
+(B; a velocity of V. miles per hour, the follow-
ing expression derived from the work of
(41) Schurig and Frick'4 should be substituted
Development of Equations 41, 42, in which the values of the constants A, for the convection component.
and Table VII B, and C appear in Table VII. n'W (convection) =0.286Ds'AT-1Vw1/D8'
In the case of oil-filled pipe cable, the
Theoretical and semiempirical expressions analysis given in reference 10 gives the watts per foot (56A)
for the thermal resistance between cables following expression
and an enclosing pipe or duct wall are Combining equations 55(A) and 56(A)
given in reference 10. Further data on the n' with Tm=45 C
thermal resistance between cables and 0.d0.60+0.025(Da'?TmSAT)114
fiber and transite ducts are given in ref- AT 3.5n'
erence 11. For purposes of cable rating, thermal ohm-feet (54) 6tn'W(total) Dhe(maVlohDmt+4.62B)
it is desirable to develop standardized
expressions for these thermal resistances Assuming an average value of AT= 7 C thermal ohm-feet (42B)

760 Neher, McGrath-Temperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems OCTOBER 1 957

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Appendix 11 Table IX. Comparison of Values of % (AF) D =-8.3 inches. As indicated in the third
for Sinusokial Los Cycles at 30% paper of reference 3, however, theoretically
Determination of the Geometric Los Factor Dr should vary as the square root of the
Factor Gb for Duct Bank product of the diffusivity and the time
% (AM) length of the loading cycle. Hence as the
Considerimg the surface of the duct System
Description, diffusivity was taken as 2.76 square inches
bank to act as an isothermal circle of Inches Neher Shankln Wiseman per hour in the above,
radius ra, the thermal resistance between
the duct bank and the earth's surface will I. 4. 5 pipe ..... 63/63 ...61/62 ... 63/65 Ds i.02X
be a logarithmic function of rb and Lb the II . 6.0 pipe.....56/56 ... 60/57 .... 53/60
III . 8.6 pipe.....56/56... 59/58 .. 54/63 Va#Xlength of cycle in hours inches
distance of the center of the bank below IV . 10.6 pipe .....58/58 ... 61/59 ... 65/53 (45)
the surface. Using the long form of the V . . 5 cable ..... 80/80
Kennelly Formula's we may define the VI . 1.5 cable.... 77/76.. .77/76 ... 77/77 Table IX presents a comparison of the
geometric factor Gb as Vii. 1. 9 cable....71/71 values of per cent attainment factor for
VIII.... 2.0 cable ..... 63/62 sinusoidal loss cycles at 30% loss factor as
IX . 2.0 cable ..... 75/74 calculated by equations 45, 8, 62(A), and 63
Ga- log La'+VLbS- a
X . 3.4 cable ..... 77/78
Xa* . 3.4 cable... .83/80.. 83/81 and as they appear in Table II of the first
rb XI . 3.7 cable....76/74.. 74/73 paper of reference 3.
XII . 4.2 cable....70/66.. .70/67
-log [La/ra+N/(Lb/rt)2-11 (57) XIII.... 4.5 cable.... 69/64.. .65/64....61/63
In order to evaluate rb in terms of the
dimensions of a rectangular duct bank, let
* Diffuslvity -4.7 square Inches per hour.
Appendix IV. Calculations For
the smaller dimension of the bank be x
and the larger dimension by y. The radius
Representative Cable Systems
portion of the thermal circuit is reduced
of a circle inscribed within the duct bank by a factor equal to the loss factor of the 15-Kv 350-MCM-3-Conductor
touching the sides is cyclic load. The point at which this Shielded Compact Sector Paper and
r -x/2 (58)
reduction commences may be conveniently Lead Cable Suspended in Air
expressed in terms of a fictitious diameter
and the radius of a larger circle embracing Dr. Thus D O0.616 (equivalent round); V-gauge
the four cowers is depth =0.539 inch
Artea =A+(LF)Ara thermal ohm-feet (62)
D. 2.129; T=0.175 inch; t =0.120 inch
r2 =-\/X2+y2 (59) For greater accuracy, it is desirable to
2 establish the value of Dz empirically rather 12.9 1234.5+81~
Let us assume that the circle of radius rb
than to assume that Ds is equal to the
diameter D, at which the earth portion of Tc~81 C; R1c 0.350 234.5+75,
lies between these circles and the magnitude the thermal circuit commences. -37.8 microhms per foot (Eq. IOA)
of ra is such that it divides the thermal Equation 62 may be written in the form
resistance between ri and rs in direct D,,,2.129-0.1202.009 inches (Eq. 12)
relation to the portions of the heat field Aa'-Re.+A6x+(LF)(42 -R&2) 37.9
between ri and r2 occupied and unoccupied thermal ohm-feet (62A) R. _ =7-17mcom
157 m*crhm
by the duct bank. Thus
In terms of the attainment factor (A F), one
R,2.009(0.120)per foot at 50 C (Eq. 11A)
-7rr,2/log 2 may write
log rb = xy(r- or k, 1.0; k,=0.6 (equivalent round)
RcA< (A F)Rca -(A F)(ce+Rea) (Table II)
r2 Trrf5X7 /
log-m lowg-t thermal ohm-feet (63) Rdc/ke =37.8; Ycs =0.008
ta \ 71 w(t,'-71ri) Equating equations 62(A) and 63 obtains (Eq. 21 and Fig. 1)
from which the relationship S-0.616 +2(0.175+0.008) =0.982 inches
A.u (1-x),R.-xAc, thermal ohm-feet (64)
log rb - _-) log (1+ ) +log Rd,/kp-62.6; F(x,')=0.003 (Fig. 1)
It is desirable to derive ra in terms of the I1-(AF) 14(0o192
YCP 2[ 0]0 0)30.002
1-(LF) (65) (Eq. 24A, and note to Table II)
perimeter P of the duct bank. Thus
P =2(x+y) 4 ( +y/x)
Since 1 + Yc-1 +0.008+0.002 - 1.010
A=0.012n', log D2/D. s = 1.155(0.175+0.008)+0.60(0.539)
and therefore thermal ohm-feet (66) -0.534 inch (Eq. 32)
log 2- -log 4(1+y/x) (61) log Dz/D - , [(1-x)*a.-xR cS] (67)
2.009 -.1
The curves of Fig. 2 have been developed The first paper of reference 3 presents (Eq. 31A)
from equations 57, 60, and 61 for several the results of a study in which a number
values of the ratio y/x. It should be of typical daily loss cycles and also sinu- Rac/R410 1.010+0.019 = 1.029 (Eq. 14)
noted in passing that the value of rb - soidal loss cycles of the same loss factor
were applied to a number of typical buried 0.019
0.112P used in reference 13 applies to a
cable systems. The results indicated that
q,2=qg =1+ j--1 19 (Eqs. 18-19)
y/x ratio of about 2/1 only.
in all cases the sinusoidal loss cycle of the
same loss factor adequately expressed the , = 3.7 (Table V); E = 15// -8.7;
maximum temperature rise which was cos -0.022
Appendix III obtained with any of the actual loss cycles
considered. Wd d 0.00276 (8.7)'[3.7(0.022)]
Empirical Evaluation of D2 An analysis by equations 65 and 67 of
the calculated values of attainment factors
g 0.681
In order to evaluate the effect of a cyclic for sinusoidal loss cycles given in Table II -0.094 watt per conductor foot
load upon the maximum temperature rise and the corresponding cable system param-
of a cable system simply, it is customary to eters given in Table I of the first paper of (Eq. 36 and text)
assume that the heat flow in the final reference 3 yields a most probable value of (Note: In computing dielectric loss on
OCTrOBE,R1957 Neher, McGrath-Temperature and Load Capability of Cabk Systems 761

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sector conductors, the equivalent diameter
of the conductor is taken equal to that of a %0- --.

concentric round conductor, i.e., 0.681 - I%

inch for 350 MCM.)
pA=700 (Table VI); GI=0.45 (I\ I.49 Images
(Table VIII of reference 1) /..
/i = 0.00522{ 700(0.45)}= 1.64 \7 -.
thermal ohm-feet (Eq. 39)
(13 \
n'-=3; e-0.41 (assumed)
A.= 9.5(3) d13
1% 96' K'- '
=7.18 thermal ohm-feet (Eq. 42A)
fica = 1.64+1.019(7.18) = 8.96 d42
d2z 96.5"
thermal ohm-feet (Eq. 8)
dg3 - 96" d :87.5"
A Td-0.094(0.82 +7.18) = 0.75 C (Eq. 6)
Ta =40 C (assumed) I d---- cl'3,- 78.5"

I= 81-(40+0.8)
= 0.344 kiloampere (Eq. 9)
If the cable is outdoors in sunlight and
subjected to an 0.84 mile per hour wind
2.129 -VO.84/2.129+0.62(0.41)1
=5.59 thermal ohm-feet (Eq. 42B)
Rca'= 1.64+1.019(5.59) = 7.34
thermal ohm-feet (Eq. 8)
A Ttn g = (4.3)(2.129) - = 17.1 C
(Eq. 47A) Lb ' 43.5"
Ta 30 C (assumed)

181 -(30+0.6+17.1)

=0.346 kiloampere (Eq. 9)
In this particular case the net effect of
solar radiation and an 0.84 mile per hour
wind is to effectively raise the ambient
temperature by 10 degrees, which is a
rough estimating value commonly used.
It should be noted, however, that this
will not always be true, and the procedure
outlined above is preferable.
69-Kv 1,500-MCM-Single-'
Conductor Oil"Filled Cable in Duct
Two identical cable circuits will be 18"
considered in a 2 by 3 fiber and concrete
duct structure having the dimensions Fig. 3. Assumed duct bank confAguration for typical calculations on 69-kv 1,500-MCM
shown in Fig. 3.
oil-Ailed cable (Appendix IV)
Do=0.600; Dc=1.543; Di=2.113;
T=0.285; D8 =2.373; t =0.130 inches
12.9 Rde/k 11.9; Yc1= 0.075
Tc 75 C; Rdc1=5 8.60 \'01 0 (q 3A

1.50 (Eq. 21 and Fig. 1) [l122(9.0))

microhms per foot (Eq. 1OA) S=9.0 (Fig. 3); Rdc/kp=10.75; Rac/Rde 1.082+0.006 = 1.088 (Eq. 14)
F(xp')=0.075 (Fig. 1)
DJ, =2.373 -0.130=2.243 inches (Eq. 12) 0.006
Ro= 37.9 1 -= 130 microhms
Ycp=4(92 9.0/
0.075=0.007 (Eq. 24A) 1.082
(Eqs. 18-19)

(2.243)(0.130) er= (Table V); E 69/"3--40;

1+ Ye= 1+0.075+0.007= 1.082 cos #=0.005
per foot at 50 C (Eq. 11A)
1.543-0.600 1.543+1.200\'
Assuming the sheaths to be open-circuited, 0.00276(40)2(3.5)(0.005)
1.543 +0.600 1.543 +0.600/ 396 12.243 2
log -~1.543
=0.72; kp=0.8 (Eq. 23 and Table II) "~=130(8.60) \2(9.0)/ =0.57 watt per conductor foot (Eq. 36)

762 Neher, McGrath-Temperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems OC,rOBIER 1957

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p=550 (Table VI) ATd=0.57(0.45+1.75+0.24+4.63)=4.0 C ( 1.632\'2(0.035)(1.7)=0.083
YC P = 4 ( 2.76/
2 )
(Eq. 6)
R2=0.0 12 (550 log 1-543 Wc,-(II 2)(8.60)( 1.082) =9.3 1 I, 2 (Eq. 24A and text)
=0.90 thermal ohm-foot (Eq. 38) watts per conductor foot (Eq. 15) 1 + YC = 1+0.088+0.083 = 1.171
A Tint = (9.31121( 1.006)(0.80) +0.571)3.81
n'=1; R =2.370.2 =174
=2.17+28.5j12 degrees centigrade in XmXm=529 log (2.3)(2.76)
= 52.9 log
thermal ohm-feet (Eq. 41A) circuit no. 2 (Eq. 48)
=20.0 microhms per foot (Eq. 29A)
Pd = 480 (Table VI); t = 0.25; Similar calculations for the second circuit
De=5.0+0.5=5.50 for fiber duct yield the following values. (20.0)2(1.7) =0.011
YS = YSC (9.435)(6.35)
- 0.0104(480)(0.25) = 0.24 Rca'= 7.18; ATd =3.4; Wc2 = 17.44122; (Eq. 27A and text)
5.50-0.25 ATint=1.71+53.2122 in circuit no. 1
thermal ohm-foot (Eq. 40) 75 -(25 +4.0 + 1.71 +53.2I22)
(0.34)(2.76)+(0.175)(8. 13)0.372
2 Vp 6.35
p.= 120 (asu med); 1.= 85 (Table VI); (9.31)(6.65) (Eq. 35)
L=L&=43.5 inches (Fig. 3) =0.715-0.85912' (Eq. 9A)
Rac/Rdc 1.171+0.011+0.372 = 1.554
N=6; (LF) 0.80 (assumed); I275 -(25 + 3.4 + 2.17 +28.5I, 2)X (Eq. 14)
96.5 (87.5)(78.5) ( (17.44)(7.18)
\9,I9 12.7\ 9 /12.7) 0.011 0.011+0.372
=0.355-0.228I12 (Eq. 9A) =1.009; q
qs = 1 + 1.171117 1.171
=42,200 (Fig. 3 and Eq. 46)
Solving simultaneously I,=0.714; I2= = 1.327 (Eqs. 18-19)
048;2718 =15 0.487 kiloampere.
, =3.5 (Table V); E = 138/F3= 80;
138-Kv 2,000-MCM High-Pressure cos +=0.005
Gb=0.87 (Fig. 2)
Oil-Filled Pipe-Type Cable 8.625- 0.00276(80)2(3.5)(0.005)
Re' (at 80% loss factor) =(0.012)(85)(1) X Inch-Outside-Diameter Pipe
The cable shielding will consist of an log
(log 3+0.80
5.5 log ~~~8.3 (42,200)])
intercalated 7/8(0.003)-inch bronze tape- = 1.48 watts per conductor foot (Eq. 36)
0.012(120 -85)(1)(6)(0.80)(0.87) 1-inch lay, and a single 0.1(0.2)-inch D-
=6.79 thermal ohm-feet (Eq. 44A) shaped brass skid wire-1.5-inch lay. The P3t=550 (Table VI); Rj=0.012X
cables will lie in cradled configuration.
R8 (at unity loss factor)=8.44 (550 log 1.38 thermal
thermal ohm-feet (Eq. 44A) DC=1.632; Dj=2.642; T=0.505;
DJ=2.661; Dp=8.125 ohm-feet (Eq. 38)
Rca' =0.90+1.006 (1.74+0.24+6.79)
=9.72 thermal ohm-feet (Eq. 8) T12.9\ 1234.5+70 n'=3; DJ'=2.15(2.66)-5.72;
T7C ; RdC k234.5+75 /
ATd=0.57( +1.74+0.24+8.44) 6.35 microhms per foot (Eq. IOA) Rad = 5.72 +2.45 = 0.77 thermal
=6.2 C (Eq. 6) For shielding tape As = 7/8(0.003) 0.00263;- ohm-foot (Eq. 41A)
1=1.0; p=23.8; r=564 (Table I)
pd=100 (Table VI); t=0.50;
Ta =25 C (assumed);
1 75-(25+6.2) 23.8w /.6i\ De = 8.63 + 1.0 =9.63 for 1/2-inch
wall of asphalt mastic
8.60(1.082)(9.72) 4(0.00263) ( 1)
kiloampere (Eq. 9)= 0.696 0.0104(100)(3)(0.50)
4 ++2
r56 50)=62,900 microhms 9.63-0.50
To illustrate the case where the cable
circuits are not identical, consider the per foot at 50 C (Eq. 13) thermal ohm-foot (Eq. 40)
= 0.17

second circuit to have 750-MCM con- Assume p.=80, L=36 inches, (LF)=0.85;
ductors. For the first circuit, For skid wire AJ =22 ir(0.1)' = 0.0157; N=1, F=1
N=3; (LF)=0.80 (assumed); 1 = 1.5; p =38; T 912 (Table I) R,' (at 85% loss factor) =0.012(80)(3)X
-983 +0.85 log 1~~4(36)
(6)(78) =92.4 (Eq. 46)
F [ 8.3
8.3 1)1
log 9.63 (
Rc' =0.012(85)(1)X 4(0j0157) I(1 65r) =2.85 thermal ohm-feet (Eq. 44)
8.3 +0 o
[o5.5 o
92.4\1J (912 +50\
912+20/ =11,100 microhms
per foot at 50 C (Eq. 13)
1' (at unity loss factor) =3.38
thermal ohm-feet (Eq. 44)
0.012(120 - 85)(1)(3)(0.80)(0.87)
3.74 thermal ohm-feet (Eq. 44A) Rea' = 1.38+1.009(0.77) +
(net)[(62.9)(111 1]1,000 1.327(0.17+2.85)
F~(96.4V87.5\ 4
(78.5 R8
=6.17 thermal ohm-feet (Eq. 8)
9 /(12.7) =9,435 microhms per foot at 50 C
ATd= 1.48(0.69+0.77+0.17+3.38) =7.4 C
(Eq. 50) k,=0.435; kp=0.37 (Table II) (Eq. 6)
Ring 0.012(1)X
[85 log 456 +3(120 -85)(0.87)] Rd,ks = 14.6; Ycs =0.052(1.7) = 0.088 Ta=25 C (assumed);
= 3.81 thermal ohm-feet (Eq. 49) (Eq. 21, Fig. 1, and text)
I_ | 70-(25+7.4)
Ra' = 0.90 +1.006(l.74+0.24 +3.74) S=2.66+0.10=2.76; Rde/kp=17.2; (6.35)(1.171)(6.17)
=6.65 thermal ohm-feet (Eq. 8) F(xp')=0.035 (Fig. 1) -0.905 kiloampere (Eq. 9)

OCToBm 1957 Neher, McGrath-Temperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems 763

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Report. Ibid., vol. 71, pt. III, Jan. 1952, pp. 393-
414. RISEsOF CABLE SYSTEMS, J. H. Neher. Ibid., vol.
72, pt. III, Aug. 1953, pp. 712-18.
Electric Journal, East Pittsburgh, Pa., May- IRON CONDUIT, R. W. Burrell, M. Morris. Ibid., SUN IN RACIKS, B. B. Wedmore. Jourxal, Institu-
Nov. 1932. vol. 74, pt. III, Oct. 1955, pp. 1014-23. tion of Electrical Engineers, vol. 75, 1934, pp.
trical World, New York, N. Y., vol. 92, no. 2, 1928, Buller, J. H. Neher. Ibid., vol. 69, pt. 1, 1950, LEAD-COVERED A-C CABLBS, 0. R. Schurig, H. P.
pp. 59-60. pp. 342-49. Kuehni, F. H. Buller. AIRE Transaction:, vol.
48, Apr. 1929, pp. 417-35.
AIRE Committee Report. AIEE Traxsactions, DUCTS AND DUCT AssBMBLIES, Paul Greebler, Guy 20. CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF Lossss AND
vol. 72, pt. III, June 1953, pp. 530-62. F. Barnett. Ibid., vol. 69, pt. I, 1950, pp. 357- OF SELP-INDUCTION OF SINGLE'CONDUCTOR AR-
67. MORBD CABLECs, L. Bosone. Elettrotecxica, Milan,
vol. 68, pt. II, 1949, pp. 816-34. AND PIPES, J. H. Meher. Ibid., vol. 68, pt. I, 1949, 21. ARTIFICIAL COOLING OP POWER CABLB, F. H.
pp. 9-21. BuUer. AIEE Transactions, vol. 71, pt. III, Aug.
Institution of Electrical Engineers, London. DucT BANIC, J. H. Neher. Ibid., pp. 540-49. 22. SURFACE HEAT TRANSMISSON, R. H. Hettman.
England, vol. 88, pt. It, Aug. 1941, pp. 349-59. 14. OI. FLOW AND PRESSURE CALCULATIONS FOR Transactions, American Society of Mechanical

F. H. Buller, J. H. Neber, F. 0. Wollaston. Ibid., pp. 287-302.

1941, pp. 52-63. F. H. Buller. Ibid., vol. 70, pt. I, 1951, pp. 45-55. Transactions, vol. 57, Apr. 1938, pp. 155-07.
Dec. 1953, pp. 1260-75. ANALOGUE COMPUTER, J. H. Neher. Ibid., pt. II, 0. R. Schurig, G. W. Frick. General Electric
8. A-C RESISTANCE OP PIPE-CABLE SYSTEMS 1951, pp. 1361-71. Review, Schenectady, N. Y., vol. 33, 1930, p. 141.

basis of the paper-this is a logical approach

Discussion issued in which a simple method is pre-
sented for the rapid calculation of cyclic but it appears to differ from the basis of
ratings.' computing ratings hitherto adopted in the
C. C. Barnes (Central Electricity Authority, Table V gives specific inductive capaci- United States. An amplification of the
London, England): This paper is an excel- tance values for paper as: paper insulation authors' viewpoint on this important issue
lent and up-to-date study of a most impor- (solid type), 3.7 (IPCEA value); paper will be welcomed.
tant subject. For 25 years D. M. Simmons' insulation (other type), 3.3-4.2. Is it pos- With reference to the use of low-resistivity
articles have been used for fundamental sible to list the other types and their backfill, recent studies in Great Britain
study on current rating problems, but the appropriate specific inductive capacitance have shown that the method of backfilling
numerous cable developments and changes values or alternatively simply use an cable trenches deserves careful considera-
in installation techniques introduced in average specific inductive capacitance value tion as attention to this point can result
recent years have made a modern assess- of 3.7, for example, for all types of paper in increases up to 20% in load currents.
ment of this subject very necessary. The insulation? Equation 43 gives the thermal resistance
essential duty of a power cable is that it Reference is made to the adoption of the between any point in the earth surrounding
should transmit the maximum current (or hypothesis suggested by Kennelly as the a buried cable and ambient earth. It is
power) for specified installation conditions.
There are three main factors which deter-
mine the safe continuous current that a Table X. Temperature Limits for Belted-, Saeened- and HSLt-Type Cables
cable will carry.
Laid Direct or In Air In Ducts
1. The maximum permissible temperature
at which its components may be operated Aluminum Aluminum
with a reasonable factor of safety. Sheathed Sheathed
Lead Sheathed Lead Sheathed
2. The heat-dissipating properties of the Armoured
or Un-
cable. System Voltage and Type Un- or Un-
of Cable Armored armored armored Armored armored armored
3. The installation conditions and ambient
conditions obtaining. 1.1 kv
Single-core . . 80. 80. .............. 60 . 80
In Great Britain the basic reference Twin and multicore belted ...... 80 . 80 . 80 .60. . 80 80
document is ERA (The British Electrical 3.3 kv and 6.6 kv
and Allied Industries Research Association) Single-core . .................. 80 . . .60
80 . 80
report F/T1311 published in 1939, and in Three-core belted-type..... 80 . 80 . 60
80.80 80
1955 revised current rating tables for 11 kv
solid-type cables up to and including 33 kv Single-core . .................. 70 . . .50
70 . 70
Three-core belted-type .......... 65 . 65 . 65 .50 .. 65 65
were published in ERA report F/T183. 70 . 70 . .50 70
Three-core screened-type ........ 70 . .

A more detailed report summarizing the

method of computing current ratings for 22 kv
Single-core ..................... 65. . 50 65
solid-type, oil-filled, and gas-pressure cables Three-core belted-type .......... 55 . .55
. 50
is now being finalized and will be published Three-core screened-type ........ 65 . 65 . 65 . 6550. . 65
as ERA report FIT187 some time in 1958. Three-core (SL$or SAC) ........ 65 . .65 .65 . .65
Until recent years current ratings in 33 kv (screened)
Great Britain have usually been considered Single-core . ..... 65 . .
. 50
Three-core ...... 65 . . 65.65 . 50
on a continuous basis, but the importance 65. 65
Three-core HSL ...... . .
of taking into consideration cyclic ratings
has now been carefully studied, since con- * Measured In degrees centigrade.
tinued high metal prices have forced cable t Hochstater separate lead.
users to review carefully the effects of Separate lead sheathed.
cyclic loadings. A report has recently been 5 Separate aluminum sheathed.

764 Neher, McGrath-Temperature and Load Capability of Cable Systems OCTOBER 1957

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