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Lec. 5 (Tues.

28-2-2012)
Slides 12:74
Cylinder arrangement:
1
vertical horizontal
Double acting Smaller second stage cylinder is
Trunk type arranged
when single- mounted horizontally
vertical
stage has
Multi- stage vertical
horizontal
limited to 2 cylinders
cylinders
Single acting are Vertical wear rings
Most installation
normally single stage are minimum than
normally favor
vertical cylinders
horizontal horizontal
For Ring wear
arrangement
consideration vertical
because of Size,
is preferred
maintenance &
Most multi-cylinders
location
may be with the shape
problems
V, 45o.
Tandem-cylinder
Not recommended for Compression cycle:
arrangement is
wet or potentially wet
always
services.
horizontal.

Single acting, single stage always


vertical because of splash lubrication
() .
Double acting single-stage always
horizontal because it is closed but in
general double acting may be vertical or
horizontal.
Smaller compressor units (less than 10 What is meant by?
HP) are single-acting.
Bottom dead center: when the
Larger compressors with 5 or greater
piston reaches point 1, it has
cylinder diameter are single cylinder.
traveled to the lower end of its
stroke.
Top dead center: when the
In angle type compressors two-stage piston reaches point 3, it has
which is vertical and which is traveled to the upper end of its
horizontal? And why? stroke.
Clearance volume: space results
Larger first stage cylinder is placed in a trapped volume
vertically to:
Minimize ring wear
Minimize space requirements

Compressors
Lec. 5 (Tues. 28-2-2012)
Slides 12:74
Reasons for extra power requirement:
Pressure loss 2
Turbulence
Valve leakage Other factors:
Heating of incoming gas Chemical corrosion
Slippage past the packing rings Chemical toxicity
Available foundation space
Special oil-contamination
Mechanical efficiency: the ratio of
cylinder indicated horsepower to the
total brake horsepower of the unit, = Higher speed units although less
88-93% expensive, will tend to have shorter run
times.

Primary Consideration limit of


compressor style:

No. of services and/or stages


Inlet volume capacity
Discharge pressure
Inlet pressure
Inlet temperature

Compressors